Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton
Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.
Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna
From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which
Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K
Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.
Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.
Mejia, Adrienne B; Ling, Pamela M
Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless "snus" tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as "hard working." In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current "snus" campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation.
Full Text Available Brianna Lindsay1, Jennifer Albrecht1, Mishka Terplan1,21Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Pregnant methamphetamine users who leave substance use treatment against professional advice may be at risk of poorer health outcomes. To examine the hypothesis that methamphetamine use during pregnancy may be associated with leaving substance use treatment against professional advice, the 2006 Treatment Episode Data Set was analyzed. A logistic regression adjusting for age, race, service setting, prior substance abuse treatment, criminal justice referral, and education was conducted. Inclusion criteria were met by 18,688 pregnant admissions; 26.4% identified methamphetamines as their primary substance of use. Frequency of use was identified as an effect modifier, therefore results were stratified by less than weekly use and weekly or more use. Methamphetamine use was significantly associated with leaving treatment against professional advice regardless of usage level. However, the odds of leaving treatment were greater among women using methamphetamine less than weekly. Further investigation into this association may be warranted due to the complications that may result from methamphetamine use during pregnancy.Keywords: pregnancy, methamphetamines, treatment, attrition
... any product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption, including any... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1150 RIN 0910-AG81 Tobacco Products, User Fees... of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...
Bernat, Jennifer K; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Margolis, Katherine A; Blake, Kelly D
Harm perceptions about tobacco products may influence initiation, continued use, and cessation efforts. We assessed associations between adult traditional tobacco product use and absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products. We also described the topics individuals looked for during their last search for information, their beliefs about chemicals in cigarettes/cigarette smoke, and how both relate to harm perceptions. We ran multivariable models with jackknife replicate weights to analyze data from the 2015 administration of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3376). Compared to never users, individuals reported lower perceived levels of harm for products they use. Among current tobacco users, ethnicity, thinking about chemicals in tobacco, and information-seeking were all factors associated with tobacco product harm perceptions. In the full sample, some respondents reported searching for information about health effects and cessation and held misperceptions about the source of chemicals in tobacco. This study fills a gap in the literature by assessing the absolute harm perceptions of a variety of traditional and alternative tobacco products. Harm perceptions vary among tobacco products, and the relationship among tobacco use, information seeking, thoughts about chemicals in tobacco products, and harm perceptions is complex. Data suggest that some individuals search for information about health effects and cessation and hold misperceptions about chemicals in tobacco products. Future inquiry could seek to understand the mechanisms that contribute to forming harm perceptions and beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Van T. Tong
Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act (ACA requires states to provide tobacco-cessation services without cost-sharing for pregnant traditional Medicaid-beneficiaries effective October 2010. It is unknown the extent to which obstetricians–gynecologists are aware of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit. We sought to examine the awareness of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit in a national sample of obstetricians–gynecologists and assessed whether reimbursement would influence their tobacco cessation practice. In 2012, a survey was administered to a national stratified-random sample of obstetricians–gynecologists (n = 252 regarding awareness of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit. Results were stratified by the percentage of pregnant Medicaid patients. Chi-squared tests (p < 0.05 were used to assess significant associations. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Eighty-three percent of respondents were unaware of the benefit. Lack of awareness increased as the percentage of pregnant Medicaid patients in their practices decreased (range = 71.9%–96.8%; P = 0.02. One-third (36.1% of respondents serving pregnant Medicaid patients reported that reimbursement would influence them to increase their cessation services. Four out of five obstetricians–gynecologists surveyed in 2012 were unaware of the ACA provision that required states to provide tobacco cessation coverage for pregnant traditional Medicaid beneficiaries as of October 2010. Broad promotion of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit could reduce treatment barriers.
Full Text Available Khat, an “amphetamine-like green leaf,” may influence the consumption of tobacco. This study reviews the epidemiology of tobacco use among khat users. Electronic database searches using appropriate keywords/terms were conducted to identify observational studies of khat use. Assessment of quality and risk of bias of all included studies was conducted, and the results were synthesised descriptively. Nine eligible cross-sectional studies were identified. All assessed self-reported tobacco among khat users and were carried out in Africa and the Middle East. Eight reported cigarettes and one reported waterpipes as the mode of use. Methods of tobacco use prevalence assessment varied. Prevalence of “current” tobacco use among students and university teachers ranged from 29 to 37%; “lifetime” tobacco use in university teachers was 58% and “undefined” tobacco use in nonspecific adults and students ranged from 17 to 78%. Daily tobacco use among adults was reported as 17% whilst simultaneous tobacco and khat use was reported as between 14 and 30% in students. In conclusion, tobacco prevalence among khat users appears significant. Findings should be interpreted cautiously due to self-reported tobacco use, diversity in questions assessing tobacco use, and type of tobacco consumption. Future research should address the methodological shortcomings identified in this review before appropriate policy interventions can be developed.
N S Surani
Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco users face barriers not just in quitting, but also in thinking about quitting. The aim of this study was to understand factors encouraging intention to quit from the 2006 International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP Evaluation India Pilot Study Survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 764 adult respondents from urban and rural areas of Maharashtra and Bihar were surveyed through face-to-face individual interviews, with a house-to-house approach. Dependent variable was "intention to quit tobacco." Independent variables were demographic variables, peer influence, damage perception, receiving advice to quit, and referral to cessation services by healthcare professionals and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. Logistic regression model was used with odds ratio adjusted for location, age, gender, and marital status for statistical analysis. Results: Of 493 tobacco users, 32.5% intended to quit. More numbers of users who were unaware about their friends′ tobacco use intended to quit compared to those who were aware (adjusted OR = 8.06, 95% CI = 4.58-14.19. Higher numbers of users who felt tobacco has damaged their health intended to quit compared to those who did not feel that way (adjusted OR = 5.62, 95% CI = 3.53-8.96. More numbers of users exposed to anti-tobacco messages in newspapers/magazines (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02-3.03, restaurants (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.46, radio (adjusted OR=4.84, 95% CI = 3.01-7.78, cinema halls (adjusted OR = 9.22, 95% CI = 5.31-15.75, and public transportation (adjusted OR = 10.58, 95% = 5.90-18.98 intended to quit compared to unexposed users. Conclusion: Anti-tobacco messages have positive influence on user′s intentions to quit.
Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel
Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective
England, Lucinda J; Tong, Van T; Koblitz, Amber; Kish-Doto, Julia; Lynch, Molly M; Southwell, Brian G
The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy. Responses were coded and analyzed to identify key themes using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software (QSR). Several themes emerged from focus groups. Participants generally found snus unappealing, but viewed dissolvables as a discreet and stigma-free way to use tobacco during pregnancy. Participants perceived NRT as ineffective and having undesired side effects. ENDS were thought to offer advantages over cigarettes, including use in smoke-free areas, lower cost, appealing flavors, and fewer health effects, and were seen by some as a potential quit aid. Some participants, however, worried that the lack of natural stopping point could lead to excessive use. Many participants felt that the use of any tobacco or NRT product is harmful during pregnancy. Women seeking to reduce health risks or stigma related to smoking during pregnancy may perceive advantages of using some emerging products over cigarettes. These findings can inform future public health efforts to reduce risks associated with tobacco product use among women of reproductive age.
In conclusion, among adult ever users of marijuana, current tobacco use is high and strongly associated with suboptimal SRH; regular marijuana smoking with or without current tobacco use is significantly associated with suboptimal SRH.
Rooban, T; Madan Kumar, P D; Ranganathan, K
Tobacco use is a health hazard and its use is attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding the ill effects of tobacco. To identify the exposure of different mass media among a representative cohort population in the Indian subcontinent and compare the reach of the different mass media among tobacco users and nonusers using the "reach of HIV information" as a model. Secondary Data Analysis of Indian National Family Health Survey-3. Any tobacco use, gender, source of HIV information. Use of mass media. Of the study group, 27% of males and 54.4% of females never read newspaper or magazine; 29.3% of males and 52.6% of females never heard radio; 12.4% of males and 25% of females never see television; and 79.3% of males and 93.46% of females did not see a movie at least once a month. The most common source of information of HIV was television among males (71.8%) and females (81%), whereas the least common source was leaders among males (0.8%) and females (0.2%). Television is the single largest media used by both genders and was a major source of HIV information dissemination. A well-designed tobacco control program similar to HIV awareness program will help to curb tobacco use. The reach of different media among Indian tobacco users is presented and HIV model of information dissemination may prove to be effective in tobacco control.
Lund, Marianne; Lund, Karl Erik; Halkjelsvik, Torleif
In Norway, snus use and cigarette smoking are at different developmental stages as described by the diffusion of innovation model. Concomitant with declining smoking rates, the use of snus is increasing. In light of these differences in use trends, we assumed that snus users and cigarette smokers would have different perceptions of their personal tobacco use. A total of 4,852 smokers and snus users were recruited from a large sample of online panelists (n = 62,000) and a postal database (n = 15,000). The responses to 16 evaluative statements assessing perceptions about tobacco use were compared between exclusive snus users and exclusive smokers and within dual users. The statements concerned self-evaluative emotions, moral judgments, social disapproval, and benefits of quitting. The perceptions of personal tobacco use differed greatly between exclusive smokers and exclusive snus users, even after controlling for age and sex. Smoker's perceptions were more negative compared with snus users' perception. The differences between smoking and snus use were particularly large for indices of social disapproval (Cohen's d = 1.56) and benefits from quitting use of the product (Cohen's d = 1.47) between exclusive users. Dual users exhibited a similar pattern. Smokers have a more negative perception of their own use compared to snus users. Dual users also devaluated smoking in comparison to their snus use. This finding may have important values for prevention strategies targeting smokers, snus users, and dual users. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas
Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385
Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan
Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.
Singh, Pramil N; Neergaard, Jim; Job, Jayakaran S; El Setouhy, Maged; Israel, Ebenezer; Mohammed, Mostafa K; Loffredo, Christopher A
Waterpipe use is a highly prevalent form of tobacco use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that is rooted in long-held cultural traditions that predate the use of cigarettes and present a particular challenge for tobacco control efforts. We did a stratified sampling of 4,994 Egyptian men from rural households of Egypt in order to conduct an interviewer-administered prevalence survey to identify differences in attitudes and beliefs toward smoking and smoking cessation between waterpipe users, cigarette smokers, mixed users (cigarette + waterpipe), and non-smokers. We found that cigarette smokers, mixed users, and/or non-smokers were (1) two- to ninefold more likely to believe that smoking decreased adult life expectancy and harmed a fetus than waterpipe users, (2) significantly more likely to believe that smoking is a sin ("haram") than were waterpipe users. Among tobacco users, we found that cigarette smokers and/or mixed users were significantly more likely to indicate pre-contemplation, contemplation, or intention to quit tobacco than waterpipe users. Our findings from rural Egyptian men indicate that waterpipe users are distinct from cigarette smokers in their perception that their form of tobacco use is less harmful and/or less subject to religious proscription. These beliefs may explain why waterpipe users seem less inclined to quit their tobacco habit and need to be considered in the design of tobacco cessation and prevention methods in Egypt and the region.
Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aim: The present study aimed to detect micronuclei in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms from the last 5 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 healthy male subjects (25 smokeless tobacco users, 25 smokers, and 25 non-tobacco users were selected for the study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa and fixed with 95% alcohol. All the cytologic smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique. From each slide, ~1000 cells were examined under the 400× magnification and where micronucleated (MN cells were located, they were examined under the 1000× magnification. Result: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers and controls. Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between increased micronucleus frequency and tobacco-using habits. So micronucleus assay can be used as a biomarker of genotoxicity.
Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan
Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects.
Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Chintagunta, Chaitanya; Tadiboina, Nagarjuna; Borugadda, Ravithej; Loya, Mitali; Marella, Yamuna; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary
Introduction Oral smokeless tobacco consumption has been considered as a major risk factor for oral cancer, its role as a risk factor for periodontal disease is less well documented when compared to that of relationship between smoking and periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of various forms of tobacco consumption i.e., smoking and smokeless tobacco forms on periodontal status. Materials and Methods The study population included 120 subjects with the habit of tobacco consumption, based on form of tobacco use they were divided into Group 1 (smoking), Group 2 (Smokeless tobacco), and Group 3 (smokers and smokeless tobacco users). The periodontal status for each group was evaluated by measuring Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) for Probing Depth (CPI-PD) and Attachment Loss (CPI-AL). Results OHI-S mean scores in Group 1 (3.53±1.03), Group 2 (3.06±0.92) and Group 3 (3.45±0.96) were similar, which were not statistically significant (p>0.076). The mean values of CPI-PD were 3.75±0.44 in Group 1, 3.65±0.48 in Group 2, 3.80±0.41 in Group 3 with no significant difference between the three Groups (p> 0.309). When the mean values of CPI-AL (0.95±0.75 in Group 1, 1.40±0.74 in group 2, and 1.55±0.60 in Group 3) were compared in between the Groups, a statistically significant difference was observed in Group 3 (pperiodontal status, with smokeless tobacco users having more amount of attachment loss than smokers. PMID:27891477
Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina
Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (Pantioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W
Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing. Questions regarding positive (e.g., smoking reduction/cessation) and negative (e.g., delay of cessation) potential public health consequences of e-cigarettes may be informed by studying dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A cross-sectional online survey assessed demographics, product use patterns, and beliefs about relative product benefits and harms among dual users (n = 350) in the United States using the website Amazon Mechanical Turk. Compared to tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes were used less often and were associated with lower dependence. Participants reported a 30% reduction in self-reported tobacco cigarette smoking since beginning to use e-cigarettes. Reported primary reasons for e-cigarette use were harm reduction and smoking cessation. E-cigarette use was reported as more likely in settings with smoking restrictions and when others' health could be adversely affected. Conversely, participants reported having used tobacco cigarettes more often than e-cigarettes in hedonic situations (e.g., after eating, drinking coffee or alcohol, or having sex), outdoors, or when stressed. Participants were twice as likely to report wanting to quit tobacco cigarettes compared to e-cigarettes in the next year and intended to quit tobacco cigarettes sooner. Tobacco cigarettes were described as more harmful and addictive, but also as more enjoyable than e-cigarettes. Participants provided evidence consistent with both positive and negative public health consequences of e-cigarettes, highlighting the need for experimental research, including laboratory studies and clinical trials. Policies should consider potential public health benefits of e-cigarettes, in addition to potential harms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P intervention group (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.
Beatty, Jessica R; Svikis, Dace S; Ondersma, Steven J
To examine the relative prevalence of marijuana and tobacco use among low-income post-partum women, using self-report, urine, and hair testing data; and to further explore perceptions of the substances among postpartum women by evaluating perceived risk and monetary cost of prenatal marijuana versus tobacco use. Data from two studies were available for a total of 100 (Study 1) and 50 (Study 2) low-income, primarily African-American post-partum women. Study 1 participants completed brief self-report measures of substance use as well as urine and hair samples; study 2 participants completed a brief opinion survey regarding the risks and monetary costs of prenatal marijuana use. In Study 1, the self-reported prevalence of any tobacco or marijuana use in the past three months was 17% and 11%, respectively. However, objectively-defined marijuana use was more prevalent than self-reported tobacco use: 14% tested positive for marijuana by urinalysis, and 28% by hair analysis. Study 2 participants were more likely to believe that there is a safe level of marijuana use during pregnancy, and nearly half believed that using marijuana during pregnancy was less expensive than smoking cigarettes. Marijuana use may be as or more prevalent than tobacco use among low-income, African-American pregnant women. These findings may in part be attributable to perceptions of roughly equivalent cost and the lack of a clear public health message regarding prenatal marijuana use, combined with growing pro-marijuana advocacy. A broader public health response to address prenatal marijuana use, along with other substances of abuse, is needed.
Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada
The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.
George D′Souza; Dorothy P Rekha; Priya Sreedaran; Srinivasan, K.; Mony, Prem K
Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Ba...
Lipkus, Isaac M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Levy, Janet
Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in the United States among college students. Through a web-based survey, we explored associations among factual and perceived knowledge, perceived risks and worry about harm and addiction, and desire to quit among 316 college waterpipe tobacco smoking users. Overall, factual knowledge of the harm of waterpipe tobacco smoking was poor, factual and perceived knowledge was weakly correlated, both forms of knowledge were related inconsistently to perceived risks and worry, and neither form of knowledge was associated with the desire to quit. Findings provide preliminary insights as to why knowledge gaps may not predict cessation among waterpipe users. © The Author(s) 2013.
... these countries are low- or middle-income countries. Mass media campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption by influencing ... have aired at least 1 strong anti-tobacco mass media campaign within the last 2 years. Ad bans ...
Full Text Available Abstract Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed method drug users and pregnant and postnatal women. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the epidemic is shifting from a concentrated stage to a more generalised epidemic. One hundred and forty two (142 exclusively injecting drug users (66 and mixed method drug users (injecting and non-injecting-76 participated in this survey. Eight hundred and two (802 pregnant and postnatal women participated in the survey. In Kashgar City and Shache County the serum prevalence of HIV amongst injecting drug users was 56.06%, for mixed method drug users 48.68% and 0.38% in pregnant women. In Shache County HIV infection rates were significantly lower in drug user groups and amongst pregnant and post-natal women, at 2.22% and 0% respectively. The behavioral survey indicated that 15% of injecting drug users have shared needles (however sero prevalence and knowledge in relation to access to clean needles and syringes suggests that this may not reflect the actual situation. Knowledge of prevention of transmission strategies (not sharing needles and condom utilisation is similar between both groups at 60–70%. However it appears that this knowledge has not significantly impacted on behavior such as needle sharing and condom utilisation. In Kashgar City and Shache County there have been very few interventions to support HIV/AIDS prevention, care and control. The results from this survey will inform future directions and the development and implementation of targeted interventions including targeted information dissemination and harm reduction strategies. This survey was funded by the Xinjiang HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project, a bilateral project jointly implemented by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of
Full Text Available Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg+ exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg] in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 μg g−1, ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 μg g−1 and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75 of those evaluated exceed 1 μg g−1 [THg] and 8% (6/75 exceed 5 μg g−1 [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted.
Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bentzen, Rebecca; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Castellini, J. Margaret; Celis, Alfredo; O’Hara, Todd; Celina Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía
Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es) while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg+) exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg]) in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS) to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 µgg−1, ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 µgg−1 and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75) of those evaluated exceed 1 µgg−1 [THg] and 8% (6/75) exceed 5 µgg−1 [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted. PMID:28203532
Banerjee, Smita C; Ostroff, Jamie S; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bari, Sehrish; Khera, Mitali; Acharya, Sudha; Gany, Francesca
Gutka and tambaku paan (smokeless tobacco products used by South Asian immigrants) are carcinogenic to humans (and perceived as such), yet, one-fourth of South Asian immigrants report current use. This study examined disengagement beliefs that perpetuate gutka/tambaku paan use among South Asians despite awareness of health risks. Six focus groups were conducted with immigrant South Asian adult gutka/tambaku paan users, in Gujarati, Bengali and Urdu languages in New York, USA. Participants included 39 South Asian adults residing in the New York City Metropolitan area, current (a minimum of weekly gutka or tambaku paan use in the last 12 months) or former (regular use prior to past 12 months) gutka or tambaku paan users and self-reported spoken fluency in Gujarati, Urdu or Bengali languages. Participants identified many health risks associated with gutka/tambaku paan use including locked jaw, high blood pressure and cancer. Five themes of disengagement beliefs emerged: (a) skepticism about the gutka/tambaku paan-cancer link, (b) perceived invulnerability to harm, (c) compensatory beliefs, (d) faith-based rationalization and (e) acknowledgment of addiction. To promote smokeless tobacco cessation among South Asians, interventions to counter disengagement beliefs and heighten the discomfort between the dissonant cognitions represent a promising area warranting further attention.
Sardana, Mohini; Goel, Sonu; Gupta, Madhu; Sardana, Veera; Singh, B S
The rise in consumption of tobacco products among youth is a public health concern in India. Several studies have shown that advertisements promoting tobacco products influence decisions and behaviour of youth towards smoking. To ascertain which method of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship (TAPS) was more influential for initiating tobacco use in youth in India. The secondary data of youth (15-24 years) from nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-2010 was analyzed. Odds ratio and p-value were used to know the association between TAPS and initiation of use of tobacco products among youth. Logistic regression was used to determine the most significant means of TAPS altering the youth's behaviour towards tobacco products. Out of 13,383 youths, 1,982 (14.7%) used smokeless forms of tobacco and 860 (6.38%) used smoke forms. Logistic regression reveals that promotional activities mainly through cinemas (padvertisements particularly in cinema and promotional activities like distribution of free samples, coupons and sales on the price of tobacco products. Stronger legislative measures should be enforced to curb promotional advertisements in cinemas and distribution of free samples.
Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.
Full Text Available Aims: To determine the cellular and nuclear area of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users, those with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and from normal healthy persons and resolve if any significant difference exists in these three groups. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 subjects 20 controls, (40 OSCC patients-20 from lesional sites and 20 from nonlesional sites, 20 tobacco smokers and 20 tobacco chewers in the age group of 25-75 years. Oral mucosal smears obtained by using a cytobrush were stained with Papanicolaou (PAP stain and using 20X objective in trinocular Olympus model BX53 with Jenoptik scientific grade-dedicated microphotographic camera images were taken. With ProgRes version 8.0 image analysis software, 20 cells with defined borders were evaluated from each slide. Finally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Minitab and Excel software were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Results: The mean value of the cell area for groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 2838 ± 275.2, 2762.1 ± 511.4, 2861.9 ± 512.9, 2643.8 ± 333.3, and 3064.3 ± 362.7, respectively, the nuclear area (NA was 83.88 ± 9.86, 106.19 ± 13.45, 95.11 ± 14.24, 85.55 ± 21.11, and 80.83 ± 13.45, respectively, and nuclear-to-cellular (N:C ratio was 0.0297, 0.03924, 0.0337, 0.03257, and 0.02678, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, our study elucidates that cytomorphology gauges the effect of tobacco on the oral mucosa and possibly establishes a link between premalignant and malignant transformations even before a lesion is visibly noted.
Full Text Available Aim: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use are two recognized risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis. Maras powder (MP, a kind of smokeless tobacco, has a lot of addicts in the city of Kahramanmaraş and its surroundings, Turkey. This is the study investigating the effects of MP on BMD and comparing with smoking. Meterial and Methods: A total of 120 healthy male subjects (60 MP users, 60 smoker from Maras City, Turkey were included in the study. All subjects information on demographics, health history, alcohol and tobacco use and medication use were obtained by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects who had any pathology that might affect BMD, were excluded from the study. Measurements of bone mineral density were obtained by phalangeal radiographic absorptiometry of the nondominant hand. BMD values (g/cm2 of MP users were compared with those of smokers. Results: The mean duration of MP use and the mean age of MP users were 30.6±14.4 years and 64.4±9.8 years, respectively. The mean duration of smoking and the mean age of smokers were 33.7±11.0 years and 61.6±10.4 years, respectively. The mean phalangeal BMD in MP users (0.31±0.04 g/cm2 was signi cantly lower than that in the smokers (0.33±0.03 g/cm2, p=0.004. Conclusion: In MP user males, BMD is lower compared to the smoker males. If our results are supported by other studies, it may be claimed that MP use is a very strong risk factor for low BMD value compared to cigarette smoking. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19: 12-6
Lindholm, Christopher; Adsit, Robert; Bain, Philip; Reber, Paul M; Brein, Tricia; Redmond, Lezli; Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C
While the majority of smokers visit a primary care physician each year, only a small proportion of them receive evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment. The electronic health record (EHR) provides an opportunity to prompt clinicians to deliver tobacco dependence treatment in primary care. Over 1 year, Dean Health Systems worked with the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health to modify the existing Dean EHR system (Epic Systems Corp, Verona, Wisconsin) to improve identification and treatment of adult smokers visiting primary care clinics. Modifications included evidence-based prompts that helped guide medical assistants to identify smokers and clinicians to deliver a brief tobacco cessation intervention (medication and Wisconsin Tobacco Quit Line referral). Eighteen primary care clinics provided data 1 year before and 1 year after implementing the EHR modifications. A higher percentage of adult patients had their tobacco use status identified after EHR modification compared to pre-implementation (71.6% versus 78.4%, P project showed that a large health care system can increase the delivery of tobacco dependence treatment interventions (increased identification of smokers and relatively high rates of delivering specific tobacco dependence clinical interventions) building on an existing EHR platform. The project demonstrated that brief, evidence-based tobacco dependence interventions can be incorporated into primary care, especially when the EHR is used to improve clinic workflow.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare costs of a nurse-administered behavioral intervention for pregnant substance users that integrated motivational enhancement therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT to brief advice (BA administered by an obstetrical provider. Both interventions were provided concurrent with prenatal care. METHODS: We conducted a micro-costing study that prospectively collected detailed resource utilization and unit cost data for each of the two intervention arms (MET-CBT and BA within the context of a randomized controlled trial. A three-step approach for identifying, measuring and valuing resource utilization was used. All cost estimates were inflation adjusted to 2011 U.S. dollars. RESULTS: A total of 82 participants received the MET-CBT intervention and 86 participants received BA. From the societal perspective, the total cost (including participants' time cost of the MET-CBT intervention was $120,483 or $1,469 per participant. In contrast, the total cost of the BA intervention was $27,199 or $316 per participant. Personnel costs (nurse therapists and obstetric providers for delivering the intervention sessions and supervising the program composed the largest share of the MET-CBT intervention costs. Program set up costs, especially intervention material design and training costs, also contributed substantially to the overall cost. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an MET-CBT program to promote drug abstinence in pregnant women is associated with modest costs. Future cost effectiveness and cost benefit analyses integrating costs with outcomes and benefits data will enable a more comprehensive understanding of the intervention in improving the care of substance abusing pregnant women.
Smoking brings a series of health problems, while smoking or passive smoking during pregnancy are more dangerous. Domestic and foreign experts have confirmed that the compounds in tobacco are harmful to pregnant women and fetuses with a variety of research methods. Exposure of tobacco smoke during pregnancy may induce premature birth, miscarriage, stillbirth, other complications and have a great impact on pregnant outcome. Education on the harm of tobacco to the pregnant women should be strengthened in the future to finally avoid tobacco injury to pregnant women.%吸烟会带来一系列的健康问题,而孕期吸烟或者被动吸烟的危害更大.国内外的专家采用了多种研究方法,证实烟草中的化合物对孕妇和胎儿均有害.接触烟雾的孕妇在妊娠期间早产、流产和死胎的风险及各种并发症的风险将大大增加,且对妊娠结局产生较大影响.今后应加强针对孕妇的有关香烟烟雾危害的健康教育工作,从而使孕妇最终能够有效回避香烟烟雾的危害.
Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.
Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.
Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…
Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Nguyen, Nghia; Azagba, Sunday; Manske, Steve R
Declines in cigarette smoking have been accompanied by increases in alternative tobacco product (ATP) use, particularly among youth. This study examines smoking susceptibility and ATP use in a national sample of Canadian youth. Data from grades 9-12 students who participated in the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalisable sample of Canadian students (n=27,404) were used to examine cigarette smoking susceptibility among never smokers (n=17,396). Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in smoking susceptibility by use of flavoured and all ATPs and by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Overall, 30% of Canadian grades 9-12 never smokers were susceptible to cigarette smoking. Compared to never users, those who had ever tried ATPs (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.59 to 2.42) and those who had ever tried flavoured ATPs (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.96) had significantly higher odds of being susceptible to cigarette smoking. ATP use is associated with smoking susceptibility among youth never smokers. Findings from this study, along with existing evidence, can be used by policymakers to improve regulation around youth access to ATPs (particularly flavoured varieties). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Maraş powder (MP, a different type of smokeless tobacco (ST and prepared from a tobacco of species Nicotiana rustica Linn, is widely used in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of MP on salivary total sialic acid (TSA and malondialdehyde (MDA levels and to compare these parameters in smokers and MP users (MPUs. The salivary TSA and MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the smokers and MPU than those of control subjects and also in MPU than that of smokers. We have also observed that as the number of cigarettes consumed and MP amount increases, TSA and MDA levels increase too. In smokers, MDA values were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking. In MPU, both MDA and TSA levels were significantly correlated with the duration of MP use and the amount of daily consumed MP. We have concluded increased salivary TSA and MDA levels associated in MPU and smokers. Results can help to evaluate harmful effects of these habits. It is important to point out that bigger change in the measured parameters has been observed for MP use. This observation may be an important indication of harmful effects of ST use as MP.
Full Text Available Background: In India most of the tobacco cessation centers are concentrating only on urban population, whereas, literature reveals that it is rural population, which shows high frequency of consumption of tobacco. It is well known that high frequency of tobacco consumption is associated with psychological dependence. This study aimed at identifying, which form of tobacco consumption (smoking or smokeless is associated with psychological dependence and is associated with which particular age group in rural population. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire based survey where 200 subjects were enrolled. Revised version of standard Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine dependence (FTND was given to each subject to answer. The collected data was statistically analyzed by using Karl Pearson Correlation (r test and Student′s t-test. Results: Study showed that subjects above 40 years of age are psychologically highly dependent on tobacco smoking as compared to tobacco chewing. Tobacco chewing is more prevalent among the younger population (20-30 years of age and type of habit does not have any influence over psychological dependence below 40 years of age. A positive correlation was observed between duration of habit and psychological dependence in all age groups irrespective of type of the habit of tobacco consumption. Conclusion: This study attempts at creating a new avenue for the tobacco cessation centers where they can target their efforts towards rural population particularly people above 40 years of age with a tobacco smoking habit so that they can actually reduce the burden of a number of people at risk for developing tobacco associated oral cancer.
Halperin, Abigail C; McAfee, Timothy A; Jack, Lisa M; Catz, Sheryl L; McClure, Jennifer B; Deprey, T Mona; Richards, Julie; Zbikowski, Susan M; Swan, Gary E
This article examines reported symptoms, nonsmoking rates, and medication use among 1,018 smokers using varenicline in a randomized trial comparing three forms of behavioral support for smoking cessation (phone, Web, or phone + Web). One month after beginning varenicline, 168 people (17%) had discontinued the medication. Most (53%) quit due to side effects and other symptoms. The most common side effect among all users was nausea (reported by 57% of users). At 1 month post medication initiation, those not taking varenicline were more likely to report smoking than those who continued the medication (57% vs. 16%, p < .001). Women reported more symptoms but did not discontinue medication at higher rates. Participants who received any telephone counseling (n = 681) were less likely to discontinue their medication than those with Web support only (15% vs. 21%, p < .01). Counseling may improve tolerance of this medication and reduce the rate of discontinuation due to side effects.
Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.
Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298
Ahluwalia, I B; Grummer-Strawn, L; Scanlon, K S
The purposes of this study were to examine the association between self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy and birth weight, prematurity, and small-for-gestational age infants and to determine whether these associations differ by maternal age. Data from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System from two states that collected data on both passive and active smoking for the period 1989-1994 were analyzed. ETS exposure was defined as reported exposure to the cigarette smoke of a household member. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between ETS and birth outcomes. The mean adjusted birth weight among infants of nonsmoking mothers age 30 years or older was 90 g less among infants exposed to ETS than among infants not exposed. No significant association was found among infants of younger nonsmoking mothers. Similarly, the risks for low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.51-3.87) and preterm delivery (adjusted OR = 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.88) were elevated among older nonsmokers exposed to ETS, but not among younger nonsmokers exposed to ETS (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.23; adjusted OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.13, for low birth weight and preterm delivery, respectively). These findings indicate that the association between ETS exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes appears to be modified by maternal age.
Hindocha, C; Lawn, W; Freeman, T. P.; Curran, H. V.
RATIONALE: Cannabis and tobacco are often smoked simultaneously in joints, and this practice may increase the risks of developing tobacco and/or cannabis use disorders. Currently, there is no human experimental research on how these drugs interact on addiction-related measures. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate how cannabis and tobacco, each alone and combined together in joints, affected individuals' demand for cannabis puffs and cigarettes, explicit liking of drug and non-drug-rel...
Gupta, S.; O P Gupta; Srivastava, S
Aim: The aim of the study to find out role of CYP2E1 genetic polymorphism in development of oral leukoplakia among tobacco users in North Indian population, this study was carried out at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, King George′s Medical University, Lucknow, UP. Study Design: Study include a total of 105 leukoplakia patients were genotyped for CYP2E1 polymorphism (93 males and 12 females; mean age ± SD: 47.5 ± 10.6) and 96 unrelated healthy controls (85 males and 11 females...
Underner, M; Perriot, J
Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.
Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis
There are many preparations for tobacco use, which can be classified as smoking or smokeless tobacco. Among the noncigarette preparations that produce smoke, we cite cigars, pipes and narghiles. Smokeless tobacco can be found in preparations for chewing or for being absorbed by nasal and oral mucosae (snuff). However, all tobacco products deliver nicotine to the central nervous system and there is a confirmed risk of dependence. In addition, there is no safe form of tobacco use, and tobacco users have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to tobacco-related diseases.
Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Perucic, Anne-Marie; Rahman, Khalilur
This paper looks at tobacco consumption among low-income groups and assesses the level of tobacco-related expenditure among households using tobacco and the opportunity cost of their tobacco expenditure. A survey among tobacco users from low-income groups was conducted to collect data for the analysis. The survey found that households consuming tobacco were spending many times more on toba...
Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance
To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...
C Veena Kalburgi
Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease with complex and multi-factorial origin. Tobacco usage has shown its adverse effect on periodontal health. Various components within saliva not only protect the integrity of oral tissues, but also provide clues to local and systemic diseases and conditions. Salivary thiocyanate (SCN has been shown to be a chemical indicator in smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Noninvasive nature of salivary testing has made it an attractive and effective alternative to blood and urine testing. Limited studies are there comparing and correlating the salivary SCN levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP. However, no studies show correlation of salivary SCN among gutka chewers with CP. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate, compare, and correlate the SCN levels in periodontally healthy, CP, smokers with CP and gutka chewers with CP subjects. Materials and Methods: Study includes 120 subjects with age 18-55 years, categorized as periodonally healthy (n = 30, CP (n = 30, smokers (n = 30, and gutka chewers (n = 30 with CP. Required clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded and salivary SCN levels were estimated through ultraviolet-spectrophotometer. Results: Mean salivary SCN level were shown to be higher among smokers and gutka chewers with CP as compared to healthy and CP alone. Conclusion: The present study exhibited the significant increase in salivary SCN levels among smokers and gutka chewers when compared to others, concluding that the analysis of salivary SCN levels could be used as an adjunctive means of diagnosis.
Passey Megan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smoking cessation advice. Methods This paper aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers caring for pregnant Australian Aboriginal women with regard to smoking risks and cessation; and to identify factors associated with self-reported assessment of smoking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 127 staff providing antenatal care to Aboriginal women from two jurisdictions: the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Measures included respondents' estimate of the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women; optimal and actual assessment of smoking status; knowledge of risks associated with antenatal smoking; knowledge of smoking cessation; attitudes to providing cessation advice to pregnant women; and perceived barriers and motivators for cessation for pregnant women. Results The median provider estimate of the smoking prevalence was 69% (95%CI: 60,70. The majority of respondents considered assessment of smoking status to be integral to antenatal care and a professional responsibility. Most (79% indicated that they assess smoking status in 100% of clients. Knowledge of risks was generally good, but knowledge of cessation was poor. Factors independently associated with assessing smoking status among all women were: employer service type (p = 0.025; cessation knowledge score (p = 0.011; and disagreeing with the statement that giving advice is not worth it given the low level of success (p = 0.011. Conclusions Addressing
Mackay, Judith; Ritthiphakdee, Bungon; Reddy, K Srinath
For the purpose of this article, Asia refers to WHO's combined South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions and thus includes Australia and New Zealand. Asia has the highest number of tobacco users and is the prime target of transnational tobacco companies. The future of global tobacco control rests in this region and the challenges are clear. China, India, and Indonesia are key markets and Asia is a frontrunner in tobacco control measures, such as plain packaging of cigarettes. Some countries in Asia have a long history of tobacco control activities beginning in the 1970s, and WHO's Western Pacific Region is still the only region where all countries have ratified WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. We reviewed the history, research, epidemiology, tobacco control action, obstacles, and potential responses and solutions to the tobacco epidemic in this region. Levels of development, systems of government, and population size are very different between countries, with population size ranging from 1500 to 1·3 billion, but similarities exist in aspects of the tobacco epidemic, harms caused, obstacles faced, and tobacco control actions needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Underner, Michel; Perriot, Jean; Peiffer, Gérard
The use of snus (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Containing carcinogenic nitrosamines (Swedish snus do not contain nitrosamine). Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to dependence. It do not induce bronchial carcinoma differently smoked tobacco. Lesions usually develop in the area of the mouth where the snus is placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leukoedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. The most frequently occurring premalignant lesion is leukoplakia. Studies reveal conflicting evidence about the risk of oral and gastroesophageal cancer with regard to snus users. However, the use of snus has proved to be a risk factor in developing pancreatic cancer and increases the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, snus is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and premature delivery. Nicotine substitution therapy and bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have not been shown to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential hazards of using snus products must be incorporated into health educational programmes in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help in stopping to smoke.
Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance
To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.
Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S
Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.
Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J
Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.
Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N
Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India.
Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G
To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.
Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.
Aggarwal, Ramesh; Dwivedi, Shridhar
Non communicable diseases in most of the developing countries have surpassed the morbidity and mortality arising from communicable diseases. However there are people who continue to suffer from the residual disabilities of some communicable disease acquired at younger age like polio and develop non communicable diseases like COPD and coronary syndrome at older age primarily because of their tobacco habits. Both of these combination of communicable and non communicable diseases are preventable if timely preventive measures and healthy life style is adopted. This case highlights one such case where patient despite suffering from polio and restrictive lung disease started using tobacco and suffered from obstructive lung disease and coronary syndrome.
John, Rijo M; Mamudu, Hadii M; Liber, Alex C
Country-level evidence from Africa on the prevalence of tobacco use and the role played by both demographic and socioeconomic factors, as influences on the use of tobacco products, is sparse. This paper analyzes the determinants of tobacco use in Ghana and explores the association between tobacco use and poverty in the country. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of households (n = 12,323), were used to generate descriptive statistics and characterize tobacco use in the country. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between tobacco use and age, place of residence, region, education status, wealth, marital status, alcohol use, and whether the person has children. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for tobacco users and nonusers on the likelihood of their purchase of selected commodities indicative of living standards. Tobacco use was significantly higher among those living in poverty stricken regions, those with less education, lower levels of wealth, parents, and alcohol users. Tobacco use was significantly higher among men (7%) than women (0.4%), and it increased to a peak age of 41.4 years before it declined. Using tobacco was also associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing health insurance. Tobacco use is inextricably related to poverty in Ghana. Policies should be formulated to target populations and regions with higher tobacco prevalence to combat both poverty and tobacco use simultaneously.
Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James
Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: Globally tobacco epidemic kills nearly six million people annually. Consumption of tobacco products is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco is addictive; hence, tobacco users need support in quitting. Aims: Providing tobacco cessation services to women in community enabling them to quit tobacco, identifying factors associated with quitting and documenting the processes involved to establish a replicable "model tobacco cessation program." Settings and Design: Th...
M M Zaman
Full Text Available Introduction: Dual use of tobacco (using smoking and smokeless forms in Bangladesh is uncommon in women but common in men. Dual users are at additional risk of cancers and heart diseases compared with a single form of tobacco use. Knowledge about their socioeconomic background is necessary for planning appropriate interventions. We report here socioeconomic background of the dual users of tobacco from a nationally representative survey. Methods: The study adopted a probability proportionate to size sampling technic of divisional population stratified into urban and rural areas to recruit men aged 25 years or older from their households. A total of 4312 men were recruited. Variables included questions on 20 household assets, tobacco use and other behavioral risk factors, and measurement of body weight and height. Results: The average age of dual users was 46.7 years old compared to 43.4 and 52.3 years for smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Prevalence of "smoking only," "smokeless only" and "dual use" of tobacco was 40.6%, 15.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. Among all tobacco users, dual users constituted 20%. These dual users had lower educational achievement, rural residence, lower intake of fruit, and higher intake of alcohol. They were more undernourished as indicated by a thin body mass index compared to nonusers and smokers. Dual users were of socioeconomically deprived as measured by wealth quartiles constructed out of household assets. Conclusion: Dual use of tobacco is common in Bangladesh, and it is intimately linked with socioeconomic deprivation. Poverty reduction strategy and campaigns should address tobacco control not only tobacco in general, but its dual use in particular.
Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen
Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-
Jay Gopal Ray
Full Text Available Context: With an increase in the abuse of various oral habitual products in India over the past few decades; the incidence of oral potentially malignant conditions as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC rates have also increased. No recent study has been conducted reporting the scenario of oral cancer and potentially malignant conditions in Eastern India (specifically Kolkata. Aims: The present study was conducted at Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College, Kolkata during 2010-2011 to find a possible correlation between the effects of the different oral habits, age, sex and the different types of oral mucosal lesions among patients reported to the hospital. This study also enabled us to see the predilection of the various histopathological stages of the lesions for different sites of the oral cavity. Subjects and Methods: The study group consisted of 698 patients having either oral potentially malignant or malignant lesion. The control group consisted of 948 patients who had reported to the hospital for different oral/dental problems and had the habit of tobacco, areca nut and/or alcohol usage for at least 1 year. Statistical Analysis : The unadjusted odds ratio, the 95% confidence interval, and the P value were calculated to correlate patients with/without different kinds of habit and having/not having various kinds of oral lesions. Results: Our study shows that for males having the habit of taking smokeless tobacco or mixed habit poses the highest risk for developing SCC. For females, significant risk of developing SCC was found in patients habituated to processed areca nut chewing. Conclusion: This study presents probably for the first time in recent years the occurrence of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions amongst patients having deleterious habits in a hospital based population of Kolkata.
Rita de Cássia Ramos de Lima
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a camada de fibras nervosas (CFN da retina, através da polarimetria a laser (GDx, em usuários crônicos do tabaco e álcool. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 46 olhos de 23 indivíduos alcoólatras e tabagistas crônicos triados do Ambulatório de Oftalmologia da Fundação Altino Ventura (grupo estudo. Como grupo controle foram incluídos 32 olhos de 16 voluntários não-usuários do álcool e tabaco, com idade, gênero e raça similares, também triados da Fundação Altino Ventura. Ambos os olhos de todos os indivíduos foram submetidos à análise da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, com aparelho "GDx nerve fiber analyses" pelo mesmo examinador. RESULTADOS: No gráfico Deviation from normal, no grupo estudo ocorreu perda de fibras nervosas da retina em 43,4%, enquanto que no grupo controle houve perda apenas em 18,7%. Quanto aos parâmetros que analisam o GDx, quando comparados o grupo estudo com o grupo controle, observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante nos parâmetros: Ellipse modulation, Inferior ratio e Max modulation. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados comprovam a associação entre o uso crônico do tabaco e álcool e a alteração na camada de fibras nervosas da retina, podendo contribuir para o diagnóstico precoce desta neuropatia.PURPOSES: To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer using GDx in chronic alcohol and tobacco users. METHODS: Twenty-three chronic alcohol and tobacco users were studied (study group. As a control group, sixteen volunteers without use of alcohol and tobacco with similar characteristics (age, gender and race were included. Both eyes were tested for analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layer with GDx. RESULTS: There was alteration in the Deviation from normal graph with a loss of nerve fibers in 43.4% of patients in the study group. In the control group this alteration was observed in 14 eyes (18.7%. As regards the parameters that allow comparison between the study and control groups there was
... toothpick-sized sticks. Some of these also contain sweeteners or flavoring and look a lot like candy. ... Still, tobacco companies often market these products as alternatives to smoking in places where smoking isn’t ...
Full Text Available Context: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death globally. Mass media plays a significant role in initiation as well as in control of tobacco use. Aims: To assess the effect of viewing anti-tobacco audiovisual messages on knowledge and attitudinal change towards tobacco use. Settings and Design: Interventional community-based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 1999 cinema attendees (age 10 years and above, irrespective of their smoking or tobacco using status, were selected from four cinema halls (two urban, one semi-urban, and one rural site. In pre-exposure phase 1000 subjects and in post-exposure phase 999 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. After collecting baseline information, the other days were chosen for screening the audiovisual spots that were shown twice per show. After the show, subjects were interviewed to assess its effect. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions of two independent groups were compared and statistically significance using chi-square test was accepted if error was less than 0.05%. Results: Overall 784 (39.2% subjects were tobacco users, 52.6% were non-tobacco users and 8.2% were former tobacco users. Important factors for initiation of tobacco use were peer pressure (62%, imitating elders (53.4% and imitating celebrity (63.5%. Tobacco users were significantly less likely than non-tobacco users to recall watching the spots during movie (72.1% vs. 79.1%. Anti-tobacco advertisement gave inspiration to 37% of subjects not to use tobacco. The celebrity in advertisement influenced the people′s attention. There was significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards anti-tobacco legal and public health measures in post exposure group. Conclusions: The anti-tobacco advertisements have been found to be effective in enhancing knowledge as well as in transforming to positive attitude of the people about tobacco use.
Kaur, Jagdish; Kishore, Jugal; Kumar, Monika
Context: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death globally. Mass media plays a significant role in initiation as well as in control of tobacco use. Aims: To assess the effect of viewing anti-tobacco audiovisual messages on knowledge and attitudinal change towards tobacco use. Settings and Design: Interventional community-based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 1999 cinema attendees (age 10 years and above), irrespective of their smoking or tobacco using status, were selected from four cinema halls (two urban, one semi-urban, and one rural site). In pre-exposure phase 1000 subjects and in post-exposure phase 999 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. After collecting baseline information, the other days were chosen for screening the audiovisual spots that were shown twice per show. After the show, subjects were interviewed to assess its effect. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions of two independent groups were compared and statistically significance using chi-square test was accepted if error was less than 0.05%. Results: Overall 784 (39.2%) subjects were tobacco users, 52.6% were non-tobacco users and 8.2% were former tobacco users. Important factors for initiation of tobacco use were peer pressure (62%), imitating elders (53.4%) and imitating celebrity (63.5%). Tobacco users were significantly less likely than non-tobacco users to recall watching the spots during movie (72.1% vs. 79.1%). Anti-tobacco advertisement gave inspiration to 37% of subjects not to use tobacco. The celebrity in advertisement influenced the people's attention. There was significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards anti-tobacco legal and public health measures in post exposure group. Conclusions: The anti-tobacco advertisements have been found to be effective in enhancing knowledge as well as in transforming to positive attitude of the people about tobacco use. PMID:23293436
Although a major fiscal revenue source, the tobacco industry is always under a watchful eye while many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.
Convergent validation study of the Contemplation Ladder for application via telephone in tobacco users Estudo da validação convergente da Escala de Contemplação Ladder aplicada por telefone em tabagistas
Mauro Barbosa Terra
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work was designed to validate the Portuguese version of the Contemplation Ladder, whose purpose is to assess the motivational phase to quit smoking among tobacco users using a telephone service. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a nationwide drug use information hotline. In order to assess the convergent validation, the correlation between the Contemplation Ladder and the URICA Scale was calculated, which was previously validated. RESULTS: The study included 271 tobacco users. Statistically significant correlations were found between the Contemplation Ladder scores and the scores of the URICA precontemplation (r=-0.16; pOBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo validar a versão em português da Escala de Contemplação Ladder, que visa verificar o estágio motivacional para parar de fumar em tabagistas, em um serviço de atendimento telefônico. MÉTODO: Um estudo transversal foi conduzido em um serviço de âmbito nacional de informação sobre uso de drogas por telefone. Para avaliação da validação convergente foi calculada a correlação entre a Escala de Contemplação Ladder e a Escala URICA, a qual já foi validada anteriormente. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 271 tabagistas. Foram encontradas correlações estatisticamente significativas entre os escores da Escala de Contemplação Ladder e os escores das subescalas de pré-contemplação (r=-0,16; p<0,01, ação (r=0,15; p<0,01 e manutenção (r=0,18; p<0,01 da URICA. A correlação entre o escore composto da Escala URICA e a Escala de Contemplação Ladder também foi significativa (r=0,31; p<0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do nosso estudo sugerem que a Escala de Contemplação Ladder pode ser uma alternativa para a Escala URICA (cuja aplicação dura no máximo 20 minutos, sem se impor uma carga maior de perguntas ao entrevistado. O estudo mostrou evidências de validade convergente da Escala de Contemplação Ladder, quando aplicada por telefone, em
Tatiana I Andreeva
Tobacco industry consistently overproduces packs with certain health warnings on tobacco packs to minimize the presentation of others. This might be caused by the industry's estimates of comparative potential impact various health warnings might have on users. To properly inform smokers of various aspect of tobacco-related harm, national legislation needs to require each health warning should appear on an equal number of packages.
Full Text Available Background: Health hazards of tobacco are well known but only small numbers of tobacco users are fully aware of the harmful effects of tobacco. Warning labels on tobacco products are an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use and bring about behavioural changes like quitting and reducing the tobacco consumption. So the present study was conducted to investigate the awareness and effectiveness of warning labels on tobacco products among health and non-healthcare professional of Barwala, Panchkula. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 408 subjects who were randomly selected from different professional colleges of Barwala, Panchkula. Data obtained were anlysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS 20.0. Results: Most of study participants has noticed the warnings on tobacco products and most of them believe that they could understand warning labels. More that 70% believe that warnings create awareness about health hazards of tobacco and help in reducing or quitting tobacco. Pictorial warning was found to be better as compared to text warning. Health professionals were able to assess pictorial warnings more correctly as compared to non-healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Warning labels on tobacco packs effectively inform people about adverse health effects of tobacco but the mandated warnings do not serve the desired purpose since they are not properly understood.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S
Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer.
Tjandra Y. Aditama
Full Text Available One third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis, and over 8 millions people were developing each year. On the other hand tobacco is responsible for 3 millions death in the world. For Indonesia, our country has the third biggest TB cases in the world. Whereas Indonesia is ranked as having the fourth largest number of smokers in the world. A relationship between smoking and TB has been suspected for a long time, even though the epidemiological evidence has not been convincing so far, as well as the pathophysiology and the biomolecullar changes. At present time there are more and more epidemiological data to suggest relationship between TB and tobacco. Further research should be done to get more indepth relationship as well as avoiding the confounder factor. To be able to perform TB control as well as tobacco control successfully there should be emphasize on synergistic public health approaches. Tuberculosis –which Indonesia got 3rd rank in the world- as well as smoking problem –which Indonesia got 4th rank in the world- are two important public health problem for the country. If there are relationship between tobacco and tuberculosis, health problem faced by Indonesian even become bigger. Knowledge about tuberculosis as well as tobacco among Indonesian population is very essential to improve the public health situation. Tuberculosis control programme as well as smoking control programme are essential tools for the well being of Indonesian people. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 48-52 Keywords: tobacco, tuberculosis, epidemiological data
Full Text Available BackgroundIn the past, studies have compared smokeless tobacco and non-tobacco users for the risk of various chronic diseases. The differences in the risk of chronic diseases between smokeless tobacco user and smokers have not been explored. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of chronic diseases among smokeless tobacco users compared to smokers.MethodsThe data were used from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave-1, conducted in 2007–2008 in India. The study sample is the respondents who reported consuming any form of tobacco in last 1 month. The total sample size was 4,038 respondents. The odds ratio of chronic morbidities was estimated taking smokers as the reference category.ResultsThe odds ratios for (self-reported diabetes, asthma, and hypertension were not significant for smokeless tobacco user compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of chronic lung diseases (CLDs was significantly lower among smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of hypertension (measured combined with low education and belonging to lowest wealth quintiles were not significant for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. Duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and quantity of use was found to have no significant relation with risk of chronic diseases as compared to smoking.ConclusionThis study did not find the significantly higher risk of chronic morbidities except for CLD for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The study suggests that the use of any form of tobacco may have a similar risk of chronic diseases.
Creath, Curtis J.; And Others
Survey of high school football players (n=1,116) found that, compared to nonusers, adolescent athletes who tried smokeless tobacco were more likely to be white; to use cigarettes, alcohol, and cigars; and to have family users. Initial use was highest before age 14. Differences were found between snuff users and users of chewing tobacco. (Author/NB)
@@ While many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.
Conclusion: Participants at the intervention worksite increased their knowledge regarding the dangers of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. Among current tobacco users, the intervention appeared to increase family rules regarding secondhand smoke exposure in their homes and vehicles.
L C Somatunga
Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.
Ebbert, Jon O; Severson, Herbert H; Croghan, Ivana T; Danaher, Brian G; Schroeder, Darrell R
Long-term smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer, but not all ST users want to quit. Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of nicotine lozenges and tobacco-free snuff for reducing ST use among ST users not ready to quit, but no comparative effectiveness trials of these two products have been conducted. We conducted a multicenter, randomized clinical pilot study evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the 4-mg nicotine lozenge and tobacco-free snuff for reducing ST use and increasing tobacco abstinence among ST users with no intention of quitting in the next 30 days. Participants received 8 weeks of treatment and behavioral counseling on tobacco reduction strategies with follow-up to 26 weeks. We randomized 81 participants (40 nicotine lozenges, 41 tobacco-free snuff). No significant differences in reduction were observed between the two groups at weeks 8, 12, and 26. No significant differences were observed between groups in nicotine withdrawal or tobacco craving. However, both groups significantly reduced (psnuff both appear to be effective and comparable for reducing ST use among ST users not ready to quit in the next 30 days.
Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A
A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is highly prevalent and culturally accepted in rural Maharashtra, India. Aims: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP regarding tobacco consumption, identify reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco use, identify prevalence of tobacco consumption and its relation with different precancerous lesions, provide professional help for quitting tobacco, and develop local manpower for tobacco cessation activities. Settings, Design, Methods and Material: The present study was conducted for one year in a chemical industrial unit in Ratnagiri district. All employees (104 were interviewed and screened for oral neoplasia. Their socio-demographic features, habits, awareness levels etc. were recorded. Active intervention in the form of awareness lectures, focus group discussions, one-to-one counseling and, if needed, pharmacotherapy was offered to the tobacco users. Results: All employees actively participated in the program. Overall, 48.08% of the employees were found to use tobacco, among which the smokeless forms were predominant. Peer pressure and pleasure were the main reasons for initiation of tobacco consumption, and the belief that, though injurious, it would not harm them, avoiding physical discomfort on quitting and relieving stress were important factors for continuation of the habit. Employees had poor knowledge regarding the ill-effects of tobacco. 40% of tobacco users had oral precancerous lesions, which were predominant in employees consuming smokeless forms of tobacco. Conclusions: Identifying reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco consumption along with baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tobacco use, are important in formulating strategies for a comprehensive workplace tobacco cessation program.
McNeill, Ann; Bauld, Linda; Birken, Mary; Hammond, David; Moodie, Crawford; Stead, Martine; Hitchman, Sara; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of standardised tobacco packaging in preventing initiation into, or regular use of, tobacco.
Singh, Pramil N; Yel, Daravuth; Sin, Sovann; Khieng, Sothy; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran; Ferry, Linda; Knutsen, Synnove
To identify the demographic characteristics of current tobacco users in Cambodia, particularly women, and to explore the reasons for current tobacco use in demographic subgroups of the Cambodian population. We used a stratified three-stage cluster sample of 13,988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces in 2005-2006. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that contained items on all forms of tobacco use and on health and lifestyle variables. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify demographic predictors of tobacco use. Cigarette smoking occurred among 48.0% of men and 3.6% of women. We estimated that 560,482 women (95% confidence interval, CI: 504,783 to 616 180) currently chewed tobacco (typically as a component of betel quid) and that the prevalence more than doubles with each decade of adulthood up to the point that about half of all older women chew tobacco. Both men and women cited the influence of older relatives as their primary reason for starting to use tobacco. About one out of five rural women who used chewing tobacco started their habit for relief from morning sickness. The highest prevalence of chewing tobacco among women was seen among midwives (67.9%) and traditional healers (47.2%). High rates (66.8%) of cigarette and pipe tobacco use occurred among ethnic minorities who represent hill tribes found throughout south-east Asia. The tobacco epidemic in Cambodia extends far beyond cigarette smoking in men. Tobacco control that focuses only on cigarettes will not address the health burden from smokeless tobacco use in women that may be an integral part of cultural, familial, and traditional medicine practices.
Full Text Available Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. Results: The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at −0.64 and of higher priced brands at −0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. Conclusions: This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.
Murukutla, Nandita; Turk, Tahir; Prasad, C V S; Saradhi, Ranjana; Kaur, Jagdish; Gupta, Shefali; Mullin, Sandra; Ram, Faujdar; Gupta, Prakash C; Wakefield, Melanie
Smokeless tobacco consumption in India is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. In order to educate smokeless tobacco users about the health harms of smokeless tobacco and to denormalise tobacco usage and encourage quitting, a national television and radio mass media campaign targeted at smokeless tobacco users was aired for 6 weeks during November and December 2009. The campaign was evaluated with a nationally representative household survey of smokeless tobacco users (n = 2898). The effect of campaign awareness was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The campaign affected smokeless tobacco users as intended: 63% of smokeless-only users and 72% of dual users (ie, those who consumed both smoking and smokeless forms) recalled the campaign advertisement, primarily through television delivery. The vast majority (over 70%) of those aware of the campaign said that it made them stop and think, was relevant to their lives and provided new information. 75% of smokeless-only users and 77% of dual users said that it made them feel concerned about their habit. Campaign awareness was associated with better knowledge, more negative attitudes towards smokeless tobacco and greater cessation-oriented intentions and behaviours among smokeless tobacco users. Social marketing campaigns that utilise mass media are feasible and efficacious interventions for tobacco control in India. Implications for future mass media tobacco control programming in India are discussed.
Tessman, Greta K; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Xu, Xin; Chang, Cindy M
Tobacco marketing contributes to increased tobacco use susceptibility and sustained use. There are limited data on youth exposure to tobacco coupons, a type of pro-tobacco promotion. To explore channels through which youth report exposure to coupons and characteristics associated with this exposure. This may help inform efforts aimed at decreasing youth exposure to advertising and promotion. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed in 2013 to estimate the self-reported prevalence of U.S. middle and high school student exposure to coupons through various channels. Associations among exposure to coupons and demographics, tobacco use, living with a tobacco user, and receptivity to tobacco marketing were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Approximately 13% of students reported exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days through mail, digital communications, or tobacco packages. Prevalence was greatest among current tobacco users (34.0%) and those receptive to tobacco marketing (23.4%) compared to non-tobacco users (9.3%) and those not receptive to tobacco marketing (8.2%), respectively. Coupon exposure varied by sex, grade, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, current tobacco use (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=3.0, 3.9); living with a tobacco user (AOR=2.1, 95% CI=1.9, 2.4); and receptivity to tobacco marketing (AOR=2.3, 95% CI=2.0, 2.7) were independently associated with coupon exposure. Findings from this study indicate that despite restrictions on marketing to youth, youth are still being exposed to tobacco promotions such as coupons. Efforts to limit youth exposure may be valuable in reducing curiosity, susceptibility, and initiation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A
The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco is one of the leading causes of morbidity and premature death though ironically it is preventable. Recently tobacco use has increased in India where about 3/4ths of population lives in rural areas in whom , level of knowledge and awareness about the deleterious effects of tobacco is very low. A clear understanding of reasons leading to increased tobacco use is very important. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence, atti tudes towards tobacco use, prevalence of certain tobacco related oral health problems and their association with tobacco use. MATERIALS & METHODS: This study was as a cross sectional study conducted in 14 villages in Tamilnadu among adults (>=19, both mal es and females and sample size was 654. Simple Random Sampling Technique was employed. A structured questionnaire was developed and house - to - house survey was conducted. Informed consent from the participants and approval of Institutional Ethics Committee o f Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai were obtained. RESULTS: In this study, 69.6% of the respondents were in the age group of 31 - 60 years and 57.0% belonged to middle socio - economic status. The overall prevalence of tobacco use (both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco was 46% (95% CI 42.2% - 49.8% and the highest prevalence of tobacco use was found in the age group of 31 - 60 years accounting to 48.6% (95% CI 44.0 - 53.2. 18.6% of current users of tobacco and 2.5% of non users of tobacco had oral ulcers w ith odds ratio of 8.7(p<0.001.It was found that only 58.4% of the total study subjects and 56.5% of current users of tobacco were aware of tobacco control Act and 53.5% of the total study subjects and 48.2% of current users of tobacco felt the need to mak e the Act more strict and stringent. CONCLUSION: To reduce the tobacco use in the society, the approach includes increasing the awareness about ill effects, tobacco control policies and treating the
Madan Kumar P
Full Text Available AIMS: The present study was done to build a database on prevalence of tobacco use among students of grade 8 to 10 in Chennai city, for the purpose of advocacy of tobacco control and planning tobacco control interventions and evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A two-stage stratified probability sample of students in grades 8-10 corresponding to 13 to 15 years of age were selected from private/government aided private schools and purely government aided corporation schools. Data was collected by a pretested, closed-ended self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1255 students participated in this survey. Among them 64.4 boys and 35.6% were girls. Ever tobacco use was reported by 37.6% of the students (41.6 males and 30.2% females. Current users of tobacco (any products were reported by 41.1% of the students. Prevalence was more among boy students (46.3% when compared to that of girl students (31.6%. There existed no significant difference between current users of tobacco based on the zones of the school. Tobacco users prevalence was found more in corporation schools when compared to that of private schools. Parental and friends tobacco use was reported more often by tobacco users compared to never users. Purchasing tobacco products in a store was reported by 82.5% and almost no one was refused because of age. Almost everyone reported watching a lot of cigarette advertisements on TV, whereas about half reported watching advertisements on other medias like outdoor hoardings (45.7%, newspapers (65.3% and social events (67.4%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that among the 13 to 15-year old school going children (corresponding to grades 8 to 10 in Chennai city, the current tobacco use is high.
Full Text Available Background: Betel nut (BN or areca nut (AN chewing habits on its own or with other ingredients including chewing tobacco are highly prevalent in many South East Asian countries as well as among the migrants from these countries residing around the world. The major alkaloid arecoline in the BN has been found to carcinogenic and to be associated with a range of health risks, including negative effects on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy imposes stress on folate stores because of increased requirements for growth of maternal tissues, fetus, and placenta. Folate defi ciency during pregnancy is a major public health concern as is associated with many adverse health outcomes including neural tube defects, low birth weight, preterm birth, and delayed maturation of the nervous system, growth retardation, and megaloblastic anemia. Objective: To investigate any association between BN consumption and folate status among pregn ant women in rural Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data of 730 pregnant women aged 14-50 years from the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat trial in Bangladesh were included in this study. Logistic regression analysis and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used. Results were adjusted for potential confounders. Results and Interpretation: Two-third (63% of the women consumed BN and 17% had folate defi ciency. The women who consumed BN combined with chewing tobacco were 2.57 times more likely to have folate defi ciency (OR2.57; 95% CI1.23-5.36; P0.012; and the women who consumed BN 2-3 times/day were 2.51 times more likely to develop folate defi ciency among users (OR 2.51; 95% CI1.07-5.92; P0.035. Mean serum folate levels were signifi cantly lower among BN users as compared to nonusers. Conclusion: The results suggest that betel nut consumption combined with chewing tobacco is associated with lower serum folate level and folate defi ciency among pregnant
Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F
BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....
Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George
We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.
Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saliba, Patrick; Graffelman, Jan; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M
To analyse the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies and tobacco consumption, particularly rolling tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) users and the intent to quit smoking in 27 countries of the European Union. Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. We used the data from tobacco control activities, measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), in 27 European countries, in 2010, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption data from the Eurobarometer of 2012. Spearman correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% CIs. There was a negative correlation between TCS and prevalence of smoking (rsp=-0.41; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.07). We also found a negative correlation (rsp=-0.31) between TCS and the prevalence of ever e-cigarette users, but it was not statistically significant. Among former cigarette smokers, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between TCS and the consumption of hand-rolled tobacco (rsp=0.46; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.70). We observed a similar correlation between TCS and other tobacco products (cigars and pipe) among former cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between TCS and intent to quit smoking in the past 12 months (rsp=0.66; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87). The level of smoke-free legislation among European countries is correlated with a decrease in the prevalence of smoking of conventional cigarettes and an increase in the intent to quit smoking within the past 12 months. However, the consumption of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, is positively correlated with TCS among former cigarette smokers. Therefore, tobacco control policies should also consider other tobacco products, such as rolling tobacco, cigars and pipes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy
Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.
Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco dependence is classified as a disease by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, but, medical and dental professionals have neither seriously taken this fact nor made any serious attempt to tackle this disease. Apart from supporting wider tobacco control measures, oral health professionals can help patients to stop using tobacco. This may be the single most important service dentists can provide for their patients’ overall health. Objective: This review is prepared with the object to help both clinicians and oral health professionals to scale up their involvement in tobacco control activities, including advocacy and smoking cessation programs. Literature review: Studies have shown that Studies have shown that 70% smokers indicate smokers indicatethat they want to quit, but a meagre 2% succeed. The dental practice The dental practice setting provides a unique opportunity to assist tobacco users in achieving tobacco abstinence. Still, More than 40% of dentists do not routinely ask about tobacco use and 60% do not routinely advise tobacco users to quit, while 61.5% of dentists believe their patients do not expect tobacco cessation services. Conclusion: Interventions by dentist has been found to be effective in helping people to quit tobacco consumption. A step-wise approach and patience must be adopted while dealing with such patients.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Edmonds, Amanda; Li, Casey; Lin, Haiying; Le, Chap; Hecht, Stephen S
This preliminary study examined the effects of tobacco-free snuff (intervention, n = 52) compared with no snuff (control, n = 54) for reducing tobacco use among smokeless tobacco (ST) users not interested in quitting. Both groups received behavioral instructions, and intervention subjects received tobacco-free snuff for 8 weeks. Participants were required to reduce their intake by 50% during the first 4 weeks and by 75% during the subsequent 4 weeks. Follow-up occurred at 12 weeks. Significant reductions were observed from baseline to week 8 (end of treatment) for both treatment groups in the amount of ST use (tins/week and dips/day, psnuff could potentially reduce risk for ST-related disease beyond that achieved with no snuff by increasing the number of patients who achieve significant reductions in carcinogen exposure and, more important, by facilitating tobacco abstinence by increasing quit attempts and abstinence duration.
Nollen, Nicole L; Mayo, Matthew S; Clark, Lauren; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Khariwala, Samir S; Pulvers, Kim; Benowitz, Neal L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
Non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP; e.g., cigarillos, little cigars) are typically used in combination with cigarettes, but limited data exists on the tobacco toxicant exposure profiles of dual cigarette-OTP (Cig-OTP) users. This study examined biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in cigarette smokers who used or did not use OTP. 111 Cig-OTP and 111 cigarette only (Cig Only) users who smoked equivalent cigarettes per day were matched on age (=40), race (African American, White), and gender. Participants reported past 7-day daily use of cigarettes and OTP and provided urine for nicotine, cotinine, total nicotine equivalents (TNE) and total NNAL concentrations. Cig-OTP users reported greater past 7-day tobacco use (15.9 versus 13.0 products/day, pCig Only users (pCig-OTP users had lower levels of nicotine and metabolites of a lung carcinogen relative to Cig-Only users, but concentrations of toxicants among Cig-OTP users were still at levels that place smokers at great risk from the detrimental health effects of smoking. Our study finds that nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Cig-OTP users are lower compared to cigarette only users, but still likely to be associated with substantial harm. A better understanding of why toxicant levels may be lower in Cig-OTP is an important area for future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Megan E; Lu, Bo; Browning, Christopher R; Ferketich, Amy K
Decades of research demonstrate the pernicious effects of targeted cigarette marketing on young people. Now, with tobacco marketing shifting toward greater incorporation of alternative products, it is critical to identify current attitudes toward the new landscape of tobacco advertisements. The purpose of this study was to understand the present landscape of tobacco marketing to which young adults are exposed, and to assess how they respond to it. During 2015-2016, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in which 44 young adults (aged 18-28) carried smartphones equipped with a survey app. Seventy-seven percent were ever-users of tobacco and 29.5% were intermittent users of tobacco (someday users of cigarettes and/or those who used another tobacco product >5 times within the past year). For ten days, participants were prompted at three random times/day to complete a brief survey about their exposures and responses to tobacco-related advertising. Analyses used t-test and multilevel modeling. Intermittent users reported greater exposure than non-intermittent users to tobacco advertising. Further, both intermittent and ever-users reported more positive attitudes toward the tobacco advertising. Of the tobacco advertisements reported, 22% were for products unregulated by the FDA at the time of data collection. Conclusions/Importance: These findings indicate that young adults, and especially young adults who use tobacco, are exposed to a fair amount of tobacco advertising on a weekly basis. As the tobacco users in our sample were largely experimental and occasional users, these marketing exposures could put young adults at risk for progression toward regular use.
Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas
To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10-20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread.
Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Jones, Sherry Everett; King, Brian A; Jamal, Ahmed; Neff, Linda; Caraballo, Ralph S
Athletes are not a typical at-risk group for smoking combustible tobacco products, because they are generally health conscious and desire to remain fit and optimize athletic performance (1). In contrast, smokeless tobacco use historically has been associated with certain sports, such as baseball (2). Athletes might be more likely to use certain tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco, if they perceive them to be harmless (3); however, smokeless tobacco use is not safe and is associated with increased risk for pancreatic, esophageal, and oral cancers (4). Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern, because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18 years (5). To examine prevalence and trends in current (≥1 day during the past 30 days) use of combustible tobacco (cigarettes, cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip [moist snuff]) products among athlete and nonathlete high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2001–2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Current use of any tobacco (combustible or smokeless tobacco) significantly declined from 33.9% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2013; however, current smokeless tobacco use significantly increased from 10.0% to 11.1% among athletes, and did not change (5.9%) among nonathletes. Furthermore, in 2013, compared with nonathletes, athletes had significantly higher odds of being current smokeless tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.77, p<0.05), but significantly lower odds of being current combustible tobacco users (AOR = 0.80, p<0.05). These findings suggest that opportunities exist for development of stronger tobacco control and prevention measures targeting youth athletes regarding the health risks associated with all forms of tobacco use.
Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan
Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.
Kowitt, Sarah D; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M; Huang, Li-Ling; Sutfin, Erin L; Goldstein, Adam O
Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Among all high school students in NC in 2013, 29.7% reported current any tobacco use, with 19.1% reporting current poly-tobacco use, and 10.6% reporting current use of only one product. Among poly-tobacco users, 59.3% reported that one of the products they currently used was cigarettes. Positive tobacco product beliefs were found to be significantly associated with poly-tobacco use. Communication campaigns, policy efforts, and future research are needed for prevention, regulation, and control of poly-tobacco use among adolescents, which represents a significant public health problem.
John, Rijo M
The tax base of tobacco in India is heavily dependent on about 14% of tobacco users, who smoke cigarettes. Non-cigarette tobacco products accounting for 85% of the tobacco consumption contributes only 15% of the total tobacco taxes. Though taxation is an important tool to regulate consumption of tobacco, there have been no estimates of price elasticities for different tobacco products in India to date, which can guide tax policy on tobacco. This paper, for the first time in India, examines the price elasticity of demand for bidis, cigarettes and leaf tobacco at the national level using a representative cross-section of households. This study found that own-price elasticity estimates of different tobacco products in India ranged between -0.4 to -0.9, with bidis (an indigenous hand-rolled smoked tobacco preparation in India) and leaf tobacco having elasticities close to unity. Cigarettes were the least price elastic of all. With some assumptions, it is shown that the tax on bidis can be increased to Rs. 100 per 1000 sticks compared with the current Rs. 14 and the tax on an average cigarette can be increased to Rs. 3.5 per stick without any fear of losing revenue. The paper argues that the current system of taxing cigarettes in India based on the presence of filters and the length of cigarettes has no justification on health grounds, and should be abolished, if reducing tobacco consumption and the consequent disease burden is one of the objectives of tobacco taxation policy. It also argues that attempts to regulate tobacco use without effecting significant tax increases on bidis may not produce desired results.
Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas; Rammah, Mayassa; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; El-Sabban, Marwan
In recent years, a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user" has become widely available for waterpipe (hookah, narghile, or shisha) smoking. Their adoption may be in part driven by regulations banning tobacco smoking in public places and by an increasing awareness of the hazards of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Although these products are presented in advertising as a "healthier" choice, very little is known about their health effects. In this study, we compared the effects of smoke generated with tobacco-free and conventional tobacco-derived products on human alveolar cells. Smoke was generated with a smoking machine that precisely mimicked the puffing behavior of 15 experienced waterpipe smokers when they used conventional waterpipe tobacco products of their choice and flavor-matched tobacco-free products. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were treated with particulate matter sampled from the smoke, and the effects on cell cycle, proliferation, and doubling time were measured during the subsequent 72hr. We found that smoke from both types of waterpipe products markedly reduced cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, and increased cell doubling time. There were no significant differences across product in any measure. Tobacco-free and tobacco-based waterpipe products exert substantial and similar deleterious effects on human lung cells. This study adds to the nascent evidence base indicating that except for exposure to nicotine and its derivatives, use of tobacco-free waterpipe products does not present a reduced health risk relative to the use of conventional tobacco-based products.
Full Text Available Tobacco and tobacco smoke are both complex mixtures. We previously reported 8430 unique chemical components identified in these complex mixtures but two years later our updated number was 8889. Addition of unlisted isomers raised these numbers to 8622 and 9081, respectively. Our previous number of 4994 identified tobacco components is now 5229; our previous number of 5315 identified tobacco smoke components is now 5685. An operational definition of a complex mixture is as follows: A complex mixture is a characterizable substance containing many chemical components (perhaps thousands in inexact proportions.
Nichter, Mimi; Greaves, Lorraine; Bloch, Michele; Paglia, Michael; Scarinci, Isabel; Tolosa, Jorge E; Novotny, Thomas E
Tobacco use is a leading cause of death and of poor pregnancy outcome in many countries. While tobacco use is decreasing in many high-income countries, it is increasing in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where by the year 2030, 80% of deaths caused by tobacco use are expected to occur. In many LMICs, few women smoke tobacco, but strong evidence indicates this is changing; increased tobacco smoking by pregnant women will worsen pregnancy outcomes, especially in resource-poor settings, and threatens to undermine or reverse hard-won gains in maternal and child health. To date, little research has focused on preventing pregnant women's tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in LMICs. Research on social and cultural influences on pregnant women's tobacco use will greatly facilitate the design and implementation of effective prevention programs and policies, including the adaptation of successful strategies used in high-income countries. This paper describes pregnant women's tobacco use and SHS exposure and the social and cultural influences on pregnant women's tobacco exposure; it also presents a research agenda put forward by an international workgroup convened to make recommendations in this area.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods) and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from f...
Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D
Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.
Preetha R; John Solomon M
Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...
Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene
The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E
The tobacco endgame concept reorients discussion away from the persistent control of tobacco toward plans for ending the tobacco epidemic, and envisions a tobacco-free future. A variety of policy approaches have been proposed, with many offered prior to the introduction of the unifying term ‘endgame’. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the literature on tobacco control endgames, and drew on media accounts and discussion of analogous ideas for illustrative purposes. We identified proposals focused on the product, user, market/supply or larger institutional structures. Research on public support for these proposals was limited, but suggestive of some public appetite for endgame ideas. Advocates should be encouraged to explore new policy options and consider the goal of a tobacco-free future. PMID:26320149
Mackay, J L
Smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable mortality will increase substantially in the Asia- Pacific region well into the next century, due to population expansion, ageing populations, and the fact that more women are smoking. The economic costs of tobacco, already substantial, will rise. Of particular concern is the penetration of the region by the transnational tobacco companies, which deny the health evidence of the harm from tobacco, use sophisticated promotions, and lobby to oppose tobacco control measures. There is an urgent need for robust tobacco control action to be taken by every country, but many governments have little experience in combatting this new epidemic or in countering the tobacco companies. They are needlessly concerned that tobacco control action will harm their economy, leading to loss of tax revenue and jobs. Arguments to convince governments must be shaped to address economic issues and illustrate that such action is not only good for a nation's health, but also good for its economy.
Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. Menu ... tobacco URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002032.htm Risks of tobacco To use the sharing features ...
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Sinha, D N; Palipudi, K M; Oswal, K; Gupta, P C; Andes, L J; Asma, S
The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion) of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over) in India. Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered) sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural). Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users) when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0). Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]). For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2]), with the trend highly significant (P marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use.
Cutrona, Sarah L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; DeLaughter, Kathryn; Kamberi, Ariana; Volkman, Julie E; Cobb, Nathan; Gilbert, Gregg H; Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K
Online tobacco cessation communities are beneficial but underused. Our study examined whether, among smokers participating in a web-assisted tobacco intervention (Decide2quit.org), specific characteristics were associated with navigating to BecomeAnEx.org, an online cessation community, and with subsequent quit rates. Among smokers (N = 759) registered with Decide2quit.org, we identified visitors to BecomeAnEx.org, examining associations between smoker characteristics and likelihood of visiting. We then tested for associations between visits and 6-month cessation (point prevalence). We also tested for an interaction between use of other online support-seeking (Decide2quit.org tobacco cessation coaches), visiting, and 6-month cessation. One quarter (26.0 %; n = 197) of the smokers visited BecomeAnEx.org; less than one tenth (7.5 %; n = 57) registered to participate in the online forum. Visitors were more likely to be female (73.0 vs. 62.6 % of non-visitors, P Online cessation communities attract smokers with previous cessation website experience and recent quit attempts. Community visiting was not associated with quit rates in our study, but low use may have limited our power to detect differences. Further research should explore whether an additive effect can be achieved by offering community visitors support via online coaches.
This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...
... CDC-recommended levels. www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/best_practices Make tobacco cessation treatments more available to people ... what cancer screening tests are needed and are best for them. Make sure their ... their practice. Everyone can Quit using tobacco or never start. ...
Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow
Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…
Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G
new tobacco products; the impact of altering the levels of addictive components in tobacco products; the identification of risk and risk-reduction measures for current and former tobacco users; enhanced early detection methods for tobacco-related cancers; and effective treatments against tobacco-related cancers tailored to the unique effects of tobacco on cancer. Pursue domestic and international economic policies that support tobacco control. Urge the United States to ratify the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Foster global scientific efforts to support the Framework. Work together with stakeholders worldwide, including federal agencies, to develop and implement effective tobacco control strategies and to deter counter-tobacco control efforts by the tobacco industry. Only such concerted global actions by scientists, policymakers, and advocates together can prevent the invidious impact of tobacco, the use of which is cutting wide swathes of death and disease around the world.
Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam
This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio
Nyo Nyo Kyaing
Full Text Available This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to
The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.
Giovino, G A; Henningfield, J E; Tomar, S L; Escobedo, L G; Slade, J
Knowledge of the epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence can be used to guide research initiatives, intervention programs, and policy decisions. Both the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among US adults and black adolescents and the decline in per capita consumption are encouraging. These changes have probably been influenced by factors operating at the individual (e.g., school-based prevention programs and cessation programs) and environmental (e.g., mass media educational strategies, the presence of smoke-free laws and policies, and the price of tobacco products) levels (for a discussion of these factors, see, e.g., refs. 2, 48, 52, 183, and 184). The lack of progress among adolescents, especially whites and males, and the high risk for experimenters of developing tobacco dependence present cause for great concern (48, 183-186). In addition to those discussed above, several areas of research can be recommended. 1. Better understanding of the clustering of tobacco use with the use of other drugs, other risk behaviors, and other psychiatric disorders could better illuminate the causal processes involved, as well as the special features of the interventions needed to prevent and treat tobacco dependence. 2. To better understand population needs, trend analyses of prevalence, initiation, and cessation should, whenever possible, incorporate standardized measures of these other risk factors. Future research should compare the effect of socioeconomic status variables on measures of smoking behavior among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. 3. For reasons that may be genetic, environmental, or both, some persons do not progress beyond initial experimentation with tobacco use (2, 48, 183, 187-192), but about one-third to one-half of those who experiment with cigarettes become regular users (48, 193, 194). Factors, both individual and environmental, that can influence the susceptibility of individuals to tobacco dependence need further attention. 4. To
Florek, Ewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech
Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and causes oxidative stress in smokers' tissues. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of rutin on the total antioxidant status (TAS) in pregnant and non-pregnant rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. TAS in brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and plasma were measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical-cation decolorization assay. In pregnant rats, a diversified distribution of endogenous antioxidants was found in comparison to the matched non-pregnant animals. In pregnant rats, TAS was higher in plasma (by 33%) and kidney (by 76%), and lower in brain (by 48%) and liver (by 50%) compared with non-pregnant rats. Generally (except liver), exposure to tobacco smoke caused an increase in the antioxidative status of pregnant compared to non-pregnant animals (by 29, 16, 18 and 87% in plasma, brain, lung and kidney, respectively). Overall, rutin had little (plasma, non-pregnant rats) or a no protective effect in the examined tissues.
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de automedicación en gestantes y sus características, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se entrevistó a 400 gestantes que acudían a control prenatal en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal de Lima. El 10,5% (42 pacientes se automedicó durante la gestación, el 64,6% opinó que la automedicación puede producir malformaciones congénitas a sus bebes. Los medicamentos consumidos por las gestantes estuvieron en categoría A y B de la clasificación de la Administración de Alimentos y Drogas de EUA (FDA; principalmente, consumieron paracetamol (47,6% y amoxicilina (16,7%. Todas las mujeres que se automedicaron durante la gestación lo habían hecho antes de estar embarazadas. De acuerdo con estos resultados concluimos que la prevalencia de automedicación en gestantes del estudio es baja, comparado con la literatura internacional.We aim to determine the prevalence of self prescribing behaviour during pregnancy and its characteristics. For this purpose, we designed a cross sectional study and interviewed 400 pregnant women who had their prenatal care at Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima. We found that 10.5% of the patients (42 patients had a self prescribing behavior during pregnancy, 64.5% think that self prescribing behavior can produce congenital malformations. The medications used were classified as type A and B according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Paracetamol was used more frequently (47.6% followed by amoxicillin (16.7%. All the women who self-prescribed have had this behavior before pregnancy. According to these results, we conclude there is a low prevalence of self-prescribing behavior during pregnancy compared to the international literature.
Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim
Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".
G A Mishra
Full Text Available Context : India is known as the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO capital of the world. Safeguarding health of millions of youngsters employed in this new growing economy is an occupational health challenge. Aims : This study was initiated in June 2007 in India with the objectives to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and study the factors responsible for initiating and continuing its use. The main aim, however, was to assess the effect of different tobacco cessation intervention strategies, thus identifying effective methods to assist these employees to quit tobacco. Materials and Methods : This is a 4-arm cluster randomized trial of 18 months duration among 646 BPO employees, working in 4 different BPO units. The employees were invited to participate in interviews following which tobacco users of each BPO were offered specific tobacco cessation interventions to assist them to quit tobacco use. Results : The prevalence of tobacco dependence is 41%, mainly cigarette smoking. The tobacco quit rate is similar (nearly 20% in the 3 intervention arms. Significantly higher reduction in tobacco consumption of 45% is seen in Arm 4 with the use of pharmacotherapy. BPO employees change jobs frequently, hence follow-up remains a major challenge. Conclusion : Inaccessibility of pharmacotherapy in the developing countries should not deter tobacco cessation efforts as good tobacco quit rates can be achieved with health education and behavioral therapy. Tobacco cessation should be an integral activity in all BPOs, so that the employees receive this service continuously and millions of our youths are protected from the hazards of tobacco.
Goniewicz, Maciej L; Leigh, Noel J; Gawron, Michal; Nadolska, Justyna; Balwicki, Lukasz; McGuire, Connor; Sobczak, Andrzej
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity among youth. While these products may be beneficial in adult smokers, the effect on young users of electronic and tobacco cigarettes (dual users) is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of dual use among adolescents and to compare tobacco cigarette consumption among dual and exclusive tobacco cigarette users. A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 2213 Polish students aged 16-18 conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. Overall, 21.8 % of students were dual users. Dual users were more likely to smoke tobacco cigarettes on a daily basis [adjusted odds ratio, AOR 3.54 (95 % CI 2.34-5.36) and less likely to smoke fewer cigarettes per day (AOR 0.27 (95 % CI 0.12-0.57)] than exclusive tobacco cigarette users. The frequency of dual use was higher than exclusive use of a single product among Polish adolescents. Young dual users do not smoke a lower number of tobacco cigarettes per day than exclusive tobacco cigarette users.
Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.
Full Text Available Objectives: Is use of tobacco a major health problem among medical students? To find out the factors associated with the use of tobacco. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 250 undergraduate male medical students using a pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire to study about the problem and various correlates of the tobacco use. Data was collected and analysed using Excel and SPSS software. Results: Among the tobacco users (28.8%, smoking was found in 87.5% and tobacco chewing in the form of gutka, khaini, gulmanjan (locally available forms of tobacco in 37.5% as the predominant means of the use of tobacco. The mean age of our sample was 23.5 years. The residential background, i.e., rural or urban, and religion were not significantly associated with the use of tobacco in the present study. Hostellers were found to be more frequent tobacco users as compared to day-scholars. There was a familial aggregation of the use of tobacco. The factor initiating the use of tobacco was usually peer pressure. Conclusion: Tobacco use is a significant problem among the male medical students and we need to take steps to stop its use by them so as to prevent them from being exposed to its hazardous effects. This will also make their role in the advocacy of the smoking cessation activities more trustworthy.
Creath, C J; Wright, J T; Wisniewski, J F
The present study was conducted to assess differences in the behavioral and demographic characteristics of snuff (dip) users as compared to users of chewing tobacco. High School football players (1116) were surveyed concerning their use and perceptions of smokeless tobacco. Adolescent athletes who tried smokeless tobacco were more likely to be white, to use cigarettes, alcohol, and cigars and to have family users than those who never tried. Initial use was highest before the age of fourteen years and was influenced by friends, curiosity and family. Dippers tended to initiate use because of friends, while chewers started because of family users. Users of both dip and chew started primarily because of curiosity. Users of both were more likely to consume greater amounts to alcohol and cigarettes and to smoke cigars and pipes. It appears that the longer smokeless tobacco is consumed, the more likely both dip and chew will be used. Users of smokeless tobacco for more than two years tended to consume more of the product each week, used it for more hours/day, initiated use at an earlier age, and used it more often at school and work than those using it for less than two years. Use of cigars/pipes, consumption of alcohol, and quantity of cigarette consumption increased significantly with longer duration of smokeless tobacco use. Intervention and prevention programs would be helped by understanding differences between users of various smokeless tobacco products and differences related to the duration of use. In addition, further analyses of smokeless tobacco users should study chewers, dippers, and users of both separately.
Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.
Paes, Maria Marta Bini Martins; Diniz, Angélica Lemos Debs; Jorge, Ana Paula Lino
To compare the ophthalmic artery (OA) perfusion of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers by Doppler indexes. Correlate these with the interval of last cigarette, cigarettes per day, years smoking and carbon monoxide expired (COex). Transversal study involving 70 pregnant smokers divided into 33 pregnant who smoked until 2 h: A group (AG) and B group (BG): 37, who smoked between 2 and 24 h before test. Control group (CG) was composed of 51 pregnant nonsmokers. Doppler indexes were assessed: PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity), EDV (End Diastolic Velocity), PI (Pulsatility Index), RI (Resistance Index) and PR (Peak Ratio). Groups were compared using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney and Pearson's correlation coefficient, whereas p pregnant smokers shows a biphasic pattern of perfusion correlated with the time of consumption of the last cigarette. There are signs of vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion to tobacco exposure between 2 and 24 and hyperperfusion in A Group compared to B Group.
Despite an intensive national campaign of information, the drugs most frequently consumed by young adults undoubtedly continue to be alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. If the impact of these drugs on the health of the consumers can be evaluated in conjunction with the clinical and epidemiologic data, the consequences on the embryo due to their consumption by the pregnant women can be appreciated thanks to the abundant literature describing their effects in the gravid animal. Taking into account the abundant literature available in multiple animal species, the zero drug recommendation should be widely diffused to pregnant women.
Valéria Garcia Caputo
pregnancy in adolescence. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, Mann Whitney's U and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Pregnant and non-pregnant adolescents did not differ in the prevalence of total mental health problems (24.6% vs. 27.3%; p=0.50. Compared to the group of never pregnant adolescents, the group of primiparous presented higher prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms (24.2% vs. 15.3%; p=0.01 and withdrawn/depressed symptoms (13.0% vs., 4.5%; p<0.001 and there was a greater number of tobacco users (21.3% vs. 11.0%; p=0.002. These differences were confirmed by logistic regression models controlled for maternal education. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression symptoms and tobacco use were more frequent in pregnant adolescents in comparison to non-pregnant. These problems require special attention from prenatal care services in order to avoid potential damages for the health of mothers and their children.
Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A
POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke
... Zika is present and take precautions to avoid sexual transmission of the virus. If travel cannot be avoided, pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Additional information, including the most current list of countries and territories where Zika virus is a risk, ...
Arora, Monika; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Reddy, K Srinath
To examine the longitudinal relationship between exposure and receptivity to tobacco advertisements and progression towards tobacco use among adolescents in India. A 2-year longitudinal group-randomised trial, Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives (MYTRI), was undertaken from 2004 to 2006 in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai. Among the control schools (n=16), mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the objectives. Subjects Students who were non-susceptible, never users of tobacco (n=2782) at baseline (2004) in the control schools of Project MYTRI, who progressed academically and were followed up at endline (2006). Progression towards tobacco use (on tobacco uptake continuum). Bivariate results suggest that exposure to tobacco advertisements at baseline was associated in a dose-dependent manner with progression at endline. Students exposed at more than four places were 1.5 times (95% CI 1.12 to 1.94; pmultivariate analysis, when other psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use were controlled. In both bivariate and multivariate analyses, the risk of progression at endline was more than two times higher (95% CI 1.28 to 4.32; pmarketing and adolescent tobacco use.
Full Text Available Compared to the association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders, relatively little is known about the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. To identify the psychiatric correlates of smokeless tobacco use, the analysis used a national representative sample from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC wave 1. Smokeless tobacco use was classified as exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco at some time in the smokeless tobacco user's life. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were obtained via structured diagnostic interviews. The results show that the prevalence of lifetime exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco was 2.16%, 2.52%, and 2.79%, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and cigarette smoking, the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco in persons with panic disorder and specific phobia were 1.53 and 1.41 times the odds in persons without those disorders, respectively. The odds of exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both products for individuals with alcohol use disorder were 1.97, 2.01, and 2.99 times the odds for those without alcohol use disorder, respectively. Respondents with cannabis use disorder were 1.44 times more likely to use snuff exclusively than those without cannabis use disorder. Respondents with inhalant/solvent use disorder were associated with 3.33 times the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco. In conclusion, this study highlights the specific links of anxiety disorder, alcohol, cannabis, and inhalant/solvent use disorders with different types of smokeless tobacco use.
Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G; Wu, Li-Tzy; Heath, Andrew C
Compared to the association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders, relatively little is known about the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. To identify the psychiatric correlates of smokeless tobacco use, the analysis used a national representative sample from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 1. Smokeless tobacco use was classified as exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco at some time in the smokeless tobacco user's life. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were obtained via structured diagnostic interviews. The results show that the prevalence of lifetime exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco was 2.16%, 2.52%, and 2.79%, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and cigarette smoking, the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco in persons with panic disorder and specific phobia were 1.53 and 1.41 times the odds in persons without those disorders, respectively. The odds of exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both products for individuals with alcohol use disorder were 1.97, 2.01, and 2.99 times the odds for those without alcohol use disorder, respectively. Respondents with cannabis use disorder were 1.44 times more likely to use snuff exclusively than those without cannabis use disorder. Respondents with inhalant/solvent use disorder were associated with 3.33 times the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco. In conclusion, this study highlights the specific links of anxiety disorder, alcohol, cannabis, and inhalant/solvent use disorders with different types of smokeless tobacco use.
Hrywna, Mary; Delnevo, Cristine D; Lewis, M Jane
This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of New Jersey adults who reported seeing tobacco products advertised on the Internet and described the means by which these products were advertised. Data were analyzed from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey (NJATS), a repeated, cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted with a statewide representative sample. We used logistic regression to determine factors associated with recall of tobacco Internet advertising, adjusting for demographics, smoking behavior variables, and receipt of tobacco industry direct mail. Participants included 3,930 adults who completed the 2001 NJATS, 4,004 adults who completed the 2002 survey, and 3,062 adults who completed the 2005 survey. The proportion of adult Internet users reporting exposure to tobacco product advertising on the Internet has increased each year (6.9% in 2001, 15.6% in 2002, 17.8% in 2005). Based on 2005 data, recall of tobacco product advertising on the Internet was higher among males young adults aged 18-24 years, Asians, adults who reported receipt of direct mail advertising, and adults with a postcollege education. In addition, adult Internet users most often reported seeing tobacco products advertised on the Internet via pop-up or banner ads (60.7%), followed by E-mail messages (24.6%), and Web sites (14.9%). Recall of tobacco advertising by Internet users increased between 2001 and 2005 and was particularly high among certain subgroups. An urgent need exists for expanded surveillance of Internet tobacco sales and marketing practices.
... range of risks, including nicotine addiction, from smokeless tobacco products may vary extensively because of differing levels of nicotine, carcinogens, and other toxins in different products” ( 6 ). Should ...
Full Text Available Tobacco variants in Indonesia are very diverse which can be identified from their morphology or their characteristics. This is related to tobacco long adaptation in different agro ecology of plantation areas which spread out at 15 provinces, from dry to irrigated land and from low land to high land areas. Tobacco has been introduced in Indonesia for more than four centuries and mostly used as cigarette. This commodity and its products are still economically important for government and farmer income. It contributes in government income which reached up to 114 trillion rupiahs and farmer income up to 70% in 2014. Tobacco diversity in Indonesia can be grouped according to their growing season and their usage in cigarette blending. Tobaccos which grown at the end of wet season and harvested in dry season are called Voor Oogst tobaccos, otherwise tobaccos which grown at dry season and harvested in wet season are called Na Oogst tobaccos. Based on their usage, tobaccos are categorized as main ingredients for kretek cigarette, Rolled Your Own (RYO cigarette, and cigar industries.
Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; John, Rijo M; Ouma, Ahmed E O
Approximately 90% of adults start smoking during adolescence, with limited studies conducted in low-and-middle-income countries where over 80% of global tobacco users reside. The study aims to estimate prevalence and identify predictors associated with adolescents' tobacco use in Madagascar. We utilized tobacco-related information of 1184 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years, representing a total of 296,111 youth from the 2008 Madagascar Global Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of tobacco use. Gender-wise multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify key predictors. Approximately 19% (30.7% males; 10.2% females) of adolescents currently smoke cigarettes, and 7% (8.5% males and 5.8% females) currently use non-cigarette tobacco products. Regardless of sex, peer smoking behavior was significantly associated with increased tobacco use among adolescents. In addition, exposures to tobacco industry promotions, secondhand smoke (SHS) and anti-smoking media messages were associated with tobacco use. The strong gender gap in the use of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the role of peer smoking and industry promotions in adolescent females' tobacco use should be of major advocacy and policy concern. A comprehensive tobacco control program integrating parental and peer education, creating social norms, and ban on promotions is necessary to reduce adolescents' tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...
Tobacco smoke contains thousands of compounds in addition to nicotine, a known neuroteratogen. We evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of tobacco smoke extract (TSE) administered to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week. We simulated nicotine concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers, and compared TSE with an equivalent dose of nicotine alone, and to a 10-fold higher nicotine ...
Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data, in 2010, 7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being registered for antenatal care in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue, on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed, health awareness of them is low and has
Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne
and environment, and each has had its effect on the development of technology. The closer we come to the current generation, the bigger is the effect of technology on the characteristics of that generation. User needs guide the technology and the technology shapes the users. This WWRF Outlook analyses......The User 2020 vision is of the changing needs and habits of a user in the future digital world. In order to understand the needs of the future users, we need to look at how users and technology have changed during recent years. The different generations of users are products of their own time...... determined by the era in which they were born. This is due to the fact that digital natives, born in an already “fully” digitalized world with a plethora of ICT services, have a much closer relationship to these solutions than generations before them. This has also shaped the users perspectives and had...
Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo
Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....
Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo
Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been te...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....
Arrazola, René A; Neff, Linda J; Kennedy, Sara M; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Jones, Christopher D
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, and nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood. Among U.S. youths, cigarette smoking has declined in recent years; however, the use of some other tobacco products has increased, and nearly half of tobacco users use two or more tobacco products. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of ever (at least once) and current (at least 1 day in the past 30 days) use of one or more of 10 tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], pipes, snus, bidis, kreteks, and dissolvable tobacco) among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2013, 22.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, and 12.6% reported current use of two or more tobacco products; current use of combustible products (i.e., cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, and/or hookahs) was substantially greater (20.7%) than use of other types of tobacco. Also, 46.0% of high school students reported having ever tried a tobacco product, and 31.4% reported ever trying two or more tobacco products. Among middle school students, 3.1% reported current use of cigars, and 2.9% reported current use of cigarettes, with non-Hispanic black students more than twice as likely to report current use of cigars than cigarettes. Monitoring the prevalence of the use of all available tobacco products, including new and emerging products, is critical to support effective population-based interventions to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs.
... 8 Lower socioeconomic status, including lower income or education Lack of skills to resist influences to tobacco use Lack of support or involvement from parents Accessibility, availability, and price of tobacco products Low levels of academic achievement Low self-image or ...
Cristina Mae Wood
Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.
Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B
Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.
McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie
Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for
Agnieszka M. Sitarz
Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.
Petersen Guilherme O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex. The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001 and umbilical artery (P = 0.001, and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450. These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is a major health menace owing to its widespread use particularly among adolescents. Owing to the presence of impressionable, curious minds, adolescents are highly prone to a number of influences within and outside home, leading them to experiment with tobacco. The addictive nature of tobacco is potent enough to turn these experimental users to addicts. Objectives: To identify the prominent factors leading to initiation of tobacco use among adolescents of Moradabad. Materials and Methods: Two-stage sampling was used to identify 590 adolescents (study population from four senior secondary schools in Moradabad. The response towards tobacco, and its use, was assessed through structured questionnaires. Responses of all study population and association between dependent and explanatory variables were assessed using c2 test (Chi-square test using SPSS package (version 12. Results: The study results show that 17.3% of the adolescents have experimented with tobacco. Curiosity and peer pressure were the main reasons behind trying tobacco. Parental tobacco status, especially place of use (at home or outside, had a significant influence on adolescents experimenting tobacco . Conclusion: Tobacco use by parents is likely to influence adolescents, as they perceive tobacco use as a positive and acceptable behavior, and develop favorable personal beliefs and subjective norms towards tobacco use.
Qin, Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bo; Hirsch, Erica E; May, Warren; Hart, Roy; Bishop, Melanie; Vargas, Rodolfo L
This study investigates trends in tobacco use based on gender, race, and grade level among Mississippi public high school students during 1993-2009. Data were obtained by combining eight weighted Mississippi Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS). Current tobacco use (cigarette, smokeless, and cigar) was selected for investigation. During 1993-2009, the prevalence of current cigarette and cigar use among Mississippi public high school students showed a significant linear decrease (p tobacco use. Male students were more likely to be current tobacco users. White students were more likely to use cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Programs that target male and white students on certain products such as smokeless tobacco are needed to further decrease overall tobacco use in the state.
Full Text Available Background: Knowing the prevalence of tobacco use and the socio-demographic profile of users might prove useful in further strengthening the information, education, communicationand regulatory activities, thereby by decreasing tobacco use. The objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among rural men aged 18 years and above in rural area of Tamil Nadu.Methods: A cross sectional study was performed among 714 males aged 18 years and above in Vadagarai village of Tamil Nadu during 2010 and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was used to select the participants. Results: Prevalence of smoking was found to be 36.7%. Cigarette smoking was more common than beedi and smokeless tobacco.Conclusion: Strict enforcement of anti-tobacco legislation and awareness measures targeting ill-effects of tobacco can be intensified to reduce tobacco related morbidity and mortality.
D N Sinha
Full Text Available Introduction: The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over in India. Method: Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural. Results: Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0. Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]. For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend < 0.001 with greater level of exposure (moderate, OR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.1, 2.2]; high, OR = 2.05 [95% CI: 0.8, 5.1]. The risk of any current tobacco use rose with increasing level of exposure to any marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2], with the trend highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Exposure to the marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is
Payne, Thomas J; Chen, Chieh-I; Baker, Christine L; Shah, Sonali N; Pashos, Chris L; Boulanger, Luke
Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death. The outpatient medical clinic represents an important venue for delivering evidence-based interventions to large numbers of tobacco users. Extensive evidence supports the effectiveness of brief interventions. In a retrospective database analysis of 11,827 adult patients captured in the 2005 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (of which 2,420 were tobacco users), we examined the degree to which a variety of patient demographic, clinical and physician-related variables predict the delivery of tobacco counseling during a routine outpatient visit in primary care settings. In 2005, 21.7% of identified tobacco users received a tobacco intervention during their visit. The probability of receiving an intervention differed by gender, geographic region and source of payment. Individuals presenting with tobacco-related health conditions were more likely to receive an intervention. Most physicians classified as specialists were less likely to intervene. The provision of tobacco intervention services appears to be increasing at a modest rate, but remains well below desirable levels. It is a priority that brief interventions be routinely implemented to reduce the societal burden of tobacco use.
The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.
Martinasek, Mary P; McDermott, Robert J; Martini, Leila
Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a centuries old practice, influenced by cultural tradition in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. It historically has been an activity enjoyed primarily by men. In the past 2 decades, however, this method of tobacco smoking has increased in popularity in other parts of the world, including the USA. Growing interest in this form of smoking can be traced, in part, to the advent of a flavored tobacco, called maassel. The combination of flavoring agents and the paraphernalia itself used in the smoking process, along with its mystic appeal, novelty, affordability, and the social atmosphere in which smoking often occurs, has made waterpipe smoking attractive to women as well as men, cigarette smokers and nonsmokers alike, and particular groups, including persons of college age and younger adolescents. Although waterpipe smoking is perceived by its new generation of users to be less addictive and hazardous to health than cigarette smoking, researchers draw diametrically opposed conclusions. Research demonstrates that numerous toxic agents, including carcinogens, heavy metals, other particulate matter, and high levels of nicotine, are efficiently delivered through waterpipes. Moreover, sidestream smoke exposes others in the vicinity of waterpipe smokers to the risk of respiratory diseases and other conditions. In addition, persons sharing waterpipe mouthpieces may share infectious agents as well. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been declared a public health problem by the World Health Organization and other authorities. Recognition of the deleterious effects of waterpipe smoking has led to initial attempts to expand regulatory control. Because waterpipe tobacco is not directly burned in the smoking process, many existing control measures do not apply. Public health authorities should monitor waterpipe tobacco use carefully. Finally, pediatricians and other healthcare providers should discourage experimentation and
Portnoy, David B; Wu, Charles C; Tworek, Cindy; Chen, Jiping; Borek, Nicolette
Curiosity about cigarettes is a reliable predictor of susceptibility to smoking and established use among youth. Related research has been limited to cigarettes, and lacks national-level estimates. Factors associated with curiosity about tobacco products, such as advertising, have been postulated but rarely tested. To describe the prevalence of curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among youth and explore the association between curiosity and self-reported tobacco advertising exposure. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of 24,658 students, were used. In 2013, estimates weighted to the national youth school population were calculated for curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among never users of any tobacco product. Associations between tobacco advertising and curiosity were explored using multivariable regressions. Curiosity about cigarettes (28.8%); cigars (19.5%); and smokeless tobacco (9.7%) was found, and many youth were curious about more than one product. Exposure to point-of-sale advertising (e.g., OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19, 1.54 for cigarette curiosity); tobacco company communications (e.g., OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.38, 2.09 for cigarette curiosity); and tobacco products, as well as viewing tobacco use in TV/movies (e.g., OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.20, 1.58 for cigarette curiosity) were associated with curiosity about each examined tobacco product. Despite decreasing use of tobacco products, youth remain curious about them. Curiosity is associated with various forms of tobacco advertising. These findings suggest the importance of measuring curiosity as an early warning signal for potential future tobacco use and evaluating continued efforts to limit exposure to tobacco marketing among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available This scientific research article focus that the “Human Ancestor” lived in “Mars Planet‟ in the early universe shall be considered having distinguished genetic characteristics compared to “Modern Human” living in earth Planet especially in reproduction of population. This research further focus that MALE PARENT shall be considered as “become pregnant” and responsible for child birth. During the course of “Space” and “Time” of expanding universe the mars populations consider have descended to Earth planet due to varied climatic condition and FEMALE PARENT become pregnant and responsible for child birth at later stage of “Nuclear age”
Khariwala, Samir S.; Garg, Apurva; Stepanov, Irina; Gupta, Prakash C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Gota, Vikram; Chaturvedi, Pankaj
Objectives In India, a 2003 law (“COPTA”) banned tobacco advertising with the exception of “point of sale” and “on-pack” advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. Methods A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources. Descriptive epidemiologic techniques were used to characterize the data. Results Overall, 95% of participants were men and 5% were women (mean age=49 years). All were current tobacco users or quit using all forms of tobacco in the last 60 days. Participants’ responses revealed that PoS tobacco advertising had been encountered in the last 30 days for cigarettes (61%), bidis (54%), and smokeless tobacco (59%). Other forms of tobacco advertising were virtually non-existent. Conclusions PoS tobacco advertising remains prominent and highly visible to consumers in Mumbai, India, indicating corporate exploitation of a loophole in the COPTA legislation. Given the observed compliance with the currently imposed bans, revisions of COPTA to include all forms of tobacco promotion and advertising would be impactful. PMID:28217721
Carr-Chellman, Alison A
User Design offers a fresh perspective on how front-line learners (users) can participate in the design of learning environments. The author challenges the universal assumption that front-line users must be relegated to the role of offering input, and that the actual design activity of learning systems must still be conducted only by experts. The book presents a new set of methods and strategies that show how the tools of professional designers can be effectively shared with broad groups of users and other participants in the process of creating their own learning. Drawing
Evers, Irving C.
This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…
Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.
Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips
In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.
Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.
Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...
Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). PolicyâTobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). PolicyâTobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...
Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc
In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women.
M.I. Glad Mohesh
Full Text Available Introduction: Dipping tobacco (DT also known as “moist snuff” is used by the smokeless tobacco users in the form of small pinches of shredded tobacco pieces kept between the lips and gums. Thirty five percent adults in India use tobacco in any form, wherein 9% smoke tobacco, 21% use smokeless tobacco and the remaining 5% use both. Tobacco accelerates the endothelial dysfunction in large arteries, arterioles and small arteries increasing the sclerotic process and thereby causing arterial stiffness. Nitric oxide (NO, the endothelium produced vasodilator regulates the smooth muscle tone which is damaged by this tobacco. The sclerotic damage in arteries can be ruled out using Pulse wave analysis (PWA, a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Method: Dipping tobacco users who scored more than 5 in Fagerstroms nicotine addiction questionnaire were included into the study group (n=30 and they were compared against non tobacco users who served as control subjects. Anthropometric details like age, height and weight were collected. Resting blood pressure using a digital sphygmomanometer (OMRON HEM 501 and finger pulse wave using Digital polyrite (RMS was recorded. Recorded data was stored in the computer and later analysed for statistical significance using Graphpad prism ver.5.0. Results: Results showed a significantly decreased large arterial stiffness in the dipping tobacco users than in the controls (5.16+1.3, 6.82+2.0, p<0.001. A slight change on pulse wave velocity was seen which is suspected to be the preliminary change affecting the arteries due to nicotine use. Conclusion: Nicotine’s action to bring about arterial wall stiffness as reported earlier was contradicted in this study. Limitations in the sample size and inclusion of heavily addicted subjects would probably throw greater light on this issue.
Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.
Hall, W; Gartner, C
In Sweden, male cigarette smoking has declined as snus, a smokeless tobacco product which is low in carcinogenic nitrosamines, has gained popularity among male tobacco users. Epidemiological modelling based on the Swedish experience indicates that there would be major public health gains if a substantial number of current smokers in other countries could also be persuaded to switch to this product. This form of 'tobacco harm reduction' is very controversial in the public health community for many reasons. These include: objections in principle to the use of less harmful but still addictive nicotine products; uncertainties about the long-term effects of these products on health; doubts about the likely interest in and uptake of these products among existing smokers; concerns that increasing the availability of these products will increase the number of new tobacco users and eventually the number of smokers in the population; and anxiety about how the tobacco industry may use these products to undermine current tobacco control policies. This paper concludes with suggestions for a graduated series of policies that may allow exploration of the public health costs and benefits of encouraging smokers to switch to snus.
Sangowawa Adesola O
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Out-of-school adolescents are often neglected when planning for tobacco prevention programmes whereas they are more vulnerable. Few studies exist in Nigeria about their pattern of tobacco use to serve as the basis for effective policy formulation. Method A sub sample of 215 out of school adolescents was analyzed from a descriptive cross sectional study on psychoactive substance use amongst youths in two communities in a Local Government Area in Nigeria which used a multi-stage sampling technique. Results Males were 53% and females 47%. Only 20.5% had ever used tobacco while 11.6% were current users. Males accounted for 60% of current users compared to 40% amongst females. Of current users, 84% believed that tobacco is not harmful to health. In addition, the two important sources of introduction to tobacco use were friends 72% and relatives 20%. Use of tobacco amongst significant others were: friends 27%, fathers 8.0%, relatives 4.2% and mothers 0.5%. The most common sources of supply were motor parks 52% and friends 16%. Conclusion The study showed that peer influence is an important source of introduction to tobacco use while selling of tobacco to adolescents in youth aggregation areas is common. We advocate for a theory based approach to designing an appropriate health education intervention targeted at assisting adolescents in appreciating the harmful nature of tobacco use in this locality. A point-of-sale restriction to prevent adolescent access to tobacco in youth aggregation areas within the context of a comprehensive tobacco control policy is also suggested. However, more research would be needed for an in-depth understanding of the tobacco use vulnerability of this group of adolescents.
Kadir, Muhammad Masood; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Garces, Ana L.; Moore, Janet; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba, Christine; Althabe, Fernando; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Freire, Salvio; Parida, Sailajanandan; Saleem, Sarah; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.
Objective We studied exposure to solid fuel smoke and second-hand tobacco smoke among pregnant women in south Asia, Africa and Latin America. Design Prospective cross-sectional survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, India and Pakistan. Sample A total of 7961 pregnant women in ten sites in nine countries were interviewed between October 2004 and September 2005. Methods A standardized questionnaire on exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) and to secondhand smoke was administered to pregnant women during antenatal care. Main Outcome Measures Exposure to IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke. Results South Asian pregnant women commonly reported use of wood (49.1%–89.7%), crop residue and animal dung for cooking and heating fuel. African pregnant women reported higher use of charcoal (85.4%–93.5%). Latin American pregnant women had greater use of petroleum gas. Among south Asian women, solid fuel use and cooking on an open flame inside the home were common. There was a significant association between solid fuel use and allowing smoking within the home at the Asian sites and in Zambia (p<0.05). Conclusions Pregnant women from low/middle income countries were commonly exposed to IAP secondary to use of solid fuels. Among these populations, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was also common. This combination of exposures likely increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes among the most vulnerable women. Our study highlights the importance of further research on the combined impact of IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke exposures on adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:19961275
Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.
Giovino, Gary A
Efforts to understand trends in and patterns of lung cancer are well served by studies of trends in and patterns of tobacco use. In the United States, the manufactured cigarette emerged as the tobacco product of choice shortly after the turn of the twentieth century. Lung cancer emerged after years of inhalation of cigarette smoke, first among men and then among women. The massive public health education campaign that began after scientists recognized the dangers of cigarette smoking has contributed to large reductions in cigarette use and subsequent smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. Since 1965, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults has declined by almost half, with positive trends observed among persons in almost all sociodemographic groups and efforts to reduce disparities recognized as an important goal in public health. An epidemiologic approach to understanding and controlling patterns of tobacco use is proposed. The model focuses on the agent (tobacco products), host (consumer or potential consumer), vector (tobacco companies and other users), and environment (with influences from families, social sources, culture, history, politics, law, and media). Accelerating progress in reducing tobacco use will accelerate reductions in tobacco-attributable morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a very delicate and vulnerable age when children are exposed to the harmful and damaging culture of the society. Tobacco habits are increasingly becoming an annoying menace to the Indian society since the past few years. The teenage group is fast catching up the tobacco habits because of its easy availability in the local Indian markets. Thus, this study was envisaged to analyze the factors responsible for this adverse habit and to obtain an overview of the trends in tobacco habits in young children of North India. Methods: Eight hundred and sixteen schoolchildren in the age group of 14–19 years of different schools of Meerut city were instructed to fill the prepared questionnaires. Results were formulated and statistical analysis was done. Results: Chi-square analysis revealed significant difference between tobacco users and nonusers. Smokeless habit was more prevalent among adolescent boys. Peer pressure was the most cited reason for initiating the tobacco habit while parental influence helped the most in abstaining from this adverse addiction. Conclusion: Despite the existence of anti-tobacco regulations in India, tobacco dependence in adolescents raises an alarm for the Indian community and stringent steps are required to remove this menace.
Wojtyła, Cezary; Głuszek, Łukasz; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Warzocha, Krzysztof
Cigarette smoking is a global public health problem. According to the current estimations, more than one billion people worldwide smoke tobacco. The highest prevalence of smoking is observed in Europe and Central Asia. In Poland, nearly a half of males and 1/3 of females are smokers. Information concerning an increase in the prevalence of tobacco smoking among women is alarming. It is estimated that tobacco smoking is the cause of approximately 10% of deaths worldwide. If the present trend maintains itself, in the present 21(st) century nearly one billion people will prematurely loose their lives due to tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoking by pregnant women additionally exerts a negative effect on the developing foetus. The objective of the study was analysis of haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system in pregnant women and their newborn babies after delivery according to the number of cigarettes smoked daily by the mothers in pregnancy. The studies were based on the questionnaire forms. The studies were carried out in all hospitals in Poland where pregnant women were hospitalized with their newborns on one day in 2010 and 2011. The material for the study were replies to the questions concerning the results of blood tests of mothers and newborns. No significant changes concerning haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system were observed in women after delivery. With respect to newborns, an increase was noted in the level of haemoglobin in the babies of women who, in the third trimester of pregnancy, smoked more than 6 cigarettes daily. The hematocrit value and amount of erythrocytes did not change. The results of the studies showed that tobacco smoking in pregnancy exerts a negative effect on the environment in which the foetus develops, and consequently, on the health of newborn babies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of smokeless tobacco is common in South Asia. Tobacco is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Doctors make one of the best avenues to influence patients' tobacco use. However, medical students addicted to tobacco are likely to retain this habit as physicians and are unlikely to counsel patients against using tobacco. With this background, this study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence of smokeless tobacco among Pakistani medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in three medical colleges of Pakistan – one from the north and two from the southern region. 1025 students selected by convenient sampling completed a peer reviewed, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Questions were asked regarding lifetime use (at least once or twice in their life, current use (at least once is the last 30 days, and established use (more than 100 times in their life of smokeless tobacco. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results Two hundred and twenty (21.5% students had used tobacco in some form (smoked or smokeless in their lifetime. Sixty six (6.4% students were lifetime users of smokeless tobacco. Thirteen (1.3% were daily users while 18 (1.8% fulfilled the criterion for established users. Niswar was the most commonly used form of smokeless tobacco followed by paan and nass. Most naswar users belonged to NWFP while most paan users studied in Karachi. On univariate analysis, lifetime use of smokeless tobacco showed significant associations with the use of cigarettes, student gender (M > F, student residence (boarders > day scholars and location of the College (NWFP > Karachi. Multivariate analysis showed independent association of lifetime use of smokeless tobacco with concomitant cigarette smoking, student gender and location of the medical college. Conclusion The use of smokeless tobacco among medical students cannot be ignored. The
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. METHODS: A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban, Ambattur (semi-urban and Sriperumbudur (rural taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7% compared to semi-urban (20.9% and urban (19.4% areas (P value <0.001 Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1 those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2 those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3 those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.
Vidhubala, E.; Pisinger, C.; Basumallik, B.
Background: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP...... on the sachets. Results: Totally 65 STPs were collected; 26 distinct products and 23 brands. All products were claimed to be 'tobacco' by the shop keepers. Sixty-five percent of the products informed to contain tobacco and 15.4% to contain pan masala. Five sachets did not inform about the content; 30.8% did...
Full Text Available The TOB-G project is funded under the EU 3rd Health Programme which is the main instrument that the Commission uses to implement the EU Health Strategy. The project started in June 2014 and will be completed in September 2017. The project consortium consists of 5 partners from 4 European countries (Belgium, Greece, Ireland and Romania. The TOB-G project aims to develop and implement an innovative and cost effective approach to prevent chronic diseases related to tobacco dependence by focusing on creating specialized tobacco cessation guidelines for populations of high risk including adolescents, pregnant women, adults with COPD, Cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The specialized guidelines for high risks groups will be developed according to ENSP’s evidence based and good practices in tobacco cessation. The smoking cessation guidelines contain strategies and recommendations designed to assist clinicians/ doctors in delivering and supporting effective treatments for tobacco use and dependence and will also be available within the context of an e-learning platform for European clinicians. Overall, the TOB-G project will enhance the overall European capacity in the treatment of tobacco dependence, through offering smoking cessation tools, appropriately assessed and fitted to the specific needs of high risk groups.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nearly 6 million people die due to tobacco every year and this figure will increase to 8 million tobacco-attributed deaths per year by 2030 with 80% of them occurring in developing countries. Objective: To study the awareness and pattern of tobacco use among the undergraduate medical students of Government Medical College, Haldwani. Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted among 303 medical students using a predesigned and pretested, semi-structured self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using SPSS v 16. Results: Among 303 participants, 44(14.5% were smokers. Majority of the students (97.73% were more than 20 years of age at the time of initiation of tobacco use. Cigarette smoking was most common form (79.55% of abuse. Male students were using tobacco significantly higher than that of females (ᵡ2=36.68. The effect of parental tobacco use on tobacco consumption habits of the users were significantly higher than non-tobacco users (ᵡ2=180.75. The tobacco consumption was significantly increased among the senior students as compared to that among the juniors (ᵡ2=15.29. Awareness about harmful effects of tobacco abuse was very high (90.76% and mainly they got knowledge from media. 84.16% students support ban on tobacco use in public places. Conclusion: We can conclude that though the awareness among medical students regarding harmful effects of tobacco use was very high but they got this knowledge mainly from the electronic media, so it is necessary to introduce teaching on tobacco dependence and cessation early in the courses of the medical colleges.
T. A. Don
Full Text Available Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted tobacco production and midrib parts which used for expanded stem manufacturing and added into cigarette for nicotine decreasing. Little tobacco scraps is not used for recycling and thus utilized. In the laboratory of technologies for tobacco products manufacturing possibility for utilizing little tobacco scraps for manufacturing new tobacco products: hookah blends and non-smoking products has been studied. Fractional composition of little tobacco scraps from cigarette industry has been defined. Samples of hookah blends and non-smoking products have been manufactured. New tobacco products manufactured from burley leaves were used as comparison. Tasting of these products has been done, utilizing methods developed in the laboratory. As the result, it has been found that samples made of wastes have better tasting score because of rich taste and tobacco aroma. Utilizing wastes instead of expensive leaf tobacco greatly decreases final cost of the product. As the result possibility and expediency of utilizing cigarette’s manufacturing wastes for hookah blends and non-smoking products manufacturing has been proved.
Charlotte M Page
Full Text Available Anemia affects upwards of 50% of pregnant women in developing countries and is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child. We hypothesized that exposure to smoke from biomass fuel--which is widely used for household energy needs in resource-limited settings--could exacerbate anemia in pregnancy, possibly as a result of systemic inflammation.To evaluate whether exposure to smoke from biomass fuel (wood, straw, crop residues, or dung as opposed to clean fuel (electricity, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, or biogas is an independent risk factor for anemia in pregnancy, classified by severity.A secondary analysis was performed using data collected from a rural pregnancy cohort (N = 12,782 in Nagpur, India in 2011-2013 as part of the NIH-funded Maternal and Newborn Health Registry Study. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of biomass fuel vs. clean fuel use on anemia in pregnancy, controlling for maternal age, body mass index, education level, exposure to household tobacco smoke, parity, trimester when hemoglobin was measured, and receipt of prenatal iron and folate supplements.The prevalence of any anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dl was 93% in biomass fuel users and 88% in clean fuel users. Moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dl occurred in 53% and 40% of the women, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression showed higher relative risks of mild anemia in pregnancy (hemoglobin 10-11 g/dl; RRR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.19-1.61 and of moderate-to-severe anemia in pregnancy (RRR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53-2.09 in biomass fuel vs. clean fuel users, after adjusting for covariates.In our study population, exposure to biomass smoke was associated with higher risks of mild and moderate-to-severe anemia in pregnancy, independent of covariates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01073475.
Conclusions: The number of tobacco users visiting the dental hospital is reasonably high; Tobacco consumption is a common cause of addiction, preventable illness, disability and death. The public health system should be strengthened for effectively designing, implementing and evaluating tobacco control and prevention programs. All health care professionals should be sensitized and educated for implementing measures for tobacco control and cessation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2169-2173
Nikita Shiraz Surani
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to explore differences in exposure to media messages (pro- and antitobacco messages, marketing and promotions between students consuming tobacco, areca nut, nonconsumers, and those intending to quit and to examine differences between municipal and private school students. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by secondary school students (N = 534 from municipal and private schools in Mumbai. Overall, the number of students who reported ever use of tobacco was quite low (5.1%. There was no significant difference in exposure to media messages between users of tobacco, areca nut, and nonusers. There were significantly higher numbers of ever users of tobacco in private compared to municipal schools. There was a significant association between exposure to marketing and promotions and intention to quit, but not with the other exposure variables. Media exposure may be related to intention to quit but not to quitting behavior.
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Stinchfield, Randy; Golberstein, Ezra
This study sought to examine the impact of tobacco use on gambling treatment. Pathological gambling (PG) is a psychiatric condition associated with significant financial, emotional, and psychosocial consequences. Elevated rates of nicotine dependence have been associated with increased gambling...... between those variables and the number of days gambled at a 6-month posttreatment. Logistic regression was utilized to assess predictors of treatment completion. Daily tobacco use was reported in 244 (63.4%) subjects. Tobacco users presented with significantly more severe gambling and mental health...... symptoms at treatment intake. Daily tobacco use, however, was not significantly associated with the number of days gambled or with treatment completion. Although tobacco users present with greater gambling problem severity, they had similar rates of treatment completion and treatment outcomes as nonusers...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) â Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...
Lívia de Castro Crivellenti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.
T. A. Don; A. G. Mirgorodskaya; O. K. Bedritskaya
Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted toba...
Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon
Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.
... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to clarify, consistent with current practice and as required by the Fair and Equitable...
Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...
Sebrié, E M; Barnoya, J; Pérez-Stable, E J; Glantz, S A
To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope.
This study examines the extent of tobacco advertising and the coverage of smoking and health in all Irish produced women's magazines for 1989-93. There were 805 pieces in 402 magazines of which 684 (85%) were tobacco advertisements, 48 (5.7%) were new briefs; 27 (3.4%) were advice columns; 16 (2%) were feature articles; 15 (1.9%) were health promotion advertisements dealing with smoking and pregnancy; 10 (1.2%) were letters and 5 (0.61%) were editorials. Topics covered by the 106 articles on smoking were: smoking cessation-43 (40.6%); general health issues 35 (33%); smoking in pregnancy-4 (3.8%) and passive smoking 17 (16%). Of the 106 articles, 4 were negative about measures to control smoking. Four cigarette brands accounted for 70% of the advertisements. No tobacco advertisement carried the warning that "Smoking when pregnant harms your baby" or "Smoking kills". The 385002 cm2 of space devoted to tobacco advertising and negative messages about the dangers of tobacco and health represents 1.95% of total magazine space and is 14.5 times greater than the 26575 cm2 of positive messages about the dangers of smoking. That these magazines advertise tobacco without adequately covering the harmful effects of tobacco would suggest a degree of hypocrisy in their stated concern for women's health and lends further strength to the principle of a total ban on all tobacco advertising.
Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul
In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies.
Foods are one of the important things in order to keep the life of pregnant women in good condition, because they must bring up a new life in their bodies In early Showa Age, the life of Japanese common people was in difficult circumstances. At that time the food life of pregnant women were restricted by various food taboos. For instance, if the pregnant women ate Tororo, brayed yam, she was considered to deliver a baby who had no tooth. They kept many taboos and prayed to their guardian deit...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...
Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.
I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,
Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G
While there has been an escalating trend in the number of smokeless tobacco uses, mainly snuff, in the United States, it is unclear whether smokeless tobacco users are a homogenous class. The present investigation examines this question and identifies subtypes of smokeless tobacco users in order to better understand the characteristics of these individuals and guide appropriate intervention. Data on smokeless tobacco users (N = 2504) derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was employed. A range of antisocial behaviors, from reflecting non-violent deviant acts, irresponsibility, and a disengaged lifestyle, to aggression and violence were used to estimate the number of subtypes of smokeless tobacco users using latent class analysis. Four latent classes emerged: Normative Class (50.2 %), Deviant Class (21.9 %), Disengaging Class (17.2 %), and Antisocial Class (10.5 %). Logistic regression shows that major depression, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder were associated with Deviant Class (OR's from 2.0 to 10.5). The same array of psychiatric disorders and general anxiety disorder were associated with greater odds of membership in the Disengaging Class (OR's from 2.6 to 7.4). Aforementioned psychiatric disorders and illicit drug use disorder were associated with the Antisocial Class (OR's from 3.8 to 38.1). Findings indicate that smokeless tobacco users are a heterogeneous population that may benefit from differential intervention strategies.
Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal
Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...
Čavlek, M.; Boić, M.; Kristina Gršić; V. Kozumplik
Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11%) and, energy for bulk-curing (89%)....
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following rates...
Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.
Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo
This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.
Forgas, L B; Meyer, D M; Cohen, M E
This study examined availability and usage of tobacco products, and their potential impact on the oral health of naval personnel deployed to Desert Storm. Of 4,200 surveys mailed to a randomly selected sample, 45.6% were returned (N = 1,915). The respondents included 55.9% who reported a present or former smoking habit, 34.1% who identified themselves as current smokers (SM), and 23.8% who were smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Tobacco products were easily and inexpensively accessible through ship stores, exchange, or military support organizations (USO). While in the Persian Gulf, 7.0% started SM and 9.3% started ST, resulting in an overall 4.7 and 6.1% increase in SM and ST, respectively. Of those who were already tobacco users, 29.2% reported more SM use and 19.0% used ST more often. Stress (35.1%) and boredom (21.4%) were the most frequently cited reasons to start or increase use. Although 30.5% of respondents reported military personnel have encouraged them to quit, 77.2% reported that anti-smoking efforts have been unsuccessful in influencing them to quit. Since the tobacco usage rate is higher in the military than in the civilian sector, greater emphasis on preventive efforts in warranted to promote health and wellness.
Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan
Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.
Gabriela de Moraes Costa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim to characterize a sample of 85 pregnant crack addicts admitted for detoxification in a psychiatric inpatient unit. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric and lifestyle information were evaluated. RESULTS: Age of onset for crack use varied from 11 to 35 years (median = 21. Approximately 25% of the patients smoked more than 20 crack rocks in a typical day of use (median = 10; min-max = 1-100. Tobacco (89.4%, alcohol (63.5% and marijuana (51.8% were the drugs other than crack most currently used. Robbery was reported by 32 patients (41.2%, imprisonment experience by 21 (24.7%, trade of sex for money/drugs by 38 (44.7%, home desertion by 33 (38.8%; 15.3% were positive for HIV, 5.9% for HCV, 1.2% for HBV and 8.2% for syphilis. After discharge from the psychiatric unit, only 25% of the sample followed the proposed treatment in the chemical dependency outpatient service. CONCLUSION: Greater risky behaviors for STD, as well as high rates of maternal HIV and Syphilis were found. Moreover, the high rates of concurrent use of other drugs and involvement in illegal activities contribute to show their chaotic lifestyles. Prevention and intervention programs need to be developed to address the multifactorial nature of this problem.
Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D
South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.
Singh, Tushar; Arrazola, René A; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Homa, David M; King, Brian A
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths. Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among U.S. youths.
... this? Submit Button Past Emails Pregnant? Don't Smoke! Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer, heart disease, and stroke. But women who smoke during pregnancy put themselves and their developing babies ...
Wolfgang HannÃƒÂ¶ver; Kathrin RÃƒÂ¶ske; Jochen RenÃƒÂ© Thyrian; Ulrich John; Hans-Joachim Hannich
The incorporation of guidelines for the treatment of tobacco smoking into routine care requires positive attitudes, counselling skills and knowledge about additional help available for smokers. The study assesses performance of smoking cessation intervention, attitudes, training status and knowledge about additional help for smokers in the care for pregnant and parenting women by midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians. A survey of all midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians registere...
Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin
This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham
In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.
Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.
Alexios-Fotios A. Mentis
Full Text Available Tobacco is the only commercial product that eventually kills nearly half of all long-term users. The prevalence of tobacco use is disproportionately high in lower socioeconomic strata and vulnerable groups (such as adolescents within and across countries. Given its highly addictive nature, tobacco use perpetuates poverty and loss of opportunities, thus undermining the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Moreover, by shaping the national and international context, globalization and governance impact on the tobacco epidemic and underlying disparities. Therefore, socio-economic gradients, which influence predisposition to tobacco uptake and cessation, must be confronted. Here I argue that tobacco prevention and control must be addressed through a lifelong, equity lens approach. This approach describes the essential need for every individual to have equal access to informative prevention and cessation services independent of income, occupational status, social stratum, or residence. I also contend that rather than being occupied with “research on research”, the focus should shift to how to practically implement the existing accumulated, cogent body of scientific evidence in a societally equitable manner. Finally, in line with the core dilemma of “who really governs the policies that shape our health?” raised by the WHO’s Director General, it is time for civil society either on its own or in partnership with local authorities to formulate policies that implement the “health for all” imperative rather than the currently dominant “wealth for some”.
Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T; Kapoor, Manav; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Edenberg, Howard J; Schuckit, Marc; Brooks, Andrew; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Saccone, Nancy; Tischfield, Jay; Bierut, Laura J
Cannabis users are highly likely to also be tobacco cigarette smokers and a proportion of this comorbidity is attributable to shared genetic influences. Three large meta-analyses of genomewide association studies (GWAS) of tobacco smoking have identified multiple genomewide significant (psmoking and with cannabis involvement in an independent sample. Eleven SNPs associated with cigarettes per day (CPD), ever versus never smoking and current smoking/smoking cessation at psmoking measures in 2716 European-American subjects from the Study of Addictions Genes and Environment (SAGE) and with lifetime and current cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence. Cannabis use and tobacco smoking correlated at 0.54. Rs16969968 in CHRNA5 (and its proxy, rs1051730 in CHRNA3) and rs1451240, a proxy for rs13280604 in CHRNB3, were associated with CPD after Bonferroni correction (psmoking initiation, as in the original meta-analysis and also with lifetime cannabis use. Associations with cannabis involvement were no longer significant upon adjustment for the tobacco smoking measures. The modest associations between cannabis involvement and SNPs for tobacco smoking were not independent of the comorbidity between tobacco and cannabis involvement. Larger samples of individuals might be required to articulate the specific genetic architecture of cannabis involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soule, Eric K; Lipato, Thokozeni; Eissenberg, Thomas
Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due to the fact that a single WTS session exposes users to large volumes of smoke that contain toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile aldehydes. Unlike cigarette smoking, WTS poses unique risks of acute negative health outcomes including carbon monoxide poisoning and the spread of communicable diseases such as herpes and tuberculosis. Because waterpipe tobacco smoke contains the addictive chemical nicotine, youth who smoke tobacco from a waterpipe may be at risk for dependence. As a result, many youth may initiate WTS and continue to use despite negative health effects. Considering many of the potential negative health effects associated with WTS affect the pulmonary system, pulmonologists and primary care providers may treat patients who are waterpipe tobacco smokers and should be aware of the risk associated with WTS. The purpose of this review is to describe a waterpipe, the prevalence and correlates of WTS, the toxicants found in waterpipe tobacco smoke, the health effects of WTS, and implications for pulmonologists and other clinicians.
Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R
Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested.
Tomar, Scott L
This review summarizes recent trends and current patterns of tobacco use in the United States. Although adult smoking dropped between 1965 and 1990, from 50% to 28% of men and from 35% to 23% of women, the past decade has seen little further progress. In 2000, 25.7% of US men and 21.0% of women were smokers. Adolescent smoking has been declining since the late 1990s, but nearly 30% of high school seniors still smoke. In 2000, 4.4% of US men and 0.3% of women used snuff or chewing tobacco. Although adolescent smokeless tobacco use has declined in recent years, 14.8% of male high school students were current users in 2001. In 2001, 22.1% of male high school students and 8.5% of women students were current cigar smokers. Bidis and kreteks may be gaining popularity among young people, and more than 15% of adolescent smokers use these tobacco products. Despite recent progress, tobacco use remains prevalent in the United States. State and local governments need to invest adequate resources in the full range of tobacco control activities.
... United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf—plants native to Asia—that may be tied with colorful string at one or both ends. Bidis can be flavored—such as chocolate, cherry, or mango—or unflavored. Flavored bidis, however, ...
The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.
Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).
Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole
Webster, Lauren; Chaiton, Michael; Kirst, Maritt
Background: This study explores the patterns of use and co-use of tobacco and cannabis among Ontario adolescents over 3 decades and if characteristics of co-users and single substance users have changed. Methods: Co-use trends for 1981-2011 were analyzed using the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey,…
Webster, Lauren; Chaiton, Michael; Kirst, Maritt
Background: This study explores the patterns of use and co-use of tobacco and cannabis among Ontario adolescents over 3 decades and if characteristics of co-users and single substance users have changed. Methods: Co-use trends for 1981-2011 were analyzed using the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey,…
... If you are pregnant, it is never too late to quit smoking. There are benefits to quitting smoking at any stage of your pregnancy. Quitting as soon as possible will help protect you and your baby from some health problems, such as low birth weight. For more information and for resources to ...
Piha, T; Besselink, E; Lopez, A D
Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS. Reliable information on smoking prevalence and tobacco use is scarce, but the overall evidence points to two different patterns: a traditional and a high prevalence pattern. The traditional pattern dominates in the NIS and some of the CCEE, and is characterized by a high smoking rate in men (about 50%) and a low rate in women (10%). Smoking by women, however, is increasing, starting with the younger age groups. The high prevalence pattern found in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, shows a high smoking prevalence in women (about 25%) in addition to a high prevalence in men. Predictions made in 1990 indicated further increases or stable tobacco consumption in the CCEE/NIS by the year 2000, in contrast with the steady decrease in western European countries. When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world. This situation has caused severe concern in public health professionals in many of the affected countries, but not in the public and policy-makers. The fundamental changes in social and economic structures have both improved and decreased opportunities to promote nonsmoking. In the short term, the negative influences seem to dominate, although some countries, such as Lithuania and Poland, are now introducing their first realistic policies on tobacco. In most countries, however, tobacco control has to compete with other issues for priority on a crowded public health agenda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Anand M Dixit, Pankaj K Jain, Renu Agarwal, Sandip Gupta, Sushil K Shukla, Vidya Rani
Conclusion: Prevalence is quite higher. Awareness regarding ill effect on health is poor. False perception of well-being among users is higher. Those who want to quit tobacco are not able to get proper assistance. Poor and illit-erate individuals living in rural area are at the maximum risk of using tobacco."
Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of tobacco in any form is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality. The World Health Organization recommends that it should be monitored regularly. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among the rural adult population in Sarawak and factors associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the adult population in Sarawak. Data were collected from ten villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Non-probability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software SPSS 19.0 version.Results: Analysis showed that 30.9% of the respondents were current tobacco users and 11% were past tobacco users. The mean age (SD at starting tobacco was 18.1 (6.48 years. The frequency of tobacco use was 14 times per day. Hierarchical Logistic regression analysis revealed that age with male sex (OR=1. 064, 95% CI: 1.052, 1.076, secondary education (OR=-2.712; 95% CI: 1.122, 6.555, higher secondary and above (OR=3. 571; 95% CI: 1.641,7.774, occupation as business (OR=3. 152; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.735 and environmental exposure such as smoking at working place (OR=2. 754;95% CI: 1.895,4.002, coffee house (OR=2. 274;95% CI: 1.32,3.919 and at home (OR=1. 827;95% CI: 1.242,2.687 appeared to be important predictors of tobacco use (p<0.05.Conclusion: A large proportion of males use tobacco products. Though tobacco use was negligible among females, but they would be potential users. Environmental exposure to tobacco appeared to be important predictors. Tobacco control campaigns should target banning of tobacco use in closed and open areas and also to intensify the monitoring of all forms
O'Gara, Erin; Sharma, Eva; Boyle, Raymond G; Taylor, Kristie A
In recent decades, the United States has seen dramatic reductions in cigarette smoking. In contrast, other tobacco products (OTPs) have increased in popularity, particularly electronic cigarettes. The availability of new OTPs also has led to the use of multiple tobacco products that includes combustible cigarettes (poly-use). This study examines patterns of exclusive cigarette and polyuse among adult smokers in Minnesota. Data from 5 rounds of the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) series 1999-2014 were analyzed. Weighted estimates of the prevalence of exclusive and poly-tobacco use were calculated. The use of multiple tobacco products was contrasted with past 30-day exclusive cigarette smoking. Poly-use was measured as the current use of combustible cigarettes plus past 30-day use of another tobacco product. The percentage of Minnesota adults who used at least 2 tobacco products increased from 3.2 in 1999 to 5.8 in 2014. The most common combination of products in 2014 was combustible cigarettes and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), a combination that increased significantly between 2010 and 2014. Compared to exclusive cigarette smoking, poly-users were more likely to be younger and male. In this state-based survey, the number of people using multiple tobacco products remains modest but nearly doubled from 1999 to 2014. Further surveillance should discern motivations and patterns of use among poly-users.
Forest, Sharron; Priest, Sandra
Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy are linked to a host of deleterious effects on the pregnancy, fetus, and infant. Health outcomes improve when women quit smoking at any time during the pregnancy. However, the developing heart is vulnerable to noxious stimuli in the early weeks of fetal development, a time when many women are not aware of being pregnant. Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects. Research shows an association between maternal tobacco exposure, both active and passive, and congenital heart defects. This article presents recent evidence supporting the association between intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure in the periconceptional period and congenital heart defects and discusses clinical implications for practice for perinatal and neonatal nurses.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S
Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.
Driezen, Pete; Abdullah, Abu S; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A K M Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary E; Quah, Anne C K; Xu, Steve
This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011-2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a) cigarette smoking and (b) smokeless tobacco use and (c) whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco's harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D
Chemical-analytical studies have led to the identification of approximately 3000 compounds in tobacco and 4000 in tobacco smoke. These include carcinogens in processed tobacco as well as tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens, and organ-specific carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The latter group includes N-nitrosamines, in particular those that derive from nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids, the TSNA. In vitro nitrosation of nicotine yields NNN, NNA, and NNK. Nitrosation of other tobacco alkaloids leads to the formation of NAT, and NAB. Our analytical studies using GC-TEA have led to the identification of seven TSNA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. In addition to NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK, we also identified NNAL, iso-NNAL, and, most recently, iso-NNAC. Their levels range from 0.01 to 92 ppm in tobacco and from 6 to 530 ng/cigarette in tobacco smoke. The high levels observed in snuff are primarily due to fermentation and aging. Technological methods exist today to reduce the levels of TSNA in both tobacco and cigarette smoke.
... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen (CA), respiratory toxicant (RT), cardiovascular toxicant (CT... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...
Eriksen, M P
The continued widespread use of tobacco is one of the greatest paradoxes of the 20th century. The cigarette was introduced to society early in this century, received a broad public acceptance in response to massive marketing and distribution efforts, and survives--or, more accurately, thrives--in a complex and controversial social, medical, and legal environment. Today, over 50 million Americans continue to use tobacco regularly, despite the fact that it is almost universally known that use of the product as intended is likely to result in ultimate death and disability for one out of two regular users. The latest statistics tell us that over 400,000 Americans die each year, accounting for over 5 million years of lost life, $50 billion in medical expenditures, and another $50 billion in indirect costs. We estimate that 10 million Americans have died from smoking since the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964, and another 25 million Americans alive today will ultimately die, including 5 million children, as a result of a fundamentally adolescent decision. Clearly, a unique mix of social and political forces have combined to result in a deadly and addicting product being sold and marketed like candy, resulting in 90% of users acknowledging the addictive nature of the product, 70% of whom would like to quit and wish they had never started. But despite near-universal knowledge of the harm and addictive nature of the product and widespread public support for changes in the status quo, the status quo has not changed. Despite a consistent belief that tobacco should be treated commensurate with the harm that it causes, changes in public policy have been surprisingly recalcitrant. This introduction briefly examines the social, cultural, economic, and public policy forces that have contributed to maintaining the status quo for nearly 100 years, the barriers to meaningful change, and the research needs that could result in profound improvements in public health.
This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.
Weingarten, Toby N; Iverson, Barton C; Shi, Yu; Schroeder, Darrell R; Warner, David O; Reid, Kevin I
This study examines the relationship between the severity of painful temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) symptoms and current tobacco use in patients evaluated at a specialized orofacial pain clinic. Medical records, including responses to the Chronic Pain Grading Scale (CPGS), from 606 consecutive patients evaluated at the Mayo Clinic orofacial pain clinic with TMD by RDC-TMD criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed comparing tobacco users and non-users. Analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression models were used to adjust for demographic variables. A p value
Full Text Available In female addicts, pregnancy carries risks associated with lifestyles, modes of consumption and effect of drugs on the developing fetus. This investigation tried to determine the level of antenatal attachment in pregnant addicts, as well as assess the relationship between the number of nursing visits and held attendance of the preparation for childbirth, with the level of prenatal attachment. We conducted a correlational study (Fortin, 2009, applied to a single point. Regarding the level of prenatal attachment, and considering that the maximum value for scale is 80, pregnant drug users have an average of 53.53 (SD=24.10, a value above the average value of the scale, it emphasizes that these pregnant have a value of linking prenatal satisfactory. It was found that the greater the number of nurse consultations conducted surveillance of the pregnancy, the greater the level of prenatal attachment, noting also that pregnant addicts who attend the course in preparation for childbirth, have higher levels of binding prenatal care (p <0.05.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...
America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?
Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S
New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.
Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.
Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.
Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Umesh Sinha, Madhav Bansal, Sanjay Dixit
Full Text Available Oral cancer is a major health problem in tobacco users all over the world. It is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. Oral cancer is almost always preceded by some type of precancerous lesion. The precancerous lesions can be detected upto 15years, prior to their change to an invasive carcinoma. It usually affects between the ages of 15 and 40 years. It may be triggered by factors like frequency and duration of tobacco consumption, alcohol, poor oral hygiene etc. This study was conducted primarily to screen chronic tobacco chewers for the presence of oral pre-malignant conditions and secondly to educate them about the hazards of tobacco and motivate them to quit the habit. This was a cross sectional study conducted at Badi gawaltoli area of Indore. Tobacco chewers using tobacco for more than 5yrs were included in the study. Chronic tobacco chewers were screened for oral pre-malignant lesions followed by an educational intervention about the harmful effects of tobacco. Two follow ups were made to motivate them to quit the habit and to get treatment for their lesions. An open ended semi-structured questionnaire was administered to chronic tobacco chewers to assess their habit of tobacco chewing, smoking, their knowledge regarding lesions in their mouth, hazards of tobacco and any cessation efforts. Among the 80 identified chronic tobacco chewers, 60 were males and 20 were females. Lesions such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral sub-mucosal fibrosis were found in 10 females (50% and 24 males (40%.
Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya
In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna
The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental
Park, N.H.; Dokko, H.; Li, S.L.; Cherrick, H.M. (UCLA School of Dentistry (USA))
Previous studies indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV) enhances the carcinogenic activity of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens in animals. Since tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are major chemical carcinogens of smokeless tobacco and are known to be responsible for the development of oral cancers in smokeless tobacco users, the combined effects of TSNAs and HSV in cell transformation were investigated. Exposure of cells to NNN or NNK followed by virus infection resulted in a significant enhancement of transformation frequency when compared with that observed with chemical carcinogens or virus alone. This study suggests that TSNAs and HSV can interact together and show synergism in cell transformation.
Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve
To describe the prevalence and user profile of electronic cigarettes among Spanish adults and evaluate the potential dual use of these devices with combustible or conventional tobacco in 2014 in Spain. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish adult (16-75 years old) population (n=1,016). A computer-assisted telephone survey was conducted in 2014. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the use of electronic cigarettes stratified by gender, age, tobacco consumption and social status were calculated. The sample was weighted and a logistic regression model adjusted to obtain the crude odds ratios (OR) adjusted by gender, age and social status. 10.3% (95% CI: 8.6-12.4) of the Spanish adult population stated being ever users of electronic cigarettes (2% current users, 3.2% past users and 5.1% experimental users). Among current electronic cigarette users, 57.2% also smoked combustible or conventional tobacco, 28% had never smoked and 14.8% were former smokers. The prevalence of electronic cigarette use was higher in the younger population (adjusted OR=23.8; 95% CI: 2.5-227.7) and smokers of combustible tobacco (adjusted OR=10.1; 95% CI: 5.8-17.5). The use of electronic cigarettes in Spain is scarce and is most prevalent among young people and tobacco smokers. Nevertheless, one out of four current electronic cigarette users have never smoked. Hence, the regulation of these devices should be reinforced to avoid a possible gateway to nicotine products among never smokers. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J
Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many
Full Text Available Background: Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. Objectives: The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and youth in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted on tablets with adult (19 years and older smokeless tobacco users and youth (16–18 years users and non-users in Navi Mumbai (n = 1002, and Dhaka (n = 1081. Results: A majority (88.9% of smokeless tobacco users reported daily use. Approximately one-fifth (20.4% of the sample were mixed-users (used both smoked and smokeless tobacco, of which about half (54.4% reported that they primarily used smokeless over smoked forms like cigarettes or bidis. The proportion of users planning to quit was higher in India than in Bangladesh (75.7% vs. 49.8%p “ 0.001. Gutkha was the most commonly used smokeless product in India, and pan masala in Bangladesh. Among users in Bangladesh, the most commonly reported reason for using their usual product was the belief that it was “less harmful” than other types. Perceptions of harm also differed with respect to a respondent’s usual product. Bangladeshi respondents reported more negative attitudes toward smokeless tobacco compared to Indian respondents. Conclusions: The findings highlight the high daily use of smokeless tobacco, and the high prevalence of false beliefs about its harms. This set of findings reinforces the need to implement effective tobacco control strategies in low and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...
Keshavarz, H; Khami, M R; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I
A national survey was conducted to provide up-to-date data on current and ever use of tobacco among Iranian dental students. All 4th-year students of 8 randomly selected dental schools were surveyed anonymously in December 2010 using the Global Health Professions Student Survey questionnaire. Of 325 participants, 54.2% were ever users of tobacco products (73.0% of males versus 44.4% of females); 50.8% had used waterpipes, 34.2% cigarettes and 9.3% other products. The most common age at first use was 20-24 years for both sexes. Current tobacco use was reported by 20.6% of respondents, cigarette smoking by 10.8% and waterpipe smoking by 15.8%. Regression models showed that current cigarette and waterpipe smoking were significantly associated with male sex but not with type of dental school (state/private). Current waterpipe smoking was also associated with age at first experience. In view of the important role of dentists in tobacco control, the prevention of tobacco use should be stressed among Iranian dental students.
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Full Text Available Web based interventions (WBIs have been developed for various health conditions. These include interventions for various psychoactive substance use disorders including tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco use has remained the single largest preventable cause of global mortality and morbidity for many years. It is responsible for around 6 million deaths annually world-wide. Ironically, most of the tobacco users reside in resource poor low and middle-income countries. The article reviews the existing literature on WBIs for management of tobacco use. The literature search was performed using MedLine, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Cochrane Review for relevant English language articles published from 1998 up to 2013. There is limited support for effectiveness of WBIs for managing tobacco use among adolescents. Although most of the trials among adults found WBIs to be more effective at short term follow-up (a few days to weeks, the benefits failed to extend beyond 3 months in most of the studies. All but one interventions studied in a randomized controlled trial is for smoking forms.
The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...
Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.
Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.
Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)
Lisha, Nadra E; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Ling, Pamela M
Background In California, young adult tobacco prevention is of prime importance; 63% of smokers start by the age of 18 years, and 97% start by the age of 26 years. We examined social affiliation with ‘peer crowd’ (eg, Hipsters) as an innovative way to identify high-risk tobacco users. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2014 (N=3368) among young adult bar patrons in 3 California cities. We examined use rates of five products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars and smokeless tobacco) by five race/ethnicity categories. Peer crowd affiliation was scored based on respondents' selecting pictures of young adults representing those most and least likely to be in their friend group. Respondents were classified into categories based on the highest score; the peer crowd score was also examined as a continuous predictor. Logistic regression models with each tobacco product as the outcome tested the unique contribution of peer crowd affiliation, controlling for race/ethnicity, age, sex, sexual orientation and city. Results Respondents affiliating with Hip Hop and Hipster peer crowds reported significantly higher rates of tobacco use. As a categorical predictor, peer crowd was related to tobacco use, independent of associations with race/ethnicity. As a continuous predictor, Hip Hop peer crowd affiliation was also associated with tobacco use, and Young Professional affiliation was negatively associated, independent of demographic factors. Conclusions Tobacco product use is not the same across racial/ethnic groups or peer crowds, and peer crowd predicts tobacco use independent of race/ethnicity. Antitobacco interventions targeting peer crowds may be an effective way to reach young adult tobacco users. Trial registration number NCT01686178, Pre-results. PMID:27697952
Sprunt, Douglas H.
Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088
This technical manual aims to help governments maximize the benefits that they can receive from higher tobacco taxes by identifying a set of best practices for tobacco taxation. This is one of several available or forthcoming products that focus on tobacco taxation, including: the forthcoming monograph on the economics of tobacco and tobacco control being jointly produced by WHO and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI); the handbook on the effectiveness of tobacco tax and price policies for...
Husain, Muhammad Jami; Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Parascandola, Mark; Khondker, Bazlul Haque; Ahluwalia, Indu B
The tobacco epidemic in Bangladesh is pervasive. Expenditures on tobacco may reduce money available for food in a country with a high malnutrition rate. The aims of the study are to quantify the opportunity costs of tobacco expenditure in terms of nutrition (ie, food energy) forgone and the potential improvements in the household level food-energy status if the money spent on tobacco were diverted for food consumption. We analyzed data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted among 12,240 households. We present 2 analytical scenarios: (1) the lower-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco partially diverted to acquiring food according to households' food consumption share in total expenditures; and (2) the upper-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco diverted to acquiring food only. Age- and gender-based energy norms were used to identify food-energy deficient households. Data were analyzed by mutually exclusive smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual-tobacco user households. On average, a smoking-only household could gain 269-497 kilocalories (kcal) daily under the lower-bound and upper-bound scenarios, respectively. The potential energy gains for smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households ranged from 148-268 kcal and 508-924 kcal, respectively. Under these lower- and upper-bound estimates, the percentage of smoking-only user households that are malnourished declined significantly from the baseline rate of 38% to 33% and 29%, respectively. For the smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households, there were 2-3 and 6-9 percentage point drops in the malnutrition prevalence rates. The tobacco expenditure shift could translate to an additional 4.6-7.7 million food-energy malnourished persons meeting their caloric requirements. The findings suggest that tobacco use reduction could facilitate concomitant improvements in population-level nutrition status and may inform the
Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna
users who had not used a substance in the past 12 months. Results: New onset of tobacco use was reported by 9.2% of never-smokers, and new onset of cannabis use was reported by 9.3% of never-smokers of cannabis. Resumption of tobacco use was reported by 24% of past year abstainers, and resumption...... than never-smokers. Conclusion: Music festivals such as the Roskilde Festival may be important arenas for the prevention of onset of tobacco and cannabis use and for a return to substance use....
Full Text Available This book is highly recommended as an indispensable reference source for tobacco and smoke chemists as well as other scientists involved in the study of tobacco and its products. The compilation of proper chemical names, common names, Chemical Abstract Service numbers (CAS No., and structures is alone worth the purchase price.
Full Text Available The Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU was adopted in 2014 and needs to be transposed by Member States by 20 May 2016. It sets out ambitious tobacco control measures in the areas of ingredients, packaging & labelling, electronic cigarettes and tracking & tracing. The new Directive focuses on preventing young people from taking up smoking.
Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill
Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…
Joseph G. L. Lee
Full Text Available With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB populations in West Virginia (WV, it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in bars and events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. Trained community surveyors used electronic and paper survey instruments in bars (n = 6 in three WV cities and community events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. We analyzed results from 386 completed surveys from self-identified LGB individuals. Tobacco use among LGB bar patrons and LGB attendees at Pride-affiliated events was elevated (45%, as was current cigarette use (41%. Users of cigars and chewing tobacco were frequently dual users of cigarettes, with 80% and 60% reporting dual use, respectively. A substantial disparity likely exists in tobacco use among LGB West Virginians. Targeted interventions addressing tobacco use among LGB West Virginians are warranted in these venues, and the addition of a demographic question on sexual orientation would improve data collection and monitoring of this disparity.
Full Text Available Objectives: To provide data on African/black South African university students’ tobacco use status, belief in the benefits to health of not smoking, risk awareness in terms of knowledge of the links between smoking and disease, health locus of control, value for health, subjective health status and well-being. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: University of the North Subjects: 793 Black University students from non-health courses chosen by random sampling, of these 370 (46.7% were males and 423 (53.3% were females in the age range of 18 to 25 years (M age 21.0 years, SD=3.48. Main Outcome Measures: A measure of smoking, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, the Health as a Value Scale, and a measure for subjective health and subjective well-being. Results: The average prevalence of current tobacco use was 15% in men and 1% in women. The proportion of tobacco users who were classified as light users (1-10 per day averaged 10% in men and 1% in women. Age and being male were significantly positively associated with status and frequency of tobacco use. Awareness of the link between smoking and lung cancer was high (93%, but awareness of the role of smoking in heart disease was very low (16%. The importance to health of not smoking was associated with smoking status (non-smoking versus smoking. Overall, 75% of the current smokers stated that they would like to reduce the amount they smoked. Poor subjective health status and low subjective well-being was associated with smoking status. No significant differences were found among non-tobacco users and tobacco users in relation to the three subscales of the Health Locus of Control (Internal, Chance, and Powerful others and Value for health. Conclusion: For about 9% of the male students investigated, a high risk exists to become regular tobacco users for the next 30 years.
Wang, Teresa W; Agaku, Israel T; Marynak, Kristy L; King, Brian A
Pharmacy stores are positioned to cultivate health and wellness among patrons. This study assessed attitudes toward prohibiting tobacco product sales in pharmacy stores among U.S. adults. Data from the 2014 Summer Styles, an Internet survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years (n=4,269), were analyzed in 2015. Respondents were asked: Do you favor or oppose banning the sale of all tobacco products in retail pharmacy stores? Responses were: strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, and strongly oppose. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression to determine sociodemographic correlates of favorability (strongly or somewhat). Among all adults, 66.1% "strongly" or "somewhat" favored prohibiting tobacco product sales in pharmacy stores. Favorability was 46.5% among current cigarette smokers, 66.3% among former smokers, and 71.8% among never smokers. Favorability was 47.8% among current non-cigarette tobacco users, 63.2% among former users, and 71.4% among never users. Following adjustment, favorability was more likely among women compared with men (psales in retail pharmacy stores. Eliminating tobacco product sales in these settings may reinforce pharmacy stores' efforts to promote wellness, and further cultivate social climates that reduce the desirability, acceptability, and accessibility of tobacco. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your... TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25a Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco...
Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011–2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a cigarette smoking and (b smokeless tobacco use and (c whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco’s harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Driezen, Pete; Abdullah, Abu S.; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A. K. M. Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thompson, Mary E.; Quah, Anne C. K.; Xu, Steve
This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011–2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a) cigarette smoking and (b) smokeless tobacco use and (c) whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco’s harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:27571090
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. WHO estimates one billion deaths in 21st century because of tobacco, if current trends of use continue. Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted over a period of one year among 848 individuals (>15 years from urban and rural field practicing areas of the department of community medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Door to door survey was done. Households were the primary sampling unit. Data analysis has been done using SPSS version 14.0. To test significance chi square test have been used as applicable. Results: 249 (29.4% ever used smoked tobacco. Out of which, 224 (26.4% respondents were current smokers and rest 25 (3% were ever smokers. A total of 311 (36.7% study subjects were found user for non smoked substances and out of these, 204 (24 % were current users and rest 107 (12.7% were ever users. A total of 422 (49.8% subjects were found user (including current and ever user both for any form of the tobacco products (either smoked, non smoked or both. Tobacco use was found significantly associated with socio-economic status, literacy level, parental tobacco use, parental education and male gender. Conclusions: The study documented prevalence and predictors of tobacco use. The study population is at risk of tobacco related morbidity and mortality and needs action targeting the most vulnerable population. Health promotion, health education and behavior change communication as tools, can prove valuable for effective control of tobacco risk behavior.
Gray, Nigel; Borland, Ron
This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge.
Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove
Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)
Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I
Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....
Nathan John Grills
Full Text Available Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness, awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%. Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand.
Rodu, Brad; Jansson, Christer
Smokeless tobacco has been associated with oral cancer for many decades. The purpose of this article is to review research relevant to this association, including epidemiologic studies, studies of putative carcinogens such as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and other contaminants, and possible cancer inhibitors. Epidemiologic studies addressing this issue primarily consist of case-control studies. They show that the use of chewing tobacco and moist snuff is associated with very low risks for cancers of the oral cavity and related structures (relative risks [RR] from 0.6 to 1.7). The use of dry snuff is associated with higher RRs, ranging from 4 to 13, while the RRs from smokeless tobacco, unspecified as to type, are intermediate (RR = 1.5 to 2.8). With regard to TSNAs, historical levels in American moist snuff products were higher than those in their Swedish counterparts, but levels in contemporary products are uniformly low. TSNA levels in chewing tobacco have always been low, but levels in dry snuff have been higher, including some very high levels in current products. In general, smokeless tobacco users are not exposed to significant levels of cadmium, lead, benzo(a)pyrene, polonium-210, and formaldehyde, when compared with concentrations of these compounds in foods. Finally, low oral cancer risk from smokeless tobacco use may be influenced by the presence of cancer inhibitors, mainly anti-oxidants, in smokeless tobacco products.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As adolescent tobacco use has been found to be a major predictor of future use, preventive efforts need to be focused on this section of population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of knowledge regarding tobacco, risk-taking attitude, peers, and other influencers on tobacco and areca nut use, amongst adolescents. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A school-based cross-sectional study covering two schools. Students of classes IX and XI, of selected schools, participated in the study (n = 596. METHODS: A pretested and validated, close ended, self-administered questionnaire was used. Sociodemographic factors, awareness regarding tobacco, risk-taking attitudes, role of peers and other influencers, and tobacco, areca nut and alcohol use, were studied. Statistical analysis: 0 Point estimates, 98% Confidence Intervals, tests of significance, bivariate and multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Almost 42% of tobacco users started before the age of 12 years. Peer pressure, general stress, and media were important influencers. Logistic regression analysis showed that students in public school were using more tobacco [Odds ratio (OR = 1.85, P = 0.174] and tobacco/areca nut (OR = 1.14, P = 0.02. The difference in use between the genders and class in which studying was statistically not significant. Lesser proportion of those possessing adequate knowledge regarding tobacco used it as compared to those without adequate knowledge (OR = 0.13, P < 0.001 however, possession of adequate knowledge was not a good predictor of areca nut consumption (OR = 0.86, P = 0.585. The most important correlate for tobacco use (OR = 6.41, P < 0.001 and areca nut use (OR = 11.17, P < 0.001 was risk-taking attitude. CONCLUSION: Multipronged and concerted efforts targeting children at an early age are required to prevent tobacco and areca nut use among adolescents.
Joe Gfroerer, BA
Full Text Available IntroductionU.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002–2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1 use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes during the 30 days before each survey and 2 cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey.ResultsThe prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites.ConclusionThese results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.
Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.
Full Text Available The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS was conducted in Brazil to provide data on tobacco use in order to monitor the WHO FCTC implementation in the country. It was carried out in 2008 using an international standardized methodology. The instrument included questions about tobacco use prevalence, cessation, secondhand smoke, knowledge, attitudes, media and advertising. Weighted analysis was used to obtain estimates. A total of 39,425 interviews were conducted. The prevalence of current tobacco use was 17.5%, (22.0%, men; 13.3%, women. The majority of users were smokers (17.2% and their percentage was higher in rural areas (20.4% than in urban areas (16.6%. About 20% of individuals reported having been exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. Over 70% of respondents said they had noticed anti-smoking information in several media and around 65% of smokers said they had considered quitting because of warning labels. About 30% of respondents had noticed cigarette advertising at selling points and 96% recognized tobacco use as a risk factor for serious diseases. Data in this report can be used as baseline for evaluation of new tobacco control approaches in Brazil, vis-à-vis WHO FCTC demand reduction measures.
Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T
Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.
Neelam Anupama Toppo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tobacco is the most common substance used across the world. DALY’s lost due to tobacco consumption is 4.1. Substance use like tobacco and alcohol among adolescents can lead to a variety of detrimental consequences. Recent studies by WHO have found that tobacco use is increasing among school children in India and a sizeable proportion of them experiment with drugs quite early in life. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the prevalence of tobacco consumption among tribal adolescents. 2. To study the different modes of tobacco consumption. 3. To study the pattern of socioeconomic distribution of tobacco consumption among adolescents. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study carried out among 510 adolescents in the age group of 10-19 years of randomly selected villages of Narayanganj Block of Mandla Dist. of M.P., from May 2015 to September 2015 using a pre-designed pre-tested questionnaire. RESULT Overall prevalence of tobacco consumption in any form was found to be 27.25% in our study area; 33.33% male and 20.9% female adolescents were consuming tobacco products in any form and this difference was found to be statistically significant (χ2=9.3439, p=0.0022, OR=1.89; 98.56% adolescents consumed smokeless form of tobacco, while only 1.43% had the habit of smoking tobacco in the form of beedi/cigarettes among the tobacco users. Prevalence of tobacco use was significantly very high in late adolescents (38.95% as compared to the early adolescent period (16.09% (χ2=32.45; p=0.00, OR 3.32. Prevalence of consumption of tobacco in any form among adolescents who were earning was found to be 38.21%, while among the subjects who were either not earning, unemployed or students was 23.77%, which was statistically highly significant. (χ2=9.100, df=1, p=0.0026. The overall average age of initiation of tobacco use in any form was 12.51 years (SD 3.03 with 12.58 years in males (SD 3.03 and 12.38 years in females (SD 3.04. This was not found significantly associated (t
Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....
@@ Tobacco use is a major cause of preventable disease and premature death. The tobacco epidemic is responsible for 5.4 million deaths annually and killed 100 million people worldwide in the last century. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be more than 8 million deaths every year attributable to tobacco use and that more than 80% of these will occur in developing countries. By the end of the 21st century,1 billion people will have died from cigarette smoke.
Khalbous, Slim; Bouslama, Heifa
In order to prevent smoking onset among children, it is essential to know the process of smoking socialization and its various dimensions before being able to design any effective anti-tobacco advertisements. This research aims to conceptualize this process and to test the effectiveness of certain styles of anti-tobacco advertising addressed to children. The results show that both attitudinal and behavioral smoking socialization influence anti-tobacco advertisements effectiveness and that the least offensive and humoristic are most effective in Tunisia.
Hecht, Stephen S
The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?
LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707
Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.
Eduardo Alexandre LOTH
Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.
Sudha Biradar Kerure
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216
Paul Erhunmwunse Imade
Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.
Paul Erhunmwunse Imade
Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.
Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K
As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To obtain baseline information about prevalence of tobacco use among school children in eight states in the North-eastern part of India. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A two-stage probability sample of students in grades 8-10 corresponding to 13 to 15 years of age was selected in each state and surveyed through an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS : Among the sampled schools, the school response rate was 100% in all states except Tripura (92% and Meghalaya (96%. Among the eligible students, over 80% participated in the survey. Among the respondents, the proportion of boys ranged between 50% to 55%. Ever tobacco users ranged from 75.3% (Mizoram to 40.1% (Assam. Over 65% of users reported initiation at 10 years of age or earlier in all states except Mizoram (23.1%. The range of current tobacco use (any product was 63% (Nagaland to 36.1% (Assam. Current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 49.9% (Nagaland to 25.3% (Assam. Mizoram reported the highest current smoking (34.5%, mainly cigarette and Assam reported the lowest (19.7%, again mainly cigarette. Current smoking among girls (8.3% to 28.2% was also quite high. Over half of current cigarette smokers (53.2% to 96.3% and a high proportion of current smokeless tobacco users (38.5% to 80.8% reported feeling like having tobacco first thing in the morning. Only about 20% of students reported having been taught in school about the dangers of tobacco use, except in Mizoram (around 50%. Tobacco use by parents and close friends was positively associated with students′ current tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS : Tobacco use including smoking was very high, even among girls, in all eight states in the North-eastern part of India. Signs of tobacco dependency were already visible in these students, more among those who smoked. In general schools did not educate students about the hazards of tobacco use.
Molla, Zemenay; Dube, Lamesa; Krahl, Wolfgang; Soboka, Matiwos
Tobacco smoking is a health care issue in developed as well as in developing countries. Tobacco smoking among people with mental illness is significantly higher than in the general population. Tobacco smoking has negative effects on physical, mental and financial well-being of people with mental illness but little is known about tobacco dependence among mental health service users in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the prevalence of tobacco dependence and associated factors among mental health service users at Jimma University teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 305 male and 117 female mental health service users at Jimma University teaching Hospital in 2014. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess tobacco dependence. Logistic regression analysis was used for bivariate and multivariate analysis. Variables with a P value of mental health service users with tobacco dependence were males. There was a significant association between tobacco dependence and high school education (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.07, 8. 48), alcohol use disorder (AOR 4.14, 95% CI = 1.54, 11.11), daily khat chewing (AOR 13.51, 95% CI = 4.27, 42.74), chewing khat 2-3 times per week (AOR 5.09, 95% CI = 1.37,18.95), chewing khat once a week (AOR 4.31, 95%CI = 1.04,17.78), having friends who smoke tobacco (AOR 4.88, 95% CI = 2.12, 11.25) and being diagnosed with schizophrenia compared to a diagnosis of major depression (AOR 5.26, 95% CI = 2.07, 13.37). However, daily attendance at a place of worship (AOR 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22, 0.95) was associated negatively with tobacco dependence. In this study, there was a high prevalence of tobacco dependence among mental health services users. There is a pressing need to increase availability of psychological and pharmacological interventions to reduce tobacco dependence and tobacco-related medical illness in this vulnerable group.
Stoebner-Delbarre, Anne; Aghi, Mira B
Perceptions of tobacco are a relatively unexplored issue in disadvantaged populations in India and France. The objectives of this study included the following: obtain qualitative information on representations of tobacco use and cessation within two vulnerable populations; identify cultural factors that influence tobacco use and cessation; and acquire information for the development of effective tobacco cessation strategies. A total of 21 focus groups were conducted in India and France. All study participants were disadvantaged adults 18 years old or older. Sixty women resided in South Delhi in India and 163 adults with disabilities resided in the south of France. They were all current tobacco users. Data were collected by focus group and analysed with thematic coding. In both samples, the most relevant reasons of tobacco use were daily life circumstances, which were also a major barrier to quitting. None of the participants reported that quitting difficulties could be due to dependence or nicotine addiction. The data also suggested that whilst some participants wanted to stop, they also anticipated quitting would be extremely challenging. In addition, there were a number of cross-cultural differences between Indian and French disadvantaged people: level of information concerning the health risk related to tobacco use and level of demand for support to quit from health professionals were most often cited. Recommendations are made for a specific approach among disadvantaged people. The paper concludes that in order to facilitate cessation, tobacco control interventions need to focus on coping strategies to deal with feelings of distress, withdrawal symptoms, and the circumstances of everyday life experienced by disadvantaged tobacco users.
Vellimana Ananth K
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tobacco consumption is a major source of mortality and morbidity in India . Prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST consumption in India is around 20%. Studies have shown increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events among the ST consumers. This is a cross-sectional study done to look into the association of exclusive smokeless tobacco consumption with hypertension, in an adult male rural population of north India. Methods All male residents of a village in north India above 15 years of age, who did not have any acute or chronic morbidity were included after taking an informed consent. Subjects were interviewed regarding their demographic profile, socioeconomic status and tobacco consuming habits. Current smokeless tobacco user was defined as one who has ever consumed tobacco orally in past 1 month. Blood pressure of the subjects was also recorded. Cut offs used for systolic and diastolic hypertension were 140 mm hg and 90 mm Hg respectively. Results 443 subjects were included in the study. Prevalence of exclusive ST users was 21% while 19.4% consumed both forms and 26.6% did not take any form of tobacco. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in exclusive ST users(systolic BP=139.2+17.4,diastolic BP = 86.8+11.5as compared to the non users(systolic BP= 135.7+18.8 , diastolic BP= 82.6 +11.5; p value Conclusion ST consumption is associated with increased prevalence of high BP in the adult male rural population.This is an indicator of increased predisposition to major adverse cardiac events later in their life time. Prevention of ST consumption could be an important intervention in preventing the ongoing upswing in prevalence of chronic heart disease.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...
Full Text Available Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...
Grobe, Cary; Campbell, Elaine
Attempted to discover patterns of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among public school children in New Brunswick using Provincial School Drug Survey (PSDS), an existing large-scale assessment. Recoded variables in PSDS dataset to derive profiles of typical tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol users. Found increase in predictive accuracy of regression…
Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan
Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.
Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T
This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.
Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.
Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar
Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.
Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.
Bonhomme, Michèle G; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Ambrose, Bridget K; Tworek, Cindy; Feirman, Shari P; King, Brian A; Apelberg, Benjamin J
Limited data exist on flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) use among US adults. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=75 233), a landline and cellular telephone survey of US adults aged ≥18, were assessed to estimate past 30-day NCTP use, flavoured NCTP use and flavour types using bivariate analyses. During 2013-2014, 14.4% of US adults were past 30-day NCTP users. Nationally, an estimated 10.2 million e-cigarette users (68.2%), 6.1 million hookah users (82.3%), 4.1 million cigar smokers (36.2%) and 4.0 million smokeless tobacco users (50.6%) used flavoured products in the past 30 days. The most prevalent flavours reported were menthol/mint (76.9%) for smokeless tobacco; fruit (74.0%) for hookah; fruit (52.4%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (22.0%) and alcohol (14.5%) for cigars/cigarillos/filtered little cigars; fruit (44.9%), menthol/mint (43.9%) and candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (25.7%) for e-cigarettes and fruit (56.6%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (26.5%) and menthol/mint (24.8%) for pipes. Except for hookah and pipes, past 30-day flavoured product use was highest among 18-24-year olds. By cigarette smoking, never smoking e-cigarette users (84.8%) were more likely to report flavoured e-cigarette use, followed by recent former smokers (78.1%), long-term former smokers (70.4%) and current smokers (63.2%). Flavoured NCTP use is prominent among US adult tobacco users, particularly among e-cigarette, hookah and cigar users. Flavoured product use, especially fruit and sweet-flavoured products, was higher among younger adults. It is important for tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavoured tobacco products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
El-Toukhy, Sherine M; Choi, Kelvin
We tracked magazine advertisements for seven tobacco products in U.S. magazines from 2010 to 2014 and examined magazine readership characteristics that are associated with advertising placement in 2014. Advertising data came from Kantar Media's Intelligence and readership data came from a 2014 Experian's nationally representative survey of 4667 adult tobacco users. At magazine level, we aggregated total and product-specific number of advertisements and expenditures by year and calculated readership demographics. We used linear and poisson regression models to examine trends in number of tobacco advertisements and expenditures and readership characteristics associated with number of tobacco advertisements in 2014. Analyses were conducted in 2015. There were 5317 tobacco advertisements with expenditures of $796 million that appeared in 322 magazines during 2010-2014. Cigarette advertisements accounted for 2928 (55%), followed by e-cigarettes (n=862, 16%), and snus (n=534, 10%). Advertisements increased by 2.79ad/year for cigarettes, 1.94ad/year for e-cigarettes, and 0.78ad/year for chewing tobacco (padvertisements was associated with select readership characteristics (padvertisement rate increased by 1.48 times for cigarettes, 3.44 times for e-cigarettes, and 2.15 times for chewing tobacco. For every 10% increase in readers who earn ≤$24,999, advertisement rate increased by 1.37 times for cigarettes and 1.70 times for e-cigarettes. Magazine tobacco advertising has increased especially for cigarettes and is targeted toward certain demographic subgroups. Regulating tobacco magazine advertising should be integral to tobacco control policies.
Bruno César Feltes
Full Text Available The physiological and molecular effects of tobacco smoke in adult humans and the development of cancer have been well described. In contrast, how tobacco smoke affects embryonic development remains poorly understood. Morphological studies of the fetuses of smoking pregnant women have shown various physical deformities induced by constant fetal exposure to tobacco components, especially nicotine. In addition, nicotine exposure decreases fetal body weight and bone/cartilage growth in addition to decreasing cranial diameter and tibia length. Unfortunately, the molecular pathways leading to these morphological anomalies are not completely understood. In this study, we applied interactome data mining tools and small compound interaction networks to elucidate possible molecular pathways associated with the effects of tobacco smoke components during embryonic development in pregnant female smokers. Our analysis showed a relationship between nicotine and 50 additional harmful substances involved in a variety of biological process that can cause abnormal proliferation, impaired cell differentiation, and increased oxidative stress. We also describe how nicotine can negatively affect retinoic acid signaling and cell differentiation through inhibition of retinoic acid receptors. In addition, nicotine causes a stress reaction and/or a pro-inflammatory response that inhibits the agonistic action of retinoic acid. Moreover, we show that the effect of cigarette smoke on the developing fetus could represent systemic and aggressive impacts in the short term, causing malformations during certain stages of development. Our work provides the first approach describing how different tobacco constituents affect a broad range of biological process in human embryonic development.
The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)
The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)
Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da
To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...
... if people start smoking again. Can a person overdose on nicotine? Nicotine is poisonous and, though uncommon, ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E- ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...
... French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala ... to like/follow us on: Facebook Twitter Close Fact Sheet Finder View all Toll of Tobacco in ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...
... these products. Smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and nicotine gel strips are not safe substitutes for cigarettes. Why ... during pregnancy? Medicines sold over the counter, including herbal supplements and vitamins, can cause problems during pregnancy. ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...
Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten
BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...
Kostova, Deliana; Dave, Dhaval
Although the primary form of tobacco use worldwide is cigarette smoking, the large majority of users in India consume smokeless forms of tobacco. There is little evidence on the role of policy-related factors in shaping the demand for smokeless tobacco (ST) in India. This study evaluates the relationship between two such factors, prices and advertising, and ST use in India, using data on 67,737 individuals from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009. We find that ST advertising is more likely to influence ST consumption in women than men, while men are more likely to respond to changes in ST price. We estimate that among adult males in India, the total price elasticity of ST demand is -0.212, which is close to estimates reported for males in the U.S. We do not find strong direct evidence on the economic substitutability or complementarity of smoked and smokeless products. However, the positive association between former smoking and current smokeless use may point to temporal substitutability at the individual level. The findings have implications on the relative effectiveness of policy tools across genders in India - increasing the prices of ST products may discourage ST use particularly among men, and advertising restrictions may play a relatively larger role in the consumption behavior of women in India. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...
Otañez, Martin G; Mamudu, Hadii M; Glantz, Stanton A
Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC.
González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara
Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.
Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E
Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population.
Myslín, Mark; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Chapman, Wendy; Conway, Mike
Social media platforms such as Twitter are rapidly becoming key resources for public health surveillance applications, yet little is known about Twitter users' levels of informedness and sentiment toward tobacco, especially with regard to the emerging tobacco control challenges posed by hookah and electronic cigarettes. To develop a content and sentiment analysis of tobacco-related Twitter posts and build machine learning classifiers to detect tobacco-relevant posts and sentiment towards tobacco, with a particular focus on new and emerging products like hookah and electronic cigarettes. We collected 7362 tobacco-related Twitter posts at 15-day intervals from December 2011 to July 2012. Each tweet was manually classified using a triaxial scheme, capturing genre, theme, and sentiment. Using the collected data, machine-learning classifiers were trained to detect tobacco-related vs irrelevant tweets as well as positive vs negative sentiment, using Naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. Finally, phi contingency coefficients were computed between each of the categories to discover emergent patterns. The most prevalent genres were first- and second-hand experience and opinion, and the most frequent themes were hookah, cessation, and pleasure. Sentiment toward tobacco was overall more positive (1939/4215, 46% of tweets) than negative (1349/4215, 32%) or neutral among tweets mentioning it, even excluding the 9% of tweets categorized as marketing. Three separate metrics converged to support an emergent distinction between, on one hand, hookah and electronic cigarettes corresponding to positive sentiment, and on the other hand, traditional tobacco products and more general references corresponding to negative sentiment. These metrics included correlations between categories in the annotation scheme (phihookah-positive=0.39; phi(e-cigs)-positive=0.19); correlations between search keywords and sentiment (χ²₄=414.50, Pnegative
Martinez-Bristow, Zuzanne; Sias, Jeri J; Urquidi, Ulysses J; Feng, Chun
Partnerships were established with the University of Arizona's Healthcare Partnership to train promotores--Spanish-speaking community health workers--as tobacco cessation counselors. Tobacco Free El Paso certified promotores to help identify tobacco users and offer tobacco cessation counseling services. The project certified 89 participants, of whom 95% were promotores; 88% were Hispanic/Latino, 67% were females, and 62% indicated Spanish as their primary language. Participants who completed Técnicas Básicas, Treatment Specialist, and Déjate de ese Vicio certifications significantly increased self-confidence levels to deliver brief smoking cessation interventions (P < .05). Satisfaction scores (scale = 1-5) were also relatively high for each certification (Técnicas Básicas, mean = 4.8; Treatment Specialist, mean = 4.7; Déjate de ese Vicio, mean = 4.6). The results suggest that promotores understood the concepts and methodologies presented.
Laverty, Anthony A; Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T
Data were analysed from the 2014 Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. We estimated self-rated importance of various factors in the choice of both tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among tobacco smokers who had ever used an e-cigarette. Among ever users of tobacco and e-cigarettes (N = 2430), taste (39.4%), price (39.2%) and amount of nicotine (27.3%) were the most commonly cited reasons for choosing their brand of e-cigarettes. Those aged 15-24 were more likely to cite external packaging [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.00-4.23)] and design features (aPR = 1.99, 1.20-3.29) as important. As further legislation is debated and enacted enhanced regulation of price, design and marketing features of e-cigarettes may help to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes.
Zheng, Yuqing; Zhen, Chen; Dench, Daniel; Nonnemaker, James M
This study estimated a system of demand for cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos, large cigars, e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and loose smoking tobacco using market-level scanner data for convenience stores. We found that the unconditional own-price elasticities for the six categories are -1.188, -1.428, -1.501, -2.054, -0.532, and -1.678, respectively. Several price substitute (e.g., cigarettes and e-cigarettes) and complement (e.g., cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) relationships were identified. Magazine and television advertising increased demand for e-cigarettes, and magazine advertising increased demand for smokeless tobacco and had spillover effects on demand for other tobacco products. We also reported the elasticities by U.S. census regions and market size. These results may have important policy implications, especially viewed in the context of the rise of electronic cigarettes and the potential for harm reduction if combustible tobacco users switch to non-combustible tobacco products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Henningfield, Jack E; Rose, Christine A; Zeller, Mitch
This paper reviews the tobacco industry's litigation strategy for addressing the addiction issue through trial testimony by its experts, and opening and closing statements by its lawyers. Despite the fact that several companies now claim to accept, in varying degrees, the conclusions of the Surgeon General concerning tobacco addiction, the tobacco industry litigation strategy pertaining to addiction is essentially unchanged since that of the early 1980s when the issue emerged as crucial. The industry uses its experts and the process of cross‐examination of plaintiff's experts to imply that the addictiveness of tobacco and nicotine are more comparable to substances such as caffeine, chocolate, and even milk, than to heroin, cocaine and alcohol. Furthermore, the tobacco industry contends that the definition of addiction has now become so broadened as to include carrots and caffeine and hence that any concurrence that smoking is addictive, does not imply that cigarettes are addictive to the standards that drugs such as heroin and cocaine are addictive. Finally, the industry has continuously asserted that tobacco users assumed the risks of tobacco since they understood that quitting could be difficult when they began to use, and moreover, that the main barrier to cessation is lack of desire or motivation to quit and not physical addiction. These positions have been maintained through the 2004–2005 US Government litigation that was ongoing as the time of this writing. PMID:17130621
Pizzi, Enrica; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Solimini, Renata; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona
Antismoking helplines have become an integral part of tobacco control efforts in many countries, including Italy. The demonstrated efficacy and the convenience of telephone based counselling have led to the fast adoption of antismoking helplines. However, information on how these helplines operate in actual practice is not often readily available. This paper provides an overview of the Italian Antismoking Helpline, an increasingly popular telephone service for tobacco problems operating in Italy since 2000. As many states, regions and nations are contemplating various telephone programs as part of large scale anti-tobacco campaigns, this paper briefly discusses the reasons the helpline is well suited to lead the cessation component of a comprehensive tobacco control program, how it operates and how it can be used in conjunction with other tobacco control activities. The Italian Antismoking Helpline provides Italians with free services that include counselling, cessation related information, self help quit kits and current legislation information. The helpline is promoted statewide by media campaigns, health care providers, local tobacco control programs and public school system. The Helpline is centrally operated through the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and it has served over 17.000 tobacco users and others. PMID:19440421
Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta
Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...
Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A
Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240
Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Reubenstein, Rebecca; Xiao, Haijun; Rath, Jessica
The purpose of this study is to understand differences in demographics, frequency of tobacco use, and tobacco-related attitudes between youth/young adults who carry tobacco products and those who do not. Carrying tobacco is hypothesized to affect individuals' smoker identity and thereby their tobacco-related attitudes. Carriers are an influential peer group, often serving as social sources of tobacco for others, setting tobacco-related social norms, and advertising tobacco via the packs they carry. Thus, understanding their characteristics and attitudes can aid in the targeting and tailoring of cessation messaging. In this study, 3,927 attendees ages 13 to 24 years at the Vans Warped Tour were surveyed using iPads and asked to photograph any tobacco products they were currently carrying. Current tobacco users were classified as proven carriers ( n = 363), unproven carriers ( n = 182), or noncarriers ( n = 1,426). Carriers ( N = 545) were older, were more often White, and used tobacco over twice as often as noncarriers. Results indicated carriers and noncarriers differed significantly on most antitobacco attitudes, with carriers feeling less strongly antitobacco.
Donaldson, Elisabeth A.; King, Brian A.
Introduction Among young people, curiosity about tobacco products is a primary reason for tobacco experimentation and is a risk factor for future use. We examined whether curiosity about and ever-use of tobacco products among US middle and high school students changed from 2012 to 2014. Methods Data came from the 2012 and 2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys, nationally representative surveys of US students in grades 6 through 12. For cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes (2014 only), students were classified as ever-users or never-users of each product. Among never-users, curiosity about using each product was assessed by asking participants if they had “definitely,” “probably,” “probably not,” or “definitely not” been curious about using the product. Results From 2012 to 2014, there were declines in ever-use of cigarettes (26% to 22%; P = .005) and cigars (21% to 18%; P = .003) overall and among students who were Hispanic (cigarettes, P = .001; cigars, P = .001) or black (cigarettes, P = .004; cigars, P = .01). The proportion of never-users reporting they were “definitely not” curious increased for cigarettes (51% to 54%; P = .01) and cigars (60% to 63%; P = .03). Ever-use and curiosity about smokeless tobacco did not change significantly from 2012 to 2014. In 2014, the proportion of young people who were “definitely” or “probably” curious never-users of each product was as follows: cigarettes, 11.4%; e-cigarettes, 10.8%; cigars, 10.3%; and smokeless tobacco, 4.4%. Conclusion The proportion of US students who are never users and are not curious about cigarettes and cigars increased. However, many young people remain curious about tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Understanding factors driving curiosity can inform tobacco use prevention for youth. PMID:27657506
Full Text Available During the human gestation period, various systemic alterations occur in the mother"nsecondary to endocrine changes. These changes, combined with the presence of the gravid uterus, result"nin conditions affecting the various systems of the mother which must be considered by the dentist."nFetal development is divided into three stages:"n1 The fertilization and implantation period"n2 The embryonic period and"n3 The fetal period."nThe second period characterized by organogenesis which taratogens may result in functional and"nmorphogenic malformations."nThe ideal dental treatment schedule for the pregnant patient is twice during first trimester, at least once"nduring second trimester and once during third trimester."nThe second trimester is an ideal time for performing dental treatment."nEmergency problem should be alleviated immediately during pregnancy."nIndicated medications should not be with held because of pregnancy but patients must be informed of"nbenefits and risks."nWith careful attention to the special needs of the pregnant patient, the dentist can provide high quality"ndental care while minimizing potential risks to mother and fetus."nEmphasis should be on preventive strategies and meticulous oral hygiene to manage common oral"nproblems associated with pregnancy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background College students are vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Tobacco industries often target college students for marketing. Studies about prevalence of tobacco use and its correlates among college students in Nepal are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two cities of western Nepal during January-March, 2007. A pre-tested, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (in Nepali adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS and a World Bank study was administered to a representative sample of 1600 students selected from 13 junior colleges by two-stage stratified random sampling. Results Overall prevalence of 'ever users' of tobacco products was 13.9%. Prevalence among boys and girls was 20.5% and 2.9% respectively. Prevalence of 'current users' was 10.2% (cigarette smoking: 9.4%, smokeless products: 6.5%, and both forms: 5.7%. Median age at initiation of cigarette smoking and chewable tobacco was 16 and 15 years respectively. Among the current cigarette smokers, 58.7% (88/150 were smoking at least one cigarette per day. Most (67.8% 'Current users' purchased tobacco products by themselves from stores or got them from friends. Most of them (66.7% smoked in tea stalls or restaurants followed by other public places (13.2%. The average daily expenditure was 20 Nepalese rupees (~0.3 USD and most (59% students reported of having adequate money to buy tobacco products. Majority (82% of the students were exposed to tobacco advertisements through magazines/newspapers, and advertising hoardings during a period of 30 days prior to survey. The correlates of tobacco use were: age, gender, household asset score and knowledge about health risks, family members, teachers and friends using tobacco products, and purchasing tobacco products for family members. Conclusion School/college-based interventions like counseling to promote cessation among current users and tobacco education to prevent initiation are necessary
Guindon, G Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T
Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes in reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users' tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of 16 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. We used data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We used self-reported information about the source of a smoker's last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We used generalised estimating equations to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, the USA, the UK and France. We found prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the UK, more than 10% of smokers reported last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources, while in Malaysia some prevalence estimates suggested substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also found important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, varied both in direction and magnitude across countries.
Macleod, John; Robertson, Roy; Copeland, Lorraine; McKenzie, James; Elton, Rob; Reid, Peter
Background Health concerns around cannabis use have focused on the potential relationship with psychosis but the effect of cannabis smoking on respiratory health has received less attention. Aim To investigate the association between tobacco-only smoking compared with tobacco plus cannabis smoking and adverse outcomes in respiratory health and lung function. Design and setting The design was cross-sectional with two groups recruited: cigarette smokers with tobacco pack-years; cannabis smokers with cannabis joint-years. Recruitment occurred in a general practice in Scotland with 12 500 patients. Method Exposures measured were tobacco smoking (pack-years) and cannabis smoking (joint-years). Cannabis type (resin, herbal, or both) was recorded by self-report. Respiratory symptoms were recorded using NHANES and MRC questionnaires. Lung function was measured by spirometry (FEV1/FVC ratio). Results Participants consisted of 500 individuals (242 males). Mean age of tobacco-only smokers was 45 years; median tobacco exposure was 25 pack-years. Mean age of cannabis and tobacco smokers was 37 years; median tobacco exposure was 19 pack-years, rising to 22.5 when tobacco smoked with cannabis. Although tobacco and cannabis use were associated with increased reporting of respiratory symptoms, this was higher among those who also smoked cannabis. Both tobacco and cannabis users had evidence of impaired lung function but, in fully adjusted analyses, each additional joint-year of cannabis use was associated with a 0.3% (95% confidence interval = 0.0 to 0.5) increase in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion In adults who predominantly smoked resin cannabis mixed with tobacco, additional adverse effects were observed on respiratory health relating to cannabis use. PMID:25624312
Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith
Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.
Schauer, Gillian L.; Bush, Terry; Cerutti, Barbara; Mahoney, Lisa; Thompson, Juliet R; Zbikowski, Susan M
Introduction Having diabetes and smoking increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. However, cessation-related weight gain, a common side effect during quitting, can further complicate diabetes. Evidence-based telephone quitlines can support quitting but have not been studied adequately in populations with chronic diseases such as diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of a tobacco quitline among tobacco users with diabetes. Cessation-related weight ...
Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…
Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.
BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.
Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata
The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women.
... be based on your overall health and how active you are before you get pregnant. Talk to your doctor or midwife about what kind of exercise, and how much, is good for you. Stress, Rest, and Relaxation While you are trying to get pregnant, try ...
Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir
Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.
Leatherdale Scott T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the apparent decline in the popularity of roll-your-own (RYO cigarettes over the past few decades, RYO tobacco products are widely available and used by a substantial number of adult smokers. Considering research has yet to examine the prevalence of RYO tobacco use among youth populations, this manuscript examines the prevalence of RYO tobacco use and factors associated with RYO use in a nationally representative sample of youth smokers from Canada. Methods This study used data collected from 3,630 current smokers in grades 9 to 12 as part of the 2008-09 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS. Descriptive analyses of the sample demographic characteristics, smoking status, cigarettes per day, weekly spending money, and frequency of marijuana use were examined by RYO tobacco ever use and RYO tobacco current use. Two logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with RYO tobacco ever use and RYO tobacco current use. Results We identified that 51.2% of current smokers were RYO ever users and 24.2% were RYO current users. The prevalence of RYO current users was highest in Atlantic Canada (40.1% and lowest in Quebec (12.3%. RYO current users were more likely to be male (OR 1.27, to be daily smokers (OR 1.75, to use marijuana once a month or more (OR 2.74, and to smoke 11 or more cigarettes per day (OR 6.52. RYO current users were less likely to be in grade 11 (OR 0.65 or grade 12 (OR 0.40 and less likely to have between $20 to $100 (OR 0.44 or more than $100 (OR 0.45 of disposable income. Conclusions Developing a better understanding of RYO tobacco use among youth is important for advancing population-level tobacco control prevention strategies and cessation programs. We identified that RYO tobacco use is not a negligible problem among Canadian youth. Ongoing research is needed to continue monitoring the prevalence of RYO use among youth and the factors associated with its use, but to also monitor if this
Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida
To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.
Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua
The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC.
Mishra, Gauravi A.; Pimple, Sharmila A.; Shastri, Surendra S
This is a review paper comprehensively encompassing the different aspects of tobacco control with particular reference to the Indian scenario. The information on prevalent tobacco habits in India, health hazards and environmental hazards due to tobacco use, passive smoking and its impact, economics of tobacco, legislation to control tobacco in India, the tobacco cessation services and the way ahead for effective tobacco control are discussed. Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of death, k...
Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan
The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their retail prices: group H (brands with high retail prices) and group L (brands with low retail prices). Three comprehensive searches were conducted on Facebook, Wikipedia, and YouTube respectively using the top 70 popular cigarette brands as keywords. We identified tobacco-related content including history and culture, product features, health warnings, home page of cigarette brands, and Web-based tobacco shops. Furthermore, we examined the promotional strategies utilized in social media. According to the data collected from March 3, 2014 to March 10, 2014, 43 of the 70 representative cigarette brands had created 238 Facebook fan pages, 46 cigarette brands were identified in Wikipedia, and there were over 120,000 pro-tobacco videos on YouTube, associated with 61 cigarette brands. The main content presented on the three social media websites differs significantly. Wikipedia focuses on history and culture (67%, 32/48; Ppromotional strategies used, sales promotions exist extensively in social media. Sales promotion is more prevalent on YouTube than on the other two sites (64%, 39/61 vs 35%, 15/43; P=.004). Generally, the sale promotions of higher-cost brands in social media are more prevalent than those of lower-cost brands (55%, 16/29 vs 7%, 1/14; Psocial media allows more pro-tobacco information to be accessed by online users. This dilemma indicates that corresponding regulations should be established to prevent tobacco promotion in social media.
User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille
User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....
Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.
National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas
The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.
User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…
Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.
Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...
Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the
Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the country.Broomrape (Orobanche ce
NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy â Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSAâs Synar...
Glover, Elbert D.; And Others
This literature review delineates the current status of smokeless tobacco, including prevalence, terminology, periodontal effects, and addiction potential. Also discussed is the possible influence on youth of smokeless tobacco use by popular sports figures. (Author/CB)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy â Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSAâs Synar...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...
Trochim, W; Stillman, F; Clark, P; Schmitt, C.(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany)
Objective: To construct a conceptual model of tobacco industry tactics to undermine tobacco control programmes for the purposes of: (1) developing measures to evaluate industry tactics, (2) improving tobacco control planning, and (3) supplementing current or future frameworks used to classify and analyse tobacco industry documents.
Full Text Available Pregnancy is a special physiological condition in a woman’s life. It usually involves a substantial change in health behaviour and lifestyle. The aim of rational nutrition among pregnant women is to prevent complications during pregnancy and ensure normal development of the foetus. Practical realisation of the principles of rational nutrition involves the application of a balanced diet. It limits both shortages and excessive amount of nutrients in the body. The aim of the paper was to evaluate health behaviour of pregnant women with secondary and higher education and the level of knowledge about healthy lifestyle and its impact on child development. The study included 43 pregnant women aged 20–40 years from Gdańsk birth schools of higher and secondary education. The study based on questionnaire provided information about the current state of knowledge about nutrition while pregnant and assessed the health behaviour of women: nutrition, substance abuse and physical activity. A pilot study reported that 84% of pregnant women were interested in proper nutrition while pregnant. An increased amount of food consumed per day (69% and portions of fruit and vegetables (98% was noticed. Also, it was noted that 58.1% of the respondents did not increase the consumption of sweets. Good appetite was observed only in the case of 53% of studied women, 47% presented loss of appetite; 19% of the respondents occasionally consumed alcohol, 30% drank coffee once per day and 9% several times a day. There was no woman smoking tobacco. Among the respondents, physically active ones included 51.2% and 39.5% did physical activity occasionally. The studied group of pregnant women with secondary and higher education changed their eating habits during pregnancy. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates the validity of conducting nutrition education in antenatal classes, which raises the nutritional knowledge and
Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo
To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.
Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.
Full Text Available In 2008 it was closed and dismantled the spectacular Duke Gardens near Princeton University. They were created by the famous heiress Doris Duke, in honor of her father, James Buchanan Duke. This last gentleman caused 100-million deaths during the 20th century. The gardens mentioned demonstrated, perhaps trivially, what was stated by philosopher Walter Benjamin: There has never been a document of culture, which is not simultaneously one of barbarism”. “Buck” Duke was the inventor of the modern cigarette. By the end of the 20th century, this astute manufacturer entered the instantly ready-to-smoke tobacco market (without having to roll in small pieces of paper or cut off the cigarette tips with the automated production of cigarettes. Without a cigarette maker like Carmen from opera by Bizet who rolled a maximum of 200 cigarettes per day, the machine he perfected with a mechanic named Bonsack produced 120,000 “cigarettes” during the same time. Thereby, reaching a oversupply that had to be sold – creating a demand for it. The solution was cigarette marketing and advertising. These were placed in restaurants, bars, and cigar stores; thus, making them an important part of the worker’s period of rest and dining. Although, in principle, they were associated to women of free morals (“Smoking is a great sensual pleasure. While smoking, I a wait for the man I love …” sang Sarita Montiel in the 1950s in a stroke of clever advertising these were transformed into symbols of women’s liberation. Toward the late 1920s, young women were seen marching and brandishing their freedom torches, the cigarettes. During the two world wars, cigarettes were distributed to hundreds of thousands of soldiers as part of their daily nutritional ration. During the immediate post-war, packs of Camel and Lucky Strike were the most used Exchange currency in Europe. With all these publicity maneuvers, Mr. Duke and his partners have caused, as we al
Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana
The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...
After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008, a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area. On the roof of the school building stands the signboard "Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School." A slogan engraved on another board reads, "Tobacco helps your success."
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...
Norris John W
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.
Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana
The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make
Burak, Lydia J.
Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…
Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga
Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...
Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana
The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make
Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.
Full Text Available BackgroundA total of 275 million tobacco users live throughout India and are in need of tobacco cessation services. However, the preparation of physicians to deliver this service at primary care health facilities remains unknown.AimsThe study aimed to examine the primary care physicians’ preparedness to deliver tobacco cessation services in two Indian states.MethodResearchers surveyed physicians working in primary care public health facilities, primarily in rural areas using a semistructured interview schedule. Physicians’ preparedness was defined in the study as those possessing knowledge of tobacco cessation methods and exhibiting a positive attitude towards the benefits of tobacco cessation counselling as well as being willing to be part of tobacco prevention or cessation program.ResultsOverall only 17% of physicians demonstrated adequate preparation to provide tobacco cessation services at primary care health facilities in both the States. The findings revealed minimal tobacco cessation training during formal medical education (21.3% and on-the-job training (18.9%. Factors, like sex and age of service provider, type of health facility, location of health facility and number of patients attended by the service provider, failed to show significance during bivariate and regression analysis. Preparedness was significantly predicted by state health system.ConclusionThe study highlights a lack of preparedness of primary care physicians to deliver tobacco cessation services. Both the curriculum in medical school and on-the-job training require an addition of a learning component on tobacco cessation. The addition of this component will enable existing primary care facilities to deliver tobacco cessation services.
Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal malignancies are the sixth leading cause of cancer worldwide. However, in India, oral and pharyngeal cancers are the most common cancer among men. It has been well established that virtually all oral cancer are preceded by a visible oral precursor lesions. Furthermore, the incidence of oral malignancies is higher among persons who use tobacco. We aimed to study the association between the degree of dysplasia in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs with the type and duration of tobacco use. Materials and Methods: A record based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2015. We included all the PMDs diagnosed and biopsied in our institute between 2006 and 2013. The study variables such as sex, age, type, and duration of tobacco habit were retrieved from the registers maintained in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, and the histopathological diagnosis was retrieved from the biopsy reports of the PMDs documented in the Department of Oral Pathology. Lesions were classified as high-risk lesions (HRLs or low-risk lesions (LRLs based on the grade of cellular atypia and architectural features. The data were analyzed using EpiData software. Results: Out of total 112 cases, 80 (71% were males and majority were older than 45 years (58%. About 64 (57% reported use of any form of tobacco product. Of the tobacco users, 39 (65% patients had reported tobacco use for 10 or more years. About one-fifth had HRL, and the remaining had LRL. Increasing age, any form of tobacco use (chewable or smoke form, tobacco smoking and longer duration of tobacco use were significantly associated with the development of HRLs (P < 0.05. Conclusion: By this retrospective study, we concluded that HRLs were more common among people who use any form of tobacco, either chewable or smoke form. Clearly, there is an increasing proportion of HRL with advancement in age and the duration of tobacco use.
Ernesto M Sebrie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...
Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer
The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.
Taís de Campos Moreira
Full Text Available Quality of life is related to one of the basic human desires, which is to live well and feel good. The scope of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of psychoactive substance users and relatives, compared to non-users, analyzed by socioeconomic strata. A cross-sectional study with users of psychoactive substances, relatives, and other individuals who called the Information and Orientation Service regarding drug abuse. Data collection took place between November 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected from users, relatives, and non-users, including socioeconomic characteristics and data regarding substance consumption when appropriate. In addition to this the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was given to 347 individuals. Among the 138 users (70% used alcohol, 76 (39%, marijuana, 111 (57% tobacco, 78 (40% cocaine and 70 (36% crack. Control subjects had higher, scores than the relatives of users and users in all areas of the questionnaire (p < 0.05. Psychoactive substance users scored lower in almost all domains and overall score in the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in comparison with the sample of non-drug users. These findings reflect poor quality of life of patients and their relatives.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related behaviour specially smoking and tobacco in any form are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Tobacco leads to various health problems including ear, nose and throat diseases. Objective To determine the influence of smoking or tobacco use on ear diseases we performed a retrospective study among men. Method Of 11454 subjects of different age-groups there were 4143 men aged 20-60 years who were evaluated for demographic variables, smoking/tobacco use and middle and internal ear diseases. Descriptive statistics and age adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Among the 4143 men, 1739 (42.0% were smokers or used tobacco. In smokers/tobacco users compared to non-users the age adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for chronic suppurative otitis media were 1.13 (CI 0.96-1.34, acute otitis media 1.16 (CI 0.82-1.64, suppurative otitis media 1.21 (CI 0.79-1.84, otosclerosis 0.97 (CI 0.52-1.33 (p > 0.05 and for overall middle ear diseases was 1.15 (CI 0.99-1.33, p = 0.05. For internal ear diseases the age adjusted odds ratios were for sensorineural hearing loss 1.12 (CI 0.92-1.58, 0.12 (CI 0.42-0.93 for vertigo and tinnitus and overall internal ear diseases were 0.97 (CI 0.77-1.22, p = 0.81. Among men 40-60 years there was a significantly greater risk for both middle ear (OR 1.73, CI 1.29-2.30 and internal ear diseases (OR 1.94, CI 1.24-3.04 (p Conclusion Smoking/tobacco use is significantly associated with greater prevalence of middle and internal ear diseases among middle-aged men in India.
Liu, Ruolan; Vaishnav, Radhika A.; Roberts, Andrew M.; Friedland, Robert P.
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a widespread plant pathogen, is found in tobacco (including cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) as well as in many other plants. Plant viruses do not replicate or cause infection in humans or other mammals. This study was done to determine whether exposure to tobacco products induces an immune response to TMV in humans. Using a sandwich ELISA assay, we detected serum anti-TMV antibodies (IgG, IgG1, IgG3, IgG4, IgA, and IgM) in all subjects enrolled in the study (20 healthy smokers, 20 smokeless-tobacco users, and 20 non-smokers). Smokers had a higher level of serum anti-TMV IgG antibodies than non-smokers, while the serum level of anti-TMV IgA from smokeless tobacco users was lower than smokers and non-smokers. Using bioinformatics, we also found that the human protein TOMM40L (an outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog – like translocase) contains a strong homology of six contiguous amino acids to the TMV coat protein, and TOMM40L peptide exhibited cross-reactivity with anti-TMV antibodies. People who smoke cigarettes or other tobacco products experience a lower risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Our results showing molecular mimicry between TMV and human TOMM40L raise the question as to whether TMV has a potential role in smokers against Parkinson’s disease development. The potential mechanisms of molecular mimicry between plant viruses and human disease should be further explored. PMID:23573274
Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C
Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.
Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed
Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 - 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail - Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law.
Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disease–causing volatile aldehydes, and cardiovascular disease–causing carbon monoxide that can also lead to acute intoxication in waterpipe users. Because many anesthesia providers are likely treating waterpipe tobacco smokers, the goal of this AANA Journal Course is to describe a waterpipe, who uses a waterpipe to smoke tobacco, and the toxicants found in waterpipe smoke and waterpipe smokers. Based on available evidence, there is no indication that waterpipe tobacco smoking is any less risky to patient health than cigarette smoking. Anesthesia providers should begin to assess patients for this form of tobacco use explicitly and should consider addressing it as they do cigarette smoking, with the additional precaution of presurgery carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:24133855
Obaid, H A; Hassan, M A; Mahdy, N H; ElDisouky, M I; Alzarba, F E; Alnayeemi, S R; Rillera, M C; AlMazrooei, B S
Tobacco smoking is an emerging problem among adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to measure the prevalence of current tobacco use and its associated factors among school students in Dubai Emirate and to determine the impact of an intervention programme on knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco use. A school-based intervention programme was carried out among 2457 students aged 10-20 years and data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Of the students, 14.6% were tobacco users, mostly cigarettes (11.2%) and waterpipes (2.2%). The most common self-reported reasons for smoking were for the experience (29.4%), for stress relief (22.5%) and because their peers smoked (21.9%). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of tobacco use were: male, higher age, UAE national, higher school level, government school, low knowledge about tobacco and family history of smoking. There were significant improvements in knowledge and attitudes scores after the health education intervention programme.
Hatao; YANG; Ke; SUN; Feng; ZHU
Sustainable development of high quality characteristic tobacco is the only path for future development of China’s tobacco industry.In combination with realities of tobacco development in Ankang tobacco growing area,this paper made analysis on factors restricting sustainable development of Ankang tobacco growing area.On the basis of actual situations,it came up with recommendations including establishing scientific basic tobacco field protection system,gradually cultivating professional tobacco farmers and strengthening tobacco technician team construction,improving scientific and technological innovation,implementing standardized technologies,improving tobacco production organization mode,and improving tobacco production security mechanism.
BinDhim, Nasser F; Freeman, Becky; Trevena, Lyndal
Smartphone use is growing exponentially and will soon become the only mobile phone handset for about 6 billion users. Smartphones are ideal marketing targets as consumers can be reached anytime, anywhere. Smartphone application (app) stores are global shops that sell apps to users all around the world. Although smartphone stores have a wide collection of health-related apps they also have a wide set of harmful apps. In this study, the availability of 'pro-smoking' apps in two of the largest smartphone app stores (Apple App store and Android Market) was examined. In February 2012, we searched the Apple App Store and Android Market for pro-smoking apps, using the keywords Smoke, Cigarette, Cigar, Smoking and Tobacco. We excluded apps that were not tobacco-related and then assessed the tobacco-related apps against our inclusion criteria. 107 pro-smoking apps were identified and classified into six categories based on functionality.42 of these apps were from the Android Market and downloaded by over 6 million users. Some apps have explicit images of cigarette brands. Tobacco products are being promoted in the new 'smartphone app' medium which has global reach, a huge consumer base of various age groups and underdeveloped regulation. The paper also provides two examples of app store responses to country-specific laws and regulations that could be used to control the harmful contents in the app stores for individual countries.
Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915
Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica
Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.
Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H
Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626
Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;
Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....
Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes
To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.
Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.
... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...
Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others
Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)
Villanueva, L A; Campos, R; del Milagro Pérez-Fajardo, M
The purpose of this article is to describe the knowledge and the background in the use of contraceptive methods in 100 pregnant adolescents in the prenatal care of the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González...
Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind
Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.
... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...
... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...
Puri, Aniket; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rohit; Tiwari, Sunita
Smokeless tobacco use in the form of chewed tobacco or snuff is common in various parts of the world, including India. It is well known that smokeless tobacco consumption is responsible for cancer but less is known about its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nicotine, the main constituent of tobacco smoke is responsible for the elevated risk of the cardiovascular disease and sudden coronary death associated with smoking, presumably by provoking cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses some of the acute and chronic cardiac effects of smokeless tobacco on cardiovascular disease with special reference to the electrical disturbance as well as comparing nicotine kinetics between smoking and smokeless tobacco. It would further enhance the clamor to urge people to quit all forms of tobacco consumption.
Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark
Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Guindon, G. Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.
Background Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes at reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. Objectives First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users’ tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of sixteen low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. Methods We use data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and the type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We use self-reported information about the source of a smoker’s last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We use generalized estimating equations (GEE) to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, United States, United Kingdom and France. Findings We find prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the United Kingdom, more than 10% of smokers report last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources while in Malaysia, some prevalence estimates suggest substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also find important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, vary both in
Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D
Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.
Celik, Feyzi; Oguz, Abdullah; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Dogan, Erdal; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker Onguc
Our goal was to present our anesthesia procedure of pre-diagnosis and laparotomy on pregnant patients with acute appendicitis. After approval Ethics Committee, 77 pregnant patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were evaluated. Patients were separated into two groups: group G (general anesthesia) and Group S (spinal anesthesia), according to the method of anesthesia applied. The patients' age, gestational age, method of anesthesia applied, duration of hospital stay, duration of a...
Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi
ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...
For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...
Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary
Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use. © 2014 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine
The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented......The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented...
Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant
of personal information and its manage-ment. Thus, empowering users and enhancing awareness are essential to compre-hending the value of secrecy. This paper also introduced latest advances in the domain of privacy issues like User Managed Access (UMA) can state suitable requirements for user empowerment...... and will cater to redefine the trustworthy relationship between service providers and users. Subsequently, this paper con-cludes with suggestions for providing empowerment to the user and developing user-centric, transparent business models.......Today, the service providers are capable of assembling a huge measure of user information using Big data techniques. For service providers, user infor-mation has become a vital asset. The present business models are attentive to collect extensive users’ information to extract useful knowledge...
Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR, with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette
Dürr, Dorte Wiwe; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Christensen, Line Høgenhof
pregnant women. When the children were from five to nine years of age, the parents assessed the child's behaviour using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: Overall, smoking in pregnancy was not associated with a higher probability of adverse behaviour assessed by the total SDQ score......OBJECTIVES: This study examines associations between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking and adverse behaviour in the offspring. METHODS: We included 1016 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine (526 from Greenland and 490 from Ukraine). Serum cotinine measurements were used to identify smoking....... However, in the crude analysis smoking was associated with a higher mean difference of SDQ-total score. In Greenland the SDQ-total mean difference (MD) was (MD (95% CI)=1.31 points (0.42; 2.19)) and in Ukraine (MD (95% CI)=0.18 points (-1.2; 0.91)), whereas the adjusted mean differences were statistically...
Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving.
Gunukula Sameer K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking. Methods We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption or related concepts. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested data abstraction form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We also determined the percentage of observational studies assessing the health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking and the percentage of studies of prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking that have used validated survey instruments. Results We identified a total of five survey instruments. One instrument was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and waterpipe use among pregnant women and was shown to have internal consistency and content validity. Three instruments were designed to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption, two of which were reported to have face validity. The fifth instrument was designed to measure waterpipe dependence and was rigorously developed and validated. One of the studies of prevalence and none of the studies of health effects of waterpipe smoking used validated instruments. Conclusions A number of instruments for measuring the use of and dependence on waterpipe smoking exist. Future research should study content validity and cross cultural adaptation of these instruments.
This groundbreaking text examines the problem of user authentication from a completely new viewpoint. Rather than describing the requirements, technologies and implementation issues of designing point-of-entry authentication, the book introduces and investigates the technological requirements of implementing transparent user authentication -- where authentication credentials are captured during a user's normal interaction with a system. This approach would transform user authentication from a binary point-of-entry decision to a continuous identity confidence measure. Topics and features: discu
technologies or software has been developed. A variety of user requirements are provided illustrating the effect of changing the targeted user group with respect to age,; to the context and the different technologies or software as well as to the difference in viewpoint on ways of involving users...
Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli
Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.
Chopyk, Jessica; Chattopadhyay, Suhana; Kulkarni, Prachi; Smyth, Eoghan M.; Hittle, Lauren E.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Pop, Mihai; Buehler, Stephanie S.; Clark, Pamela I.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Sapkota, Amy R.
Tobacco products, specifically cigarettes, are home to microbial ecosystems that may play an important role in the generation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), as well as the onset of multiple adverse human health effects associated with the use of these products. Therefore, we conducted time-series experiments with five commercially available brands of cigarettes that were either commercially mentholated, custom-mentholated, user-mentholated, or non-mentholated. To mimic user storage conditions, the cigarettes were incubated for 14 days under three different temperatures and relative humidities (i.e., pocket, refrigerator, and room). Overall, 360 samples were collected over the course of 2 weeks and total DNA was extracted, PCR amplified for the V3V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. A subset of samples (n = 32) was also analyzed via liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for two TSNAs: N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Comparative analyses of the five tobacco brands revealed bacterial communities dominated by Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Bacillus, with Pseudomonas relatively stable in abundance regardless of storage condition. In addition, core bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in all samples and included Bacillus pumilus, Rhizobium sp., Sphingomonas sp., unknown Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, and P. putida. Additional OTUs were identified that significantly changed in relative abundance between day 0 and day 14, influenced by brand and storage condition. In addition, small but statistically significant increases in NNN levels were observed in user- and commercially mentholated brands between day 0 and day 14 at pocket conditions. These data suggest that manufacturing and user manipulations, such as mentholation and storage conditions, may directly impact the
Cha, Ben-chin; Daly, B.
CaMath is an external Mathematica package which can be loaded into Mathematica by a user. CaMath consists of a special set of channel access functions which provides the Mathematica users with easy and flexible access of channel information across the IOC networks. It also provides a complete set of process variable event monitoring functions. The available functions for CaMath, their functionality, and their syntax are described herein. This document also gives examples how a Mathematica user can interface to channel access devices. It is assumed that the user is already familiar with using Mathematica. Few examples of Mathematica module of using CaMath functions are also given in this document.
Moreira, Taís de Campos; Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Fernandes, Simone; Justo, Fernanda Maia; Dias, Ismael Rodrigo; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Ferigolo, Maristela
Quality of life is related to one of the basic human desires, which is to live well and feel good. The scope of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of psychoactive substance users and relatives, compared to non-users, analyzed by socioeconomic strata. A cross-sectional study with users of psychoactive substances, relatives, and other individuals who called the Information and Orientation Service regarding drug abuse. Data collection took place between November 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected from users, relatives, and non-users, including socioeconomic characteristics and data regarding substance consumption when appropriate. In addition to this the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was given to 347 individuals. Among the 138 users (70%) used alcohol, 76 (39%), marijuana, 111 (57%) tobacco, 78 (40%) cocaine and 70 (36%) crack. Control subjects had higher, scores than the relatives of users and users in all areas of the questionnaire (p WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in comparison with the sample of non-drug users. These findings reflect poor quality of life of patients and their relatives.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K
The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).
Hatsukami, Dorothy K
The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products). PMID:23591505
WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua
This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.
Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.
This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.
George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C
The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.
Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen
The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.
Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin
A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.
Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.
When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...
Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;
in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...
Farber, Harold J; Walley, Susan C; Groner, Judith A; Nelson, Kevin E
Tobacco dependence starts in childhood. Tobacco exposure of children is common and causes illness and premature death in children and adults, with adverse effects starting in the womb. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians should screen for use of tobacco and other nicotine delivery devices and provide anticipatory guidance to prevent smoking initiation and reduce tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians need to be aware of the different nicotine delivery systems marketed and available.Parents and caregivers are important sources of children's tobacco smoke exposure. Because tobacco dependence is a severe addiction, to protect children's health, caregiver tobacco dependence treatment should be offered or referral for treatment should be provided (such as referral to the national smoker's quitline at 1-800-QUIT-NOW). If the source of tobacco exposure cannot be eliminated, counseling about reducing exposure to children should be provided.Health care delivery systems should facilitate the effective prevention, identification, and treatment of tobacco dependence in children and adolescents, their parents, and other caregivers. Health care facilities should protect children from tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco promotion. Tobacco dependence prevention and treatment should be part of medical education, with knowledge assessed as part of board certification examinations. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee
Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.
von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A
The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.
Morgan, Melissa; Montagne, Michael
This study examines the types of tobacco- and smoking-related websites that are available on the Internet. The search terms used were nicotine, tobacco, and cigarette. These terms were searched in the engines Google and Yahoo as well as video-sharing website YouTube and analyzed based on the search engine results pages (SERPs) that were produced. The results returned the following categories of websites: health information and news, smoking cessation, product ads/sales, history of tobacco and smoking, prosmoking/pleasure, smoking prevention/control, and miscellaneous. Results showed fluctuations in the number of search engine results by search term and date. There also was variable quality and availability of informative resources for Internet users due to lack of quality control criteria and regulation.
Palmedo, P Christopher; Dorfman, Lori; Garza, Sarah; Murphy, Eleni; Freudenberg, Nicholas
Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Countermarketing blends consumer protection, media advocacy, and health education with the demand for corporate accountability. Countermarketing campaigns have been demonstrated to be an effective component of comprehensive tobacco control. This review describes common elements of tobacco countermarketing such as describing adverse health consequences, appealing to negative emotions, highlighting industry manipulation of consumers, and engaging users in the design or implementation of campaigns. It then assesses the potential for using these elements to reduce consumption of alcohol and unhealthy foods.
Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van
Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ
Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.
Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif
Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H
PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...
Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.
Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris
Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…
Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger
In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
McKnight, Robert H; Spiller, Henry A
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is cultivated in more than 100 countries, and in 2004, some 5.73 million metric tons dry weight of tobacco were grown worldwide. The top five tobacco producers forecast for 2004 are China (2.01 million metric tons; 35.1%), Brazil (757 thousand metric tons; 13.2%), India (598 thousand metric tons; 10.4%), United States (358 thousand metric tons; 6.2%), and Malawi (138 thousand metric tons; 2.4%). Together, these five countries account for two-thirds of worldwide tobacco production. Tobacco farming presents several hazards to those who cultivate and harvest the plant. Although some of these hazards, such as pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal trauma, are faced by workers in other types of agricultural production, tobacco production presents some unique hazards, most notably acute nicotine poisoning, a condition also known as green tobacco sickness (GTS). GTS is an occupational poisoning that can affect workers who cultivate and harvest tobacco. It occurs when workers absorb nicotine through the skin as they come into contact with leaves of the mature tobacco plant. GTS is characterized largely by nausea, vomiting, headache, muscle weakness, and dizziness. Historically, children have played a role in agricultural production in the United States, and they continue to do so today. This includes tobacco farming. The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks, a set of injury prevention guidelines prepared by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety, lists GTS as one of several hazards children face when working on tobacco farms. Children 17 years of age and younger who work on U.S. tobacco farms come from three main groups: members of farm families, migrant youth laborers (primarily Latinos), and other hired local children. All three groups are at risk for GTS. Beyond the U.S., tobacco production using child labor is an emerging topic of concern in developing nations. An international
Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I
Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Objectives: There is a lack of awareness regarding the carcinogenicity of Afzal, an illegal smokeless tobacco product (STP widely used among the Omani youth. Previous research has shown that certain types of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs are associated with oral and lung cancers. This study therefore aimed to assess levels of four common TSNAs in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and September 2013. A random sample of Afzal was analysed for four types of TSNAs using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The four types of TSNAs analysed were 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB. As a reference product, a sample of laboratory-manufactured American moist snuff (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA was also used to confirm the accuracy and precision of the analysis. Results: The analysis revealed total TSNA levels of 3.573 μg/g in the Afzal sample. Mean levels of NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB were 1.205, 1.015, 0.809 and 0.545 μg/g, respectively. Conclusion: Levels of the two most abundant TSNAs (NNN and NNK found in the Afzal sample exceeded international regulatory limits. Afzal users therefore need to be educated regarding the potential health risks associated with their STP use. Stricter implementation of current legislation is recommended to reduce the availability and usage of Afzal in Oman.
Alcalá, Héctor E; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Tomiyama, A Janet
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44.95 and 18.57 % reported ever and current smoking, respectively. Physical abuse (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14, 1.72), emotional abuse (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.67), sexual abuse (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.95), living with a drug user (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.93), living with someone who was jailed (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.11, 2.02) and having parents who were separated or divorced (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.57) were associated with smokeless tobacco use in unadjusted models. After accounting for confounders, physical abuse (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.16, 1.78), emotional abuse (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.10, 1.57), living with a problem drinker (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.58), living with a drug user (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.72) and living with adults who treated each other violently (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62) were associated with smokeless tobacco use. Living with someone who was mentally ill (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.92) was associated with smokeless tobacco use after accounting for confounders and all ACEs. Results indicated that some childhood adversities are associated with use of smokeless tobacco products. Special attention is needed to prevent tobacco use of different types among those experiencing ACEs.
Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata
The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.
Jane Portes de Oliveira
Full Text Available In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected bythe HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breastfeedingcrossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impedimentfrom the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to theaffectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, theywere interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a PublicHospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy wasnot planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectationsregarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood outthat the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnantreact to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnantsoroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize thespecific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV.
Full Text Available Rates of tobacco use in Greece are among the highest in Europe and are responsible for an enormous burden of chronic disease and death. A large proportion of tobacco users report an interest in quitting. Family medicine practices have been identified as important settings for identifying tobacco users, delivering advice to quit smoking, and providing tobacco treatment interventions. The 5A’s (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange schema is an evidence-based model for addressing tobacco use in clinical settings. The rates at which primary care clinicians in Greece address tobacco use in their practice is unknown but, as in other countries, is understood to be sub-optimal. This paper describes the rationale, design, and protocol for a pre/post, controlled study to compare the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention delivered in primary care practices in Heraklion, Greece. The TiTAN-Crete intervention includes a 1-day tobacco treatment training program, dissemination of provider and patient resources and two booster training sessions. Participating providers and a cross-sectional sample of patients from their practices, will be surveyed. Outcome measures include changes in provider attitudes and beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and barriers related to smoking cessation treatment delivery. Rates at which providers deliver tobacco treatment to patients will be measured by patient report of 5As delivery. Multi-level modeling will be used to examine the effects of the intervention. This study will lead to a better understanding of how to best assist clinicians in Greece to enhance the rates at which smoking cessation treatments are delivered to smokers.
Hecht, Stephen S.
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International...
The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.