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Sample records for pregnant nightblind nepali

  1. Night-vision goggles for night-blind subjects : subjective evaluation after 2 years of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, D. T.; Kooijman, A. C.

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of night-vision goggles (NVG) for night-blind subjects after 1 and 2 years of use. Methods: Eleven night-blind subjects with retinitis pigmentosa used NVG for a 2-year period. At the end of each year, they were requested to fill-in two questionnaires regarding

  2. Two Nepali Sisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Diaspora is an expansion of a national or family network that can be activated for the benefit of the family and home nation in multiple ways. The argument is based on two life stories. Two Nepali sisters attended Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS) training courses in Japan...... at different times during the 1980s. The training was partly funded by official development assistance provided through the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). They used their training very differently, but between the two of them extended a family network from Japan and India...... still pursuing a career in a Japanese company. Their children have or are studying in Japan, India, and the USA. The Nepal-based sister is a key stakeholder in the regional cooperation in South Asia. By engaging network theories of weak ties and scaled networks, the life stories become templates...

  3. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  4. Lamjung Yolmo - Nepali - English Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Gawne, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    pdf of book Lamjung Yolmo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Nepal. It is closely related to Helambu Sherpa and Kyirong. This small dictionary is part of an ongoing project to document the language of Lamjung Yolmo. This is the first time that Lamjung Yolmo has appeared in print, and is accessible to Lamjung Yolmo, Nepali and English speakers alike. The hardcopy is retailing at the Uni Bookshop: http://www.bookshop.unimelb.edu.au/cbc/?IS.9781921775697 (accessed week of 21...

  5. Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayaraj

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

  6. Health Information in Nepali (नेपाली)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... नेपाली (Nepali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - नेपाली (Nepali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Birth Control Birth Control Methods - ...

  7. Ethnicity, Language-in-Education Policy and Linguistic Discrimination: Perspectives of Nepali Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Chura Bahadur; Adamson, Bob

    2018-01-01

    Educational issues in relation to ethnicity and language education policies have been underexplored in Asian contexts. In particular, issues related to ethnic and linguistic minority students have not received much attention in the post-colonial context of Hong Kong. This paper highlights challenges and tensions faced by Nepali ethnic minority…

  8. A case study of Facebook marketing approaches of two Nepali companies

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Sudeep Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Facebook marketing as a social media is an online communication that creates an avenue for companies to reach out to their customers. Nowadays, Facebook has become an effective and cheap medium to market products and services with higher positive results and feedbacks. The main objective of this thesis was to explore whether two Nepali companies Muncha.com and Thamel.com are able to promote their goods and services through Facebook or not. Moreover, this thesis will also study the overall...

  9. Psychometric properties and validation of Nepali version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Kareen N

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the reliability of the Nepali version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) among non-clinical sample. The purpose of this paper is to report the dimensionality and internal consistency of the DASS-21in a sample of non-clinical adults. This study was conducted in Hong Kong among 212 Nepali adults, aged 18-60 years. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Scale. The dimensionality of the DASS-21 scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Construct validity was evaluated using the life satisfaction scale. The intercorrelation among depression, anxiety and stress subscales indicates that symptoms of psychological distress as measured by the DASS-21-N can distinguished between the three constructs in adult community sample. The results also showed inverse correlation among DASS-21-N and life satisfaction scale, supporting the assumption that the higher the life satisfaction, the lower the psychological distress. The results of this study indicate that the Nepali version of the DASS-21 demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in relation to internal consistency and validity, lending support to prior studies and suggest that the DASS-21 can be utilized among diverse groups with confidence. It supports the reliability of the 3-factorial dimensionality of the DASS-21, and highlight that it is a valid and useful tool that can distinguish between depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of acute mountain sickness by acetazolamide in Nepali porters: a double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Peter; Pahari, Anil K; Soon, Yuen; Subedi, Deepak; Bajracharya, Rajan; Gurung, Puncho; Lal, Barun K; Marahatta, Ramesh; Pradhan, Santosh; Rai, Dilip; Sharma, Shailendra

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy, tolerability, and practicality of acetazolamide for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in Nepali trekking porters early in the trekking season. This study was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial with 400 male Nepali porters in the Mount Everest region of Nepal, trekking from Namche Bazaar (3440 m) to Lobuche (4930 m), the study endpoint. Participants were randomized to receive 250 mg acetazolamide daily or placebo, and AMS symptom scores (Lake Louise) were compared in highlanders vs lowlanders. Only 109 (27.2%) of the 400 porters completed the trial (28 highlanders, 81 lowlanders). The rest either dropped out (275/400 porters, 68.8%) or were excluded (16/400 porters, 4%). Acute mountain sickness occurred in 13 (11.9%) of 109 porters; all were lowlanders; 7 were taking acetazolamide, 6 taking placebo. Birthplace, acclimatization in the week before the trial, ascent rate, and rest days were the most important variables affecting the incidence of AMS. No highlanders, but 13 (16.1%) of 81 lowlanders had AMS (P = .016). Acclimatization in the pretrial week reduced AMS incidence (P = .013), as did a slower ascent rate (P = .0126), but rest days were the most potent prophylactic variable (P = .0001). Side effects were more frequent in porters taking acetazolamide than in the placebo group (P = .0001), but there were no serious side effects. Acetazolamide was tolerable, but impractical for the routine prevention of AMS in Nepali porters. A good trekking schedule and adequate acclimatization remain the most effective preventive measures. This study identified lowland porters as a high-risk group for developing AMS.

  11. Nepali concepts of psychological trauma: the role of idioms of distress, ethnopsychology and ethnophysiology in alleviating suffering and preventing stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J

    2010-06-01

    In the aftermath of a decade-long Maoist civil war in Nepal and the recent relocation of thousands of Bhutanese refugees from Nepal to Western countries, there has been rapid growth of mental health and psychosocial support programs, including posttraumatic stress disorder treatment, for Nepalis and ethnic Nepali Bhutanese. This medical anthropology study describes the process of identifying Nepali idioms of distress and local ethnopsychology and ethnophysiology models that promote effective communication about psychological trauma in a manner that minimizes stigma for service users. Psychological trauma is shown to be a multifaceted concept that has no single linguistic corollary in the Nepali study population. Respondents articulated different categories of psychological trauma idioms in relation to impact on the heart-mind, brain-mind, body, spirit, and social status, with differences in perceived types of traumatic events, symptom sets, emotion clusters and vulnerability. Trauma survivors felt blamed for experiencing negative events, which were seen as karma transmitting past life sins or family member sins into personal loss. Some families were reluctant to seek care for psychological trauma because of the stigma of revealing this bad karma. In addition, idioms related to brain-mind dysfunction contributed to stigma, while heart-mind distress was a socially acceptable reason for seeking treatment. Different categories of trauma idioms support the need for multidisciplinary treatment with multiple points of service entry.

  12. Biographical and Psychographical Profile of Nepali Entrepreneurs: A Study on Entrepreneurship in Nepal. Small Business Promotion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawuk, D. P. S.; Udas, Arjun K.

    A biographical and psychological survey of Nepali entrepreneurs was carried out with five objectives: develop a Biographical Information Bank, develop organizational profiles, determine the locus of control, determine whether entrepreneurs are individualistic or collective, and determine the entrepreneurs' profile along the 13 entrepreneurship…

  13. Effects of transnational migration on drug use: an ethnographic study of Nepali female heroin users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of female drug users in South Asia tend to focus on their plights, for instance, how they have been driven to drug use and encounter more problems than their male counterparts, such as HIV/AIDS and sexual abuse. Few studies focus on their active role--how they actively make use of resources in the external environment to construct their desired femininity through drug consumption. Furthermore, little is known about the situation of female South Asian drug users who are living overseas. This paper is a study of transnational migration, drug use and gender--how transnational migration influences the drug use of female transnational migrants. An 18-month ethnography has been carried out in a Nepali community in Hong Kong and 13 informants were interviewed. Data were coded and analyzed by using the grounded-theory approach. Themes related to the drug use of the female Nepali heroin users were identified. The findings show that there are three important themes that significantly affect the drug use of female Nepali heroin users, which include (1) their relationships with intimate partners, (2) their means of support, and (3) their legal status in migration. The findings are consistent with the concept of post-structuralism in gender and transnationalism theories. Female Nepali heroin users in Hong Kong are neither active agents nor passive victims; their active/passive role is largely dependent on their reconfigured opportunities and constraints in transnational migration. Thus, transnationalism should be taken as an important perspective to study the situation of female drug users in a globalized context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder and Culture: Early and Prolonged Grief in Nepali Widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane; Tol, Wietse A; Shrestha, Abina; Kafle, Hari Maya; Rayamajhi, Rajin; Luitel, Nagendra P; Thapa, Lily; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has not been well studied in socioculturally diverse populations. Thus, this qualitative study examined (a) how widows in Nepal understand grief, (b) whether a local construct of PCBD exists, and (c) its comparability with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), terminology. Using an adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework, semistructured interviews with 25 widows and 12 key informants, as well as three focus-group discussions (n = 20), were conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Through an inductive grounded theory-based approach, we used the constant comparative method, iteratively coding transcripts to identify themes and patterns in the data. Also, we created two lists of grief responses, one of early reactions and another all reactions to grief, based on the frequency of mention. No single term for grief was reported. Widows reported a local construct of PCBD, which was broadly compatible with DSM-5 terminology but with important variation reflecting societal influence. Surviving torture during conflict, economic and family stressors, and discrimination were mentioned as important determinants that prolong and complicate grief. Suicidal ideation was common, with about 31% and 62% of widows reporting past-year and lifetime suicidality, respectively. Findings may not be generalizable to all Nepali widows; participants were recruited from a non-governmental organization, from Kathmandu and its neighboring districts, and were primarily of reproductive age. While PCBD symptoms proposed in DSM-5 were mentioned as relevant by study participants, some components may need adaptation for use in non-Western settings, such as Nepal.

  15. The inter-rater reliability and prognostic value of coma scales in Nepali children with acute encephalitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Stephen; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Bonnett, Laura J; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel; Griffiths, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a common cause of coma in Nepali children. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of coma in these patients and predict outcome. Alternative coma scales may have better inter-rater reliability and prognostic value in encephalitis in Nepali children, but this has not been studied. The Adelaide coma scale (ACS), Blantyre coma scale (BCS) and the Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive scale (AVPU) are alternatives to the GCS which can be used. Methods Children aged 1-14 years who presented to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu with AES between September 2010 and November 2011 were recruited. All four coma scales (GCS, ACS, BCS and AVPU) were applied on admission, 48 h later and on discharge. Inter-rater reliability (unweighted kappa) was measured for each. Correlation and agreement between total coma score and outcome (Liverpool outcome score) was measured by Spearman's rank and Bland-Altman plot. The prognostic value of coma scales alone and in combination with physiological variables was investigated in a subgroup (n = 22). A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted by backward stepwise. Results Fifty children were recruited. Inter-rater reliability using the variables scales was fair to moderate. However, the scales poorly predicted clinical outcome. Combining the scales with physiological parameters such as systolic blood pressure improved outcome prediction. Conclusion This is the first study to compare four coma scales in Nepali children with AES. The scales exhibited fair to moderate inter-rater reliability. However, the study is inadequately powered to answer the question on the relationship between coma scales and outcome. Further larger studies are required.

  16. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial among 42 Nepali commercial vegetable farmers. The farmers were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to a 2-h organophosphate (chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5...

  17. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5% among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial among 42 Nepali commercial vegetable farmers. The farmers were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to a 2-h organophosphate (chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5...

  18. Pregnant Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Børve , Hege Eggen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This article examines the impact that the interplay between workplace, the welfare state and global working life has on female workers when they become pregnant. By focusing on two highly educated Norwegian female workers, it explores how this change process takes place in two companies operating in the global market located in different countries: Norway and the US. Pregnancy contributes to transforming the neutralized bodiless female worker into an embodied worker with g...

  19. Examining the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services: an ethnographic study of Nepali drug users in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang WM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wai-Man Tang Anthropology Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Abstract: A recent survey has shown that Nepali drug users in Hong Kong tend to have a low rate of usage of day-care and residential rehabilitation services, but a high rate of usage of methadone services. Little is known about the reasons behind such a pattern. Therefore, in this study, a 12-month ethnographic examination has been implemented in three sites, including a day-care center, residential rehabilitation center, and methadone clinic, to explore the experiences of 20 Nepali drug users in their use of drug-related services in Hong Kong and to examine the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services. The result shows that the reason for this pattern of service use is related to the approach of the services and the cultural perception of the service providers about the service users. The day-care and residential rehabilitation services emphasize an integrated approach, but the staff tend to overlook the heterogeneity of their clients, for example, the differences in caste and sex, and fail to provide suitable services to them, whereas the methadone service follows a biomedical model, which seldom addresses the social characteristics of the service users, which in turn minimizes the opportunity for misunderstandings between the staff and the clients. This research shows that ethnicity is a significant factor in drug treatment and that culture-specific treatment that takes into consideration the treatment approach and the heterogeneity of the clients is strongly needed. Keywords: methadone, residential rehabilitation services, drug treatment, ethnicity, Nepalis

  20. Two Nepali Sisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    to Denmark and Seattle. They both use the connections and skills acquired in Japan, but one is now living in Seattle and the other in Kathmandu. One is a manager in a chocolate factory using Danish products in the Seattle area and the other has started an income generating environmental NGO in Nepal while...

  1. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  2. The homeless pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Umo I

    2017-09-01

    Women who are pregnant and homeless constitute a unique group at significant risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes. Despite this heightened risk profile, social housing support to this group of women is less than satisfactory. Concerted effort and more collaborative working is needed by all who provide social, and healthcare services to homeless pregnant women, to improve the lot of these women. Clear definitions and legislative provisions in respect of the homeless will go a long way in reducing ambiguity and close loopholes which currently act to deny the homeless pregnant woman social housing support at a time when it is most needed.

  3. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe dehydration, chronic malabsorption resulting in fetal growth restriction, and in the case of E. histolytica , invasive disease, including amebic liver abscess and colitis. Pregnant women should avoid swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, ...

  5. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  6. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  7. Counseling the pregnant adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibiasi, V; Sturgis, S H

    1980-07-01

    Approaches employed in counseling pregnant adolescents at the Crittenton Clinic in Boston are described. Concentrating on concrete issues of management of the pregnancy -- supplying information and exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives are advocated; probing into the psychological and emotional background of the pregnant adolescent is discouraged. Counseling about contraceptives and taking into account each individual situation are considered essential. Case studies are reviewed and figures representing the attitudes and contraceptive use of patients 1 year after abortion are presented. It is considered important to establish a trusting relationship with the adolescent, which will increase the likelihood that she will return for follow-up and additional help if she needs it.

  8. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  9. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  10. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  11. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  12. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  13. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  14. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  15. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de

  16. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  17. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  18. The lesser spotted pregnant surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L C

    2017-10-19

    With more women entering surgical training, it will become more commonplace to encounter pregnant surgeons. This paper discusses the evidence for work-related risk factors as well as outlining the rights of a pregnant doctor. There are, in fact, very few real risks to pregnancy encountered as a surgeon, with the main risks involving standing or sitting for long periods and fatigue, which can be managed with support from the department. It is important for women in surgery to know that it is possible to continue their training while pregnant so they do not feel pressured into changing to a less demanding specialty or even leaving medicine entirely. It is also important for other professionals to understand the risks and choices faced by pregnant surgeons so that they can better support them in the workplace.

  19. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...

  20. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  1. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  2. Risk and the pregnant body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Harris, Lisa H; Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it's time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don't work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence.

  3. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  4. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  5. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  6. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  7. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  8. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  9. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Skolarczyk, Justyna; Łabądź, Dawid; Pekar, Joanna; Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Skolarczyk Justyna, Łabądź Dawid, Pekar Joanna, Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):682-688. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569050 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4423 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eI...

  10. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  11. [Pregnant diabetic patients: institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Héctor Israel; Carrillo Iñiguez, Mayra Judith; Pestaña Mendoza, Silvia; Santamaría Ferreira, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus complicates 3-5% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diet and insulin have revolutionized the care related with pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. To report the management experience in patients with diabetes and pregnancy at the Instituto Materno Infantil, Estado de Mexico. A descriptive, retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study of pregnant women with diabetes and pregnancy was conducted from 2003 to 2004. We included 55 pregnant women who had: gestational diabetes 30 (54.4%), pregestational diabetes 24 (43.6%), and carbohydrate intolerance 1 (1.8%); every one of them were controlled either with diet, insulin or both. The mean age was 30.6, 80% with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 9% gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 33.3% by abnormal 50 g glucose screening and 46.6% with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The main complications among the patients were urinary disease (61.3%) and the major fetal malformation were those related with cardiovascular disease (9.09%). The most frequent mode of delivery was cesarean section (58%) and birth weight was of 3,146 g. The main risk factors identified among women in the study group were as follow: More than 25 years of age and family history of diabetes mellitus. We observed a progressive increase in the insulin dosage. The most consistent complications among the patients were urinary infection and the major fetal malformation was cardiovascular disease.

  12. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  13. [An innovative policy for supporting pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stéphanie

    2015-04-01

    Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  15. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional ... Internet, friends/relatives, persons at the workplace or professional advisors. Despite the ... city is an important trade and educational centre. It also houses one of .... This study was restricted to pregnant women registered for ...

  16. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  17. Smoking behavior in pregnant Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Smiley, Karen; Devine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    To determine the smoking behavior in pregnant Arab American women who attended a Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program at a local county public health clinic and compare the incidence of smoking behaviors of pregnant Arab American women with pregnant women who were not Arab Americans. Data were extracted from a computer database that contained information from health history charts of pregnant Arab and non-Arab American women. The study sample was 830 women, 823 of whom were Arab American participants enrolled in the WIC program in Michigan. Approximately 6% of pregnant Arab Americans smoked during pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking behavior among pregnant Arab American women was similar to that of smoking behaviors of Hispanics and Asian Americans in the United States. Although smoking behavior is a serious problem among Arab American immigrants in general and in the Arab world in particular, cultural factors that support healthy behavior during pregnancy in the Arab culture seem to limit the use of tobacco in pregnant women. Nurses who care for Arab American pregnant women can use this information to better inform their care of these patients.

  18. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  19. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Silva Vinhas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected by the HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breast-feeding crossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impediment from the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to the affectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, they were interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a Public Hospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy was not planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectations regarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood out that the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnant react to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnant soroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize the specific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV. KEY WORDS: Risk Prenatal; Nursing; HIV.

  20. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  1. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  2. Intermediate filaments in smooth muscle from pregnant and non-pregnant human uterus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leoni, P; Carli, F; Halliday, D

    1990-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine muscle and smooth-muscle cells in culture were analysed using SDS/PAGE. The desmin content in uterine muscle increases dramatically during pregnancy, whereas vimentin remains unchanged or changes very little. When muscle cells are kept in culture, a considerable increase in vimentin content is observed as compared with vimentin in freshly isolated non-pregnant uterine tissue. Our results strengthen t...

  3. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Apr 27, 2018 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  4. pulmonary tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that TB infection is present in one- third of the world's ... tuberculosis among pregnant women would be as high as in .... previous two years appeared to confer an increased ... limited to the immediate neighborhood or workplace.

  5. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  6. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for energy. People with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Most often, the first tests used to diagnose ... in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ...

  7. Guided Imagery and Stress in Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Theresa A; Jones, Brittney A; Ausderau, Karla K

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of a guided imagery intervention on perceived stress in pregnant adolescents. Thirty-five pregnant adolescents recruited from a local alternative education program participated in a guided imagery intervention. Participants listened to a pregnancy-specific guided imagery recording on four separate occasions during their pregnancies. Perceived stress was measured immediately before and after each session using the Perceived Stress Measure-9 (PSM-9). Participants' pre- and postsession PSM-9 scores for three of the four sessions demonstrated a significant reduction in stress. Participants' baseline stress levels also decreased significantly across the four listening sessions. The greatest reductions in stress within and between sessions occurred in the early sessions, with effects diminishing over time. Pregnant teens experienced initial short- and long-term stress reduction during a guided imagery intervention, supporting the use of guided imagery to reduce stress in pregnant adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Summary: Genistein ... Oral exposure of pregnant rats to genistein precipitated hypothyroidism, altered some metabolic hormones with a ... consumption. Exposure to ...

  9. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  10. Dentist's opinion toward treatment of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSadhan, Raed; AlManee, Abdullatif

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of dentists in Riyadh city about treatment alternatives available for pregnant patients. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 500 dentists practicing in Riyadh city. The questionnaire included data on dentists socio-demographic and practice characteristics in addition to management choices of the pregnant dental patient such as dental treatment practices and selected therapeutic choices. Out of the questionnaires distributed, 212 questionnaires were collected (42.5% response rate). Most of the participants were general practitioners, with less than 5 years clinical experience, who obtained their degree from local institutes and practiced in the government sectors. Over half of the participants stated that they would radiograph a pregnant patient who was suffering from pain from a tooth with doubtful diagnosis or would extract a non-restorable painful tooth. Two-thirds of the participating dentists would not replace a missing molar with a fixed partial denture during pregnancy. The majority of the participants (86%) would give oral hygiene instructions, prescribe a mouthwash and do scaling and/or root planing for a pregnant patient with gingival bleeding and calculus deposits. In respect to antibiotics, the majority of the dentists (96%) would prescribe amoxicillin to a pregnant patient. Of the four analgesic agents surveyed, paracetamol was the most popular analgesic agent (96.7%). On the use of local anesthetics, the majority of the dentists (75%) would use lidocaine without vasoconstrictor and would not use prilocaine with felypressin vasoconstrictor. The study showed that there was a lack of knowledge about the clinical management of the pregnant dental patients among the surveyed dentists regardless of their socio-demographic and practice characteristics necessitating continuous dental education programs on the dental management of pregnant dental patients. (author)

  11. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  12. A comparison of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant and non pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ikechebelu, J I; Okafor, C I

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the mean parasite density in pregnant women at first antenatal visit with those of the control subjects at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. A case control prospective survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between 1 April and 30 September 2001 and matched controls at the GOPD during the same period. Peripheral blood smears were examined in 420 pregnant women at their first antenatal visit and 200 control subjects to compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women and controls. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 79.3 percent (i.e. 333 of 420) for pregnant women and 31.5 percent (or 63 of 200) for the control. For both pregnant women and controls, an overall prevalence of 63.1 percent was observed. The study found the mean parasite density for the pregnant women to be 1978 +/- 1531 (Mean +/- SD), while that of the controls was 766 +/- 1923. This study demonstrates the higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women when compared with the matched controls.

  13. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  14. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  15. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  16. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  17. [Frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) for pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.

  18. Assessment of lipid and protein peroxidation markers in non-pregnant and pregnant female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, M; Kankofer, M; Dąbrowski, R; Bochniarz, M; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate oxidative stress during normal pregnancy in female dogs based on an evaluation of plasma markers for lipid and protein peroxidation. Twenty clinically healthy female dogs (10 non-pregnant and 10 pregnant) were used in the study. Blood samples from the pregnant animals were collected at 19-21, 38-40, and 56-58 days of pregnancy. Blood samples from non-pregnant female dogs were obtained between 20 and 35 days after ineffective breeding. As indicators of oxidative stress, we measured the following using spectrophotometric and spectrof- luorimetric methods: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N,N, diethylparaphenylene diamine (RC-DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The mean plasma TBARS concentration in the pregnant dogs (0.486 ± 0.071-0.581 ± 0.191 μmol/g protein) was significantly higher (p pregnant animals (0.274 ± 0.111 μmol/g protein). A marked, although not significant, decrease in SH group content, as well as an increase in bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentration were concurrently observed in the pregnant dogs. No significant differences were found in terms of the studied markers in the pregnant animals when comparing the values obtained during the investigated periods of pregnancy, although there was a progressive decrease in TBARS concentration and a progressive increase in RC-DEPPD, bityrosine and formylkynurenine contents. Our findings suggest that normal pregnancy in female dogs is associated with oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to establish the physiological ranges of antioxidative/oxidative profiles in pregnant dogs and to explain if and how the intensity of oxidative stress might contribute to the risk of the complications of pregnancy.

  19. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, ... Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and ... shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment.

  20. Compliance with iron-folic acid (IFA) therapy among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Anaemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women and iron ... Methodology: This study included 190 pregnant women seeking ante-natal care in tertiary health centres in the Mangalore ..... preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid.

  1. Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about Caesarean section and ... decision‑making in a specialist health facility in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. ... was administered to 200 pregnant women, following an oral informed consent.

  2. Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... 220 out of 733 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the health centres within the three communities.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  4. Anxiety during pregnancy among Sudanese pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many women suffer psychological symptoms during pregnancy but few studies have examined anxiety among pregnant ladies in relation to the level of education, previous bad obstetrical history and female circumcision. Aims: To determine frequency of anxiety among Sudanese women as related to pregnancy and ...

  5. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus Antibodies among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytomegalovirus is a common virus that infects most people at some time during their lives. It becomes dormant for a while and may reactivate later. In pregnant women, intrauterine infection may be associated with congenital abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of the fetus as ...

  6. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 34, Number 4, November 2014. 1 ... 2010, the highest number of pregnant learners was recorded in Limpopo Province, followed by .... formation. We maintained privacy and confidentiality of the information that participants shared with us by ...... based cohorts in southern Brazil.

  7. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome. Key words: high risk pregnancy; learner pregnancy; school health services; teacher experiences; teenage pregnancy ...

  8. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  9. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant Women Attending the Three Levels of Health Facilities in Ife Central Local Government, Nigeria. ... Only 24 (6.0%) had adequate knowledge of obstetric danger signs without prompting. Three hundred and forty (84.8%) and 312 (78.3%) women respectively had ...

  10. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened in a qualitative study using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Results: Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive.

  11. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  13. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  14. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  15. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  16. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors .... items and incorrect knowledge regarding their benefits can ..... 2003;28:183‑9. 33. Ngozi PO. Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi,.

  17. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  18. Hematologic features among anemic Cameroonian pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. It may also be the leading cause of anemia in pregnancy, although this has not yet been demonstrated in our country. The aim of the study was to describe hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women. Methods: this cross ...

  19. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  20. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  1. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  2. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131...

  3. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    N. B. Gordovskaya; I. V. Korotchaeva

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  4. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Gordovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  5. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.

  6. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri Municipal council area in Imo State, Nigeria between December 2001 and October 2002. Of 250 women examined, 200 women were pregnant. Of the 200 pregnant women examined, 22 (11.0%) had malaria parasitaemia. Prevalence ...

  7. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE OLIVEIRA NETTO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw, moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  8. Preliminary study on plasma proteins in pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, Marek; Wawrzykowski, Jacek; Dąbrowski, Roman; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Kankofer, Marta

    2017-07-15

    In this study, we used a combined approach based on 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the plasma protein composition in pregnant female dogs and compared it with non-pregnant female dogs. We used the plasma samples obtained from four female dogs during I, II, and III thirds of pregnancy, three days after parturition, as well as from four non-pregnant female dogs in diestrus phase. Analysis of 2-DE gel image exhibited of 249 protein spots. The intensity of staining of 35 spots differed significantly (P dogs. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify 47 spots corresponding to 52 different proteins. Five identified protein spots, including zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 5, hemoglobin subunit beta-2, integrator complex subunit 7, apolipoprotein A-I, and glutamyl aminopeptidase were differentially presented in the plasma of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the plasma protein profile of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. In this study, we identified proteins that have not been previously identified in dogs. Our findings showed that numerous protein spots were differentially presented in the plasma of female dogs during normal pregnancy. Although we identified only a limited number of differentially presented proteins, our study demonstrated that the plasma protein profile changed during pregnancy in female dogs, which suggests its importance in maintaining pregnancy. Further studies are necessary to define complete plasma protein profile of pregnant female dogs and to identify all proteins that are differentially presented in the pregnant animals compared with the non-pregnant ones. In addition, studies are warranted to explain the role of those proteins in maintaining the pregnancy and their usefulness in detection of early pregnancy

  9. Options Counseling for the Pregnant Adolescent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Laurie L

    2017-09-01

    Each year, more than 500 000 girls and young women younger than 20 years become pregnant. It is important for pediatricians to have the ability and the resources in their offices to make a timely pregnancy diagnosis in their adolescent patients and provide them with nonjudgmental pregnancy options counseling. Counseling includes an unbiased discussion of the adolescent's legal options to either continue or terminate her pregnancy, supporting the adolescent in the decision-making process, and referring the adolescent to appropriate resources and services. Pediatricians who choose not to provide such discussions should promptly refer pregnant adolescent patients to a health care professional who will offer developmentally appropriate pregnancy options counseling. This approach to pregnancy options counseling has not changed since the original 1989 American Academy of Pediatrics statement on this issue. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Pregnant women's choice of birthing hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    design was used and women were recruited during their first pregnancy-related visit to a general practitioner. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis of the data was carried out. RESULTS: Women made their hospital choice decision independently......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized...

  11. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  12. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  13. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  14. Asymptomatic plasmodial infection in Colombian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M

    2017-08-01

    Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-01-01

    A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)

  16. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  17. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137 Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137 Cs intake. For the first woman 137 Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137 Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  18. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  19. Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Balzan, S.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Fruzzetti, F.; Bernardini, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3 H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p 3 Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

  20. Comparison Of Blood Proteins And Some Hormonal Levels In Pregnant And Non-Pregnant Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEAMA, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the changes in serum protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis in Holstein cows during different months of pregnancy in comparison with non-pregnant cows and to determine hormonal levels including T4, T3 and progesterone hormones. The samples were taken from 40 pregnant cows during deferent months and 10 non-pregnant cows. Significant decrease in the levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were observed in the third and late month of pregnancy than in mid pregnancy where the values were 6.5, 3.1 and 3.4 g/dl for early months and 6.5, 3.2 and 3.3 g/dl for late month as compared to the non-pregnant cows. Significant increase in α-1globulin was observed during months of pregnancy by about 33.3%. The decrease in the levels of α-2, β and γ-globulins were recorded by about 10%, 45.3% and 21.6%, respectively. A marked decrease in T4 hormone (5.0 μg/dl) was observed in pregnant cows than in non-pregnant ones (7.1 μg/dl). Also, a decreasing T3 level (169 ng/dl) was recorded as compared to non-pregnant cows (221 ng/dl). High significant increase in progesterone level was recorded in the mid pregnancy until reached the maximum value (49.94 ng/ml) at the 7 th month of pregnancy then declined (2.42 ng/ml) at the late month of pregnancy. In conclusion, during pregnancy of Holstein dairy cows, a decline in protein fractions and thyroid hormonal levels were recorded during different months as compared to non- pregnant cows. The opposite trend was observed in progesterone levels. The increasing progesterone level at the mid pregnancy indicated its importance in the continuation of pregnancy and maintenance of fetus against maternal rejection.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM PE AND PI BETWEEN PREGNANT AND NO-PROGNANT WOMEN AND PREGNANT OF DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Graziele Dias de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This research had how his objectives to investigate if there is difference between the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant women and no-pregnant women of period different of pregnancy. To get the informations necessary, we use the machine manuvacuômetro MVD 500 Mycrohard Globalmed , how the instrument to have the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant and no- pregnant women that have similar age. We use how criterion to select the informer this research to be pregnant in one group and not to be pregnant in another group. The women that participate of this research were choose aleatorialy through of the indications of the another persons. We went to their houses to collect data of the insp. and exp. maxim pressure and afterward, we organize, understand, pass to the category and, finely, to find the medium of the value. The value of the insp. and exp. maxim pressures that were found in the pregnant group was the follow: PE Max= 51,3 cm H20 and PIMax= 48,3 cm H20; the averages found in the not- pregnant were: PEMax= 73 cm H20, PIMax = 69,2 cm H20. The pregnants that were in the subgroup of the 1o to 5o month had a average of PE= 56 cm H20 and PI= 60 cm H20, while the pregnant of subgroup above the 6o month had the averages of PE and PI = 56 cm H20 and 43 cm H20, respective. Based in the results we conclude that have difference between the insp. and exp. pressures between pregnant and no-pregnant women, as well as in the pregnant of different period of pregnance.

  3. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in infected pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women

  4. Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

  5. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  6. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  7. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Griglio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  8. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  9. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die invloed v,an dragtigheid en laktasie op die vrywillige inname en verteerbaarheid von voere deur Merinoooie. M. Sc. (Land) Tesis Univ. Stellenbosch. HADJIPIERES, G. & HOLMES, W., 1966. Studies on feed intake and feed utilization by sheep. I. The voluntary feed intake of dry, pregnant and lactating ewes. J. agric Sci.

  10. Standing working posture compared in pregnant and non-pregnant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J A; Frings-Dresen, M H

    1994-09-01

    During pregnancy, an increase in body weight occurs together with changes in body weight distribution and in fit between body dimensions and workplace layout. These changes may cause alterations in working posture which may, in turn, have adverse consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and so increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Using photographic posture registration, the standing working posture was studied in 27 women during the last stage of pregnancy and after delivery (the experimental group). The women performed an assembly task while standing at various workplace layouts. The postural differences between the pregnant condition and the non-pregnant condition were studied and the effect of the various workplace layouts assessed. Ten non-pregnant controls were also studied twice to establish the effect of the time interval between the measuring occasions. We found that the women of the experimental group stood further from the work surface in the pregnant condition compared to the non-pregnant condition, the hips were positioned more backwards, and, in order to reach the tesk, they increased the flexion of the trunk, increased the anteflexion of the upper arms, and extended the arms more. At the workplace layout in which the work surface height was self-selected, the postural differences due to pregnancy were smallest or even absent, compared to the postural differences in the other workplace layouts studied. Ergonomists and workers in occupational health services should be alert to the consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and the risk of development of health complaints caused by postural changes due to pregnancy. An adjustable workplace layout may prevent some problems.

  11. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  12. [Psychosocial aspects regarding pregnant university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán-Aponte, María R; Rodríguez-Barreto, Lucía

    2009-12-01

    Determining the subjective construction of psychosocial factors affecting pregnancy in adolescents in a sample of students. 68 students who had become pregnant during their adolescence were selected after reviewing their files and sampling by logical criteria. The implications of pregnancy on personal, family and academic conditions were analysed by means of life stories and in-depth interviews. Crises and adjustments appeared in family and affective structure during the first trimester of pregnancy which culminated in them accepting motherhood as part of their life project, thereby reproducing the single-mother stereotype. Accompaniment of the pair occurred mainly during the first months, followed by abandonment. Although prejudiced, the university community's support had a bearing on interest in personal and academic development and in the baby. Specialised referents were consulted which scared the girls due to their pathological emphasis, thereby leading to them consulting family sources. The pregnant girls' mothers provided ongoing support for their daughters; this was not true of the fathers with whom constant conflict was presented. The services offered by the university were little used even though their importance was recognised. Forming integral students require programmes preparing students to be responsible for motherhood and fatherhood. Prevention was conveyed as promoting healthy affective links and strengthening family and social communication.

  13. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  14. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same

  15. [Eating habits of pregnant and non-pregnant women: are there differences?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2015-07-01

    To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.

  16. Oral health Knowledge and behavior among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...

  17. Evaluation of oral health among pregnant women in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluates the oral health knowledge and practise among pregnant women in a Nigerian population. Consecutive pregnant women attending three tertiary level of care were recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assessing socio-demographic variables, dental visiting habits, ...

  18. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  19. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents...

  20. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  1. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  2. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in relation to exposure to infection risk, age and pregnancy-related risk factors. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 294 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Accra who consented to participate. Personal and Toxoplasma ...

  3. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in ...

  4. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...

  5. Treatment of the Pregnant Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel; Nørgård, Bente M; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    a pregnant patient with a disease flare. The best way to manage women with IBD who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy is a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a gastroenterologist, a high-risk obstetrician, an infertility specialist, a colorectal surgeon, and a pediatrician...

  6. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  7. Evaluation of the knowledge and practices of pregnant Yemeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of the 150 pregnant women who participated in the study, 95.3 % of the pregnant women were < 36 years old, 7.4 % had children with congenital malformations, 62 % indicated that they had heard about folic acid; however, only 16.6 % knew the significance of folic acid. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 94.7 % indicated ...

  8. Prevalence of malaria parasites and anaemia in pregnant and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the prevalence of Malaria parasites in pregnant women attending pre - natal care in Government hospitals in two major towns (Aba and Okigwe) in Southeast Ngeria was carried out.Blood was collected by vein puncture rom 500 pregnant women in different trimesters (300 from Aba and 200 from Okigwe) and 200 ...

  9. Use of herbal medicines among pregnant women a attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...

  10. Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, I.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which

  11. Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant Women in Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... On ways of improving the condition/nutrition knowledge of pregnant mothers, the respondents accepted the building of more health

  12. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo. ... Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women ... Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with. HIV and ...

  13. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  14. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  15. A pregnant woman with spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo...

  16. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1,2 Jung-Hyun Park,1 Yun-Jung Choi,1 Min-Hee Kang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jin-Hoi Kim11Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice.Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc. At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions.Results: The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of

  17. What Can a Woman Do to Promote a Healthy Pregnancy Before She Gets Pregnant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting pregnant? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Can you promote a healthy pregnancy before getting pregnant? ... getting pregnant, following a health care provider's advice can reduce the risk of problems during pregnancy and ...

  18. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has been recognized as a cosmopolitan parasite of male and female genital tract. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City, Edo State. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients and subjects consisting of 250 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy subjects who served as controls were recruited in this study. The age ranged from 20 to 40 years. High vaginal swab was collected from each participant and T. vaginalis was diagnosed by microscopy. Results: An overall prevalence of 2.8% of trichomoniasis was observed among pregnant women. Gestational age and educational status of pregnant women were significantly associated with the prevalence of trichomoniasis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnancy. We recommend routine screening for this infection in order to reduce the potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Breastfeeding knowledge among working pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Local treatment of chloasma in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shperling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To assess the efficacy and safety of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration for the treatment of chloasma in pregnant women. Materials and methods. The study involved 28 pregnant women aged 18-36 (mean age: 24.7 with a normal course of pregnancy. The patients consulted a doctor in the spring, summer or fall complaining of focal skin hyperpigmentation on the face, chin and chest area. Ten patients (35.7% developed hyperpigmentation prior to their pregnancy and 18 women (64.3% - during the pregnancy. As of the consultation date, the pregnancy terms in all of the patients were 18-20 weeks. Chloasma was diagnosed by using dermatoscopy and skin examination with the Wood’s lamp. The patients were informed about the content and procedure of the study and gave their consent to take part in the study. Thin layers of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration were applied to the hyperpigmented skin of the patients and gently rubbed twice a day (in the morning and evening as topical treatment for four months. The treatment results were assessed taking into consideration the patient’s subjective assessment, study group structure depending on the clinical efficacy, percentage of adverse events, and survey results based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. To reveal any potential general toxicological effects of the treatment, hepatic samples, total blood count and coagulogram results were analyzed as a part of obstetrical and gynecologic care for pregnant women. Key findings. Positive dynamics of the following characteristics was revealed: subjective assessment of treatment results by the patients, clinical efficacy of treatment and life quality index. Therapeutic results were observed as early as after one month but not later than three months after the treatment began. The therapeutic efficacy was recorded in 92.9-96.4% of all cases after four months of treatment: pigment spots disappeared or

  1. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  2. HIV shedding in cervico-vaginal secretions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.

  3. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  4. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  5. HIV Risk Factors among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant High-Risk Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…

  6. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yao

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  7. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Gan, Yu; Myers, Kristin M; Vink, Joy Y; Wapner, Ronald J; Hendon, Christine P

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  8. Health insurance, alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-03

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel marker in pregnant with preeclampsia: renalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Yıldırım, Tolga; Yılmaz, Rahmi; Erdem, Yunus

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by an increase in high blood pressure and decrease in GFR and proteinuria, however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Renalase is a recently discovered protein implicated in regulation of blood pressure in humans. Plasma concentrations of serum renalase were measured in healthy controls, healthy pregnant and pregnant with preeclampsia matched for age, gestational age, in the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum renalase levels were compared in pregnant with and without preeclampsia and non-pregnant controls. Factors associated with serum renalase levels in pregnancies were also evaluated. In healthy pregnant serum renalase levels were significantly higher than in controls. However, pregnant with preeclampsia had lower renalase levels than healthy controls. Serum renalase levels were inversely associated with blood pressure levels and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. The results indicated that the development of preeclampsia in pregnant is accompanied by altered serum renalase levels. High blood pressure and kidney damage that characterize this disorder are mediated at least in part by low renalase levels.

  11. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aguilar-Cordero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. Aim: To analyze the main studies on the level of oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Method: The systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have selected 18 studies that analyze the subject matter. Results: The studies reviewed did not present similar samples at the time of assessing the level of knowledge of the oral health of pregnant women. This can create problems comparing studies with each other. The issue addressed to measure the knowledge of pregnant women served to determine this discernment, and thus orient the research towards those aspects that presented difficulties. Conclusions: All of the studies reviewed show that the level of knowledge of pregnant women about their oral health is regular. This result that the surveys show, is not validated by a unified protocol, this means that there is no unanimity when verifying the knowledge of pregnant women, in relation to their oral health, as a health problem in general.

  12. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2016-09-24

    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  13. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  14. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Use of the smartphone application "Pregnant with Diabetes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Nichum, Vibeke Ladefoged; Barfred, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article was to evaluate the awareness and use of the smartphone application (app) "Pregnant with Diabetes" locally, nationally and internationally. METHODS: In 2013, a patient initiated collaboration with the staff at Centre for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigs...... antenatal visit in early pregnancy at our centre. National and international data on numbers of downloads were obtained from Google Play, from the App Store and from Google Analytics. RESULTS: Among 139 pregnant women with diabetes (96 with Type 1 diabetes and 43 with Type 2 diabetes), 99% had a smartphone...

  16. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  17. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....

  18. Policies and attitudes toward the pregnant radiology resident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, S.; Freedman, M.T.; Arak, G.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate attitudes and policies toward pregnant radiology residents, a questionnaire was sent to the chiefs of radiology residency programs across the country. A return rate of 76.4% and a response rate of 75.4% were achieved. A large majority of the respondents indicated that schedule changes would be made to avoid excessive exposure of a pregnant resident to radiation. The accommodations they suggest are reviewed, and suggestions are made that would help alleviate some of the stress and conflicts that invariably arise when a resident becomes pregnant

  19. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  20. Mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Raquel; Pons-Duran, Clara; Piqueras, Mireia; Aponte, John J; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Menéndez, Clara

    2018-03-21

    The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. One such candidate is mefloquine. To assess the effects of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women, specifically, to evaluate:• the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women; and• the impact of HIV status, gravidity, and use of insecticide-treated nets on the effects of mefloquine. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, and two trial registers up to 31 January 2018. In addition, we checked references and contacted study authors to identify additional studies, unpublished data, confidential reports, and raw data from published trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mefloquine IPT or mefloquine prophylaxis against placebo, no treatment, or an alternative drug regimen. Two review authors independently screened all records identified by the search strategy, applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when required. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RRs), count outcomes as incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MDs). We have presented all

  1. Macroscopic morphometry of the corpus luteum of pregnant and non-pregnant zebu cows in the Colombian tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the volume, weight, measures, ovarian location and shape of the corpus luteum of pregnant and non - pregnant cows from zebu cows of the Colombian tropics. 528 reproductive tracts were collected; 264 pregnant and 264 non-pregnant of cows benefited at the local slaughterhouse in Monteria, Córdoba, Colombia. The period of collection of the samples was extended for three months. After collection of each reproductive tract, the ovaries were separated, identified as right and left, weighed and measured. Then the drawing of the location of the corpus luteum was performed on the ovary according to the anatomical planes previously established in the corresponding form. Subsequently the corpus luteum was removed to perform their measurements, weighings and visualization of their shape. There were statistical differences between the locations of the corpus luteum in the ovary: Anterior pole, posterior pole, free edge, upper face and lower face (p≤0.05. The weight and volume of gestational corpus luteum was greater by 30 and 27.9% than the corpus luteum of non-pregnant cows. The predominant form por shape of the corpus luteum in both pregnant and non-pregnant cows was oval, then pyramidal and finally rounded. No gestation was observed contralateral to the location of the corpus luteum.

  2. Comparative analysis between endometrial proteomes of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes during the peri-implantation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haichao; Sui, Linlin; Miao, Kai; An, Lei; Wang, Dong; Hou, Zhuocheng; Wang, Rui; Guo, Min; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jiqiang; Wu, Zhonghong; Tian, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure has a profound impact on both human reproductive health and animal production. 2/3 pregnancy failures occur during the peri-implantation period; however, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unclear. Well-organized modification of the endometrium to a receptive state is critical to establish pregnancy. Aberrant endometrial modification during implantation is thought to be largely responsible for early pregnancy loss. In this study, using well-managed recipient ewes that received embryo transfer as model, we compared the endometrial proteome between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes during implantation period. After embryo transfer, recipients were assigned as pregnant or non-pregnant ewes according to the presence or absence of an elongated conceptus at Day 17 of pregnancy. By comparing the endometrial proteomic profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes, we identified 94 and 257 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the endometrial caruncular and intercaruncular areas, respectively. Functional analysis showed that the DEPs were mainly associated with immune response, nutrient transport and utilization, as well as proteasome-mediated proteolysis. These analysis imply that dysfunction of these biological processes or pathways of DEP in the endometrium is highly associated with early pregnancy loss. In addition, many proteins that are essential for the establishment of pregnancy showed dysregulation in the endometrium of non-pregnant ewes. These proteins, as potential candidates, may contribute to early pregnancy loss.

  3. Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stek Alice

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions

  4. Abnormal medical exposure in pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition to the ionizing radiations of women, during the gestational period constitutes, with some frequency, the reason for preoccupation for the future mother and the medical professionals in charge to take care of them. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionizing radiations is from singular importance, given its special vulnerability to this physical agent, whereas on the other hand the processing or diagnosis with ionizing radiations is beneficial for the mother, only is it indirectly for the embryo-fetus, that exposes itself to a risk in exchange for anything. This work gathers the experience obtained in the dosimetric clinical evaluation of twenty one pregnant patients submitted to diverse procedures of radiation diagnosis or nuclear medicine during years 1999-2000. The main results obtained demonstrate that 25% of the patients were put under nuclear medicine procedures with aims therapeutic or diagnoses. The gestational age of the patients oscillated between 4 and 12 weeks. It can be conclude that in all the case the dose receive by the patient in all the body not surpass the 2 mSv, reason why to, conjugated with the gestational age, not exist evidence of risk for the embryo-fetus paradoxically in all cases his doctors have indicated to the patients to make the interruption of his pregnancy, what demonstrate the ignorance of some of the professional of the health on the biological effect of the ionizing radiation during the prenatal exhibition

  5. Steroid metabolism in pregnant hamster. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchut, M.

    1980-01-01

    Quartered placentae from 12- and 15-day pregnant hamsters were incubated with 14 C labelled pregnenolone and progesterone and the products of their conversion were identified by chromatographic and isotope dilution methods. Pregnenolone was converted to progesterone, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, 7α-hydroxyprogesterone, 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, 3β-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione and 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione. Except for 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, the same metabolites were identified in the incubates of the placental tissue with progesterone. Thus, the activity of Δ 5 -3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Δsup(5→4) isomerase, 7α-hydrΔ 4 -5β- and Δ 4 -5α-reductase enzyme systems was shown in the hamster placenta. The formation of androgens from pregnenolone, progesterone and their 17-hydroxy-derivatives was not observed. There was also no evidence of the formation of estrogens from the above C-21 steroid precursors. (author)

  6. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  7. 18FDG PET in a pregnant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, Barry

    2006-01-01

    A 26-year-old pregnant female presented with cervical adenopathy which was shown on biopsy to be Hodgkin's disease. As she had some systemic symptoms, It was decided to further stage her disease, with the options being allowing the pregnancy to continue, or terminating the pregnancy and treating immediately. To keep the radiation dose as low as possible, the administered dose of l8 FDG was reduced giving a total estimated dose to the fetus as 3.2 mGy and l37 Cs used as the source for attenuation correction rather than CT (dose estimated as 0.15mGy instead of 1.5 mGy) Total dose to the fetus was estimated as 3.4mGy. ICRP indicates that termination of pregnancy is not justified for radiation doses less than 100mGy. The findings confirm that an indicated PET scan may be performed in pregnancy at acceptable radiation dose. Relatively straightforward modification of the standard scanning protocol will reduce the estimated fetal dose. Copyright (2006) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine

  8. Immunisation Status Of Pregnant Women In Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav R. J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the coverage level of immunization and other maternal services by a modified technique developed by IRMS (ICMR Delhi in comparison to standard WHO technique. Objectives: To study the â€"Coverage level for immunization, antenatal care and IFA tablets â€"Relationship of caste and education with the coverage levels. â€"Place and persons conducting deliveries. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Both in rural and urban areas of Bihar. Participants: 375 mothers having children up to one year of age selected by a stratified random sampling technique developed by IRMS Delhi. Study variables: Immunisation status, antenatal care, Use of IFA tabs, Education of the female, Education of husband, place and person conducting the delivery. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: Overall immunization coverage was 42% for pregnant females. Coverage was high (60% in urban areas compared to rural areas (40%. Coverage was low among females from SC/ST category, also when females and their husbands were illiterates. Similar trend was observed for antenatal care and IFA tabs. 90% deliveries took place at home and were mainly attended by village dais. Majority of mothers received immunization from some. Govt. agency lack of, awareness and lack of motivation were more commonly found as reasons for non-immunisation among SC/ST as compared to others. Lack of awareness was also found as a common reason for non-immunisation among illiterate females.

  9. Pregnant woman mode for absorbed fraction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, R.J.; Snyder, W.S.; Watson, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The most radiation-sensitive segment of our population is the developing fetus. Until recently, methods available for calculating the dose to the fetus were inadequate because a model for the pregnant woman was not available. Instead, the Snyder and Fisher model of Reference Man, which includes a uterus, was frequently used to calculate absorbed fractions when the source was in various organs of the body and the nongravid uterus was the target. These values would be representative of the dose to the embryo during the early stages of pregnancy. Unfortunately, Reference Man is considerable larger than Reference Woman. The authors recently reported on the design of a Reference Woman phantom that has dimensions quite similar to the ICRP Reference Woman. This phantom was suitable for calculating the dose to the embryo during early stages of pregnancy (0 to 3 mo.), but was not suitable for the later stages of pregnancy because of the changing shape of the mother and the displacement of several abdominal organs brought about by the growth of the uterus and fetus. The models of Reference Woman that were subsequently developed for each month of pregnancy are described. The models take into account the growth of the uterus and fetus and the repositioning of the various abdominal organs. These models have been used to calculate absorbed fractions for the fetus as a target and the gastrointestinal tract as a source of radiation for twelve photon energies ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV

  10. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  11. the unbooked pregnant woman: experience from a rural tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    pregnant women who presented at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital over a five year period. Five ... of preventive medicine and an important component of maternal health. The range of activities covered by ANC includes nutrition,.

  12. Designing a Pregnancy Care Network for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Khanum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All pregnant women need easy access to pregnancy-related personalized information, on-time quality healthcare services and effective communication links with healthcare providers. Smartphone-based devices, communication systems and eHealth applications can play an important role in facilitating some of these services to pregnant women in a fast and efficient way and can thus prevent most of the pregnancy-related complications. The objective of this work is to propose and design a pregnancy care network for pregnant women and healthcare providers. The network model, an eHealth application based on smartphone-based devices and communication systems, is designed to strengthen communication links between health professionals and pregnant women and increase education, awareness and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.

  13. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  14. CARDIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN THE UDMURT REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Gaisin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of specialized management of pregnant women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the Udmurt Republic (UR of Russia.Material and methods. In prospective and retrospective study we investigated pregnancy outcomes in all 17948 women in management system created for pregnant patients with CVD in the UR from 2000 to 2007. The system comprises specialized outpatient and inpatient departments and an obstetric hospital within the regional cardiological centre. Pregnant women had different CVD including hypertension, congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, noncoronary myocardial disease, disorders and autoimmune diseases of connective tissue, etc.Results. Perinatal mortality decreased by 41,1% from 11,2‰ in 2000 to 6,6‰ in 2007. During 8 years, no one woman died.Conclusion. The management system for pregnant women with CVD within the regional cardiological clinic makes it possible to reduce of maternal and perinatal mortality rates significantly. 

  15. Perioperative care of a pregnant trauma victim: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-03

    May 3, 2004 ... (until proven otherwise) in any female trauma patient of child- ... The perioperative management of pregnant trauma victims re- ... trauma, abdominal trauma, head injury, cervical spine injury, fetal injury, gun shot wounds, blunt.

  16. prevalence of malarial parasites in pregnant women attending sir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keyword: Prevalence, Malarial Parasite, Pregnant Women, Kano. INTRODUCTION ... protective semi-immunity against plasmodium falciparum is acquired during the first 10-. 15 years of life and .... hiding place for the mosquito? It is therefore ...

  17. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... of pregnant women in General Hospital Kiru, Kiru. Local Government .... AACC, American Association for Clinical Chemistry,. 2012. ... Animal. Reproductive Science. 72: pp. 235. Das, S. C. and Isechei, U. P. (1996). Serum ...

  18. Accommodation and Occupational Safety for Pregnant Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuiston, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    ... (commonly referred to as Pregnant Women's Study or PWS) is a cooperative effort between the United States Air Force 74th Medical Group, Armstrong Laboratory's Computenzed Anthropomernc Research and Design (CARD...

  19. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is still a major health problem during pregnancy in Ihiala Local Government Area ... Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of pregnant women on malaria, ... Oral interviews and observations were used to retrieve information from the ...

  20. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    making, and practices among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at ... HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health challenge, as it directly and ..... Community groups conduct nutrition education for HIV- positive people.

  1. Falls among pregnant women in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-04

    Oct 4, 2013 ... Key words: Enugu, falls, Nigeria, pregnant women, prevalence, risk factors .... in which someone is paid some wages (salary) at specific intervals, for example .... initiated the process of filling the existing gap on falls during.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal ... Majigo Mtebe, Nyambura Moremi, Jeremiah Seni, Stephen E. Mshana. Abstract. In developing countries there is no routine screening of hepatitis B virus ...

  3. determinants of first antenatal care visit by pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... Subjects: Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care ... convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to ... identifying maternal education, employment, age,.

  4. Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women. ... Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress and anxiety, as well as the association that exists between stress/anxiety and ... from 32 Countries:.

  5. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...

  6. Pregnant women's attitudes toward influenza vaccination while breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Pregnant women and postpartum women who are breastfeeding could benefit from receiving information and recommendations specific to vaccination from their healthcare providers, with a focus on discussing known risks and benefits to the baby's health.

  7. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania, 2001-2011. ... Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2017) > ... as age, marital status, parity, education level and duration of stay at present residence.

  8. Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes at a ... Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2017) > ... in sepsis rates, the need for ventilation and the duration of hospital stay between the two groups.

  9. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women towards antenatal care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to explore pregnant women`s knowledge ... A qualitative, exploratory approach was used. ... Trustworthiness was ensured by considering the criteria of credibility, dependability, applicability and transferability.

  11. Medicinal Plants used during Antenatal Care by Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. ... Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Antenatal, Traditional Birth Attendants, Uganda. Résumé ..... phenomenon, possibly due to their availability and.

  12. Pain Management in the Opioid-Dependent Pregnant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safley, Rebecca R; Swietlikowski, Jamie

    Opioid dependence is an epidemic in the United States, and the percentage of pregnant women who are opioid dependent has increased dramatically in the last decade. Pain management, already a concern for intrapartum and postpartum care, is complicated in the context of opioid dependence. This clinical review surveys the literature on pain management in opioid-dependent pregnant women to summarize current consensus and evidence to guide clinical practice. Points of consensus for pain management in opioid-dependent pregnant women include continual opioid maintenance therapy throughout the pregnancy and the postpartum period; adequate management of acute pain; the contraindication of opioid agonist-antagonists for pain management; and the need for interdisciplinary teams using a multimodal approach to provide optimal care to opioid-dependent pregnant women.

  13. Evaluation of the knowledge and practices of pregnant Yemeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, Teratogens, Pregnant Yemeni women, Folic acid deficiency. Tropical Journal of ..... United Arab Emirates (UAE) have published rates of awareness .... emphasis on good hygiene in the American population.

  14. Evaluation of the knowledge and practices of pregnant Yemeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Knowledge of folic acid deficiency among pregnant women in Mukalla District of Yemen is relatively low. ... low level of folate during pregnancy are at risk for poor pregnancy .... 5 pregnancies and only 0.7% had more than 10.

  15. Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, S.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

  16. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Catunda, Júlia Kerr; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP) General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at firs...

  17. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  18. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    María José Aguilar-Cordero; Tania Rivero-Blanco; Norma Mur-Villar; Raquel Rodríguez-Blanque; María Dolores Moraleda-Hurtado; Luis Emilio Fernández-Curbero; Antonio Manuel Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth...

  19. Use of the smartphone application "Pregnant with Diabetes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Nichum, Vibeke Ladefoged; Barfred, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article was to evaluate the awareness and use of the smartphone application (app) "Pregnant with Diabetes" locally, nationally and internationally. METHODS: In 2013, a patient initiated collaboration with the staff at Centre for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigs-hos...... by Novo Nordisk, Bayer A/S, Diabetes Care, Abbott, MSD Denmark, A.D.I.P.S and Rigshospitalet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  20. Improving comfort levels in a traditional high altitude Nepali house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.J. [School of Architecture and Building, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217 (Australia); Zahnd, A.; Thakuri, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University and RIDS-Nepal (Nepal)

    2009-03-15

    Humla Province is a remote mountainous region of northwest Nepal. The climate is harsh and the local people are extremely poor. Most people endure a subsistence culture, living in traditional housing. Energy for cooking and heating comes from fuelwood, supplies of which are diminishing. In order to improve the indoor environment and reduce fuelwood use, smokeless stoves are being introduced to replace the open fire in Humli homes. There is some concern, however, that comfort levels may not be as acceptable with these stoves. The aim of this research was therefore to investigate ways in which the comfort levels in traditional Humli housing might be improved using simple and low cost strategies. Temperature data was recorded in four rooms of a traditional Humli home over a 12-day period and used with fuelwood data to validate a TRNSYS simulation model of the house. This model was then used to evaluate the impact on comfort levels in the house of various energy conservation strategies using PMV and PPD indicators. As a single strategy, it was found that reducing infiltration of outside air was likely to be more effective than increasing the insulation level in the ceilings. The most successful strategy, however, was the creation of sunspaces at the entrances to the living rooms. This strategy increased average internal temperatures by 1.7 and 2.3 C. In combination with increased insulation levels, the sunspaces reduced comfort dissatisfaction levels by over 50%. (author)

  1. DIMENSIONS AFFECTING THE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF NEPALI WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Singh Thagunna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the various dimensions of buying behavior of Nepalese women while making purchasing decisions. A total of 100 women of different background were surveyed through a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions related to the buying behavior. Various factors such as Value Identification, Customer Service and Lifestyle are most influential for Nepalese women’s purchasing decisions. So, by providing, at affordable price, high value product that match the personality of the targeted women and by providing superior customer care, Nepalese women can be attracted easily. Besides these, price, brand awareness and accurate information also influence their buying behavior to a certain extent. Age also plays a role in the purchasing decisions she makes, since women of different age group behave differently while purchasing items for their homes, for their offices or for personal use. Difference in the demographic factors such as personal status, religious belief, occupation and income level however do not bring difference in the buying behavior of Nepalese women, in general.

  2. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  3. Pattern of vitamin D among Pakistani pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, J.A.; Zaidi, S.A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women. Five studies were included for the final analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was common and highly prevalent among Pakistani pregnant women and their neonates. The main reasons for this were found to be avoiding sun exposure, quality of diet, and lower intake of calcium. Maternal vitamin D supplementation was found to be a key intervention to improve the maternal and neonatal vitamin D status. These review findings can be emerging in ensuring the adequate vitamin D level for Pakistani pregnant women during pregnancy, ultimately to achieve positive maternal and neonate's health outcomes. (author)

  4. Caries risk assessment in pregnant women using cariogram

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    Dolić Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.

  5. Activity Behaviours in Lean and Morbidly Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2018-05-17

    Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

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    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  7. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p Syrian refugees was statistically higher (p Syrian refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregnant and non-pregnant women seems very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the GBS ‎molecular capsular serotype ‎and genotype distribution of pregnant and non-pregnant carrier ‎women at Yazd university hospital, in Iran.‎. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 GBS strains isolated from 237 pregnant and 413 non-pregnant women were investigated for molecular capsular serotypes and surface protein genes using the multiplex PCR assay. The Chi-square method was used for statistical analysis. Out of 650 samples, 100 (15.4%) were identified as GBS, with a predominance of capsular serotypes III (50%) [III-1 (49), III-3 (1)], followed by II (25%), Ia (12%), V (11%), and Ib (2%), which was similar with another study conducted in Tehran, Iran, but they had no serotype Ia in their report. The surface protein antigen genes distribution was rib (53%), epsilon (38%), alp2/3 (6%), and alpha-c (3%). The determination of serotype and surface proteins of GBS strains distribution would ‎be ‎relevant ‎for the future possible formulation of a GBS vaccine.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregna...

  10. Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih Joelsson, L; Tydén, T; Wanggren, K; Georgakis, M K; Stern, J; Berglund, A; Skalkidou, A

    2017-09-01

    Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally. Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise<2h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49). Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

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    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  12. Metabolism of whole body protein in pregnant and non-pregnant gilts using 15N-glycine single-dose end-product method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu De; Liu Huifang; Zhou Anguo; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng

    2007-01-01

    The metabolism of whole-body protein for pregnant and non-pregnant gilts was investigated using single-dose of 15 N-glycine end-product method. The results showed that there were no differences (P>0.05) in protein dynamic metabolism, amino acids utilization rate between pregnant and non-pregnant gilts at breeding. However, N flux, protein turnover rate, protein synthesis rate and breakdown rate of pregnant gilts were lower (P<0.05) than those of non-pregnant gilts at 30days after breeding, but the protein aggradiation's rate increased by 25% (P<0.05). During late gestation, N flux, protein turnover rate, protein synthesis rate and breakdown rate of pregnant sows were significantly increased (P<0.01), and protein aggradation's rate increased by 71.1%, compared with that of non-pregnant gilts. (authors)

  13. IMMUNOGENICITY OF ADJUVANT INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

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    M. P. Kostinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological events showed that pregnant women are the most vulnerable part of population if there is the flu in the country and they die much more often than the rest part of people. That is why influenza vaccination of population including pregnant women is one of the priorities of public health service in our state. Worldwide experience of influenza vaccination of either adults or children by new adjuvant vaccine has caused our research of its efficiency among pregnant women. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of antibodies to influenza virus strain A/H1N1/v, A/H3N2 and B in pregnant women vaccinated adjuvant trivalent subunit vaccine. Our research is randomized and comparative on parallel groups. It was carried out within the demands of Russian Federation and International ethic norms adapted to such kind of researches. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine was conducted in 27 pregnant women in the II trimester of gestation, and in 23 pregnant women in the III trimester of gestation, 19 non-pregnant women was in the control group. The level of antibodies in the serum was determined using a reaction of hemagglutination inhibition before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the vaccination. Revealed that influenza vaccination of pregnant women in the II and III trimester, causes the increase in titers of antibodies to vaccine influenza strains A and B, to fully meet the required criteria CPMP, and does not differ from the nonpregnant group. In a month after vaccination the level of seroprotective against A/H1N1/v was 77.0%, A/H3N2 — 88.9%, B — 85.2% after vaccination in II trimester, and 87.0; 87.0; 91.35% in III trimester of gestation. The factor of seroconversion after vaccination in II trimester for A/H1N1/v was equal to 6.5, A/H3N2 — 7.2, B — 6.5, after vaccination in III trimester of pregnancy: 7.1, 6.5 and 5.1 correspondingly. At the same time revealed accelerated decline in antibody titer against

  14. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

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    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  15. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  16. Cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant women: obstetrical and therapeutic approaches

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    Davidova Iu.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study the effectiveness and safety of the use of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy in pregnant women with cholestatic hepatosis. Patients and methods. A total of 42 pregnant women, who were under outpatient and inpatient treatment in the department of obstetric problems of extragenital pathology for the period of 2013–2015 years were comprehensively examined. All pregnant at the time of observation were at the end of the II and III trimester of pregnancy. All 42 pregnant were divided into three groups. Results. For the end of the treatment by Ursonost preparation in the first and second group of pregnant was marked a general improvement of well-being such as reduction of fatigue, weakness, dyspepsia and pruritus. Also, was noted a normalization of blood biochemical parameters. Conclusions. As a result of the inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy was observed a significant improvement in overall well-being and normalization of blood biochemical parameters in women of the first and second test groups. Application of the proposed medical complex in the present groups of pregnant women allowed to seize the results of the pregnancy outcomes and almost avoiding premature delivery. Effectiveness and safety of the use of preparation during the pregnancy allow recommend inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy to the treatment regimen of cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant.

  17. Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, S.; Farasat, T.; Fazal, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

  18. Vitamin D levels among pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha

    2013-12-01

    To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.

  19. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Sensitivity to ionizing radiation is greater during intrauterine stages of development than at other stages in the life of the mammalian organism. For this reason, the NCRP recommends special care in patient selection in certain cases of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. For women of child-bearing capacity, the physician requesting a radiological or nuclear medicine examination involving the lower abdominal or pelvic region should ascertain whether the patient is, or could be, pregnant. Further, the NCRP recommends that physicians tell their premenopausal patients that, if they are likely to have nuclear medicine studies or x-ray examinations of the lower abdomen, it is generally advisable that they not run a risk of pregnancy until two months after the studies are carried out. Modification of an examination for dose reduction is warranted only if it reasonably can be done without significant jeopardy to the medical care of the patient and/or her unborn child

  20. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  1. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  2. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  3. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

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    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  4. Tuberculosis care for pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Pandolfini, Chiara; Chiodini, Peter; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-11-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. We used a combination of the terms "tuberculosis" and "pregnancy", limited to human, to search for published articles. Studies reflecting original data and focusing on TB care for pregnant women were included. All references retrieved were collected using the Reference Manager software (Version 11). Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. TB prophylaxis and anti-TB therapy appeared to be safe and effective for pregnant women and their babies when suitable follow up and early initiation were present, but the compliance rate to TB prophylaxis is still low due to lack of follow up and referral services. TB care practices in the reviewed studies were in line in principle with the WHO International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Integration of TB care within prenatal care would improve TB diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women. To improve the quality of TB care, it is necessary to develop national level guidelines based on the ISTC with detailed guidelines for pregnant women.

  5. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

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    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  6. Placental transfer of radioactive salts in the pregnant rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.; Shani, J.; Shechtman, M.; Pfeiffer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radionuclidic contamination due to the easy transfer of water-soluble ions from the circulation of the pregnant woman to her fetus, encouraged us to study whether the ease of penetration of such ions is size-dependent. Three radiochemicals--/sup 22/NaCl, /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/Na and /sup 201/TlCl were injected i.v. into pregnant rabbits on the 16th day of their pregnancy, and the rabbits were killed 15, 30, 60 or 120 min later. From each rabbit the blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle were sampled and counted as well as placenta, amniotic fluid and some fetuses. At 15 and 60 min hearts and livers were excised from selected fetuses and blood clearance, organ-to-muscle and fetus-to-placenta ratios were calculated. The results indicate that the transplacental transfer of the small radionuclide /sup 22/Na+ is faster than that of 99mTcO4- and /sup 201/Tl+, reaching equilibrium about 3 h after its injection to the pregnant rabbit. /sup 201/Tl+ demonstrated a high localization in the pregnant rabbits' and fetuses' heart and kidneys, with a similar myocardial retention in both groups. Due to the concentration of /sup 201/Tl+, in spite of its large diameter, into the fetuses' heart muscle, careful consideration should be taken when injecting /sup 201/TlCl into pregnant women for myocardial imaging.

  7. Serum markers thrombophilia in pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.

  8. Mental status in pregnant women with brain injury sequels

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    A. A. Volynkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate emotional disturbances in pregnant women with sequels of brain injury (BI.Patients and methods. A total of 47 pregnant women with a history of BI, who had been admitted to the Department of Obstetric Physiology, Moscow Regional Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in 2013-2015, were examined. All the patients underwent a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examination using the Miltidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Spielberg-Hanin Situational and Personal Anxiety Scale.Results. The pregnant women with BI sequels were found to have emotional changes involving asthenic, anxiety, and depressive components. In these women, anxiety symptoms were most common (53.3%; psychoemotional disturbance and asthenic and depressive manifestations were identified in 23.4 and 14.9% of cases. This investigation first verified the structural (situational and personal components of post-traumatic anxiety syndrome in the pregnant women. It revealed that an increased level of situational anxiety and physical symptoms of fatigue was observed in brain concussion sequels; and after brain contusion (BC, alarm acquired personality traits, asthenia was of a mental nature. In the pregnant women with BI sequels, depression was diagnosed only at the subclinical level and more often noted after BC (p=0.0473. 

  9. Health-related behaviors among pregnant women with hypertension

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    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The healthy and unhealthy behaviors of a pregnant woman influence both her own health and that of her unborn child, affecting its future development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension.   Material i method. The study was performed between November 2011 and February 2012 and included 80 hypertensive pregnant women hospitalized in a high risk pregnancy ward. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. Results. Statistical analyses showed a correlation between the respondents’ health-related behaviors and their socio-demographic characteristics: exercise was correlated with age (p=0.01, and rest during the day was correlated with support in everyday responsibilities (p<0.00001, and with the respondents’ socio-economic standing (p=0.03. Correlations were also found between healthy eating habits and residence (0.006, education (p=0.05, and sodium intake (p=0.0003, as well as between education and substance use (p=0.0003. Conclusion. Health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension are influenced by their education, support they receive in daily responsibilities, and their socio-economic standing. The diagnosis of hypertension in pregnant women does not necessarily prompt them to discontinue all unhealthy behaviors.

  10. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  11. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

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    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  12. Office diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorsten, J P; Bannister, E R

    1986-10-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant patients can virtually eliminate pyelonephritis, the most common medical cause for antepartum hospitalization. However, the ever-increasing cost of the urine culture has led most clinicians away from routine urine screening. Uricult dip-slide paddles provide an inexpensive, efficient way to screen urine. Clean-catch urine specimens were obtained from 544 consecutive asymptomatic pregnant patients seen in the outpatient obstetric clinic at the Medical University of South Carolina. Specimens were analyzed by both traditional culture techniques and the Uricult dip-slide paddles. By comparison, the Uricult test detected 55 of the 56 significant gram-negative urinary pathogens found by culture. Detection of potential gram-positive pathogens is more difficult. A scheme is proposed that allows reliable, inexpensive surveillance in all pregnant patients. Hopefully, this algorithm will rekindle the obstetrician's interest in urine screening.

  13. Profile of pregnant adolescents with history of domestic violence

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    Rosana Santos Mota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study aims to evaluate pregnant adolescents in relation to socio demographic, gynecological and obstetric aspects and the experience of domestic violence. The subjects were 34 pregnant adolescents who got prenatal care in the city of São Francisco do Conde (Bahia, Brazil. Interviews were conducted. The majority of pregnant adolescents was between 16 and 19 years old and was single, black, non-educated, and financially dependent on parents or husband/partner, having initiated a sexual relationship before the age of 15. More than 40% declared a history of domestic violence. Some of them revealed the experience of domestic violence during pregnancy. In face of this reality, a professional look is necessary in order to recognize domestic violence as an aggravating factor to the health of these adolescents, a fact which has not been perceived in health care.

  14. Pilates workouts can reduce pain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviani, Ika

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises for a decreasing pain in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women were divided into two groups, a control group (followed a standard pregnancy exercise regimen) and a Pilates group (completed a Pilates exercise regimen). A pain assessment was carried out after exercise, using a visual analog scale. The Pilates group workout program lasted 70-80 min per day, once a week, for 8 weeks. The reduction in the level of pain was found to be significantly greater in the group of pregnant women who completed the Pilates workout (p Pilates is an effective, healthy, and feasible method of reducing pain in pregnancy, and is therefore a beneficial alternative workout for the suppression of pain in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

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    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  16. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to at least four hazards had more access to such services (P workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  17. Differential endometrial gene expression in pregnant and nonpregnant sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    obtained from the endometrium of pregnant sows and sows inseminated with inactivated semen. Analysis of the microarray data revealed 263 genes to be significantly differentially expressed between the pregnant and nonpregnant sows. Most gene ontology terms significantly enriched at pregnancy had allocated...... more up-regulated genes than down-regulated genes. These terms included developmental process, transporter activity, calcium ion binding, apoptosis, cell motility, enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathway, positive regulation of cell proliferation, ion homeostasis, and hormone activity. Only...... in the process of placentation. Pregnancy-specific localization of IL11RA to the surface epithelium of the endometrium suggests a role of interleukin 11 signaling in formation of the porcine epitheliochorial placenta. Furthermore, up-regulation of FGF9 mRNA in pregnant endometrium and localization of FGF9...

  18. PRESENT DAY CONCERNS ON DIET OF PREGNANT AND NURSING MOTHERS

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    L.G. Mamonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition of women at pregnancy and delivery is known to provide basis for normal healthy growth and development of their children. Deficiency of animal proteins, vegetable fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (as b-carotine, А, Е, С, В2, В6, В12, folic acid, as well as calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, chrome, selenium, iodine and other microelements have been shown in the studies of actual diets of pregnant and nursing mothers in different regions of Russia, which was conducted by scientific research institute of nutrition, Russian academy of medical sciences. Methods of diet improvement to correct macro- and micronutrient deficiency in pregnant and nursing mothers, including use of specialized food products, are taken up in the article.Key words: diet, pregnant mothers, nursing mothers, nutritive support.

  19. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

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    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  20. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal......BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case......-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted...

  1. Effect of indomethacin on the pregnant rat

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    Débora Cristina Damasceno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance, liver morphological study and post mortem characteristics of the pregnant Wistar rats treated with indomethacin, a general COX inhibitor. Indomethacin at doses of 0 (control, 0.32, 1.68 and 8.40 mg/kg/day were orally given once daily to each group (n=10 on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy (day 0 = first day of pregnancy = positive vaginal sperm. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia on day 11 of pregnancy, and were carried out necropsy and microorganism culture study. The results showed that the doses of 0.32 and 1.68 mg/kg body weight (the therapeutic dose for humans of indomethacin caused no embryotoxic or lethal effects. The highest dose (8.40 mg/kg of indomethacin disturbed implantation process and, thus, interrupted major development in some fetuses. The peritonitis was detected in the necropsy and in the bacteriological study of the animals treated with 8.4 mg/kg. It was considered death cause of these animals. Thus, this study analyzed a pharmacological agent on pregnancy in rodents and it provided some evidences that indomethacin presented embryotoxic and lethal effects at a high dose, but it was safe in the therapeutic dose used for humans.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a performance reprodutiva, estudo morfológico do fígado e características " post mortem" de ratas Wistar prenhes tratadas com indometacina, um inibidor geral de COX. Indometacina foi administrada oralmente, nas doses de 0 (controle, 0,32, 1,68 e 8,40 mg/kg/dia (n=10/grupo, nos dias 3 e 4 de prenhez (dia 0 = primeiro dia de prenhez = esperma positivo. Os animais foram eutanasiados sob anestesia no 11º dia de prenhez, e foram realizadas necropsia e cultura de microorganismos. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de 0,32 e 1,68 mg/kg de peso corpóreo (dose terapêutica para humanos de indometacina não causaram efeitos embriotóxicos ou letais. A maior dose (8,40 mg/kg de indometacina

  2. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

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    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  3. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P dream-associated behaviors (P dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation

  4. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. NEW METHOD OF PREVENTION OF IRONDEFENSE ANEMIA IN PREGNANT TEENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mikhaylin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of the method proposed by the authors for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women. In the first stage, 593 histories of childbirth were retrospectively analyzed (group 1 — minors 13-15 years (n = 49, 2 group — minors 16-17 (n = 434, 3rd group — middle reproductive age (n = 110 . In the second stage, a prospective study of the frequency and structure of anemia of pregnant women was carried out (group 1 — minors aged 13-15 years (n = 17, group 2 — minors 16-17 (n = 127, 3rd group — women of middle reproductive age (n = 110. At the III stage, minor pregnant women were divided into two groups: in 1 (main group (n = 144, iron deficiency anemia was prevented according to the method we proposed; in the 2nd group (comparison group traditional therapy with iron preparations was carried out at the appearance of signs of anemia. The essence of the proposed method is that an minor pregnant woman, without waiting for laboratory signs of anemia, is examined for ferritin in venous blood, and at a value below 35 ng/ml, oral iron preparations are prescribed in conventional preventive doses for a period of 3 months, and if through three months the content of ferritin in the venous blood is again below 35 ng/ml — the intake of iron-containing preparations continues for another 3 months. The use of the proposed method contributed to a significant decrease in the incidence of anemia in minor pregnant women. The proposed method of preventing iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women helps to reduce the frequency and severity of anemia in this complex category of patients. 

  6. Studies of dental and oral changes of pregnant diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G

    1987-01-01

    The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women.

  7. Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.

    1987-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  8. Plasma levels of progesterone in cycling and pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.P.; Rao, P.N.; Reddy, B.B.; Murthy, A.S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma progesterone profile of six cycling and three pregnant Nellore ewes was estimated by radioimmunoassay. The progesterone level of cycling ewes started rising from undetectable level on the day of oestrus to a mean peak value of 0.41 ± 0.09ng/ml during post oestrus day 10 to 14 and then declined to undetectable levels 1 to 2 days before subsequent oestrus. But the progesterone levels of pregnant ewes exhibited further raise from the post oestrus day 14 to the day 40. However, no correlation between oestrous cycle length and the total progesterone produced during the oestrous cycle was observed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  9. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral G. Nogayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.

  10. Use of the smartphone application "Pregnant with Diabetes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Nichum, Vibeke Ladefoged; Barfred, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -hospitalet, to develop the app "Pregnant with Diabetes". The app communicates clinically important antenatal health information to women with diabetes, based on recommendations from our centre. Women with pre-existing diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes) completed an anonymous, structured questionnaire at their first...... antenatal visit in early pregnancy at our centre. National and international data on numbers of downloads were obtained from Google Play, from the App Store and from Google Analytics. RESULTS: Among 139 pregnant women with diabetes (96 with Type 1 diabetes and 43 with Type 2 diabetes), 99% had a smartphone...

  11. Variant-specific immunity to Plasmodium berghei in pregnant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2009-01-01

    for recrudescence-type IEs are related to the protection of pregnant mice from maternal anemia, low birth weight, and decreased litter size. We conclude that the model replicates many of the key parasitological and immunological features of PAM, although the P. berghei genome does not encode proteins homologous...... to the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 adhesins, which are of key importance in P. falciparum malaria. The study of P. berghei malaria in pregnant, immune mice can be used to gain significant new insights regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity in general and regarding PAM in particular....

  12. Missed Opportunities For Immunization In Children And Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A I

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of immunization in reducing childhood mortality cannot be over-emphasised, yet many opportunities for immunization are missed when children and pregnant women visit a health facility. Reducing missed opportunities is the cheapest way to increase immunization coverage. The present study discusses the extent of the problem of missed opportunities for immunization in children and pregnant women and the factors contributing to the problem, in spatiality and community outreach clinics of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Recommendations are made regarding ways and means of reducing missed opportunities.

  13. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Gaszyńska; Justyna Klepacz-Szewczyk; Elżbieta Trafalska; Anna Garus-Pakowska; Franciszek Szatko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Det...

  14. First Trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  15. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  16. Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 μSv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units [fr

  17. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-29

    Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to

  18. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-01-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy

  19. Abnormal vaginal flora in symptomatic non-pregnant and pregnant women in a Greek hospital: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, G S; Skalidis, T; Legakis, N J; Falagas, M E

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The presence of leukocytes and lactobacillary grade were evaluated to classify a condition as AVF with inflammation; subsequently, bacterial cultures were performed. A total of 761 women were included. Five hundred and seventy-nine women were diagnosed with candidiasis, BV, trichomoniasis, or other types of vaginitis in which no pathogenic bacterial growth occurred in cultures. One hundred and eighty-two women (23.9 %) were diagnosed with AVF with inflammation (116 non-pregnant, 66 pregnant). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen among these women (non-pregnant: 45.7 %, pregnant: 34.8 %). Other common pathogens were Group-B-Streptococcus (non-pregnant: 20.7 %, pregnant: 22.7 % respectively), Enterococcus faecalis (14.7 %, 18.2 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9 %, 12.1 %). The prevalence of AVF with inflammation may be high. Since inflammation criteria were applied, most cases of BV were eliminated and the majority of cases of AVF are AV. Therefore, clinicians should include AV in the differential diagnosis of vaginitis, while microbiologists should take into account the growth of aerobic bacteria in vaginal cultures originating from women with microscopic findings of AV.

  20. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  1. Comparison of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I J; Jun, J; Kim, E M; Lee, K Y; Kim, N; Chung, M H; Choi, Y R; Choi, E M

    2018-05-01

    This study set out to compare the onset and duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women receiving general anesthesia. Forty-seven pregnant (Group P) and forty-seven non-pregnant (Group C) women were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, and neuromuscular blockade was assessed with an accelerometric sensor using train-of-four stimulation (TOF-Watch® SX). Tracheal intubation was performed at maximum depression of the first twitch (T1) and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2.5% and 50% oxygen in air. We recorded the times to maximum T1 depression and 5% and 25% T1 recovery, as well as the mean arterial pressure and heart rate at baseline, injection of rocuronium, intubation, and 5% and 25% T1 recovery. The onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (time to maximum T1 depression) did not differ significantly between the groups. The duration (time to 25% T1 recovery) was significantly longer in Group P than in Group C (45.7 ± 12.9 min vs 40.6 ± 10.4 min, P rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade did not significantly differ in onset but lasted significantly longer in second trimester pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tritium ingestion as organically bound tritium (OBT) - incorporation in different organs of pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Pollaris, K.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kowalska, M.

    1998-01-01

    For a better understanding of the hazard of tritium, its bound form in the food constituents (organically bound tritium (OBT)) has not been investigated though study on tritiated water are many. Hence an evaluation of the uptake of tritium incorporated in basic constituents of food viz, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids is warranted. Present study cells with the incorporated three organically bound tritium components separated from tritiated milk powder (casein, butter and lactose). This is further compared in the organs of pregnant (after parturition) and non-pregnant rats

  3. Subtle differences in selective pressures applied on the envelope gene of HIV-1 in pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransy, Doris G; Lord, Etienne; Caty, Martine; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc; Diallo, Abdoulaye Baniré; Soudeyns, Hugo

    2018-04-17

    Pregnancy is associated with modulations of maternal immunity that contribute to foeto-maternal tolerance. To understand whether and how these alterations impact antiviral immunity, a detailed cross-sectional analysis of selective pressures exerted on HIV-1 envelope amino-acid sequences was performed in a group of pregnant (n = 32) and non-pregnant (n = 44) HIV-infected women in absence of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Independent of HIV-1 subtype, p-distance, dN and dS were all strongly correlated with one another but were not significantly different in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant patients. Differential levels of selective pressure applied on different Env subdomains displayed similar yet non-identical patterns between the two groups, with pressure applied on C1 being significantly lower in constant regions C1 and C2 than in V1, V2, V3 and C3. To draw a general picture of the selection applied on the envelope and compensate for inter-individual variations, we performed a binomial test on selection frequency data pooled from pregnant and non-pregnant women. This analysis uncovered 42 positions, present in both groups, exhibiting statistically-significant frequency of selection that invariably mapped to the surface of the Env protein, with the great majority located within epitopes recognized by Env-specific antibodies or sites associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing activity. The median frequency of occurrence of positive selection per site was significantly lower in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Furthermore, examination of the distribution of positively selected sites using a hypergeometric test revealed that only 2 positions (D137 and S142) significantly differed between the 2 groups. Taken together, these result indicate that pregnancy is associated with subtle yet distinctive changes in selective pressures exerted on the HIV-1 Env protein that are compatible with transient modulations of maternal

  4. Sero-prevalence of IgM antibody to Rubella Virus in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2014-09-05

    Sep 5, 2014 ... Rubella is a contagious viral infection, which in pregnant women leads to infection of a developing fetus .... health care administrators and providers in. Nigeria to initiate a ... oral consent was obtained from both pregnant and ...

  5. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...

  6. Serum urea and uric acid concentration in pregnant women in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant blackAfrican women. Uric acid levels for the pregnant women were significantly raised, and the relationship between uric acid elevation and gestational proteinuric hypertensionwas discussed. In conclusion, we recommend that uric acid ...

  7. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  8. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  9. Ureteroscopy for treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.K. Fathelbab

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... Loin pain and colic were the most common presenting symptoms (90.2%). Twenty-seven patients (65.9%) ... of urinary tract-related abdominal pain in pregnant women with a reported prevalence of .... or a laser lithotriptor, a long lasting JJ stent (PercuflexTM, Boston. Scientific Corp., USA) was left until the ...

  10. Epidemiology and risk factors HTLV virus infection in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS HTLV VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  12. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  13. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  14. Being targeted as a “severely overweight pregnant woman”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Drude Skov; Sandøe, Peter; Holm, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 have been tar-geted in health-care systems in many western countries as a high- risk group. However, we have limited knowledge of the long-term significance of this prenatal care policy. Objective: To investigate accounts women gi...

  15. Pregnancy resolutions among pregnant teens: termination, parenting or adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-Ling

    2014-12-19

    Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and Child Health Centre, who had a history of being pregnant in their teens and out of wedlock. Interviews were conducted to explore the considerations surrounding their decision on how to resolve their pregnancy. A total of nine women were interviewed. An analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that to arrive at a decision on what to do about their pregnancy, pregnant teens took into consideration their relationship with their boyfriend, their family's advice or support, practical considerations, their personal values in life, and views on adoption. The results of this study results highlighted that during this life-altering event for adolescents, an open discussion should take place among all of the parties concerned. A better understanding of each party's perspective would allow for better decision making on the resolution of the pregnancy. Health professionals or social workers are there to help pregnant adolescents, romantic partners, and family members make informed choices on how to resolve the pregnancy.

  16. Prenatal Care for Pregnant Adolescents in a Public High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marjorie; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of pregnant adolescents were studied using a retrospective analysis of obstetrical summary to demonstrate the relationship of the availability of a comprehensive, program of prenatal care in a public school setting to the achievement of early and continuous prenatal care, and to the minimizing of obstetrical complications. (JMF)

  17. Sero-epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and ... Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have been exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, with the ..... observation that food-borne transmission of T. gondii is increasingly recognized as a potentially.

  18. Histological changes in the endometrial of pregnant Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a changed uterine morphometry and its application to the endometrial structure of a pregnant rat. The number and the size of uterine gland and blood vessels changed during the pregnancy period of the rat. This effect on day 15 was significantly changed in the different groups. When the endometrial ...

  19. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...

  20. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. An underestimated threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Feuchter, Germán; Robles-Torres, Rosa Evangelina; Ruelas-Morán, Andrés; Gómez-Alcalá, Alejandro V

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common pregnancy complication. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can trigger the development of serious complications affecting both the mother and the fetus. Determine the frequency of AB among pregnant women attending to antenatal care at the family medicine clinic number 1 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, located in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. A longitudinal study was carried out from September to December 2004. Seventy-two 72 pregnant women with gestational age of 24 weeks or less were followed up during four months. All pregnant women were selected by a non-probabilistic method. Every patient had a monthly urine culture during the follow up period. Among the 72 pregnant women, 16.7% developed symptomatic urinary infections during the follow-up and 25% had at least one positive urine culture without urinary symptoms, being classified as AB, thus receiving treatment. Frequency of positive urine cultures was common at first and fourth months of follow-up. Urine culture is an important component of prenatal care, and helps in identifying a significant number of urinary tract infections that would go otherwise undetected.

  1. Periodontal Status and Some Variables among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the frequency of periodontitis among pregnant women, ranging from 35% to ... Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Abstract .... by the stress and anxiety during pregnancy, which may lead to a neglect of .... Khader YA, Al‑shishani L, Obeidat B, Khassawneh M,.

  2. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  3. Utilisation of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in Gulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Results: 35% of pregnant women (95% CI 31% - 38%) had utilised ITNs. Factors that promoted ... 0.050) and being single/widow/divorced (AOR 0.22, p-value 0.000). Conclusion: .... being engaged in business (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.08. - 2.26 ...

  4. Low level of Hepatitis B knowledge and awareness among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Kintampo Health Research Centre, B/A, Ghana, 2Ensign College of Public ... knowledge and awareness of HBV among pregnant women in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana ... information on HBV and the least source of information were places of worship (2.7%) ... (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine is known to be safe and.

  5. Prevalence and Pattern of Back Pain among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr S.B. OLALEYE

    Back pain is (BP) is recognized as an important problem in pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of back pain. (BP) in pregnancy. A survey of 2,187 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in selected Medical facilities in Ibadan and Ogbomoso, Nigeria was carried out ...

  6. Knowledge and attitude towards smoking of pregnant women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Diamanti

    2017-05-01

    Having not being informed and helped adequately, a significant percentage of pregnant women continued to smoke throughout their pregnancy. The failure in imposing the clean indoor air law in public places in Greece has also contributed to the increased passive smoking exposure.

  7. Should Ultrasonography be Done Routinely for all Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positive findings on ultrasound were significantly greater in the group with specific indications for scanning, P< 0.001. Conclusion: Our suggestion is that ultrasound examination in pregnant women should be performed only when there are clear obstetric reasons, established clinically. Key Words: obstetric ultrasound scan, ...

  8. A survey of pregnant and postnatal women, clinic attendees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of pregnant and postnatal women, clinic attendees and maternity staff regarding the presence of birth companions during labour and delivery. ... Conclusion: The involvement of birth companions supporting women during childbirth could be promoted as a low cost preventive intervention to improve maternal and ...

  9. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected tropical protozoan disease of public health importance. This study estimated the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ...

  10. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria. Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from one hundred ...

  11. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  12. determination of serum chloride ion concentration in pregnant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusif

    ABSTRACT. Serum chloride ion level in blood samples of pregnant women attending ante-natal care clinic in Minjibir was investigated. The mean and standard deviation of the ion in the samples is 100.51+ 4.89mmol/L. The distribution is skewed towards high frequency of low concentrations and could be attributed to.

  13. Blood transfusion in obstetrics: attitude and perceptions of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstetrics haemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable maternal deaths worldwide. Blood transfusion is pivotal to death reduction, but are the women aware of its importance? Objectives: The study investigated the view of a population of pregnant women on obstetrics related blood transfusion. Methods: ...

  14. Patterns and predictors of physical activity among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns and predictors of physical activity (PA) in pregnant women is poorly understood. This study described the patterns of physical activity (PA) in specific domains (home, occupation, transport and exercise/sport) and intensities (light, moderate and vigorous), and determined the factors associated with achieving ...

  15. Geophagy and parasitic infections in pregnant women attending an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Geophagy, a regular and deliberate habit of eating non-food substances is practiced worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa. ... was not associated with parasitic infections in pregnant women, geophagy was found to have a significant association with education, history of geophagy and the feeding problems.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    98) and gentamicin 100% (98/98) for HbAS and HbAA women respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ASB in pregnant women with HbAS in Enugu, Nigeria was high and did not vary significantly from that of woman with HbAA.

  17. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.

  18. Periodontal Condition and Treatment Needs of Some Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Periodontal diseases had been reported to be worse in the presence of hormonal imbalance as seen during pregnancy, which if that is the case, should resolve following childbirth when the hormonal level of the women should have reverted to normal. Subjects and Methods: Periodontal health of 345 pregnant ...

  19. Trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Ifako Ijaiye, Shomolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred pregnant women between ages 15-60 years and attending antenatal clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria were screened for trichomoniasis in 2015. High vaginal swab samples obtained from the participants were examined by direct wet mount microscopy to determine prevalence of infection. Questionnaires were ...

  20. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Ordinioha and Brisibe: Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in South‑South Nigeria. 14. Nigerian Journal ... that they may have, and social and family supports for .... through the mass media, 21 (18.42%) read it in the internet, while 13 .... while all the Muslim respondents and Christians of the. 7th Day ...

  1. Rhesus negative pregnant women in a traditional birth home in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a survey of 200 pregnant women (mean age 24 years) attending a traditional birth home (TBH) in Abeokuta, Nigeria, 19 (9.5%) were found to be rhesus negative, 8 (42.1%) of which were primigravidae while 11 (57.9%) were multigravidae. 87.5% of the Rhesus negative primigravidae delivered at the TBH without being ...

  2. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...

  3. Malaria in pregnancy: Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires were administered to four hundred and seventy pregnant women from two hospitals and a traditional birth home (TBH) in Abeokuta, Nigeria, to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices about malaria. A high percentage of respondents 49.1% attributed malaria to mosquito bites; knowledge of ...

  4. Select toxic metals status of pregnant women with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic metals are part of the most important groups of environmental pollutants that can bind to vital cellular components and interfere with their functions via inhalation, foods, water etc. The serum levels of toxic metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic) in pregnant women with history of pregnancy complications, ...

  5. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  6. Changes in foot plantar pressure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Enas; Devreux, Isabelle; Embaby, Heba; Alsayed, Amani; Alshehri, Maram

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy, the body undergoes many hormonal and anatomical changes causing several medical problems as the musculoskeletal system problems. To investigate the plantar pressure distribution during pregnancy. Twenty two pregnant and non-pregnant females were selected from the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. All females were evaluated by inspection regarding their deformities of the spine, pelvis, lower extremities and feet. Pain was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the weight and height were recorded using a calibrated weighing scale. Finally, the plantar pressure distribution was examined by a Global Postural Analysis device (GPA). The results revealed significant asymmetry of weight bearing in the study group (pregnant) compared to the control group (non-pregnant) (p 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant direct relationship between the month of pregnancy and increased weight bearing on the 5th metatarsal in the study group (p= 0.04). There is an effect of pregnancy on plantar pressure distribution as well as weight symmetry which should be considered when designing an antenatal program.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria amongst pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus especially in sub Saharan Africa. The study was therefore carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and home based practices towards malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State.

  8. Prevalence of falciparum malaria amongst pregnant women in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus especially an infection with Plasmodium falciparum. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of falciparum malaria among pregnant women in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State, south-east Nigeria. Blood samples from 432 ...

  9. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Int J Med Biomed Res 2012;1(1):79-84. 79. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant women. Mardi T.G1, Lutfi M.F2*. 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University,. Sudan. 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, ...

  10. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  11. sulphonylurea therapyin the treatment of the pregnant diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    whereas a control group of patients treated with insulin and/or diet had a perinatal mortality rate of 20%, the foetal loss in the sulphonylurea-treated patients was 50%. TABLE 1. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF PERINATAL MORTALITY. IN 40 PREGNANT DIABETICS TREATED WITH SULPHONYLUREAS'. Durban series ...

  12. Intentional Unilateral Epidural Block for Surgery in a Pregnant Patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kuczkowski KM. The safety of anaesthetics in pregnant women .Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006. Mar;5(2):251-64. Review. 6. Steinberg ES, Santos AC: Surgical anesthesia during pregnancy. IntAnesthesiolClin1990;28:58-66. 7. Duncan PG, Pope WD, Cohen MM, Greer N: Fetal risk of anesthesia and surgery duringpregnancy.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C in pregnant females of Hazara division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, N.; Idris, M.; Sarwar, J.; Suleman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), the causative agent of Hepatitis C is prevalent in different countries including Pakistan. Studies have been conducted on various aspects of HCV in Pakistan. The present study was planed to see the prevalence of hepatitis C in pregnant females of Hazara Division. Five hundred pregnant females of reproductive age group from Hazara Division selected by non probability convenient sampling technique were studied from 1, March 2006 to 28, February 2007 at Ayub Teaching Hospital, and District Head quarter Hospitals Abbottabad, Haripur and Mansehra. After initial serving by immunology technique positive cases were confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Essay (ELISA). Seroprevalence of HCV in pregnant females of Hazara division was 8.9%. Females aged from 25-35 constituted the largest group among positive cases. HCV was more prevalent in District Abbottabad as compared to the other districts of Hazara division. Seroprevalence of HCV in pregnant females of Hazara Division is different from the figures already reported form the other parts of Pakistan. (author)

  14. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant holstein heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor–mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial...

  15. Malaria Parasitemia and Anaemia among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Umuahia and Nwachinemere Maternity and Child-Care (NMCCD) Ihie in Umuahia metropolis in Abia State Nigeria was carried out between April and October 2010. Blood samples were ...

  16. Anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a common problem affecting women in northern Nigeria. It is associated with several adverse consequences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko/Besse local government area of ...

  17. Heparin and Aspirin in Pregnant Sudanese women with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... prophylaxis against pregnancy loss in 58 pregnant Sudanese women with recurrent (>3) miscarriages associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Three (5.1%) patients had early miscarriages, three (5.1%) patients developed pre-eclamptic toxaemia and forty-seven (81%) of the 58 patients had cesarean delivery.

  18. Designated rooting areas to reduce pasture damage by pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, van der H.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether rooting damage by pregnant sows can be reduced by offering a designated area for wallowing and foraging, four groups of four sows each were subjected to four treatments, during eight periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square designed experiment. During each period, each group was given

  19. The influence of stigma on voluntary HIV testing among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal and external stigmas are often lumped together while addressing issues of stigma and HIV-testing, not considering that one of them may actually affect the disposition HIV-testing than the other. This study, therefore, investigated the effect of HIV/AIDS-related internal and external stigma on the disposition of pregnant ...

  20. Gestational and placental malaria parasites in pregnant mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also other blood parameters including Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and blood group were also determined using WHO standard methods. Personal information including information on gravidity and trimester was obtained through interviews and pre-designed questionnaires. Thirty-nine (39) of the pregnant women were ...

  1. HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria: a 5-year ... trends in HIV prevalence to ascertain the current course of the HIV epidemic in ... Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and its ...

  2. Antenatal blood donation: Pregnant mothers' attitude, fears and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 150,000 pregnancy-related deaths could be avoided each year through access to safe blood. Antenatal blood donation, which will increase access to safe blood, is one of the ways to reduce maternal mortality in this environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude, fears and preferences of pregnant mothers ...

  3. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study determined the prevalence and socio‑demographic characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge. Study Design: Descriptive cross‑sectional study. Setting: University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swab samples ...

  4. The Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60.4%) were asymptomatic. There were 92 out of 250 pregnant women (36.8%) that had three or more of the Amsel's criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The associated risk factors for developing bacterial vaginosis in the study ...

  5. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological ...

  6. Can I Be Excused from Gym?--I'm Pregnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eileen

    1988-01-01

    Appropriate physical conditioning can improve the physical and psychological health of pregnant students, ease delivery, aid recovery, and contribute to fetal health. This article discusses the importance of exercise during pregnancy, effects of exercise on maternal and fetal systems, and outlines precautions and guidelines for an exercise plan.…

  7. Incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as the isolation and identification of the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were ...

  8. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women ...

  9. Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Oyo East Local Government, Nigeria. ... South African Family Practice ... Results: Of 252 (72.0%) women who had been exposed to violence by their partner in pregnancy, 72 (28.6%) disclosed their IPV experience.

  10. Distribution of Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of Kell phenotype among the pregnant subjects was compared based on ethnicity. The prevalence of Kell antigen was significantly higher among the Hausa ethnic group (3.2%) compared to other ethnic groups which indicated zero prevalence (p=0.001). Kell negative phenotype was ≥ 96.8% among all the ...

  11. a study of nevirapine toxicity in hiv infected pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    HIV infected women commenced on nevirapine-based regimen in the current pregnancy with CD4 counts up to. 3. 350 cells/mm at the University Teaching Hospital,. Lusaka, Zambia. Design: Longitudinal observational study with 2 arms. Group 1 (low CD4 count arm): HIV infected pregnant. 3 women with CD4 counts less ...

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among pregnant women at Grace Specialist Hospital. ... Background: Unwanted pregnancy is a common event in our environment and many of them will end in an unsafe abortion. ... Education and religion did not significantly affect the use of a family planning method.

  13. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence.

  14. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  15. Incisional scar evisceration of fallopian tube in a pregnant woman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herniation of pelvic and solid abdominal structures like the fallopian tubes especially in pregnancy is extremely rare. We report a case of an eviscerated fallopian tube through an incisional hernia in a pregnant woman. There has been no such report in literature at the time of report. Case presentation: A case of ...

  16. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molatelo Elisa Shikwane

    2014-01-03

    Jan 3, 2014 ... To cite this article: Molatelo Elisa Shikwane, Olga M. Villar-Loubet, Stephen M. Weiss, Karl Peltzer & Deborah L. Jones. (2013) HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access ...

  17. What are pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies have sought cause and effect and have neglected the opinion of the people about what they perceive to be problematic and what they believe constitutes satisfactory maternity service provision. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

  18. Prevalence Of Malaria Parasitaemia In Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in 200 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) between April and June 2003 was determined. Geimsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined microscopically for malaria parasites; the parasite densities were ...

  19. Tropical Splenomegaly Syndrome in a pregnant woman: A good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient was diagnosed as a case of tropical splenomegaly syndrome or hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly through exclusion criteria. Before the woman got pregnant she was given a course of chloroquine. Patient was given supportive treatment: normal saline IV fluid, vitamin B12, iron and folate. On admission she ...

  20. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...

  1. Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community of ... ours, it is a common cause of anaemia in pregnancy in both immune and non-immune ... Apart from the use of nets, drugs and vector control, the prevention of malaria in ...

  2. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As efforts to reduce maternal and childhood mortality rates continue to yield results in Nigeria, it is time to put more emphases on the health of children. Alcohol consumption is one of the few modifiable risk factors for poor pregnancy outcome. This study assessed the consumption of alcohol among pregnant ...

  3. Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Pregnant Women with Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methos: Glucose, insulin and lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoproteins) were measured at 26 to 32 weeks of pregnancy in fasting blood samples obtained from 75 pregnant non diabetic women (Twenty five with a history of first degree relative with DM and fifty women without ...

  4. Mother-infant bonding in pregnant drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henriques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In female addicts, pregnancy carries risks associated with lifestyles, modes of consumption and effect of drugs on the developing fetus. This investigation tried to determine the level of antenatal attachment in pregnant addicts, as well as assess the relationship between the number of nursing visits and held attendance of the preparation for childbirth, with the level of prenatal attachment. We conducted a correlational study (Fortin, 2009, applied to a single point. Regarding the level of prenatal attachment, and considering that the maximum value for scale is 80, pregnant drug users have an average of 53.53 (SD=24.10, a value above the average value of the scale, it emphasizes that these pregnant have a value of linking prenatal satisfactory. It was found that the greater the number of nurse consultations conducted surveillance of the pregnancy, the greater the level of prenatal attachment, noting also that pregnant addicts who attend the course in preparation for childbirth, have higher levels of binding prenatal care (p <0.05.

  5. Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences | Published by ... Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of family ... Subjects and Methods: This was a ... pregnant women, whom were selected through a systematic sampling .... are run by 3 resident consultant obstetricians, 5 medical.

  6. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence.One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected.Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in pregnant women in poor countries

  7. Examining the safety of dental treatment in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowicz, Bryan S; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Novak, M John; Buchanan, William; Papapanou, Panos N; Mitchell, Dennis A; Curran, Alice E; Lupo, Virginia R; Ferguson, James E; Bofill, James; Matseoane, Stephen; Deinard, Amos S; Rogers, Tyson B

    2008-06-01

    Although clinicians generally consider it safe to provide dental care for pregnant women, supporting clinical trial evidence is lacking. This study compares safety outcomes from a trial in which pregnant women received scaling and root planing and other dental treatments. The authors randomly assigned 823 women with periodontitis to receive scaling and root planing, either at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation or up to three months after delivery. They evaluated all subjects for essential dental treatment (EDT) needs, defined as the presence of moderate-to-severe caries or fractured or abscessed teeth; 351 women received complete EDT at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation. The authors used Fisher exact test and a propensity-score adjustment to compare rates of serious adverse events, spontaneous abortions/stillbirths, fetal/congenital anomalies and preterm deliveries ( .05) between women who received EDT and those who did not require this treatment, or between groups that received both EDT and periodontal treatment, either EDT or periodontal treatment alone, or no treatment. Use of topical or local anesthetics during root planing also was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. EDT in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing serious medical adverse events or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data from larger studies and from groups with other treatment needs are needed to confirm the safety of dental care in pregnant women. This study provides evidence that EDT and use of topical and local anesthetics are safe in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation.

  8. Racial Disparity, Depression, and Birth Outcomes Among Pregnant Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Hala; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Aly, Hany

    2018-03-20

    Objectives To examine the risk of premature delivery (PD) and small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant teens with depressive disorders (DD), and the impact of race/ethnicity on these birth outcomes. Design/Methods We examined the hospital discharge records of pregnant mothers between the age of 13-18 year old who gave birth in the years 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012 in the National Inpatient Sample database. We calculated the risk for PD and SGA among pregnant teens with and without DD in the overall population and within each race/ethnicity. Results Weighted sample included 1,023,586 pregnant teenage women. Prevalence of DD among teens was 0.93%, with a significantly increasing trend from 0.29% in 1994 to 2.01% in 2012 (p teens from 1994 to 2012. Prevalence of depression among teenage mothers was highest among Caucasians compared to other races. Prevalence of SGA among pregnant teens was 2.23% that significantly increased from 1.63% in 1994 to 3.44% in 2012 (p teens with DD had decreased risk for PD compared to AA without DD (OR 0.70; CI 0.57 - 0.387, p teens with DD had increased risk for SGA compared to Hispanics without DD (adjusted OR 1.53; CI 1.10-2.13, p teens. Less young teenage girls are giving birth in recent years. The impact of DD on PD and SGA differs according to race. More studies are warranted to examine underlining factors responsible for these findings.

  9. Implementation of a journal prototype for pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Jennifer J; Comer, Karen; Lauten, Kathryn M; Sanematsu, Helen Y; Moore, Courtney M; Lynch, Dustin; Chumbler, Neale R

    2014-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy and childbearing remain pressing public health issues that have garnered attention from public health officials and social services agencies. This paper reports on the initial implementation and formative evaluation of a journaling program used as a means of communicating health information to pregnant and parenting adolescents (young women age 15-19) while also providing participants with a means of self-expression. The journaling prototype was implemented in a community-based agency in the Midwest by Family Support Specialists (FSSs) who made home visits on a monthly basis to assist pregnant and parenting adolescents (n=52) with successful family planning and public health education. A mixed method approach of qualitative (analysis of journals, field notes, and responses of semi-structured interviews with FSSs) and quantitative (questionnaires from pregnant and parenting adolescent respondents) data with purposive sampling was employed to evaluate the implementation of the journaling intervention. Twenty of the 52 study participants were pregnant when the journaling intervention was implemented, while 32 were not pregnant, but recently had a child and were currently parenting. Two core themes emerged from analysis of the data after the implementation of the journals: (1) usefulness of the journal and responsiveness to participants' information needs and (2) functionality challenges. The results offer practical starting points to tailor the implementation of journaling in other contexts. Further, areas for improvement emerged regarding the distribution timeline for the journal and the content of the journal itself. As such, we discuss the lessons learned through this collaborative project and suggest opportunities for future phases of the journal intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pregnant adolescents in the City of Bucaramanga, Colombia. A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ortiz Serrano

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Many social, cultural and family factors, deeply affect all pregnantadolescents. Therefore a strong support from their families, isurgently needed. Objective: To establish among pregnant adolescents,their demographic, social and family characteristics. Theseteenagers attend a primary care clinic at the City of Bucaramanga.Methods: Cross-sectional study using a self-applied questionnaire.Results: We analyze 336 pregnant adolescents, mean age 17 years(range 13 to 19. Most of them were having their first pregnancy.The mean age for their first sexual relations was at 15 years of age.65.5% of them said they had only one sexual partner. 62.2% werelife partners. 52.15% had or were attending high school. 61.6% hadsome information about pregnancy planning. 31.44 had informationfrom their school. 66.2% followed no planning at all. 59.0% washoping to get pregnant. 26.1% of them had experienced interfamilyviolence and 33.8% said they had a sister with pregnancy duringadolescence. Discussion: an important number of adolescentswant to get pregnant and establish a new home with their partners.Basically they try to get away from their violent original homes. Their partners are usually, older than the adolescent pregnant is. Most of the partners accept, worry, support and have stable relations during the girl’s pregnancy. A good and sound control for preventing teenage-pregnancy should be implemented in family programs for pregnancy planning, including prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology

  11. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at first intercourse was 14.2 years and the average period between first intercourse and pregnancy was 1.4 years. Most pregnancies (75% were neither planned nor wanted, however, most teen mothers (64.3% did not use any contraceptive method. Of the pregnant teenagers, 68.1% came from unstructured families where in 71% of the teen pregnancy cases, there was a role model (mother, sister, or cousin who already experienced teen pregnancy. The average number of school years attended by the analyzed pregnant teenagers was 8.1 years, however, there was a high dropout rate of 40.1%. The age at first intercourse was low and concurs with the high incidence of unstructured families. The average number of school years attended was high, which would theoretically reflect a greater knowledge with regard to human reproduction, pointing to the multicausality of teen pregnancy and the role played by the family. Conclusions: We confirmed that teen pregnancy presents multicausal etiology; sexual initiation of pregnant teenagers was quite early with high dropout rates, which indicated that prevention methodology should be based on early detection of risk factors for elaboration of appropriate prevention proposals.

  12. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Pedersen, H; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Arthur, G R; Covino, B G

    1988-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lidocaine were studied in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes. The maternal femoral vessels were cannulated and, on the day of study, the urinary bladder was catheterized. Lidocaine HCl, 4-5 mg/kg, was administered by IV injection over 60 seconds. Serial samples of arterial blood and urine were collected over 4 hours, and drug concentrations were determined using a gas chromatographic technique. The volume of the central compartment was greater in pregnant than in nonpregnant ewes (1.51 +/- 0.20 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.16 L/kg) as was the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss): 3.24 +/- 0.40 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.32 L/kg. The volume of distribution during the terminal exponential phase of drug elimination (Vd beta) and total clearance of lidocaine (Cl) were also higher in pregnant animals: 4.17 +/- 0.50 L/kg and 99.6 +/- 8.5 ml.min-1.kg-1, respectively; compared to 2.46 +/- 0.48 L/kg and 44.1 +/- 6.5 ml.min-1.kg-1, in nonpregnant ewes. However, the balance between these changes in Vd beta and Cl did not result in a significant difference in the elimination half-life of lidocaine (38.1 +/- 2.1 minutes in nonpregnant and 31.9 +/- 3.0 minutes in pregnant ewes). If these data are applicable to humans, the risk of drug accumulation after repeated administration of lidocaine is no greater in pregnant than in nonpregnant patients.

  14. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial: a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben Willem

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolment

  15. Evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in pregnant women with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Mevlüt; Sarı, Oktay; Aydoğan, Umit; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Semiz, Altuğ; Yılanlıoğlu, Necip Cihangir; Keskin, Uğur

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disease which is estimated to be undiagnosed to a large extent. Hence, the prevalence of OSAS in pregnant women is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnant women with chronic diseases. In the study, 97 pregnant women with chronic diseases and 160 healthy pregnant women were included. A form questioning socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy characteristics, Epworth scale and the Berlin questionnaire to evaluate the risk of OSAS were applied to participants. It has been determined that 10-12.5% of healthy pregnant women, 34-45.4% of pregnants with chronic diseases and 20.6-23.3% of all pregnant women had a high risk of OSAS, the pregnants with chronic disease compared to healthy pregnant women had statistically significant higher risk of OSAS. The risk of OSAS was found to be significantly higher especially in pregnant women with hypertension and diabetes. OSAS can lead to the adverse consequences in pregnancy, should be questioned for all pregnants especially those with chronic diseases. Pregnant women with OSAS should be monitored more carefully in terms of diabetes and hypertension in antenatal care.

  16. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  17. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific

  18. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated

  19. Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....

  20. Concentrations of isoflavones and their metabolites in the blood of pregnant and non-pregnant heifers fed soy bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Piskula, Mariusz Krzysztof; Bah, Mamadou; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta; Korzekwa, Anna; Brzezicka, Edyta; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan

    2008-10-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cyclic and pregnant heifers after feeding with soy bean. Twelve healthy heifers were divided into three groups: cyclic heifers (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle; control group; n=4), an early pregnancy group (2 months pregnant; n=4) and a late pregnancy group (8 months pregnant; n=4). All heifers were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on an HPLC system. In the blood plasma of the early- and late-pregnant heifers, we found lower concentrations and time-dependent decreases in daidzein and genistein in comparison to cyclic heifers (P0.05). In conclusion, physiological status (cyclicity or pregnancy) of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the heifers. The stage of pregnancy affects isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism differently and results in higher concentrations of active metabolites of isoflavones during early pregnancy in comparison to their lower concentrations during late pregnancy. Therefore, we surmise that cows are more sensitive to active isoflavone metabolite actions during early pregnancy than cyclic heifers and heifers in late pregnancy.

  1. Guidelines for the Management of a Pregnant Trauma Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Venu; Chari, Radha; Maslovitz, Sharon; Farine, Dan; Bujold, Emmanuel; Gagnon, Robert; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Brown, Richard; Cooper, Stephanie; Gouin, Katy; McLeod, N Lynne; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Physical trauma affects 1 in 12 pregnant women and has a major impact on maternal mortality and morbidity and on pregnancy outcome. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to optimize outcome for both the mother and her fetus. The aim of this document is to provide the obstetric care provider with an evidence-based systematic approach to the pregnant trauma patient. Significant health and economic outcomes considered in comparing alternative practices. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library from October 2007 to September 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy, Cesarean section, hypotension, domestic violence, shock) and key words (e.g., trauma, perimortem Cesarean, Kleihauer-Betke, supine hypotension, electrical shock). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English between January 1968 and September 2013. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to February 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). This guideline is expected to facilitate optimal and uniform care for pregnancies complicated by trauma. Summary Statement Specific traumatic injuries At this time, there is insufficient evidence to support the practice of disabling air bags for pregnant women. (III) Recommendations Primary survey 1. Every female of reproductive age with significant injuries should be considered pregnant until proven otherwise by a definitive pregnancy test or ultrasound scan. (III

  2. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  3. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  4. Serum Neuropeptide Y and Leptin Levels compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare serum NPY and leptin levels between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. The secondary objective was to compare these peptides between non-obese and obese pregnant women. Methods: Fasting venous blood was collected from non-pregnant women before open abdominal surgery and from pregnant women when admitted to the delivery room during the latent phase of labor. Results: There were 12 non-obese and 14 obese subjects in the non-pregnant group and 9 non-obese and 30 obese subjects in the pregnant group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was comparable, but heart rate (HR was higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. Mean±S.E.M serum NPY levels were lower in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group in overall (0.54±0.02 and 1.34±0.08, respectively, non-obese (0.53±0.05 and 1.23±0.14, respectively, and obese (0.54±0.03 and 1.43±0.09, respectively subjects (p<0.01 for all, but these were comparable between obese and non- obese pregnant subjects. Serum NPY was positively correlated with SBP (R=0.281, p<0.05, but negatively correlated with HR (R=-0.324, p<0.01. Serum leptin levels were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant groups, but were significantly higher in obese than non-obese pregnant subjects (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences in overall and pregnant subjects (p<0.001 all. Conclusion: In pregnancy, decreased NPY levels might be associated with inhibition of SBP rising as well as increased HR. Leptin levels might not be associated with pregnancy, but associated mainly with obesity.

  5. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  6. Occurrence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Young Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although acute leukaemia is rare in pregnancy its importance lies in its life-threatening potential, both to the child and the mother. The possibility of vertical transmission of leukemic cells increases the attention devoted to these patients and their offspring. Three cases of pregnant young women (15-17 years of age with AML are presented. This series of cases is the first report where gene abnormalities such as ITD mutations of the FLT3 gene and AML1/ETO fusion genes were screened in pregnant AML patients and their babies, so far. Unfortunately, very poor outcomes have been associated to similar cases described in literature, and the same was true to the patients described herein. Although very speculative, we think that the timing and possible similar exposures would be involved in all cases.

  7. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...... during pregnancy, we compared prescription data from the North Jutland Prescription Database with information on drug use provided by pregnant women to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which is a health interview survey. We used the North Jutland Prescription Database to identify all prescription...... drugs dispensed during pregnancy for the 2,041 women who were enrolled in the DNBC in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. Compliance was defined as the probability of reporting drug use in DNBC after purchasing a dispensed prescription drug. The overall compliance to drugs purchased within 120 days...

  8. Integrated wireless sensor network for monitoring pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niţulescu, Adina; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernad, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated monitoring system for pregnant women in the third trimester using a mobile cardiotocograph and body sensors. The medical staff has a useful tool to detect abnormalities and prevent unfortunate events in time. The mobile cardiotocograph sends data in real time to a Smartphone that communicates the information in a cloud. The physician accesses the data using the hospital ObgGyn application. The advantage of using this system is that the pregnant woman can follow her pregnancy status evolution from home, and the physician receives alarms from the system if the data is not in normal range and has available information about the health status at any time and location.

  9. 21-Year-Old Pregnant Woman with MODY-5 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Mikuscheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young” (MODY was first described in 1976 and is currently referred to as monogenic diabetes. There are 14 known entities accounting for 1-2% of diabetes and they are frequently misdiagnosed as either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. MODY-5 is an entity of monogenic diabetes that is associated with genitourinary malformations and should be considered by obstetricians in pregnant women with a screen positive for diabetes, genitourinary malformations, and fetal renal anomalies. Correct diagnosis of monogenic diabetes has implications on managing patients and their families. We are reporting a case of a 21-year-old pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, fetal renal anomalies, and a family history of diabetes that were suggestive of a MODY-5 diabetes.

  10. Domestic violence in the pregnant patient: obstetric and behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Liebschutz, J

    1998-10-01

    Every day, obstetric providers treat patients experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence can have both dramatic and subtle impacts on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This article enumerates patient risk factors for and obstetric consequences of domestic violence. It describes adaptations to the assessment and treatment of pregnancy complications occurring in the context of domestic violence and presents behavioral interventions that can be performed within existing obstetric care delivery systems. Behavioral interventions include assessments of a patient's readiness for change and her emotional responses to the violence. Obstetric interventions include an assessment of risk of physical harm to a pregnant woman and her fetus from domestic violence. Interviewing techniques include educating the patient about the effects of abuse and, over time, validating a patient's efforts to change. Reliance on a team approach and use of community resources are emphasized. All of these mechanisms enable obstetric providers to assist pregnant women in taking steps to end the abuse.

  11. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  12. Case control study of Electrocardiographic changes in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharddha Singh

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant haemodynamic changes and imposes stress on the cardiovascular system. Many healthy women develop signs and symptoms of cardiovascular overload during pregnancy. Knowledge of established normal changes in EKG during normal pregnancy is important. The aim of our study was to detect any early damage to myocardium during pregnancy with the help of electrocardiography. Total of 20 pregnant and 20 non pregnant women were studied. The most significant change observed in ECG was T wave inversion with odds ratio 7.43 (95%. Cl = 1.49 to 41.00. P= 0.005. Stratified analysis showed that there was no confounding role of age in the relationship of T wave inversion and ECG findings. Moreover, a significant relationship between anaemia and T wave inversion was also observed. (0=1.74 ■ 1101.06; P= 0.007.

  13. Online discussions with pregnant and parenting adolescents: perspectives and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A

    2005-10-01

    The Internet is an innovative strategy to increase public participation. It is important to include pregnant and parenting teens' perspectives when planning programs to meet their needs. This qualitative study explored online discussions as a strategy to enhance participation by this population. Findings showed that online communication was preferred over face-to-face group discussions. Being anonymous online encouraged open and honest feedback. Participants experienced various forms of social support, however, there was an overall lack of teen involvement online. Strategies to engage adolescents in online discussions and reduce barriers are discussed. Strategies included the use of teen moderators, home computer access, technical support, and engagement in naturally flowing online discussions to meet social support needs. Blending researchers' with teens' needs for social support in an online environment is encouraged. With careful planning and design, online communications can result in mutual benefits for researchers, service providers, and pregnant and parenting adolescents.

  14. Mobile Application for Pregnant Women: What Do Mothers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Janine; Daus, Mariana; Smith, María; Luna, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Today, health information technologies are constantly expanding and changing, allowing more and more people to use different mobile applications to receive information and control their health condition. Based on the need to implement an application for pregnant women in the Personal Health Record (PHR) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA), an Australian survey was carried out to measure the use and utility of a pregnancy application (pregnancy app). Our results were broadly in agreement with the reference values. The survey was distributed through social networks (Facebook and Twitter) during September 2016. We obtained 235 responses from Spanish-speaking women, mostly Argentinian. In conclusion, it could be observed that a pregnancy app offers the possibility of a greater follow-up and provides reassurance to the pregnant women who use it.

  15. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of physical activity on anxiety levels in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Janik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a very important period in a woman's life, but it is often associated not only with positive emotions, but also with negative emotions such as anxiety, stress or depression. Women most often fear birth and various medical complications during pregnancy. Very often their unpleasant experiences at the beginning such as nausea, fatigue and strong anxiety cause them to give up their physical activity. Numerous studies show that the physical activity of pregnant women has a positive impact on mother and child health. First and foremost, it is a powerful preventive agent in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, but also has a beneficial effect on the well-being of future mothers, including lowering anxiety and lowering the incidence of postpartum depression. That is why it is so important to educate pregnant women what exercises are most beneficial for them.

  17. Perioperative Evaluation of Pregnant Surgical Patients: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant Females require special perioperative consideration as females react differently to treatment from physiologic and behavioural standpoints. Thus a standard perioperative assessment plays a crucial role for successful accomplishment of intraoperative and postoperative phase as well as to resist complications due to pregnancy. Each physiologic system is affected in such a way that may or may not have clinical significance for the surgeons. Thus affect of Pregnancy on cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal and endocrinal system have been reviewed. Moreover to decrease the hazards to the developing child, impact of surgery/treatment on the fetus has also been discussed. It was concluded that the goal of the perioperative evaluation of pregnant females is to identify its physiological effects on various systems and provide for the best efficacious perioperative treatment algorithm that shall minimize the patient morbidity.

  18. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  19. Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Butt, R.W.; Masoud, R; Umar, M.; Shakil, U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women

  20. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  1. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  2. Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Massey, Katie E; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B; Lorenz, Carol

    2010-05-01

    Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors' objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used chi2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n=497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n=141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, Pdental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, Pdental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization during pregnancy exist. Medical and dental care providers who treat women of reproductive age and pregnant women need to develop policy strategies to address this population's access barriers to, and use of, dental care services.

  3. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  4. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  5. [Mercury in the hair of pregnant and lactating Chilean mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, C G; Rodríguez, A A; Barrios, C A; Jaramillo, V H; Gras, N T; Becerra, J; Núñez, E; Reyes, O C

    1995-11-01

    Mercury-containing industrial waste has been released into the coastal waters of the Eighth Region of Chile for around two decades. This study, carried out from 1991 to 1993, sought to measure mercury concentrations in the hair of pregnant and lactating women from villages near the coast and in the interior of the region in order to examine the relationship between the concentration of mercury and seafood consumption. The survey questionnaire used in 1991 to determine seafood consumption did not ask about the frequency of consumption of fish, shellfish, and algae but only whether the women who were pregnant or breast-feeding consumed a minimum of one fish-based meal per week. The questionnaire used in 1992 and 1993 asked about the daily and weekly consumption of seafood in general (fish, shellfish, and algae). Spectrophotometry was used to determine the total mercury concentration in samples of 100 mg of hair from 153 pregnant and lactating women in 11 fishing villages of the Eighth Region where seafood is regularly consumed. None of the women had occupational exposure to mercury. Total mercury concentration was also determined in hair samples from a control group composed of 26 pregnant and lactating women from Pinto and El Carmen, villages in the interior of the same region where seafood was rarely eaten. The arithmetic mean of the total mercury concentration in hair was 1.81 mg/kg of body weight for the study group (standard deviation [SD] 1.52) and 0.42 mg/kg for the control group (SD 0.15)--a statistically significant difference (P mercury concentration in hair was significantly higher in women who indicated that they ate fish seven or more times per week; in those who said they ate fish, shellfish, or algae five or more times per week; and in those who had lived 20 or more years in their village. No statistically significant differences were found when the results were analyzed by age.

  6. Knowledge and choices of postpartum contraception among pregnant teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-González, Karla M; Benabe, Erika; Rivera-Rosa, Edgardo; Negrón, Ivette; Romaguera, Josefina

    2014-09-01

    To describe the general knowledge and choices of postpartum contraception among pregnant teens who, at the time of the study, ranged in age from 13 to 19 years old and were receiving prenatal care at a hospital-based prenatal clinic. Questionnaires to obtain information regarding demographic characteristics and to explore contraception knowledge and choices were voluntarily completed by 44 pregnant teens, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old. The frequency and distribution of the variables under study were analyzed and are presented herein. Forty-four teens participated in the study. They had a mean age of 17.5 years. A significant proportion of the participants, 20 (45.5%), claimed not to know where to find information about contraception. All the participants acknowledged knowing about the male condom; as to other methods of contraception, 41 (93.2%) knew about oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), 31 (70.5%) knew about the patch, 30 (68.2%) knew about Depo-Provera, and 25 (56.8%) knew about intrauterine devices (IUD). The contraception methods about which the participants reported having the least knowledge were the sponge, the diaphragm, implants, the vaginal ring, and various natural methods. The majority (90.0%) of the participants agreed that they would prefer to use postpartum contraception. The contraceptive method of choice for postpartum contraception was the IUD (40%), which was followed in terms of preference by OCPs (17.5%), the patch (12.5%), and Depo-Provera (12.5%). The majority of the pregnant teens who participated in the study professed the desire to use some sort of contraceptive method to ensure that they would not become pregnant again in the near future. To that end, most of them expressed a preference for the IUD, one of the most effective contraceptive methods available today. Nevertheless, they need more access to and information about available contraceptive methods.

  7. Development of system on predicting uranium concentration from pregnant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Weiping

    2004-01-01

    Uranium concentration from pregnant solution is primary index of process for in-situ leaching of uranium, and the suitable method with which to predicate this index and effective means to solve it with were continuously studied hard. SPUC-system on predicting uranium concentration based on GM model of gray system theory is developed, and the mathematical model, constitution, function and theory foundation of this system are introduced. (authors)

  8. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2018-04-01

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of reproductive ageing on pregnant mouse uterus and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rima; Moffatt, James D.; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Demaison, Luc; Seed, Paul T.; Poston, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    Key points Older pregnant women have a greater risk of operative delivery, still birth and post‐term induction.This suggests that maternal age can influence the timing of birth and processes of parturition.We have found that increasing maternal age in C57BL/6J mice is associated with prolongation of gestation and length of labour.Older pregnant mice also had delayed progesterone withdrawal and impaired myometrial function.Uterine ageing and labour dysfunction should be investigated further in older primigravid women. Abstract Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) is associated with increased rates of operative delivery, stillbirth and post‐term labour induction. The physiological causes remain uncertain, although impaired myometrial function has been implicated. To investigate the hypothesis that maternal age directly influences successful parturition, we assessed the timing of birth and fetal outcome in pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 3 months (young) and 5 months (intermediate) vs. 8 months (older) of age using infrared video recording. Serum progesterone profiles, myometrium and cervix function, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex enzymatic activities were also examined. Older pregnant mice had a longer mean gestation and labour duration (P mice. Older mice did not exhibit the same decline in serum progesterone concentrations as younger mice. Cervical tissues from older mice were more distensible than younger mice (P mice (P mice, although there were no age‐induced changes to the enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. In conclusion, 8‐month‐old mice provide a useful model of reproductive ageing. The present study has identified potential causes of labour dysfunction amenable to investigation in older primigravid women. PMID:28083928

  10. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...

  11. Iron status in pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie M W; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J

    2010-03-01

    To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. A prospective study. Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0.001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks' gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.

  12. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  13. Urinary incontinence in pregnant women and their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaöz, Semra; Talas, Melek S; Atabekoğlu, Cem S

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the related risk factors as well as to assess its influence on the quality of life. Although urinary incontinence is common during pregnancy and can have a substantial impact on quality of life, women rarely seek help for this symptom. This study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive survey. A total of 393 pregnant women participated in the study between March and June 2007. The data was collected using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and Wagner's quality of life scale. Potential risk factors were investigated through logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27% (106/393). Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, urinary incontinence in mother and sister, previous urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. According to the results of our study, urinary incontinence is common in women during pregnancy. The quality of life of pregnant women was found to be either unaffected or affected very little by urinary incontinence. This study reveals that the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy is very high. The findings will help increase the awareness of health care workers involved in the care of pregnant women about urinary incontinence and aid the design of more intensive education programmes directed towards the prevention of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  15. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection

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    Rodrigo Batista Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby–Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients’ age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  16. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Espinola, Janice A; Moss, Kevin; Beck, Jim; Offenbacher, Steven; Camargo, Carlos A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is found in pregnancy outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in periodontal disease and tooth loss, and insufficient vitamin D status is common among pregnant women. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and periodontal disease. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were defined as pregnant women with clinical moderate to severe periodontal disease; controls were pregnant women who were periodontally healthy. Maternal data were chart abstracted and serum was collected between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Median serum 25(OH)D levels and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (defined as periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was calculated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal race, season of blood draw, and other potential confounders. A total of 117 cases were compared to 118 controls. Cases had lower median 25(OH)D levels than controls (59 versus 100 nmol/l; P periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was 2.1 (0.99 to 4.5). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D periodontal disease during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplementation represents a potential therapeutic strategy to improve maternal oral health.

  17. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  18. Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

  19. Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

  20. The management of HCV-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Guillermo; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Sjogren, Maria H

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C is, at present, a worldwide health problem and is the most common cause of liver transplantation. Its prevalence in pregnant women is similar to that of the general population. In the absence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, most HCV-infected pregnant women do not have obstetric complications. Screening of pregnant women that are asymptomatic and do not have risk factors is not cost effective. A high hepatitis C viral load reportedly increases vertical transmission and is higher in women who are coinfected with HIV or who are intravenous drug users. Prolonged rupture of the membrane for more than 6 h, amniocentesis, and perineal lacerations increase the potential risk of perinatal transmission. Although the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted intrapartum, prevention by caesarean delivery is not generally indicated. The HCV virus can be found in maternal milk; however, breast feeding is not contraindicated. In conclusion, there are no antiviral treatment recommendations for HCV-infected women during pregnancy, or guidelines for the prevention of vertical transmission.

  1. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

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    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  2. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant goats: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Witkowski, Lucjan; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    We documented changes in serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentration in goats during pregnancy, as measured by competitive ELISAs. Fifteen does (pregnant group) and 20 castrated males (control group) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected on the same day from all 35 goats, 7 times throughout the study period: at mating, then once every month, during the week preceding kidding, and 1 mo after kidding. Baseline SAA and Hp concentrations at mating were identical in the 2 groups. In the pregnant group, SAA concentration rose significantly in the second month and remained elevated until the end of pregnancy, with the peak concentration at kidding. In the control group, SAA concentration remained unchanged compared to the baseline concentration throughout the study. SAA concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than control group only at the end of the fourth month of pregnancy and at kidding. Hp concentration did not change during pregnancy or between groups. SAA concentration at kidding was affected only by parity of does - it was highest in does in the third and fourth pregnancy and gradually lower in older does.

  3. Pregnant at work: time for prenatal care providers to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkowsky, Chavi Eve; Morris, Liz

    2016-09-01

    Fifty years ago, when a woman became pregnant, she was expected to stop working. Today, however, most women who work are the primary, sole, or co-breadwinner for their families, and their earnings during pregnancy are often essential to their families' economic well-being. Medical data about working during pregnancy are sparse but generally show that both low-risk and high-risk women can tolerate work-related duties well, although some work accommodations (eg, providing a chair for sitting, allowing snacks, or modifying the work schedule) may be necessary. However, some employers refuse to accommodate pregnant women who need adjustments. This can result in a woman being forced to make the choice between working without accommodations and losing her income and health insurance or even her job. Prenatal care providers can play an important role by implementing changes in their own practice, shaping public policy, and conducting research to increase protections for pregnant women and to ensure that they receive medically recommended accommodations while continuing to earn income for their growing families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodology for dynamic biaxial tension testing of pregnant uterine tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah; Mcnally, Craig; Calloway, Britt; Duma, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Placental abruption accounts for 50% to 70% of fetal losses in motor vehicle crashes. Since automobile crashes are the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States, research of this injury mechanism is important. Before research can adequately evaluate current and future restraint designs, a detailed model of the pregnant uterine tissues is necessary. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for testing the pregnant uterus in biaxial tension at a rate normally seen in a motor vehicle crash. Since the majority of previous biaxial work has established methods for quasi-static testing, this paper combines previous research and new methods to develop a custom designed system to strain the tissue at a dynamic rate. Load cells and optical markers are used for calculating stress strain curves of the perpendicular loading axes. Results for this methodology show images of a tissue specimen loaded and a finite verification of the optical strain measurement. The biaxial test system dynamically pulls the tissue to failure with synchronous motion of four tissue grips that are rigidly coupled to the tissue specimen. The test device models in situ loading conditions of the pregnant uterus and overcomes previous limitations of biaxial testing. A non-contact method of measuring strains combined with data reduction to resolve the stresses in two directions provides the information necessary to develop a three dimensional constitutive model of the material. Moreover, future research can apply this method to other soft tissues with similar in situ loading conditions.

  5. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

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    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  7. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion

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    I. A. Lyoshenko

    2016-05-01

    Abstract Purpose. To determine the state of various stages of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion as a risk factor for premature detachment of the placenta. Results. There was investigated the state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion by low piezoelectric thromboelastography (LPTEG and standard coagulogram. According to the LPTEG results this group of women was found to have increased plasma coagulation potential manifested in elevated constant thrombin activity (TAC by 76.8%, the intensity of coagulation drive (ICD by 74.9%, maximum clot density (MA by 16.8%, shortening of coagulation time (T3 by 7.8% and inhibition of fibrinolysis manifested by decrease in retraction intensity and clot lysis (RICL by 67.7% (p<0.05. Conclusions. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion is characterized by increased plasma coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis potential that are factors of preparing the woman’s body for the upcoming birth to control and minimize blood loss.   Keywords: pregnancy, hydramnion, hemostasis, thromboelastography.

  8. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

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    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  9. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

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    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  11. Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban

    2016-09-02

    Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.

  12. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  13. Study of peripheral circulation in non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women using applied potential tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Badreldeen

    2004-08-01

    Profound changes are known to occur in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, involving an increase in cardiac output and a fall in peripheral resistance. In some women these adaptations may be inappropriate and this may result in pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The aims of the study were to evaluate the relatively new, non-invasive technique of applied potential tomography (APT) in measurements of peripheral blood flow, to study peripheral blood flow in a sample of non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women, and to investigate whether the adaptive changes in the peripheral circulation are different in pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Applied potential tomography was used to assess peripheral vascular reactivity, by monitoring fluid distribution in calf muscles during postural change. The APT technique was able to detect peripheral vasoconstriction in response to an increase in intramural pressure brought about by passive lowering of the leg (peripheral mechanisms). The peripheral vasoconstriction response was found to be more prominent in woman with pre-eclampsia. The presence of a local reflex in the lower limb had been postulated and the effect of this reflex on the peripheral circulation could be detected using APT, regardless of how it was initiated. In normal pregnant women this reflex was diminished when compared to non-pregnant women, which might contribute to the reduction in peripheral vascular resistance seen in normal pregnancy. This reflex was defective in pre-eclampsia and this lack of adaptation may be a local reflex contributing to the raised peripheral resistance, which in turn may be a factor in high blood pressure in pre-eclampsia.

  14. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (Padolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  15. Life's pregnant pause of pain: pregnant women's experiences of pelvic girdle pain related to daily life: a Swedish interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, Helen; Lundgren, Ingela; Robertson, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a universally disabling condition affecting three of 10 pregnant women. Qualitative studies on the subject are lacking. To describe pregnant women's experiences of PGP as related to daily life. In all, 27 women with PGP participating in a randomised controlled study were interviewed during 2010-2011. Qualitative content analysis was used. Five main categories emerged: PGP affects the ability to cope with everyday life; Coping with motherhood; Relationships between partners often reached the breaking point; Questioning one's identity as defined by profession and work, and Lessons learned from living with PGP. The categories illustrate how women's everyday lives were interrupted. Their inability to meet their own and others' expectations put a strain on their lives causing disappointment, sadness and frustration. It made them question and doubt their roles and identities as mothers, partners and professionals, and kept them from looking forward to future pregnancies, in the absence of effective treatment for PGP. Knowledge gained was that women with PGP should seek help immediately, listen to their bodies, and acknowledge their limitations. PGP severely affects pregnant women's everyday lives. There appears to be a lack of knowledge and awareness in general, as well as among caregivers and employers of PGP that needs to be highlighted and rectified. There is also a great need to learn how to support those suffering from it. Appropriate support during this important and rare phase in a woman's life is highly warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

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    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I

  17. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  18. Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. (c) 2007 APA

  19. Internal maternal position of women who became pregnant using IVF

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    Vera A. Yakupova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in vitro fertilization procedure is widespread. Due to improvements in medical technology parenting has become possible for couples who were doomed to childlessness. Practical request for psychological support couples who have decided to take part in the IVF program has been raised. Shaping the internal position of the IVF parent takes place in special psychological conditions. The IVF procedure is preceded by a period of infertility, the procedure is often the last chance to have a baby alone. Participation in the IVF program involves regular contact with doctors, medical personnel access to the intimate sphere of life couples. The paper analyzes the attitude of women participating in the IVF pregnancy program, the unborn baby and parenting - the elements constituting the parent position. The study which was attended by 224 pregnant women, 62 participants of IVF program and 162 women with physiological pregnancy was carried out on the basis of Kulakov Scientific Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology. When analyzing the data obtained we were able to identify features of the internal position of women who became pregnant using IVF. In comparison with a group of women with physiological pregnancy, the IVF program participants tend to romanticize the role of parent and child. IVF program participants demonstrate unwillingness to take on the role of parent. The main motivation of mothers in the IVF group concentrated on the very fact of pregnancy and childbirth, proper parenting, while care and support for children is not appealing to women who became pregnant using IVF. Important conditions for becoming a parent are the experience of motherhood and the time of pregnancy expectation.

  20. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Et

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26 were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6 received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05. No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  1. [Assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in Brazilian pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima E Silva, Janiny; Ferreira, Elizângela da Fonseca; Medeiros, Marcielle; Araújo, Maristela Lopes; Silva, Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho

    2011-08-01

    to evaluate psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy by translating and cross-culturally adapting a specific assessment instrument to be used with Brazilian women. this was a cross-sectional observational study. the translation and cross-cultural adaptation and of the Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire (PSeQ) was performed following all the required methodological steps. another questionnaire was applied to characterize the sociodemographic and clinical status of the pregnant women (n=36). Statistical analysis consisted of the determination of the mean and standard deviation (SD) and of absolute and relative frequency. the statistical test used for the analysis of internal consistency was Cronbach's alpha coefficient, using SPSS version 17.0. the volunteers were of low socioeconomic status, aged on average 25.1 years ( 5.5), and had an average gestational age of 25.9 weeks ( 8.1). 58.3% of these volunteers had not planned their current pregnancy. the pretest showed that 75% of the pregnant women found the questionnaire easy to understand. Regarding the PSeQ instrument, the identification with the maternal role was the subcategory which showed the highest average, 24.8 ( 5.6), while the relationship with the mother had the lowest average 15.4 ( 7.7). the internal consistency ranged from 0.52 to 0.89. the assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in pregnant women is very important during the progress of pregnancy and permits intervention through obstetric-neonatal actions of promotion and prevention regarding the well-being of mother and child.

  2. Correct Use of Three-Point Seatbelt by Pregnant Occupants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Serpil Acar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest cause of accidental death and placental abruption in pregnancy is automobile collisions. Lives can be saved by correct use of the three-point seatbelt during pregnancy. Human interaction is essential for correct use of seatbelts. The objective of this study is to investigate pregnant women’s use of correct shoulder section together with correct lap section as advised by obstetricians and highway experts and to identify the most common seatbelt misuse during pregnancy. An international web survey was conducted in five languages for this study. 1931 pregnant women reported their use of seatbelts and how they position the shoulder and lap sections of their seatbelts. Special attention was paid to distinguish between ‘partly correct’ and ‘correct’ seatbelt positioning. The questionnaire responses are used to determine the magnitude of every combination of the correct and incorrect shoulder and lap section of the seatbelt positioning during pregnancy. Results show that seatbelt usage in pregnancy is generally high in the world. However, the correct use of the entire seatbelt is very low, at only 4.3% of all respondents. 40.8% of the respondents use the shoulder portion of the belt correctly, whilst a 13.2% use the lap section correctly. The most common misuse is ‘across abdomen’ or ‘not using the seatbelt at all’, and both pose danger to pregnant women and their fetuses. Correct use of three point seatbelts is a challenge during pregnancy. We recommend that the media, medical community, and automotive industry provide targeted information about correct seatbelt use during pregnancy and accident databases include ‘correct seatbelt use’ information in crash statistics.

  3. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  4. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  5. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  6. Seroprevalence of rubella in school girls and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Kilinc, Banu; Karabay, Aysun; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been assigned to investigate the surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome, acquired rubella and seroprevalence in different countries to determine the new vaccination program and national vaccination schedules. Seroprevalence of rubella in Turkey is still insufficient and national immunization schedules do not include routine rubella vaccination. In this study we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of rubella at child bearing age in an unvaccinated population in Adana, southern Turkey, to help determine whether routine rubella vaccination is necessary, if so when it should be administered. Ninety-four school girls aged 12-18 years living in Adana were selected for the study and stratified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and evaluated for rubella antibodies. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-25 years and 100 pregnant women aged 26-35 years were sampled rubella antibodies. Rubella specific IgG antibody was measured qualitatively and quantitatively by using microparticule enzyme immune assay technology. Rubella specific IgG antibody was positive in 87-94 school girls (92.5%). The geometric mean rubella specific IgG antibody value was found be 148.14 IU/ml. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and rubella seropositivity (p = 0.6521). In all pregnant women rubella specific IgG antibody was found to be positive. In conclusion rubella vaccination should be considered carefully in developing countries. Because of the high seropositivity to rubella in our region we do not recommend rubella vaccination in early childhood. Yet this is a preliminary study and further studies with larger population size are needed to determine the national immunization policy for rubella.

  7. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main object...

  8. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  9. Food supplements complexes for pregnant' s: composition analysis and selection features at community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Tamelytė, Raimonda

    2016-01-01

    Compared food supplements complexes composition for pregnant women and adults. made a questionnaire survey. the composition of the food supplements complexes for pregnant women includes all major necessary vitamins and minerals for pregnancy. the assessment of active substances in the composition of the food supplements complexes for pregnant women are more suitable for use during pregnancy than, food supplements complexes for adults. in pharmacy, selecting food supplements complexes for preg...

  10. The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were m...

  11. SEXUALITY EXPERIENCE IN PREGNANT WOMAN AT PONDOK AREN TANGERANG HEALTH CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    Vike Dwi Hapsari; Sari Sudarmiati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnancy is an important event in women life. Various physical and psychological changes may affect pregnant women, particularly on sexuality. Along with the growing size of uterus in pregnant women, it can lead to discomfort and diffi culty for sexual intercourse. The aimed of this tudy was to understand sexuality experience among pregnant women. Method: This was qualitative research with phenomenological approach. Five participants involved in this study using purposive sampl...

  12. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels throughout pregnancy: a longitudinal study in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Agudelo-Zapata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide there is a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency and has been associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Objective: This is a nested, case–control study in a longitudinal cohort to compare the serum 25OHD levels and other biomarkers throughout pregnancy in a group of 20 preeclamptic women and 61 healthy pregnant women. An additional group of 29 healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Mean 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were 31.9 ng/mL and 34.9 ng/mL during follicular and luteal phase, respectively (P < 0.01. Mean serum 25OHD levels in healthy pregnant women were 26.5, 30.1 and 31.9 ng/mL, at first, second and third trimester, respectively (P < 0.001. The first trimester levels of 25OHD were lower than those of healthy non-pregnant women (P < 0.001, showing a significant recovery at third trimester. In the group of healthy pregnant women, the 25OHD levels were 25.7 ng/mL and 27.2 ng/mL at 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively; both values were lower than those observed in the non-pregnant women (P < 0.001. In preeclamptic women, 25OHD serum levels were similar to those of healthy pregnant women; nevertheless, they remained almost unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women in terms of 25OHD levels throughout the pregnancy. Serum 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were higher during luteal phase compared with follicular phase. The 25OHD levels of non-pregnant women tended to be higher than those of pregnant women.

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boar...

  14. Peculiarities of the colon microflora condition in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Vasylivna Rynzhuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation deals with studying of species content and population level of the colon microflora in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in comparison with practically healthy pregnant women. A significant disorder of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the colon microflora content has been found to occur in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, which in combination with physiological factors associated with pregnancy may result in the development of asymptomatic bacteriuria.

  15. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  16. The Prevalence of Pleural Effusion in Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    DİKENSOY, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusions are very common in general population. There are more than 50 reasons for the etiology. There is limited data on the prevalence of pleural effusions in a population of pregnant women. We prospectively screened 45 pregnant women between May and October 2006. All the pregnant women underwent thoracic ultrasonography during their routine check. Five out of 45 subjects (11%) had minimal and bilateral pleural effusion. None of the subjects was symptomatic. All of the effusions re...

  17. Sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical, hormonal and psychological changes during pregnancy can affect a woman’s sexuality as well as a couple’s sexual relationship. The aim of this study was to examine sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: The data of descriptive and cross-sectional study was collected via a questionnaire form and Female Sexual Function Index. A score ≤ 26.55 is classified as female sexual dysfunction. A total of 125 volunteer healthy and married pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy who admitted to the antenatal policlinics were included in this study. Results: The determined that 92% of participants had sexual dysfunction. The Female Sexual Function Index and domains scores in the 28th-31st, 32nd-35th and 36th and higher gestational weeks of pregnancy were as follows: sexual desire scores, 2.50, 2.77 and 2.40; sexual arousal scores, 2.26, 2.72 and 1.69; lubrication scores, 2.61, 3.42 and 1.97; orgasm scores, 2.51, 2.85 and 1.78; sexual satisfaction scores, 3.17, 3.77 and 2.66; pain scores, 2.44, 2.72 and 1.66, and total Female Sexual Function Index scores were 15.51, 18.29, 12.26, respectively. Sexual arousal (p = 0.008, lubrication (p = 0.001, orgasm (p = 0.031, sexual satisfaction (p = 0.005, pain (p = 0.049 and total Female Sexual Function Index score (p = 0.004 were the lowest in 36th and higher gestational weeks, and only sexual desire did not differ (p = 0.191. Conclusions: Sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester were negatively effected. Health professionals should be trained to evaluate sexual difficulties in pregnant women and to recommend possible solutions. Keywords: Pregnancy, Sexuality, Third trimester, Female sexual function index

  18. Designing and Implementing a Parenting Resource Center for Pregnant Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Anne B; Broussard, Brenda S

    2009-01-01

    The Resource Center for Young Parents-To-Be is a longstanding and successful grant-funded project that was initiated as a response to an identified community need. Senior-level baccalaureate nursing students and their maternity-nursing instructors are responsible for staffing the resource center's weekly sessions, which take place at a public school site for pregnant adolescents. Childbirth educators interested in working with this population could assist in replicating this exemplary clinical project in order to provide prenatal education to this vulnerable and hard-to-reach group. PMID:20190852

  19. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  20. Medical evaluation of the pregnant patient requiring nonobstetric surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    This article provides a summary of currently available information from a broad range of disciplines aimed at guiding the physician caring for the pregnant patient who requires nonobstetric surgery. An understanding of the anatomic and physiologic alterations that occur during pregnancy will allow such procedures to be accomplished with morbidity and mortality approaching those of nonpregnant surgical patients. The presence of the fetus does impose some restraint; however, this should rarely impair appropriate diagnosis and treatment of maternal disease. This obtains from the broad range of diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives available, and from the fact that what is beneficial for maternal health is generally best for the fetus. 64 references

  1. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  2. [Pharmacokinetic study of rifampicin in the body of pregnant animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, N A; Griaznov, N S; Beliavskaia, I V; Chugunova, V I; Sazykin, Iu O

    1979-09-01

    The study on distribution of 14C-rifampicin administered intramuscularly to pregnent animals showed that its concentrations in the blood, liver, kidneys, lungs and other organs did not practically change from those in nonpregnant animals. The concentration of 14C-rifampicin in the fetus organs was much lower than that in the organs of the adult animals. The liver and kidneys of the pregnant animals, as well as the fetus though to a less extent had a capacity for metabolism of 14C-rifampicin. The following products of biotransformation were detected: N-oxide of rifampicin, 25-deacetylrifampicin, 3-formylrifamycin SV and rifamycin SV.

  3. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.

  4. Clinical Features of the Ophthalmic Status in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmologist consultation has an important role in the examination of pregnant women. In some cases, his conclusion can play a decisive role in choice of delivery method. Obstetricians-gynecologists rely on ophthalmologist opinion for determining the severity of preeclampsia; it affects the treatment tactics and the life of mother and child. Examination of a pregnant woman has a number of characteristics, with regard to them, 3 groups of patients, which can be identified: the first group — Physiological pregnancywithout ophthalmological pathology. The second group: Physiological pregnancy with eye pathology in the anamnesis: myopia, peripheral choriovitreoretinal dystrophy; retinal detachment, vitreous body, vascular membrane, etc. Third group — Pathologically flowing pregnancy with pathology resulting from pregnancy: pre-eclampsia, anemia, diabetes and others pregnant. In physiological pregnancy without ophthalmological pathology, the most common physiological changes are increased pigmentation around the eyes, ptosis, a decrease of conjunctival capillaries, changes of cornea sensitivity and thickness, and, consequently, a change in refraction with a myopic shift, a decrease of tolerance to contact lenses, a decrease intraocular pressure, hemeralopia. It is necessary to differentiate the physiological feature of pregnancy, which include, in particular, the shift of refraction to the myopia, from pathological manifestations such as retinal angiopathy, macular edema, central serous chorioretinopathy and others. An important aspect is the  identification of potentially dangerous conditions of laser retina coagulation no later than 34 weeks of gestation with considering thepossibility of rheumatogenic retinal detachment and dystrophic changes in the delivery. This procedure can allow avoiding operativedelivery in the second group of patients. Timely detection of angiospasm on fundus in patients with pre-eclampsia from the third

  5. Oligohydramnios in a pregnant Pakistani woman with Plasmodium vivax malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Binello, Nicolò; Brunetti, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federico; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Malfitano, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    In the Western world, the diagnosis and management of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant women can be challenging, and the pathogenesis of adverse outcomes for both the mother and the foetus is still poorly known. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old Pakistani woman at the 29th week of her second pregnancy, who was admitted to the Hospital following the abrupt onset of fever. At the time of admission, she had been living in Italy without travelling to any malaria-endemic areas for...

  6. Feeding In a Portuguese Pregnant Women: Case Study Applying Cipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antónia Martins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the understanding of a pregnant about how to feed. Methods: Narrative analyzed through ideographic explanation. Results: Diagnoses were defined in CIPE®, version 2: a potentiate for better knowledge about pregnancy, b potentiate to improve knowledge about body image. Feeding in pregnancy is governed by organic needs and cultural practices. A balance between technical recommendation and food culture is needed. Conclusion: To improve pregnancy experience, maternity staff should consider mother’s perception about feeding. In Portugal, primary health care needs a more relevant position. It is suggested to introduce the focus body image.

  7. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A. C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J. Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  8. Precipitation of yellowcake from pregnant regenerate by various reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychkov, V.N.; Smirnov, A.L.; Skripchenko, S.Yu.; Pastukhov, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The application of an ammonia solution, sodium hydroxide solution and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solution as agents for the uranium precipitation from industrial pregnant regenerate was investigated. The effect various process parameters on the composition and properties of obtained uranium compounds was studied. According to the results, only the yellowcake obtained by precipitation using ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solution is a high-purity product and meets the specification requirements. The uranium content in this concentrate is 69-72%. The particle mean diameter is 12-16 µm. The use of other neutralizing agents leads to decrease purity of the final product. (author)

  9. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women

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    Fernanda Campos Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  10. Nutritional status among women with pre-eclampsia and healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura; Garcia, Ronald; Ruiz, Silvia; Dehghan, Mahshid; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2012-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritional status of women can lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes this entity. The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional status of women with PE with healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. A multicenter case-control study was carried out. Between September 2006 and July 2009, 201 women with PE were compared with 201 pregnant, and 201 non-pregnant aged-matched women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases. A clinical history and physical examination was performed. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum glucose and lipid profile. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The average age of women was 26.6 ± 7.2 years. Compared to healthy pregnant controls, women with PE had a higher body mass index, higher fasting blood glucose levels, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Women with PE had a higher intake of carbohydrates, energy intake and cereal compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant controls. A conditional logistic regression demonstrated that carbohydrate and sodium intake are associated with PE development. Diets of women with PE were characterized by higher energy and carbohydrate intake compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. This suggests that higher carbohydrate and sodium intake increases the risk of PE among women in Colombia. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Renström, Frida; Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y; Löf, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Non-pregnant (N = 73) and pregnant (N = 35) Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10) and 9(7-10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  12. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability.Non-pregnant (N = 73 and pregnant (N = 35 Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable.There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10 and 9(7-10, respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001.A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  13. Steroid hormones level in milk of non-pregnant and pregnant river buffalos at various gestational trimesters

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    Yaser Shahbazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, and estriol (E3 in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos.Methods: Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped by fluorescence detector.Results: Free E1 (554.1±77.0 ng/L and deconjugated E1 (701.6±44.7 ng/L was found highest level estrogen followed by E2, while E3 level was under the detection limit (10 ng/L. The lowest E1: 554.1±77.0 and E2: 28.1±4.4ng/L estrogens level were determined in raw milk from non-pregnant and highest E1: 1014.7±123.8 and E2: 108.2±9.1 ng/L estrogens were found in milk of animals in the third trimester of gestation. The estrogens concentration in pasteurized milk did not show significant (P>0.05 differences with those in raw milk.Conclusion: As buffalo milk poses more fat than cow's milk, it may contain higher level of steroid hormones. Since consumption of buffalo's milk with higher amount of steroidal hormones could be considered one of the potential risk factors for carcinogenesis.

  14. Candida Albicans and Non-Albicans Species as Etiological Agent of Vaginitis in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

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    Mirela Babić

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidosis. The objectives of our study were: to make determination of the microscopic findings of vaginal swab, frequency of Candida species in the culture of pregnant women and patients who are not pregnant, determine the Candida species in all cultures, and to determine the frequency and differences in the frequency of C. albicans and other non-albicans species. In one year study performed during 2006 year, we tested patients of Gynaecology and Obstetrics clinic of the Clinical Centre in Sarajevo and Gynaecology department of the General hospital in Sarajevo. 447 woman included in the study were separated in two groups: 203 pregnant (in the last trimester of pregnancy, and 244 non-pregnant woman in period of fertility. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically. The yeast, number of colonies, and the species of Candida were determined on Sabouraud dextrose agar with presence of antibiotics. For determination of Candida species, we used germ tube test for detection of C. albicans, and cultivation on the selective medium and assimilation tests for detection of non-albicans species. The results indicated positive microscopic findings in the test group (40,9%, as well as greater number of positive cultures (46,8%. The most commonly detected species for both groups was C. albicans (test group 40.9% and control group 23,0%. The most commonly detected non-albicans species for the test group were C. glabrata (4,2 % and C. krusei (3,2%, and for the control group were C. glabrata (3,2% and C. parapsilosis (3,2%. The microscopic findings correlated with the number of colonies in positive cultures. In the test group, we found an increased number of yeasts (64,3%, and the pseudopyphae and blastopores by microscopic examination as an indication of infection. In the control group, we found a small number of yeasts (64,6%, in the form of blastopores, as an indication of the candida

  15. Amniocentesis in HIV Pregnant Women: 16 Years of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A—women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B—women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population. PMID:23970821

  16. Hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilation in a pregnant mare

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    Alejandro R. Palomar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum is known as the abnormal accumulation of blood within the abdominal cavity, most commonly caused by gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal abscesses, liver tumors, migration of parasitic larvae (Strongylus vulgaris, direct trauma and blood clotting disorders. Lethargy, anorexia, weakness, muscle twitching, sweating, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and the accumulation of free fluid in the abdomen were the most commonly recorded signs. In this report, a pregnant mare was diagnosed with hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilatation, due to corn ingestion. The protocol for clinical treatment and tests varies in similar reported cases. Due to this, the present report discusses the outcome of a clinical case and suggests a medical protocol -based on evidence – for treatment in a pregnant mare. The treatment was aimed to stop the bleeding, while normalize or maintain a stable blood pressure and provide supportive therapy. The mare presented colic pains due to fermentation of the corn, which were solved in few hours. The final abdominal ultrasonogram showed intra-abdominal hypoechoic fluid and living fetus.

  17. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank.

  18. Correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane Catherine; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen Jane; Crawford, David Andrew; Wilkinson, Shelley Ann

    2017-06-01

    to investigate correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge commensurate with GWG guidelines. cross sectional quantitative study. an Australian tertiary level maternity hospital. pregnant women (n=1032) following their first antenatal visit. survey to assess GWG knowledge and a range of potential correlates of knowledge including socio-economic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestation, pre-pregnancy BMI) and GWG information procurement and GWG attitudinal variables. participants (n=366; 35.4% response) averaged 32.5 years of age with 33% speaking a language other than English. One third of women reported GWG knowledge consistent with guidelines. Women overweight prior to pregnancy were less likely to underestimate appropriate GWG (RRR 0.23, 95% CI=0.09-0.59). Conversely, women in the overweight (RRR 8.80, 95% CI=4.02-19.25) and obese (RRR 19.62, 95% CI=8.03-48.00) categories were more likely to overestimate GWG recommendations, while tertiary educated women were less likely to overestimate GWG (RRR 0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.79). No associations were found between GWG knowledge and pregnancy, GWG information source or attitudinal variables. the findings highlight women's lack of GWG knowledge and the role of pre-pregnancy body mass index and women's education as correlates of GWG knowledge. Women susceptible to poor GWG knowledge should be a priority target for individual and community-based education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Starring the physiotherapist in the comprehensive health of pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Guzmán Carrasco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly frequent settlement demand by pregnant women as urinary incontinence problems or musculoskeletal pain suffered during this period, which they should continue with their work life as long as possible, so that calls for quality of care often is not.Therefore, to think today, that the role of physiotherapy before the pregnant woman is prepared by learning some exercises at partum, is to limit the intervention of the therapist as an integral member of a multidisciplinary team that can do a job well as preventive care and education in a program of comprehensive health care for women. In this vital stage where they need a progressive and constant adaptation to physiological and anatomical changes throughout pregnancy.The purpose of this protocol is to facilitate the performance of the physiotherapist to prevent and treat musculoskeletal problems like incontinence both, which may occur in the gestational period and cause serious disorders permanently even at the mother.Following these rules will contribute to raising awareness of women to adopt safe practices and postures to prevent back and pelvic pain, learning exercises to relieve these pains if they occur, strengthen the pelvic floor to prevent urinary incontinence and therapeutic measures posture at the onset of carpal tunnel syndrome and other problems such as cramps, vascular and joint instability.

  20. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

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    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  1. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

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    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  2. The roentgenographic study of placental calcifications in Korean pregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Che

    1980-01-01

    Calcifications in the placenta have been considered as a sign of the maturity because it is found frequently in variable degrees in full-term placentas. The placentas studied were those from deliveries at Chung-Ang University Hospital during the period of January 1978 to June 1980 and were excluded if their deliveries were by Caesarean section. Roentgenographic studies of placenta were performed postnatally in 135 cases delivered from normal pregnant. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of calcification in the placenta was 53.3%. 2. The tendency of placenta calcification was increased as progress of maturity but not indicated as postmaturity. 3. Calcifications were less correlated with increasing gravidity or maternal age. 4. Calcifications occurred more frequently with increasing birth weight. 5. Calcifications in placentas were more frequently in the neonates with 10 scores of Apgar and normal level of maternal hemoglobin. 6. No significant correlation between incidence of calcification and maternal toxemia was observed. In the pregnant with an episode of previous abortion or S. P. R. M., incidence of calcification was apparently increased but statistically not significant. On the whole, placental calcifications are not harmful and identified as normal or proper aging process

  3. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-07-12

    Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period.

  4. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  5. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts

  7. Oligohydramnios in a pregnant Pakistani woman with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binello, Nicolò; Brunetti, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federico; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Malfitano, Antonello

    2014-04-23

    In the Western world, the diagnosis and management of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant women can be challenging, and the pathogenesis of adverse outcomes for both the mother and the foetus is still poorly known. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old Pakistani woman at the 29th week of her second pregnancy, who was admitted to the Hospital following the abrupt onset of fever. At the time of admission, she had been living in Italy without travelling to any malaria-endemic areas for eight months. She was diagnosed with vivax malaria after a thin blood smear revealed the presence of plasmodial trophozoites and gametocytes and treated accordingly. Due to the onset of oligohydramnios, she underwent caesarian section at the 31st week of pregnancy with no further complications. Histological examination of the placenta showed no evidence of plasmodial infection, but was inconclusive. It is unclear whether oligohydramnios is a complication of pregnancy-related Plasmodium vivax malaria. Given the long latency of hypnozoites, every febrile pregnant patient with a previous stay in an endemic area should be screened for malaria with a thick and a thin blood smear.

  8. Anticoagulation in pregnant females with mechanical heart valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, H.; Chaudhry, A.; Ayyub, M.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the complications and outcome of anticoagulation therapy in pregnant females with valvular heart diseases. All pregnant females with prosthetic heart valves admitted in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology from Jan 2004 to Dec 2004 were included in this study Basic demographic data including age, duration of pregnancy and complications observed were recorded. Warfarin was replaced with un-fractionated heparin (UFH) in first trimester and after that warfarin was continued with a targeted INR between 2.0-3.0. At 36 weeks warfarin was stopped and UFH was added; however, if patient went into spontaneous labour before this then immediate caesarian section was performed and UFH was restarted 4-6 hours after delivery along with oral warfarin. Out of 21 patients, sixteen (76.1%) had mitral valve diseases and five (23.9%) had both mitral and atrial. Majority (42.3%)of patients were in age group 26-30 years. Eleven (52.2%) reported in 9th month of gestation. Complications observed were hypertension (1), transient ischaemic attacks (1), pulmonary embolism (1), haemoptysis (1) and abortion (1). All patients, except one had successful completion of pregnancy. No case of foetal abnormality was seen. In 76% patients, daily dose of warfarin was <5 mg. Thrombo-prophylaxis in pregnancy with warfarin and UFH with an INR of 2.0-3.0 is effective in preventing thrombotic complications in females with mechanical valves without resulting in increase hemorrhagic complications. (author)

  9. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A.; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2004-03-01

    Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

  11. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND HABITS OF LIFE OF PREGNANT WOMEN FOR CONDUCTING THE PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC MONITORING OF A PREGNANT WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly Perfil de gestantes e acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care.

  12. Sociodemographic profile and habits of life of pregnant women for conducting the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care

  13. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of a gymnastics program on sleep characteristics in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Kocsis

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The 10-week training program designed for pregnant women has an overall beneficial effect on sleep characteristics, not by improving them but by attenuating their general deterioration related to the progression of pregnancy. Our data strengthen the general recommendation regarding participation of pregnant women in specific exercise programs, mainly for maintaining their psycho-emotional and general well-being.

  15. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S. E.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach

  16. Health providers' compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mirlohi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that the health providers' compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights was not acceptable in the labor room. Therefore, necessary actions are needed to remove the barriers against pregnant women's compliance of Bill of Rights and to facilitate the compliance with it in hospitals.

  17. Dietary assessment of vitamin A and iron among pregnant women at

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chege

    Consumption Report indicated that 30% of pregnant women in Nyanza do not meet ... Poverty, lack of nutrition knowledge and poor attendance to MCH by ... Sixty-five percent (64.8%) pregnant women had iron consumption levels of 25cm. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70.

  18. Zika, dengue, and chikungunya co-infection in a pregnant woman from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer E. Villamil-Gómez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical findings of a pregnant woman from Colombia with a triple co-infection caused by dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses are described. Weekly obstetric ultrasounds from 14.6 to 29 weeks of gestation were normal. She remains under follow-up and management according to the standard guidelines for the management of Zika virus-infected pregnant women.

  19. The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Dube

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

  20. Potential unintended consequences of smoke-free policies in public places on pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong

    2009-08-01

    Smoke-free policies in public places have become more common in China. Little is known, however, about the potential unintended consequences of such policies on pregnant women. The study was conducted in 2006 in Chengdu, China. Nonsmoking pregnant women (N=55) whose husband were smokers participated in a study of their knowledge about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and their husbands' smoking status at home. This study presents descriptive statistics, analyses based on family income and pregnant women's education level, and the findings of focus group discussions that examined the potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies on pregnant women. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was reported by 69.1% of the pregnant women. Both family income and the education level of the pregnant women had a significant (ppolicies were: (1) increased exposure of pregnant women to secondhand smoke at home; (2) reduced work efficiency; (3) adverse effect on family harmony; and (4) poor air quality at home. Education is needed to increase knowledge of secondhand smoke among smokers and nonsmokers alike. When the smoking location is shifted from public places and workplaces to home, women, and in particular pregnant women, become the victims. Policymakers should recognize such potential unintended consequences and take necessary measures to increase awareness about the harms of secondhand smoke.