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Sample records for pregnancy termination method

  1. Pregnancy termination in Matlab, Bangladesh: trends and correlates of use of safer and less-safe methods.

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    DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, Mizanur

    2014-09-01

    Menstrual regulation (MR), a relatively safe form of pregnancy termination, is legal in Bangladesh during the early stages of pregnancy. However, little is known about the factors associated with whether women who terminate pregnancies choose this method or a less-safe one. Data from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System on 122,691 pregnancies-5,221 (4.3%) of which were terminated-were used to examine trends between 1989 and 2008 in termination and in use of safer methods (MR or dilation and curettage) and less-safe (all other) methods of pregnancy termination. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess factors associated with whether women terminate pregnancies and whether they use safer methods. Sixty-seven percent of pregnancy terminations were by safer methods and 33% by less-safe means. The proportion of pregnancies that were terminated increased between 1989 and 2008; this increase was entirely due to increased use of safer methods. Women younger than 18 and those 25 or older were more likely than women aged 20-24 to terminate their pregnancies (odds ratios ranged from 1.5 among women aged 16-17 or 25-29 to 26.1 among those aged 45 or older). Among women who terminated their pregnancies, those aged 25-44 were more likely than those aged 20-24 to use a safer method. Compared with women who had no formal education, those with some education were more likely to terminate their pregnancies and to do so using safer methods. A growing proportion of pregnancies in Matlab are terminated, and these terminations are increasingly done using safer methods.

  2. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.H. Mitchell; A. Kwizera; M. Usta; H. Gebreselassie

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration fo

  3. Transcervical double-balloon catheter as an alternative and salvage method for medical termination of pregnancy in midtrimester

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    Yi-An Tu

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: There was no significant additional benefit of using a double-balloon catheter in midtrimester termination of pregnancy, although the technique was considered simple and generally well-tolerated. Placing a transcervical double-balloon catheter could be the primary method, or one of the alternative medical methods if the patient and/or obstetrician prefers no operation.

  4. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

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    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  5. [Influence of some anesthesiologic methods on blood loss in procedures for voluntary termination of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, F S; Granese, D; Fattori, A

    1980-03-01

    120 patients in good health, aged 25-38, all in the first trimester of pregnancy, and requesting interruption of pregnancy, were divided into 4 groups and given different types of anesthesia; 1) general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics; 2) general anesthesia without volatile anesthetics; 3) dissociated anesthesia with Ketamin; and, 4) paracervical block with Mepivacain 1%. All interventions were done through curettage, and lasted 7-18 minutes; in all cases blood loss was carefully collected and measured. Minimum amount of bleeding was noted with paracervical block; maximum amount with volatile anesthetics such as ethrane. For every type of anesthesia blood loss increased with age of pregnancy. There were no postoperative complications. As confirmed by the published literature anesthesia by paracervical block is an easy, uncomplicated method, which requires little preparation time and which can be done at low cost.

  6. [Methods of induction of labor in termination of pregnancy after 22weeks: About 3procedures].

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    Couteau, C; D'Ercole, C; Bretelle, F; Boubli, L; Guidicelli, B; Chau, C

    2016-06-01

    To propose a protocol for induction of labor to terminate pregnancy after 22weeks of amenorrhea allowing to decrease the duration of labor and of hospitalization but also, allowing to reduce the number of emergency pretreatment-induced fetal death, to improve the experience of the patients and to limit the cost. We realized a retrospective single-center study including 269patients and comparing three protocols, with and without laminaria and with various intervals mifepristone-misoprostol (14 and 38hours). The outcome measures were the misoprostol-delivery interval, the delivery time and the number of emergency pretreatment-induced fetal death. We showed that the misoprostol-delivery interval and the delivery time were comparable for the three periods of our study, even after decrease of 24hours of the mifepristone-misoprostol interval and in the absence of laminaria. The misoprostol-delivery interval was between 7h30 and 8h35 between protocols (P=0.055). The delivery time was between 5:18pm and 6:48pm between protocols (P=0.252). The early administration of misoprostol allowed the patients to give birth earlier (P=0.001). Finally, we showed that the increase of the size and the number of laminarias were risk factors of emergency pretreatment-induced fetal death (respectively P=0.013 and P=0.002). The absence of laminaria and the reduction of the interval mifepristone-misoprostol of 24hours do not change the time to delivery and allow to reduce the duration of hospitalization, the number of emergency pretreatment-induced fetal death and the cost of the TOP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Contraceptive method preferences and provision after termination of pregnancy: a population-based analysis of women obtaining care with the British Pregnancy Advisory Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Ara; Lohr, P A; Aiken, C E; Forsyth, T; Trussell, J

    2017-04-01

    To examine contraceptive choices among women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) and the provision of the chosen methods. Population-based study. British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) clinics in England and Wales. Between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2014, 211 215 women had a TOP at BPAS, were offered contraceptive counselling, and were eligible to obtain contraception at no cost. We examined electronic records from BPAS and assessed the proportions of women who accepted contraceptive counselling and chose a contraceptive method, as well as the distributions of methods chosen, analysed by provider and by TOP type. We calculated the proportions receiving their chosen method and the methods chosen by women using no method at conception. We used logistic regression to examine the factors associated with choice of an intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) or implant. Post-TOP contraceptive method choice. Receipt of chosen method post-TOP. Eighty-five per cent of women accepted contraceptive counselling and 51% chose to obtain a method from BPAS rather than from a GP or contraception and sexual health clinic post-TOP. [correction added on 25 November 2016 after first online publication: 51% has been inserted in the preceding sentence.] Among those who wanted to receive contraception from BPAS, 51% chose an IUC or implant and 19% chose oral contraceptives. Ninety-one per cent of women who obtained contraception from BPAS received their chosen method. Women were more likely to choose an IUC or implant if they obtained contraception from BPAS, had a surgical TOP, were parous, young, white, or had one or more previous TOPs. The standards set for patient-centred TOP care should emphasise the need for a full range of contraceptive options to be offered and provided post-TOP. Uptake targets for long-acting reversible methods do not reflect women's post-TOP contraceptive preferences. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Efficacy of misoprostol for the first trimester pregnancy termination

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    Moezzi-Madani M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical induction abortion is an acceptable alternative to surgical abortion for pregnancy termination. Misoprostol is an inexpensive PGE1 analogue that can be used easily and safely as a single agent for first- and second-trimester pregnancy termination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different doses of vaginal misoprostol for pregnancy termination with gestational age up to 16 weeks.Methods: This clinical trial included 100 pregnant women with gestational age up to 16 weeks requesting legal termination of pregnancy. The subjects were randomized in two equal groups, and received either 200 (group 1 or 400 µg (group 2 misoprostol vaginally every 6 hours with a maximum of four doses. Response to treatment was defined as complete or incomplete abortion within 48 hours after initial dose. Curettage was performed for patients with heavy bleeding or incomplete abortion. The abortion outcome and side-effects were assessed.Results: The groups were similar in maternal age, gestational age, parity and obstetrical history and indication for pregnancy termination. The side effects in group 2 were significantly higher than in group 1 (P<0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding completeness of the abortion and mean time to abortion induction.Conclusions: In the termination of pregnancies up to 16 weeks, the 200 µg per dose regimen of misoprostol was as effective as the 400 µg regimen; however, side-effects were more common with the higher dose.

  9. Termination of second-trimester pregnancy with intracervicovaginal misoprostol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisomboon, J; Tongsong, T; Pongpisuttinun, S

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of intracervicovaginal misoprostol in termination of second-trimester pregnancy in women with live fetuses. A total of 50 pregnant women between 14 and 27 week's gestation undergoing termination of pregnancy for medical, obstetrical and genetic reasons were recruited to receive 200 ug misoprostol gel administered intracervicovaginally every 12 hours. The rates of successful abortions within 24 hours and 48 hours were 54 per cent and 92 per cent respectively. The mean time from induction to abortion was 27.5 hours. The rate of complete abortion, defined as the passage of the fetus and placenta without operative assistance was 80 per cent. Side effects were fever (8%), nausea and vomiting (6%) and diarrhea (2%). Thirty one patients (62%) required meperidine as analgesia. Two patients (4%) had postpartum hemorrhage. Intracervicovaginal misoprostol is an effective, cheap, safe and relatively convenient method for termination of second-trimester pregnancy with a live fetus.

  10. Intraoperative blood loss and gestational age at pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano; Thomas; Lapinski; Balwan; Patel

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To establish the relationship of measured intraoperative blood loss to gestational age at pregnancy termination, and to determine which factors, if any, affect the risk of bleeding.Methods: A single-operator series of 363 consecutive women undergoing pregnancy termination between 5 and 24 weeks gestational age, as dated by ultrasound, was prospectively evaluated. All pregnancies under 13 weeks gestation were terminated by mechanical dilation and suction curettage without preoperative cervical ripening. All pregnancies between 13 and 24 weeks gestation were terminated by preoperative osmotic cervical dilation with laminaria tents and subsequent uterine evacuation by a combination of suction curettage, sharp curettage, and Bierer forceps extraction. All patients over 12 weeks gestation received a postoperative oxytocin infusion. Whenever possible, amniotic fluid and blood were collected and measured separately. Patients were excluded from the data analysis for pregnancy demise, PPROM, Potter's syndrome, or inability to separate blood establish their relationship. After adjustment for gestational age, the results were analyzed to determine if blood loss was related to maternal age, smoking history, body habitus, or operative indication.Results: A curvilinear relationship between blood loss and gestational age was observed. Mean blood loss at 24 weeks exceeded 800 mL. After adjustment for gestational age, no factors significantly affected blood loss at dilation and aspiration of first trimester pregnancies. In those patients undergoing dilation and evacuation in the second trimester, both simple and stepwise regression analyses showed obesity (BMI >/=32.3) to be significantly associated with increased blood loss (P cesarean section, nor smoking history were significantly associated with increased blood loss at dilation and evacuation.Conclusions: With advancing gestational age, intraoperative blood loss increases in curvilinear fashion. Termination providers

  11. Is endomyometrial injury during termination of pregnancy or curettage following miscarriage the precursor to placenta accreta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuker, JM; Erwich, JJHM; Khong, TY

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To determine the frequency with which myometrium is removed during vacuum terminations of pregnancy or dilatation and curettage after miscarriage, and to relate these findings to subsequent placenta accreta or its proxies. Methods: Archival tissues from vacuum termination of pregnancy or dilat

  12. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married women in Nigeria.

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    Bola, Solanke Lukman

    2016-06-01

    In Nigeria, the relationship between spousal violence and pregnancy termination had not been adequately explored. To assess the prevalence of spousal violence, and examine the relationship between spousal violence and pregnancy termination. Data on spousal violence among ever married women was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variable is pregnancy termination. The explanatory variables were the type of spousal violence experienced by the women in the last 12 months preceding the survey. Descriptive statistical analysis and binary logistic regression were applied using stata version 12. Results show that 13.8% of women had ever terminated pregnancy; 19.9% had ever experienced at least one type of spousal violence; and women who had ever terminated pregnancy had higher prevalence of all types of spousal violence. Women who had ever experienced spousal physical violence were 9% more likely to experience pregnancy termination (OR=1.09; CI: 1.03-2.86); and women who had ever experienced spousal emotional violence were 33% more likely to experience pregnancy termination (OR=1.33; CI: 0.97-1.95). Spousal violence is significantly related to pregnancy termination. Improving women's sexual and reproductive health in the country requires fresh initiatives that address spousal violence to further reduce women's exposure to pregnancy termination.

  13. Late Termination of Pregnancy. Professional Dilemmas

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    Isack Kandel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester.This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional.In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality.Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women.Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus.

  14. Late termination of pregnancy. Professional dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2003-09-23

    Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester. This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional. In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality. Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women. Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus.

  15. Congenital Anomalies and Termination of Pregnancy in Iran

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    Bahram Samadirad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to document some epidemiological features of termination of pregnancy for birth defects in Iran. We studied 603 pregnant women who were diagnosed/recommended for the termination of pregnancy as having a fetus with some types of birth defect(s. Most women (87.2 percent had at least one ultrasound examination. The proportion of other screening tests including amniocentesis and genetic tests were 2.8 and 4.6 percent, respectively. Of 603 women, 201 terminated the pregnancy giving a prevalence rate of 33.3 percent (CI 95%: 29.6–37.6. The remaining 402 subjects were unable to get the permission for abortion because of untimely diagnosis/application for termination (20th week of pregnancy and/or later. Forty-eight percent of termination of pregnancies was performed before the 18th week of pregnancy. Neural tube defects, limb deformation, hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, and chromosomal anomalies including Down syndrome accounted proportionally for about 65 percent of defects eligible for abortion in the region. Although the rate of termination of pregnancy for birth defects is acceptable at the current situation in the country, more efforts should still be made to convince the community authorities to give more possibility and ease for the termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies.

  16. Increased number of applications for late termination of pregnancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theibel, Sara Sofie; Petersson, Birgit; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Last year, it was 40 years since the introduction of legal abortion until the 12th week of gestation and the possibility of late termination of pregnancy in Denmark. The aim of this study was to describe the development in applications for late termination of pregnancy in the 1986......-2011-period focusing on indications related to the women's conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All applications for late termination of pregnancy in 1986 were reviewed by Nordentoft et al, and access to all applications from 2011 was granted by the abortion committees and the Appeals Board. All applications...

  17. Women’s experience of termination of a pregnancy

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    M Poggenpoel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In November 1996 the Act on the Termination of Pregnancies (no 92 of 1996 was promulgated. This Act enabled women from the age of twelve years old to decide to terminate their pregnancies before twelve weeks gestation without permission of anybody else. Since February 1997 almost 160 000 terminations of pregnancy have been carried out in South Africa. Little research has been conducted to explore and describe the effect of the termination of pregnancies on women Two aims were formulated for the research project described in this article: (1 the exploration and description of the women’s experience of terminating a pregnancy, and (2 the description of counselling guidelines for caring professionals to assist these women. Participants were included in the sample through purposive sampling. Phenomenological interviews were conducted individually. Data were analysed by means of Tesch’s descriptive approach. Counselling guidelines for educational psychologists and other caring professionals to empower the involved were being logically inferred from the results of the interviews. Measures to ensure trustworthiness have been applied in the research and ethical measures have been strictly adhered to during the research. One central theme was identified from the results of the interviews and naïve sketches, namely women’s experiences of a negative relationship with themselves and other persons as well as their focus on their terminated pregnancies.

  18. Comparison of Sublingual and Vaginal Misoprostol for Second-Trimester Pregnancy Terminations

    OpenAIRE

    Forozan Milani; Seyede Hajar Sharami; Saeedeh Arjmandi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Comparing sublingual and vaginal misoprostol in second trimester pregnancy termination. Materials and methods In this study 268 women at 12-24 weeks of gestation candidate for pregnancy termination were enrolled. Women were randomly divided in two groups. The first group received 400 µg sublingual misoprostol and vaginal placebo and the second group received 400 µg vaginal misoprostol and sublingual placebo every 4 hours for a maximum of five doses. The course of misoprostol was rep...

  19. Influences on pregnancy-termination decisions in Matlab, Bangladesh.

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    DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, Mizanur; Ahmed, Shahabuddin; Razzaque, Abdur

    2013-10-01

    We investigate factors affecting women's decisions to terminate pregnancies in Matlab, Bangladesh, using logistic regression on high-quality data from the Demographic Surveillance System on more than 215,000 pregnancies that occurred between 1978 and 2008. Variables associated with the desire not to have another birth soon (very young and older maternal age, a greater number of living children, the recent birth of twins or of a son, a short interval since a recent live birth) are associated with a greater likelihood of pregnancy termination, and the effects of many of these explanatory variables are stronger in more recent years. Women are less likely to terminate a pregnancy if they don't have any living sons or recently experienced a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or the death of a child. The higher the woman's level of education, the more likely she is to terminate a pregnancy. Between 1982 and the mid-2000s, pregnancy termination was significantly less likely in the area of Matlab with better family planning services.

  20. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. Federal funds are available for drugs or devices... termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of...

  1. 妊娠高血压重度子痫前期及子痫患者终止妊娠时机及方式的探讨%A Study on the Opportune Time and the Methods for Terminating Pregnancy in Pregnancy Hypertension Patients with Severe Eclampsism and Eclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建清

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠高血压重度子痫前期、子痫患者终止妊娠的时机和方式对母婴的影响。方法:回顾性分析55例妊娠高血压重度子痫前期、子痫患者在不同孕周及采取不同方法终止妊娠对母婴结局的影响。结果:妊娠高血压重度子痫前期、子痫患者55例入院后经药物治疗分别选择适当时机及分娩方式终止妊娠,无 l 例孕产妇死亡,新生儿窒息率33.87%。结论:治疗妊娠高血压重度子痫前期、子痫患者适时终止妊娠是极重要的手段,剖宫产已成为主要措施。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of the opportune time and the methods for terminating pregnancy in pregnancy hypertension patients with severe eclampsism and eclampsia on mothers and newborns. Methods:The effects of different methods taken to terminate pregnancy at different trimester of pregnancy on mothers and newborns were retrospectively analyzed in 55 cases of pregnancy hypertension with severe eclampsism and eclampsia. Results:55 patients of pregnancy hypertension with severe eclampsism and eclampsia underwent drug treatment and,respectively,selected suitable labor methods to terminate pregnancy at opportune time. There was no death of them,with a neonatal asphyxia rate of 33. 87 % . Conclusion:Pregnancy termination at most opportune time is an very important measure in the treatment of pregnancy hypertension with severe eclampsism and eclamp-sia. with cesarean section dominating over the methods of pregnancy termination.

  2. Mid-pregnancy genetic terminations of pregnancy - postnatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    photographs only. Conclusions. ... The postnatal investigation of stillbirths and neonatal deaths, using a ... of the condition in a future pregnancy, and parents need to be able to ..... fetus, in all multiple congenital anomaly syndromes in which.

  3. CIN III Diagnosed following Surgical Termination of Pregnancy

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    Ciara Mackenzie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 30-year-old mother of four who was incidentally diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III following surgical termination of pregnancy. Five years previously a routine smear test had shown mild dyskaryosis but was never repeated. She was referred to colposcopy and, underwent loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ and subsequently vaginal hysterectomy. Without this incidental finding she would have undoubtedly developed cervical cancer. We discuss the deficiencies in current cervical cancer prevention strategies and termination of pregnancy services. We emphasise the importance of ensuring that patients with dyskaryosis are not lost to follow-up and we consider whether there should be clearer guidance on the value of histological examination of products of conception following termination of pregnancy.

  4. Efficacy of Combination Therapy with Methotrexate and Misoprostol in Termination of Pregnancy in the First Trimester

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    Mohammad Taghi Shakeri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induced abortion is the medical or surgical terminationof pregnancy before fetal viability. It has maternal orfetal indications. The aim of the present study was to evaluatethe efficacy of the combination of methotrexate and misoprostolfor termination of the pregnancy in the first trimester.Methods: This analytic study was performed on 100 women atthe first trimester of pregnancy (9 weeksand 24 has gestational age9 weeks and22 patients with gestational age <9 weeks had complete abortion.Failure rate was higher in missed abortion. Required doseof misoprostol and duration of conceptus expulsion werehigher in pregnancies with missed abortion.Conclusion: Combination therapy with methotrexate and misoprostolrepresents a safe and effective alternative to invasivemethods for termination of the pregnancy in the first trimester.

  5. Increased number of applications for late termination of pregnancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theibel, Sara Sofie; Petersson, Birgit; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard

    2014-01-01

    %. CONCLUSION: Significant changes in the women's age and the reasons they provide when applying for late termination of pregnancy have been observed from 1986 to 2011. Further investigation of this subject will contribute to securing the best possible conditions for women going through late termination......-2011-period focusing on indications related to the women's conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All applications for late termination of pregnancy in 1986 were reviewed by Nordentoft et al, and access to all applications from 2011 was granted by the abortion committees and the Appeals Board. All applications...... to the women's conditions has decreased. In 1986 and 2011, 488 and 382 women, respectively, applied for late termination of pregnancy with reference to the women's conditions. Of the 519 women who were granted permission in 1986, 31% were ≤ 20 years of age. In 2011 this age group represented only 12...

  6. ANOREXIA FOLLOWING TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY AND LAPROSCOPIC STERILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Velayudhan, Ajay; Raghu, T.M.; Sudarshan, B.; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2001-01-01

    Presentations of Anorexia Nervosa in India are usually atypical and anorexia is more commonly a symptom rather than a syndrome. This report highlights a case of anorexia following medical termination of pregnancy and laproscopic sterilisation, its association with conflicts regarding childbirth and motherhood in a 34 year old woman and the impact of anorexia on child rearing.

  7. 42 CFR 136.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. Federal funds are available for drugs or devices to... an ectopic pregnancy. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of...

  8. Mifepristone and misoprostol versus Dilapan and sulprostone for second trimester termination of pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Zondervan, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods for second trimester termination of pregnancy: mifepristone and misoprostol versus Dilapan and sulprostone. METHODS: This was a randomized study involving 16 patients with a singleton live fetus with congenital malformations or genetic disorders. Eight patients were

  9. Perceptions of adolescents in low resourced areas towards pregnancy and the choice on termination of pregnancy (CTOP

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    M.E. Ratlabala

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion methods and the high incidence of HI V infections among young people are of great concern to the South African public. Due to the lack of accurate information and understanding, some adolescents are forced to succumb to early motherhood from unplanned pregnancies or opt for back-street abortion with at times fatal results. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in 2003 to determine the adolescents’ perceptions towards factors on the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP and the constraints in accessing TOP services. A purposive sampling technique that enabled experts such as health workers to identify suitable candidates for the investigation was employed. Twenty-four (24 adolescents residing in the predominantly rural area of Nkumpi-Lepelle in the Limpopo Province agreed to participate in the focus group interviews. The major findings indicated that most adolescents were uninformed about CTOP. This is attributed to the lack of coordination among health professionals and educators in the dissemination of information. The overwhelming majority of the respondents expressed discomfort at receiving termination of pregnancy services from the local public clinics and hospitals as they regarded such facilities as youth unfriendly. The adolescents also required provision of pre- and post-counselling services for adolescents who would like to terminate pregnancy.

  10. Is there a role for psychiatry in late termination of pregnancy?

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    Morris, Kirsty; Orr, Fran

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present review was to explore the role of the psychiatrist in late terminations of pregnancy. A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and psycINFO databases, focussing on articles that explored (i) existing decision-making processes in late terminations; (ii) psychological sequelae of both early and late termination of pregnancy; (iii) the role of psychiatry in both early and late termination of pregnancy; and (iv) the involvement of psychiatry in complex medical decisions. The decision to perform a late termination of pregnancy is complex. Contributing to its complexity is an array of political, legal, societal, and ethical factors. The literature regarding psychological sequelae is frequently confusing and weakened by methodological problems. Methods of assisting in this decision-making process include the involvement of committees and psychiatrists. There are precedents for the involvement of psychiatrists in such a setting. Historically, psychiatrists played a role in screening women who requested an early termination. Psychiatrists are often involved in ethically challenging and complex clinical decisions in the general hospital setting. The involvement of psychiatry in this complex decision-making process has potential advantages and disadvantages. It is timely for psychiatrists to consider their position on their discipline's involvement.

  11. Pregnancy resolutions among pregnant teens: termination, parenting or adoption?

    OpenAIRE

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and...

  12. Influence of Early Pregnancy Termination by Focused Ultrasound Beams on Menstrual Recovery of Macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong DU; Zheng-ai XIONG; Jian-zhong ZOU; Yi TAN; Jin BAI; Zhi-biao WANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects on macaques' menstrual recovery after terminating early pregnancy by focused ultrasound beams (FUB)Methods FUB was used to terminate early pregnancy in 5 macaques with gestation duration ranging from 37-66 d. Two circles after the recovery of menstruation, color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to estimate the shape, size and blood flow of uterus, and pathological examinations were performed to check against any lesions to uterine endometrium and ovary.Results Forty days after FUB abortion, menstruation recovered and the volume and duration of each macaque's menstruation were not changed compared with those before gestation. CDFI and MRI suggested that the siz.e and shape of uterus were normal.The endometrial line was clear and no lesions were found in adjacent organs.Conclusion FUB termination of early pregnancy in macaques did not damage their ovarian tissue and had no influence on subsequent menstrual recovery.

  13. The influence of prenatal screening and termination of pregnancy on perinatal mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graafmans, W.; Biermans, M.C.J.; Richardus, J.H.; Zijlstra, A.G.; Reefhuis, J.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives This study concerns the possible effect of practice of prenatal screening of congenital anomalies followed by termination of pregnancy on the perinatal mortality between European countries. Methods Data of nine region-specific EUROCAT registries from five European countries were used to c

  14. Termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: a meta-ethnography of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Due to technological advances in antenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities, more women face the prospect of terminating pregnancies on these grounds. Much existing research focuses on women's psychological adaptation to this event. However, there is a lack of holistic understanding of women's experiences. This article reports a systematic review of qualitative studies into women's experiences of pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Eight databases were searched up to April 2014 for peer-reviewed studies, written in English, that reported primary or secondary data, used identifiable and interpretative qualitative methods, and offered a valuable contribution to the synthesis. Altogether, 4,281 records were screened; 14 met the inclusion criteria. The data were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Four themes were identified: a shattered world, losing and regaining control, the role of health professionals and the power of cultures. Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality can be considered as a traumatic event that women experience as individuals, in their contact with the health professional community, and in the context of their politico-socio-legal environment. The range of emotions and experiences that pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality generates goes beyond the abortion paradigm and encompasses a bereavement model. Coordinated care pathways are needed that enable women to make their own decisions and receive supportive care.

  15. Focused-ultrasound termination of an early pregnancy in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hong; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Bai, Jin; Zhan, Yang; Wu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2012-12-01

    We explored the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of focused ultrasound in terminating undesired pregnancy. A high-intensity focused ultrasound therapeutic unit was employed to terminate early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. B-mode ultrasound incorporated within the system was used to locate and study the gestational sacs of 6 rhesus macaques with gestation ages of 37 to 66 days, and varying modes of ultrasound exposure were adopted in the termination of the early pregnancies of the rhesus macaques. After focused ultrasound exposure, B-mode ultrasound of the gestational sacs showed significant lethal changes. Of the 6 rhesus macaques, 5 underwent complete abortions whereas 1 rhesus macaque underwent an incomplete abortion. The rhesus macaques resumed their menstrual cycles 50 days after focused-ultrasound treatment. The results suggested that focused ultrasound could be safe, feasible, and effective in terminating early pregnancies in rhesus macaques. As a novel physical method, it may be a promising ablation for a potentially clinical application. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low dose Mifepristone (100 mg for medical termination of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Seth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is the most common entity in the practice of obstetrics and gynaecology. Different methods and modes have been opted for until now to find an effective regimen with the least complications. We have tried the minimal dose (100 mg of Mifepristone (PO instead of the presently recommended 200 mg for medical abortion in early first trimester cases. Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of low dose (100 mg Mifepristone for medical termination of early pregnancy with oral Misoprostol 800 μg, 24 hours later.Design: A prospective analytical study was conducted on a population of 82 early-pregnant patients who have requested medical abortions.Method: Pregnant women of less than 56 days gestation age from their last menstrual period, requesting medical abortion were selected over a period of 14 months from January 2007 to March 2008. They were given 100 mg Mifepristone orally on Day-1, followed by 800 μg Misoprostol orally 24 hours later on Day-2, keeping the patient in the ward for at least 6 hours. Abortion interval, success rate, post-abortion bleeding and side-effects were noted. Success was defined as complete uterine evacuation without the need for surgical intervention.Results: The total success rate of this minimal dose Mifepristone regimen was 96.25%. Pain and nausea were the predominant side-effects noted. In total 72 (90% women had completely aborted within 5 hours of taking Misoprostol. Three (3.75% women only required suction aspiration, hence termed as failed medical abortion. The abortion interval increased with the gestation age. All three failures were of the more-than-42-day gestational age group. The overall mean abortion interval was 4.68 ± 5.32 hours.Conclusion: Mifepristone 100 mg, followed 24 hours later by Misoprostol 800 μg orally, is a safe and effective regimen for medical abortion.

  17. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA.

  18. 不同引产方式用于终止孕12~15周妊娠的临床研究%The Effectiveness of Different Methods in Termination of 12-15 Weeks of Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金瑞; 兰景尤

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effectiveness of different methods in termination of 12-15 weeks of pregnancy.Method:A total of 170 women seeking for terminating 12-15 weeks of gestation were randomly divided into three groups,group A(n=60,Misoprostol combined with extra-amniotic cavity injection of Rivanol),group B(n=57,Mifepristone combined with vaginal Misoprostol),group C(n=53,extra-amniotic cavity injection of Rivanol).The clinical effectiveness of these three methods was evaluated.Result:Compared with group C,higher success rate of labor induction,lower rate of post-abortion curettage, less amount of vaginal bleeding were found in group A and group B(P0.05),B组清宫率低于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);三组患者均无明显不良反应。结论:米非司酮联合阴道放置米索前列醇用于终止12~15周妊娠引产成功率高,简单、安全、出血少、副作用少,值得临床推广。

  19. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... and for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of...

  20. 42 CFR 50.308 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an ectopic pregnancy. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 50.308 Section 50.308 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. Teen Pregnancy : Are Pregnancies following an Elective Termination Associated with Increased Risk for Adverse Perinatal Outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Haeri, Sina; Baker, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: The authors sought to determine whether pregnancies in adolescents following an abortion of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Methods: In a cohort study of all adolescent (younger than 18 years) deliveries over a 4-year period at 1 institu

  2. Teen Pregnancy : Are Pregnancies following an Elective Termination Associated with Increased Risk for Adverse Perinatal Outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Haeri, Sina; Baker, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: The authors sought to determine whether pregnancies in adolescents following an abortion of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Methods: In a cohort study of all adolescent (younger than 18 years) deliveries over a 4-year period at 1

  3. The Study of Congenital Anomalies Resulting in Legal Termination of Pregnancy in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dastgiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Safe pregnancy is among the goals and missions of reproductive health which has an important part in Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, bad conditions in reproductive health are the major cause of women mortality in fertility age all over the world especially in developing countries. Congenital anomalies are pregnancy problems that in case of early diagnosis, the anomaly will be done according to list 51. The aim of this study was to determine families’ demographic situations, frequency of congenital anomalies types and the factors of legally termination of pregnancy to suggest solutions in order to reduce anomalies and promote reproductive health. Material and Methods : This is a case-control study carried out for 1 year period from 2010 to 2011 in which 603 pregnant women that were diagnosed/recommended to the Legal Medicine Organization for the termination of pregnancy as having a fetus with some types of birth defect(s. Among them, 201 were categorized as case group (receiving termination permission because their pregnancy was before week 20 and 402 of them were categorized as control group 1 (not receiving termination permission because their pregnancy was after week 20 and 200 women as control group 2 who referred to Alzahra hospital to give childbirth. A questionnaire containing demographic and geographical information was made for all the women in those three groups. Results : The average age of mothers in this study was 27.2 years (15-47 years old. In 100 % of women, at least 1 ultrasound examination was performed and genetic and Amniocentesis tests were conducted in 2.1 % and 3.5 % respectively in order to diagnose anomaly. In total, 33 % of pregnant women with congenital anomalies received pregnancy termination permission. The majority of congenital anomalies were neural tube defects 16.9 %, hydrocephaly 8.6 %, limb deformation 7.7 % and Down syndrome 6.4 %. Mother’s age, the history of

  4. The variability in the decision of termination of pregnancy for sex chromosome anomalies in France

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Prenatal counseling for sex chromosome anomalies (SCA) is complex. The observed rate of TOP (termination of pregnancy) varies worldwide and even within countries. The objectives of this vignette study were to quantify agreement between ten prenatal diagnosis centers in Paris and identify reasons for disagreement.METHODS : We submitted online three cases of Turner syndrome, one case of Klinefelter syndrome, one 47, XYY, one mosaicsm 46,XY/45,X and two cases of 47,XXX to one obst...

  5. Trust in an unwanted service environment: The case of pregnancy termination counselling services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Ebersohn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The South African Termination of Pregnancy Act (No 92 of 1996 promotes the use of non-mandatory counselling before and after a pregnancy is terminated. The reality is, however, that not all women who are faced with the issue of termination are necessarily willing to undergo counselling. The literature revealed that this unwillingness could partly be ascribed to the fact that women do not necessarily trust counsellors and the research thus addressed the question how trust can be managed within this industry.Research purpose: The purpose of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of communication, empathy, shared values, competence, reputation and support services on trust within the pregnancy termination counselling industry.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach was used to assess the significance of the hypothesised relationships. Self-administered questionnaires were used to target 175 female students of a leading South African university. The data were analysed using regression analysis.Main findings: The results of the study contradict some often-assumed antecedents of trust.Managerial implications: Trust within the pregnancy termination counselling industry can be managed by services providers through focusing on personalised communication, empathy, reputation, support services and rapport.Contribution/value-add: The value of the article is twofold: Firstly, based on the findings, at practitioner level, abortion counsellors will be assisted in how to deal with clients to create trust. Secondly, the findings from the study will assist academics to understand the nature of the unwanted services industry better. Services providers and other policy makers have to rethink their current approaches through which trust is built within the abortion counselling industry.

  6. Faced with a dilemma: Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Hjøllund Christiansen, Anne; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    literature. Aim: To explore Danish midwives’ experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy. Focus was on how midwives perceive their own role in late termination of pregnancy and how their professional identity is influenced by working with late termination of pregnancy in a time where...... ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late termination of pregnancy. Other professions as well as structural factors at the hospital highly influenced the midwives’ ability to organize their work with late terminations. There is a need for more...... thorough investigation of how to secure the best possible working conditions for midwives and how to optimise the care for women/couples going through late termination of pregnancy....

  7. EFFICACY OF SUBLINGUAL MISOPROSTOL IN TERMINATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nearly 20% of all confirmed pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion. Misoprostol’s use in early pregnancy failure is varied and dose and route are not well established. AIM: To study the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol in causing expulsion of products of conception in early pregnancy failure. METHODS: Women with an ultrasound diagnosis of early pregnancy failure, less than 12 weeks gestation were included in the study. Tablet Misoprostol 600 mcg was given six hourly sublingually for 3 doses. All observations were noted and analyzed. RESULTS: Mean gestational age was 7.946+1.2 weeks. Mean induction abortion interval was 18.241+1.2 hours. Women with gestational age six to eight weeks had least mean induction-abortion interval time of 17.38+2. Mean dose required was 1564mcg.Efficacy of protocol was 92.85% in achieving complete abortion. CONCLUSION: The regime had 92.85% efficacy, acceptability (90% and few side effects. Thus by using a lower dose and appropriate interval between two doses (six hours, the side effects were lessened with high efficacy

  8. COMPARISON OF MISOPROSTOL AND MISOPROSTOL WITH ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE IN SECOND TRIMESTER TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Sivakumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare the efficacy and side effect profile of vaginal misoprostol versus misoprostol and isosorbide mononitrate in enhancing cervical ripening in second trimester pregnancy termination. METHODS It is a random clinical trial done in 100 patients for mid trimester termination of pregnancy (between 12 and 24 weeks of gestational age. They were divided into two groups: Group A Combination of 400 mcg of misoprostol and 40 mg of ISMN placed intravaginally. Repeat doses included combination of 400 mcg of misoprostol and 20 mg of ISMN every 4 hours for maximum 4 doses. Group B 400 mcg of misoprostol placed intravaginally every 4 hours for maximum 4 doses for termination. In both the above-mentioned groups, T. mifepristone 600 mg was given orally 36-48 hrs. prior to termination. RESULTS The mean induction abortion interval was significantly less (7 hrs. 36 mins in Group A compared with group B (9 hrs. 55 min. There was no statistical significant difference in the amount of mean dose used in both groups. The complete abortion rate within 48 hrs. in Group A was 94%, which shows no statistical significance when compared with Group B complete abortion rates (80%. However, it is interpreted that on adding ISMN, the number of complete abortion rates are higher. There was no failure of abortion in both the groups. The side effects such as pain abdomen and fever were less in Group A (38% when compared to Group B (78%. CONCLUSION Vaginally administered ISMN seems to be safe and effective method in second trimester pregnancy termination. There is a reduction in hospital stay, manpower, economy spent on patient, and a sense of wellbeing from the patient also.

  9. Termination of pregnancy--a nurse's right to choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurry, S

    1997-10-01

    If the conflict between pro- and anti-abortionists in nursing persists, perhaps a solution might be the establishment of specialised treatment centres designed specifically for termination procedures. Staff in these centres could be selected on the basis of their suitability and empathy with the women in their care. However, the establishment of such centres would fall into the category of an ideal solution and are highly unlikely to be adopted in practice. It is the responsibility of every nurse to clarify in their own mind exactly where they stand on such issues as termination of pregnancy before they accept a post where such procedures are likely to be carried out. Once a nurse has committed his or herself to assisting in theatre, then they should be prepared to collaborate fully with the work of the surgical team. Education can ensure that nurses are aware of all the issues and are able to make their own decision based on real experience. Abortions will always be carried out whether inside or outside the law; it is far better that women receive the best possible care and counselling and it is the duty of the nursing profession to provide that care.

  10. Effect of Low Dose of Mifeprostone in Capsules combined with Misoprostol on Termination of Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄紫蓉; 王巧风; 杜明昆; 王卫芳; 顾林金

    2001-01-01

    Objective In this double-blind randomized trial, we compare the effect of 75 mg mifeprostone in capsules on termination of early pregnancy was compared with that of 150 mg in tablets combined with misoprostol. Methods A total of 160 patients were randomly divided into two groups with 80 for each group. The capsule group was administered with mifeprostone 75 mg in capsules,placebo tablets and misoprostol 0. 6 mg. The tablet group was administered with mifeprostone 150 mg in tablets, placebo capsules and misoprostol 0. 6 mg.Results The complete abortion rate in the capsule group and in the tablet group was 98. 8% and 97. 5% respectively, with no significant difference (P> 0. 05). There were no significant differences in bleeding time after abortion, side effects, recovery of menstruation or length of menstrual period between the two groups.Conclusion The clinical effect of mifeprostone capsule is the same with that of tablet in combination with misoprostol in terminating early pregnancy, while dose and cost is lower and the side effect is smaller. Mi feprostone capsule is recommended to be widely used for terminating early pregnancy.

  11. Vaginal Versus Oral Misoprostol for Second-Trimester Pregnancy Termination: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Aghdaee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of two different misoprostol regimens for second-trimester pregnancy termination. Methods: 60 consenting women who were at 14 to 28 weeks of gestation with indications for pregnancy termination were randomly assigned to two equal groups to receive either vaginal or oral misoprostol. The dosing regimen was 400µg as the initial dose followed by 400µg and up to 3 doses (1200µg if needed in each group. Efficacy and side effects were compared. Results: 30 patients randomly assigned to vaginal and 30 to oral misoprostol group. Demographic characteristics were similar in both the groups. The percentage of women who delivered was significantly higher in vaginal group than the oral group (86.7 vs.43.3, P=0.0006.The average induction to delivery interval was shorter in vaginal group, but this difference was not significant (9.7±4.2 vs. 12.7±7.3 P=0.083. No significant differences in complication rates or side effects were noted between the two groups. Conclusion: Vaginal administration of misoprostol resulted in a higher success rate for second trimester pregnancy termination, whereas, no significant differences in induction to delivery time and complication rates were noted between vaginal and oral groups.

  12. Termination of pregnancy under French law: from criminalization to a right in accordance with international developments on women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanamoothoo, Allane

    2011-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy is the premature exit of the products of conception, which include the placenta, bag of waters, embryo or fetus from the uterus. In general, the term "termination of pregnancy" refers to non-medical termination of pregnancy, which is requested for different reasons other than medical ones. When such a request is made in countries where it is lawful, women have access to induced termination of pregnancy under lawful and limited conditions. However, in countries where the practice is illegal, women tend to suffer and die of complications from unsafe termination of pregnancy. Nowadays, there seems to be a worldwide trend towards the legalization of termination of pregnancy. The impact of international developments on women's rights has played an increasing role in improving access to termination of pregnancy. This article aims at describing how legalization of termination of pregnancy in France has become a right which is in accordance with international developments on women's rights.

  13. An exploration of pregnant teenagers' views of the future and their decisions to continue or terminate their pregnancy: implications for nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily R; Glover, Lesley; Alexander, Tim

    2014-09-01

    To explore teenagers' views of the future in relation to their choices to continue or terminate pregnancy. Despite recent decreases in the numbers of teenage pregnancies, across the world, the teenage pregnancy rate remains high. Consideration of views of the future (future orientation) appears to play an important part in teenage girls' decisions to continue with pregnancy. To date, no study has explored this in teenage pregnant girls at the time they make their decision to continue with or terminate their pregnancy. Cross-sectional mixed methods design. Three groups were included: termination of pregnancy (n = 19), antenatal (n = 9) and never pregnant (n = 23). Participants were 13-18 years old. The termination of pregnancy and antenatal groups were interviewed, and the never pregnant group completed postal questionnaires. Groups differed in individual aspects of future orientation, that is, education, career and family, and reasons for pregnancy resolution choice. The termination group had more clearly developed and longer-term plans for the future with a focus on career. The never pregnant group shared aspects of their future orientation with both the antenatal and termination of pregnancy groups. The impact of negative discourses about teenage pregnancy from others was identified as a significant issue. How pregnant teenage girls view the future has a relationship with their decision to terminate or continue with their pregnancy. The findings suggest that working with teenage girls to clarify their views of the future may be useful both in preventing future unwanted pregnancy and in supporting teenagers in making pregnancy decisions. Supporting pregnant teenagers in distancing themselves from negative stereotypes of teenage mothers may also be beneficial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Clinical Analyses of 66 Cases of Mid-trimester Pregnancy Termination in Women with Prior Cesarean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Peng; Xin-Yan Liu; Lei Li; Li Jin; Wei-Lin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background:The rate of cesarean delivery has significantly increased in China in the last decade.Women with prior cesarean history tend to have a higher risk of uterine rupture during termination of the pregnancy in mid-trimester than those without such a history.The aim of our study was to evaluate the influences of the potential risk factors on uterine rupture in women with prior cesarean.Methods:We conducted this retrospective study of women with prior cesarean section,who underwent mid-trimester pregnancy termination between January 2006 and December 2013 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The protocol was oral administration ofmifepristone and misoprostol for the patients with the gestational ages below 16 weeks or intra-amniotic injection of ethacridine lactate (EL) for those with at least 16 weeks of gestational ages.The thickness of the lower uterine segment (LUS) was measured before the termination of pregnancy.Logistic regression was used to study the risk factors of uterine rupture.Results:The total rate of successful abortion was 93.9% (62/66).Four patients failed in induction,and one of them received curettage,whereas the other three experienced uterine rupture (4.5%).The successful rates of abortion were 85.7% (30/35) for women treated with mifepristone-misoprostol and 86.1% (31/36) for those treated with EL.There was a significant difference in the mean LUS thickness between the uterine rupture group (3.0 ± 2.0 mm) and the nonrupture group (7.0 ± 3.0 mm) (P < 0.05).The LUS thickness of<3 mm was associated with uterine rupture during mid-trimester pregnancy termination in women with prior cesarean (odds ratio,94.0; 95% confidence interval 4.2-2106.1) after adjusted maternal age,gestational age,interdelivery interval and prior cesarean section.Severe bleeding that required transfusion occurred in one case (1.5%).Conclusions:Both the mifepristone-misoprostol and the EL regimens were effective and safe for the termination of mid

  15. Clinical Analyses of 66 Cases of Mid-trimester Pregnancy Termination in Women with Prior Cesarean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of cesarean delivery has significantly increased in China in the last decade. Women with prior cesarean history tend to have a higher risk of uterine rupture during termination of the pregnancy in mid-trimester than those without such a history. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influences of the potential risk factors on uterine rupture in women with prior cesarean. Methods: We conducted this retrospective study of women with prior cesarean section, who underwent mid-trimester pregnancy termination between January 2006 and December 2013 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The protocol was oral administration of mifepristone and misoprostol for the patients with the gestational ages below 16 weeks or intra-amniotic injection of ethacridine lactate (EL for those with at least 16 weeks of gestational ages. The thickness of the lower uterine segment (LUS was measured before the termination of pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to study the risk factors of uterine rupture. Results: The total rate of successful abortion was 93.9% (62/66. Four patients failed in induction, and one of them received curettage, whereas the other three experienced uterine rupture (4.5%. The successful rates of abortion were 85.7% (30/35 for women treated with mifepristone-misoprostol and 86.1% (31/36 for those treated with EL. There was a significant difference in the mean LUS thickness between the uterine rupture group (3.0 ± 2.0 mm and the nonrupture group (7.0 ± 3.0 mm (P < 0.05. The LUS thickness of <3 mm was associated with uterine rupture during mid-trimester pregnancy termination in women with prior cesarean (odds ratio, 94.0; 95% confidence interval 4.2-2106.1 after adjusted maternal age, gestational age, interdelivery interval and prior cesarean section. Severe bleeding that required transfusion occurred in one case (1.5%. Conclusions: Both the mifepristone-misoprostol and the EL regimens were effective and safe for the

  16. Community-level influences on women's experience of intimate partner violence and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem with serious consequences for women’s physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health outcomes such as unwanted and terminated pregnancies, fetal loss or child loss during infancy, non-use of family planning methods, and high fertility are increasingly recognized. However, little is known about the role of community influences on women's experience of IPV and its effect on terminated pregnancy, given the increased awareness of IPV being a product of social context. This study sought to examine the role of community-level norms and characteristics in the association between IPV and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria. Methods Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on nationally-representative cross-sectional data including 19,226 women aged 15–49 years in Nigeria. Data were collected by a stratified two-stage sampling technique, with 888 primary sampling units (PSUs selected in the first sampling stage, and 7,864 households selected through probability sampling in the second sampling stage. Results Women who had experienced physical IPV, sexual IPV, and any IPV were more likely to have terminated a pregnancy compared to women who had not experienced these IPV types. IPV types were significantly associated with factors reflecting relationship control, relationship inequalities, and socio-demographic characteristics. Characteristics of the women aggregated at the community level (mean education, justifying wife beating, mean age at first marriage, and contraceptive use were significantly associated with IPV types and terminated pregnancy. Conclusion Findings indicate the role of community influence in the association between IPV-exposure and terminated pregnancy, and stress the need for screening women seeking abortions for a history of abuse.

  17. Retention of fetal bones 8 years following termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Hasan Onur; Şimşek, Bilge Şener; Taşdemir, Umit; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Doğanay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies; in particular, fetal bones may present with a variety of clinical symptoms and signs including infertility, vaginal discharge, disparonia, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding. Many case reports were described post- abortal removal of retained fetal bone at varying time intervals from the previous (D&E), ranging from weeks to years. In our case, a 34-year-old woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and secondary infertility, her only pregnancy being a termination 8 years previously at 15 weeks' gestation. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed a normal-sized, normal-shaped uterus with an echogenic scarred endometrium. After then office hysterescopy revealed fragments of the immature bone. All the immature bones were removed by operative hysterescopy. Significant numbers of patients may have endometrial pathology; the differential diagnosis of such unusual findings on ultrasound examination includes intrauterine contraceptive devices, foreign bodies, calcified submucous fibroids and Asherman's syndrome, as well as rarities such as heterotopic bone. The presence of this pathology may be a causal or contributory factor to subfertilty, and will remain undetected if the endometrium is not routinely evaluated. Indeed, these cases highlight the advantage of performing a hysteroscopy at the same time as the more invasive laparoscopy and dye insufflation, in selected cases.

  18. Community-level influences on women's experience of intimate partner violence and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Adaji, Sunday

    2012-11-14

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences for women's physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health outcomes such as unwanted and terminated pregnancies, fetal loss or child loss during infancy, non-use of family planning methods, and high fertility are increasingly recognized. However, little is known about the role of community influences on women's experience of IPV and its effect on terminated pregnancy, given the increased awareness of IPV being a product of social context. This study sought to examine the role of community-level norms and characteristics in the association between IPV and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on nationally-representative cross-sectional data including 19,226 women aged 15-49 years in Nigeria. Data were collected by a stratified two-stage sampling technique, with 888 primary sampling units (PSUs) selected in the first sampling stage, and 7,864 households selected through probability sampling in the second sampling stage. Women who had experienced physical IPV, sexual IPV, and any IPV were more likely to have terminated a pregnancy compared to women who had not experienced these IPV types.IPV types were significantly associated with factors reflecting relationship control, relationship inequalities, and socio-demographic characteristics. Characteristics of the women aggregated at the community level (mean education, justifying wife beating, mean age at first marriage, and contraceptive use) were significantly associated with IPV types and terminated pregnancy. Findings indicate the role of community influence in the association between IPV-exposure and terminated pregnancy, and stress the need for screening women seeking abortions for a history of abuse.

  19. Audit of short term outcomes of surgical and medical second trimester termination of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Helen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As comparisons of modern medical and surgical second trimester termination of pregnancy (TOP are limited, and the optimum method of termination is still debated, an audit of second trimester TOP was undertaken, with the objective of comparing the outcomes of modern medical and surgical methods. Methods All cases of medical and surgical TOP between the gestations of 13 and 20 weeks from 1st January 2007 to 30th June 2008, among women residing in the local health board district, a tertiary teaching hospital in an urban setting, were identified by a search of ICD-10 procedure codes (surgical terminations and from a ward database (medical terminations. Retrospective review of case notes was undertaken. A total of 184 cases, 51 medical and 133 surgical TOP, were identified. Frequency data were compared using Chi-squared or Fischer's Exact tests as appropriate and continuous data are presented as mean and standard deviation if normally distributed or median and interquartile range if non-parametric. Results Eighty-one percent of surgical terminations occurred between 13 to 16 weeks gestation, while 74% of medical terminations were performed between 17 to 20 weeks gestation. The earlier surgical TOP occurred in younger women and were more often indicated for maternal mental health. Sixteen percent of medical TOP required surgical delivery of the placenta. Evacuation of retained products was required more often after medical TOP (10% than after surgical TOP (1%. Other serious complications were rare. Conclusion Both medical and surgical TOP are safe and effective for second trimester termination. Medical TOP tend to be performed at later gestations and are associated with a greater likelihood of manual removal of the placenta and delayed return to theatre for retained products. This case series does not address long term complications.

  20. Sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayswary Shanmugam

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: There is no significant difference in efficacy and side effects between sublingual and vaginal route of misoprostol for termination of pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3398-3403

  1. Use of misoprostol for termination of second and third trimester pregnancy with intrauterine foetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Palod

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Vaginal misoprostol is safe and effective in termination of second and third trimester pregnancy in case of intrauterine fetal death. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1216-1220

  2. Safety and efficacy of simultaneous use of Mifepristone and Misoprostol in second trimester termination of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali Shripad Jahagirdar

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Simultaneous use of Mifepristone and misoprostol is both safe and effective in termination of pregnancy in second trimester. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1359-1363

  3. Emergency contraception: knowledge and use among Danish women requesting termination of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perslev, A; Rørbye, C; Boesen, H C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe knowledge about and use of emergency contraception (EC) among Danish women requesting termination of pregnancy. The study included 1514 women (response rate 83.7%) referred during the period August 2000 to May 2001. Sufficient knowledge of EC was defined...... terminations of pregnancies. EC was used in the actual pregnancy by 6.6% and 24.1% had used it previously. Actual or formers users were characterized in the same way. The general knowledge about EC has not improved significantly during the last few years and there is still need for information about...

  4. [Use of prostaglandins in pregnancy termination in the 1st and 2d trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W

    1987-11-06

    Successful termination of pregnancy can be achieved at any stage of gestation by the administration of prostaglandins (PG). The methods used for preoperative cervical priming are: intramuscular and intramural-cervical injection of sulprostone, as well as intracervical application of PG-containing gel preparations. According to our own extensive investigations, intracervical application of 50 micrograms sulprostone-tylose gel is superior to other procedures of cervical priming as regards efficiency and acceptance. For termination of second trimester pregnancy a combined procedure is advisable, namely cervical priming (e.g. intracervical PG gel application) and induction of labour (e.g. intramuscular sulprostone). The advantages of this method as compared with the exclusively systemic administration of PGs are: a higher success rate, a lower incidence of undesired concomitant side effects and the avoidance of serious complications (e.g. cervical rupture). In our experience administration of PGs is not contraindicated under certain well-defined conditions, even in the case of previous uterine operations.

  5. Comparison of Extra-Amniotic Normal Saline Infusion plus Hydrocortisone versus Prostaglandin E2 Suppository for Pregnancy Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Keshavarzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pregnancy termination before onset of labor is one of the midwifery problems. The aim of the present study was to compare extra-amniotic normal saline infusion plus hydrocortisone effect versus prostaglandin E2 suppository for cervical ripening and second- trimester pregnancy termination.   Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical-trial study was performed on 50 pregnant women with gestation age of 14 to 28 weeks and Bishops Score ≤ 2 who required pregnancy termination for fetal indications. Half of the cases received extra-amniotic normal saline infusion plus 100 mg hydrocortisone (EASI+ H and the other half received two doses of 3mg prostaglandin E2 suppository every 4 hours. Six hours later, induction of labor was started by means of a high dose of Oxytocin according to of Alabama University Protocol for Mid-trimester Abortion. The obtained data was analyzed by using statistical softwares Chi-square, Fisher and T-test.   Results: There were no differences between the two groups regarding maternal age, parity, gestational age, Primary Bishops Score and indication of pregnancy termination. In the EASI+H group, the mean interval between initiation of labor induction and fetal expulsion was 23.04 ± 4.47 hours and in PGE2 group was 28.65 ± 2.87 hours (P=0.001. The success rate in the EASI+H group was 100% and in PGE2 group 80 % (P =0.04. Complications such as fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increase of blood pressure and need to curettage in PGE2 group were statistically and significantly more abundant.   Conclusion: Extra-amniotic normal saline infusion plus hydrocortisone is an effective and safe method that is suggested for cervical ripening and second- trimester pregnancy termination.

  6. The effectiveness of different methods in termination of second trimester pregnancy%不同方式终止14~24周妊娠的效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾成英; 肖小敏; 郭遂群; 张淑婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effectiveness of different methods in termination of second trimester pregnancy. Methods: A total of 117 women seeking for terminating 14 - 24 weeks of gestation in The Third Affiliated Hospital of South Medical University were randomly divided into three groups, group A ( n = 40, mifepristone combined with misoprostol),group B ( n = 39, mifepristone combined with amniotic cavity injection of rivanol) and group C ( n = 38, amniotic cavity injection of rivanol ). The clinical effectiveness of these three methods was evaluated. Results: Compared with group B and C,shorter duration of labour induction, lower rate of post - abortion curettage, less use of analgesics and less amount of vaginal bleeding were found in group A (P all < 0.05 ). Compared with group C, shorter duration of labor induction and lower rate of post - abortion curettage were observed in group B (P all < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the clinical effectiveness among these three groups (P > 0. 05). Conclusion: Mifepristone combined with misoprostol used for labour induction is superior to mifepristone combined with amniotic cavity injection of rivanol and traditional amniotic cavity injection of rivanol for its easy operation, safe, no need of curettage after induced abortion. In addition, mifepristone combined with amniotic cavity injection of rivanol for labour induction is superior to traditional amniotic cavity injection of rivanol .%目的:探讨不同方法终止14~24周妊娠的临床效果.方法:将117例妊娠14~24周妇女随机分为3组,A组采用米非司酮联合米索前列醇引产(40例);B组采用米非司酮联合羊膜腔内依沙吖啶注射引产(39例);C组采用羊膜腔内依沙吖啶注射引产(38例),比较3组引产效果.结果:A组与B组、C组相比,宫缩发动时间及产程短,清宫率低,镇痛药使用率低,出血量少,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组与C组相比,宫缩发动时间

  7. Faced with a dilemma: Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Hjøllund Christiansen, Anne; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women’s legal right to choose termination of pregnancy and considerations about the foetus’ right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns...... ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late termination of pregnancy. Other professions as well as structural factors at the hospital highly influenced the midwives’ ability to organize their work with late terminations. There is a need for more...

  8. Pregnancy resolutions among pregnant teens: termination, parenting or adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-Ling

    2014-12-19

    Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and Child Health Centre, who had a history of being pregnant in their teens and out of wedlock. Interviews were conducted to explore the considerations surrounding their decision on how to resolve their pregnancy. A total of nine women were interviewed. An analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that to arrive at a decision on what to do about their pregnancy, pregnant teens took into consideration their relationship with their boyfriend, their family's advice or support, practical considerations, their personal values in life, and views on adoption. The results of this study results highlighted that during this life-altering event for adolescents, an open discussion should take place among all of the parties concerned. A better understanding of each party's perspective would allow for better decision making on the resolution of the pregnancy. Health professionals or social workers are there to help pregnant adolescents, romantic partners, and family members make informed choices on how to resolve the pregnancy.

  9. Termination of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida: a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domröse, Christian M; Bremer, Sandra; Buczek, Caroline; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Gembruch, Ulrich; Willruth, Arne

    2016-10-01

    To analyze fetal cases with spina bifida undergoing termination of pregnancy according to chromosomal analysis and further diagnosed sonographic findings. Retrospective analysis of cases with spina bifida leading to termination of pregnancy in a tertiary referral center from 2002 to 2011. In the study period, 246 cases of spina bifida were diagnosed in our center and 157 parents chose termination of pregnancy. The time of diagnosis was on average 2 days before the first presentation at our department (22 + 3, range: 12 + 3 - 33 + 3 weeks of gestation). Among 157 pregnancies with spina bifida and termination of pregnancy, further malformations could be detected in 46 (29.3 %) cases. An abnormal karyotype could be found in 13 (18.1 %). Severe ventriculomegaly or mild/moderate ventriculomegaly was present in 109 (69.4 %) and 29 (18.5 %) of the cases, respectively, while banana sign was detectable in 153 cases (97.5 %). In the majority, the upper lesion level was lumbar (71.3 %). In 67 cases (42.7 %), termination of pregnancy took place in or after the 24th week of gestation. Direct and indirect signs of spina bifida were detectable in nearly all cases independent of the gestational age. Therefore, the diagnosis could have been made in all cases with late termination. Implementation of a uniform prenatal care including first-trimester scan with potential signs for open spina bifida and second-trimester anomaly scan with indirect intracranial findings and direct detection of spinal lesion could lead to an earlier diagnosis and help to reduce late termination of pregnancy in neural tube defects.

  10. Prevalence of HIV among childbearing women and women having termination of pregnancy: multidisciplinary steering group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. J.; MacKinnon, H.; Smith, R.; Patel, N. B.; Scrimgeour, J. B.; Inglis, J. M.; Peutherer, J. F.; Urquhart, G. E.; Emslie, J. A.; Covell, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, in particular those whose behaviour or that of their partners put them at "low risk" of infection. DESIGN--Voluntary named or anonymous HIV testing of pregnant women during 21 months (November 1988 to July 1990). SUBJECTS AND SETTING--All women who planned to continue their pregnancy and attended clinics serving the antenatal populations of Edinburgh and Dundee. All women admitted for termination of pregnancy to gynaecology wards serving the pregnant populations of Dundee and outlying rural areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Period prevalence of HIV antibody positivity. RESULTS--91% of antenatal clinic attenders and 97% of women having termination of pregnancy agreed to HIV testing on a named or anonymous basis. HIV period prevalences for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy tested in Dundee were 0.13% and 0.85% respectively, and for antenatal clinic attenders tested in Edinburgh 0.26%. For those at "low risk" rates for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy in Dundee were 0.11% and 0.13%, and for antenatal clinic attenders in Edinburgh 0.02%. In Dundee HIV prevalence among women having a termination of pregnancy (0.85%) was significantly greater than that among antenatal clinic attenders (0.13%). CONCLUSIONS--HIV infection is undoubtedly occurring among women at "low risk," and it is clear that a policy of selective testing of those at only "high risk" is inadequate for pregnant women living in areas of high prevalence such as Edinburgh and Dundee. Moreover, when studying pregnant populations in such areas there is the need to include those having a termination of pregnancy. PMID:1586820

  11. STUDY OF FACTORS RELATED TO STRESS AMONG WOMEN UNDERGOING TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY (TOP IN A COLLECTIVIST CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is a country where people are dependent on each other for psychological support. Traditional Indian culture follows a collectivist pattern where the woman cares more about her family and society than herself. An unmarried woman who is pregnant poses a problem for both herself and her baby here, where traditional values are held high and pregnancy without marriage is almost always a taboo. AIMS To find the impact of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP on the anxiety and depression levels among pregnant women, correlation with period of gestation and the impact of perceived social support on anxiety and depression levels of these women. SETTING One hundred women who attended the outpatient department of ESICMC- PGIMSR, Bengaluru, India, requesting for Termination of Pregnancy, between August 2011 and December 2014 were studied. DESIGN A Prospective Observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, 1988 were measured both pre-TOP and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was measured post TOP in women fulfilling the Inclusion and Exclusion criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Averages and proportions were calculated for the study and appropriate statistical tests like Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient were done using MiniTab version 16. RESULTS 1 There is a reduction of depression and anxiety after Termination of pregnancy (p <0.05 more so among unmarried women with an unwanted pregnancy. 2 The higher the period of gestation, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety levels were observed (p value of <0.05. 3 The lower the social support scores, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety and depression (p value of <0.05. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for larger number of abortion care providers in India with increased contraception awareness and education regarding the need for Termination of Pregnancy in medical

  12. Parental adaptation to termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenromp, Marijke José

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of prenatal diagnosis and improvements in prenatal screening lead to an increasing number of fetal abnormalities diagnosed in early pregnancy. While the majority of parents who have opted for prenatal diagnosis will be reassured that their child does not have the anomaly the test w

  13. Experiences of registered midwives assisting with termination of pregnancies at a tertiary level hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Green

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act, Act No. 92 of 1996 brought many challenges for the registered nurses/midwife assisting in the termination of pregnancy. Opsomming Die implementering van die Wet op die Beëindiging van Swangerskap, Wet Nr. 92 van 1996, het baie uitdagings meegebring vir die geregistreerde verpleegkundige wat met die beëindiging van swangerskap behulpsaam is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  14. Pregnancy termination in Matlab, Bangladesh: maternal mortality risks associated with menstrual regulation and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mizanur; DaVanzo, Julie; Razzaque, Abdur

    2014-09-01

    In Bangladesh, both menstrual regulation (MR), which is thought to be a relatively safe method, and abortion, which in this setting is often performed using unsafe methods, are used to terminate pregnancies (known or suspected). However, little is known about changes over time in the use of these methods or their relative mortality risks. Data from the Demographic Surveillance System in Matlab, Bangladesh, on 110,152 pregnancy outcomes between 1989 and 2008 were used to assess changes in mortality risks associated with MR (and a small number of dilation and curettage procedures), abortion and live birth. Tabulation and logistic regression analyses were used to compare outcomes in two areas of Matlab--the comparison area, which receives standard government health and family planning services, and the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) area, which receives enhanced health and family planning services. In Matlab as a whole, the proportion of pregnancies ending in MR increased from 1.9% in 1989-1999 to 4.2% in 2000-2008, while the proportion ending in abortion decreased from 1.6% to 1.1%. The odds of mortality from MR were 4.1 times those from live birth in 1989-1999, but were no longer elevated in 2000-2008. The odds of mortality from abortion were 12.0 and 4.9 times those of live birth in 1989-1999 and 2000-2008, respectively. Reduction in mortality risk was greater in the MCH-FP area than the comparison area (90% vs. 75%). MR is no longer associated with higher mortality risk than live birth in Bangladesh, but abortion is.

  15. Who has a repeat abortion? Identifying women at risk of repeated terminations of pregnancy: analysis of routinely collected health care data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Stephen J; Flett, Gillian; Okpo, Emmanuel; Bhattacharya, Sohinee

    2016-04-01

    Repeat termination of pregnancy highlights the issues of unplanned pregnancies and effective post-termination contraceptive practices. To examine the risk factors at the time of a first termination that are associated with subsequent repeat termination. Registry-based study. Grampian region of Scotland, UK. A retrospective study using data from the Termination of Pregnancy Database, NHS Grampian for the period 1997-2013. Associations between repeat termination and women's sociodemographic characteristics and contraceptive use were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. This study showed that 23.4% of women who had an initial termination (n=13 621) underwent a repeat termination. Women who had repeat terminations were more likely to be aged under 20 years at their initial termination with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 5.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.17-7.49], to belong to the most deprived social quintile [AOR 1.23 (95% CI 1.05-1.43)], and to be more likely to have had two or more previous livebirths [AOR 1.51 (95% CI 1.12-2.02)] or miscarriages [AOR 1.40 (95% CI 1.02-1.92)]. The likelihood of having a repeat termination was increased in women who had a contraceptive implant as post-termination contraception [AOR 1.78 (95% CI 1.50-2.11)] compared to women who left with none or unknown methods following the first termination. In those who had repeat terminations, women who had an implant or Depo-Provera(®) were at increased odds of repeat termination in the 2-5 years interval compared to the 0-2 years after their initial termination. Teenage pregnancy, social deprivation, two or more previous livebirths or miscarriages at the time of the initial termination were identified as risk factors for repeat terminations. Post-termination contraception with implants and Depo-Provera® were associated with repeat termination 2-5 years after the first termination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  16. [Misoprostol: off-label use in the first trimester of pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, and voluntary medical termination of pregnancy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, G; Dolley, P; Carles, G; Salaun, F; Asselin, I; Dreyfus, M

    2014-02-01

    State of knowledge about misoprostol's use out of its marketing authorization during the first trimester of pregnancy, in early miscarriage or to induce abortion or medical termination of pregnancy. French and English publications were searched using PubMed, Cochrane Library and international learned societies recommendations. Cervical ripening prior to surgical uterine evacuation during the first trimester of pregnancy facilitates cervical dilatation and reduces operative time and uterine retention risk. Misoprostol, mifepristone and osmotic cervical dilators are equally efficient. Concerning first trimester miscarriage, surgical uterine evacuation remains the most effective and the quickest method of treatment (EL 1). Depending on the clinical situation, medical treatment using misoprostol (missed miscarriage) or expectative attitude (incomplete miscarriage) does not increase the risk of complications, neither haemorrhagic nor infectious (EL 1). However, these alternatives generally require longer outpatient follow-up, which leads to more consultations, prolonged bleeding and not planned surgical procedures (EL 1). Concerning missed miscarriage, a vaginal dose of 800 μg of misoprostol, possibly repeated 24 to 48 hours later, seems to offer the best efficiency/tolerance ratio (EL 2). Concerning early abortion, medical method is a safe and efficient alternative to surgery (EL 2). Success rates are inversely proportional to gestational age (EL 2). According to the modalities of its marketing authorization, 400 μg of misoprostol can only be given by oral route, for less than 7 weeks of amenorrhea (WA) pregnancies and after 36 to 48 hours following 600 mg of mifepristone (EL 1). However, 200mg of mifepristone is as efficient as 600 mg (EL 1). Beyond 7WA, misoprostol buccal dissolution (sublingual or prejugal) or vaginal administration are more efficient and better tolerated than oral ingestion (EL 1). Between 7 and 9WA, the best protocol in terms of efficiency and

  17. A STUDY OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF SUBLINGUAL MISOPROSTOL AFTER ORAL MIFEPRISTONE IN MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though Mifepristone- Misoprostol combination is well established for early pregnancy termination, the optimal Misoprostol dose is still under much debate. AIMS: To compare the efficacy of sublingual 400µg Misoprostol and 800µg Misoprostol after oral 200mg Mifepristone in achieving complete abortion, to study the induction abortion interval, complications and adverse effects seen with both groups. Setting 100 antenatal women requesting for medical termination of pregnancy of upto 63 days of gestation in ESI Medical College and Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Karnataka in India. Design A Prospective Observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Study population was randomized into 2 groups of 50 patients each. Both groups received 200 mg Mifepristone. Twenty four hours later, Group A received 400µg sublingual Misoprostol and Group B received 800 µg sublingual Misoprostol. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome analyzed in this study is the efficacy of the two regimens in achieving complete abortion. Secondary outcome measures are Induction to Abortion interval and adverse effects like pain abdomen, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, fever and chills. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Averages and proportions were calculated for the study and appropriate statistical tests like Chi Square Test, Fischer Exact Test and Student T Test were done using MiniTab version 16. RESULTS: Administration of 400µg sublingual Misoprostol 24 hours after 200 mg of Mifepristone has complete medical abortion rates comparable with 800µg sublingual Misoprostol with significantly lesser side effects. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, administration of 400µg sublingual Misoprostol after 200 mg of Mifepristone has complete medical abortion rates comparable with 800µg sublingual Misoprostol with significantly lesser side effects. However further research with different doses and routes of administration of Misoprostol in required in a larger

  18. Experiences, feelings and thoughts of women undergoing second trimester medical termination of pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga-Maj Andersson

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore women's expectations and experiences of undergoing second trimester abortion. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using a screening questionnaire and semi-structured interviews for data collection. Thirty-one women filled out the questionnaire and 23 of them were later interviewed. The questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Indications for the abortion were fetal malformation or unintended pregnancy. The women expressed similar feelings and these were irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Both physical and mental pain was experienced during the abortion process and described by the women. Taking the mifepristone-pill was experienced as especially emotionally difficult for many participants. Professional support from the staff together with support from the partner, a friend or relative helped in transforming the worries related to something unknown to feelings of coping with a new and hard experience. Prior to the abortion most women stated that they did not want to view the fetus but women who chose to view the fetus described this as a way of confronting the reality and an opportunity to say farewell to the pregnancy/fetus. The analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five themes mirroring the women's experiences, thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to undergo second trimester abortion sometimes exposes women to strong and conflicting emotions which are irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Despite this women do not regret their decision to terminate the pregnancy. This analysis shows that their rational thinking outweighs their emotionally difficult feelings. It is important for the attending staff to be responsive to the needs of each individual woman whatever the

  19. Experiences, Feelings and Thoughts of Women Undergoing Second Trimester Medical Termination of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Inga-Maj; Christensson, Kyllike; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Main Objective The objective of this study was to explore women's expectations and experiences of undergoing second trimester abortion. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a screening questionnaire and semi-structured interviews for data collection. Thirty-one women filled out the questionnaire and 23 of them were later interviewed. The questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Most Important Findings Indications for the abortion were fetal malformation or unintended pregnancy. The women expressed similar feelings and these were irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Both physical and mental pain was experienced during the abortion process and described by the women. Taking the mifepristone-pill was experienced as especially emotionally difficult for many participants. Professional support from the staff together with support from the partner, a friend or relative helped in transforming the worries related to something unknown to feelings of coping with a new and hard experience. Prior to the abortion most women stated that they did not want to view the fetus but women who chose to view the fetus described this as a way of confronting the reality and an opportunity to say farewell to the pregnancy/fetus. The analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five themes mirroring the women's experiences, thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. Conclusions The decision to undergo second trimester abortion sometimes exposes women to strong and conflicting emotions which are irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Despite this women do not regret their decision to terminate the pregnancy. This analysis shows that their rational thinking outweighs their emotionally difficult feelings. It is important for the attending staff to be responsive to the needs of each individual woman whatever the indication is for the abortion

  20. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Elective Termination of Pregnancies Involving Fetuses with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christy D.; Stough, Laura M.; Parrish, Linda H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 69 women at risk for carrying a fetus with a disability found most would choose to terminate a pregnancy that tested positive for a disability regardless of type of disability (either Down syndrome or spina bifida). The decision was not related to knowledge about disabilities but was negatively related to knowledge of…

  1. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDR OF DL-111-IT,A NEW NON-STEROID EARLY PREGNANCY TERMINATING AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGRui-Ying; ZHOUHui-Jun; YANGBao-Zhu; LIUHe-Chu; XUJian-Hua; LOUYi-Jia; ZHANGYuan-Pei

    1989-01-01

    DL-111-IT (3-ethylpheny1-5- (3-methoxyphenyl) -1, 2, 4-triazole) is highly effective for terminating early pregnancy in several species of animals without delayoel embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on the secondary embryo in rats. The present paper is a toxicological study of DI-111-IT.

  2. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Eerden, Leonoor; Van Oostwaard, Miriam F.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C. M.; Pajkrt, Eva; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Vandenbussche, Frank P; Oei, Swan G.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Koenen, Steven V.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. Study design: Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n = 10), between January 2000 and January 2014. All women who underwent termination of pregnancy, without fetal surveillance or intention to intervene for fetal reasons, for early-onset hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, were analyzed. Women el...

  3. The use of misoprostol in termination of second-trimester pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ju Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog, is initially used to prevent peptic ulcer. The initial US Food and Drug Administration-approved indication in the product labeling is the treatment and prevention of intestinal ulcer disease resulting from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use. In recent two decades, misoprostol has approved to be an effective agent for termination of pregnancy in various gestation, cervical ripening, labor induction in term pregnancy, and possible management of postpartum hemorrhage. For the termination of second-trimester pregnancy using the combination of mifepristone and misoprostol seems to have the highest efficacy and the shortest time interval of abortion. When mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is a good alternative. Misoprostol, 400 μg given vaginally every 3–6 hours, is probably the optimal regimen for second-trimester abortion. More than 800 μg of misoprostol is likely to have more side effects, especially diarrhea. Although misoprostol can be used in women with scarred uterus for termination of second-trimester pregnancy, it is recommended that women with a scarred uterus should receive lower doses and do not double the dose if there is no initial response. It is also important for us to recognize the associated teratogenic effects of misoprostol and thorough consultation before prescribing this medication to patients regarding these risks, especially when failure of abortion occurs, is needed.

  4. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed.Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth.Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  5. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed.Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth.Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  6. [Medical termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly: the patient's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotte, F; Mirlesse, V; De Vigan, C; Kieffer, F; Meunier, E; Daffos, F

    2000-04-01

    To analyze the patient's point of view concerning pregnancy termination for fetal anomaly. A questionnaire concerning the different steps of medical termination of pregnancy was given to 103 women on day 2 after termination. Most women thought that they were the ones who should make the decision (67%). Complete information prior to the procedure was greatly appreciated (81%). Physical pain remained one of the main concerns for patients given Dilapan. 94% of the women had epidural anesthesia before induction. Various mourning patterns were observed. Only 41% of the women wished to see their baby after termination; there was a correlation with age of pregnancy and social environment. Psychological assistance involved the entire team and a consultation with a pedopsychiatrist (81%). The most painful moment was the moment when breaking the new of the fetal anomaly. The women were very much in need of expressing their sorrow very soon after the event. Team work and lack of rigidity in care taking enhances the expression of individual resources, both by the medical team and the patients. Three points were highlighted by the patients.--the desire to participate in the decision making;--the importance of in-depth information on technical aspects of the procedure;--initial new breaking is recognized as a major trauma.

  7. [Loss and grieving: the experiences of women who terminate a pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Petean, Eucia Beatriz Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the grieving experiences of women who terminated pregnancies under judicial authorization, due to life-incompatible fetal malformation. Ten women attended in the Fetal Medicine Department of Botucatu Clinical Hospital participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews forty days after termination. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full, with the data analyzed from the thematic content analysis perspective. The results revealed that the mothers sought explanations and meanings for the loss, with religious responses and self-blame being very frequent. The reports were marked by feelings of sadness, longing and sensations of emptiness due to the loss of the child, revealing the need of the mothers to dwell on the issue. The mothers were and continued to be linked to their children; the termination of the pregnancy, although being a choice to minimize the pain of an inevitable loss, did not spare the women from experiences of great suffering.>The study includes input for the discussion and planning of health approaches and care for women who terminate their pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformation, by means of judicial authorization.

  8. Study on the relationship of the timing of pregnancy termination and delivery methods of early onset severe preeclampsia and the outcome of perinatal%早发型重度子痫前期终止妊娠时机及分娩方式与围生儿结局的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓良

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of timing of pregnancy termination and delivery methods of early onset severe preeclampsia to perinatal outcome. Methods: 220 patients in early onset severe preeclampsia (besides other pregnancy comorbidities and complications) treated in our hospital from September 2006 to September 2010 were selected.The gestational weeks of illness onset of this group of patients were all ≤ 34 weeks. This group of patients was divided into the vaginal delivery group and the cesarean section group by delivery method and the 28-30 weeks group, the 31-32 weeks group, the 33-34 weeks group and the >34 weeks group by time of pregnancy termination. Perinatal outcomes and incidences of maternal complications of the two groups were compared. Results: Between patients in early severe preeclampsia with different times of pregnacy termination, the incidences of maternal complications had no significant differences (P>0.05). But as the time of pregnancy termination prolonged, the neonate survival rates reduced significantly,with statistically significant differences between groups (P<0.05). The neonate survival rate of the cesarean section group was significantly higher than that of the vaginal delivery group (P<0.05). Conclusion: For patients with the gestational week of ≤34 weeks, as the gestational week of pregnancy termination increases, the neonate survival rate increases. As a result, appropriate prolongation of the gestational week and reasonable application of cesarean section in patients with the gestational week of ≤34 weeks can effectively reduce the neonatal asphyxia incidence and the perinatal mortality.%目的:探讨早发型重度子痫前期终止妊娠时机及分娩方式与围生儿结局的关系.方法:选取我院2006年9月~2010年9月收治的早发型重度子痫前期患者(除外其他妊娠合并症及并发症)220例为研究对象,该组患者的发病孕周均≤34周,按照分娩方式的不同分为

  9. A research agenda for moving early medical pregnancy termination over the counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nathalie; Grossman, Daniel; Jackson, Emily; Castleman, Laura; Brahmi, Dalia

    2017-03-19

    Given the overall safety profile and increasing availability of medical pregnancy termination drugs, we asked: would the mifepristone-misoprostol regimen for medical termination at ≤10 weeks gestation meet U.S. FDA regulatory criteria for over-the-counter (OTC) approval, and if not, what are the present research gaps? We conducted a literature review of consumer behaviors necessary for a successful OTC application for medical termination ≤10 weeks and identified crucial research gaps. If we were to embark on a development program for OTC or more generally, self-use of medical termination, the critical elements missing are the label comprehension, self -selection and actual use studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J; Lebese, Tsakani R; Maputle, Sonto M; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-05-31

    Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.

  11. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school) and (2) teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Conclusion Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. PMID:27380849

  12. Depression and termination of pregnancy (induced abortion in a national cohort of young Australian women: the confounding effect of women's experience of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Lyndsey F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termination of pregnancy is a common and safe medical procedure in countries where it is legal. One in four Australian women terminates a pregnancy, most often when young. There is inconclusive evidence about whether pregnancy termination affects women's rates of depression. There is evidence of a strong association between partner violence and depression. Our objective was to examine the associations with depression of women's experience of violence, pregnancy termination, births and socio-demographic characteristics, among a population-based sample of young Australian women. Methods The data from the Younger cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health comprised 14,776 women aged 18–23 in Survey I (1996 of whom 9683 aged 22–27 also responded to Survey 2 (2000. With linked data, we distinguished terminations, violence and depression reported before and after 1996. We used logistic regression to examine the association of depression (CES-D 10 as both a dichotomous and linear measure in 2000 with pregnancy termination, numbers of births and with violence separately and then in mutually adjusted models with sociodemographic variables. Results 30% of young women were depressed. Eleven percent (n = 1076 reported a termination by 2000. A first termination before 1996 and between 1996 and 2000 were both associated with depression in a univariate model (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.12 to 1.66; OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.87. However, after adjustment for violence, numbers of births and sociodemographic variables (OR 1.22, 95%CI 0.99 to 1.51 this became only marginally significant, a similar association with having two or more births (1.26, 95%CI. 1.00 to 1.58. In contrast, any form of violence but especially that of partner violence in 1996 or 2000, was significantly associated with depression: in univariate (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.97 to 2.70 or 2.45, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.04 and multivariate models (AOR 2.06, 95%CI 1.74 to 2.43 or 2

  13. Thrombotic microangiopathies and acute kidney injury induced by artificial termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Zou, H B; Xu, Y; Zhang, L

    2014-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare, but potentially lethal condition requiring rapid recognition, diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here, we present two cases of women with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury shortly after surgical termination of pregnancy. Histological examination of their kidneys revealed endothelial cell swelling and luminal stenosis or fibrin-containing thrombi in the glomeruli and arterioles, which support the diagnosis of TMA. The patients were treated with hemodialysis, plasma infusion and corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive agents. Three weeks after treatment, one patient was cured and symptoms of the other patient markedly improved. Reporting of more cases of TMA associated with surgical termination of pregnancy will provide further insights into this rare disease, possibly aiding in identifying risk factors and improving time to clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  14. Reasons for pregnancy termination: negligence or failure of contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, H; Pakarinen, P; Sjöberg, L; Kajanoja, P

    1995-11-01

    Interviews with 200 abortion seekers at a Finnish hospital revealed a high incidence of contraceptive failure. Although 93% claimed to have adequate knowledge about contraception, only 23 women (11.5%) were using a reliable method (pill or IUD) at the time of conception. 126 (63%) were relying on a less safe method (e.g., condoms, spermicides, rhythm) and 51 (25.5%) were not using any form of fertility control. 9 of the 16 pill users admitted irregular use; another 3 experienced vomiting or diarrhea at the time of conception, which may have compromised the method's effectiveness. Of the 116 condom users, 89 reported that the condom had broken or slipped off during intercourse or that use had been irregular. Concern about side effects was the most frequently cited reason for not using the pill or IUD; in many other cases, women had been advised by their physician to take a break from use of these methods. Overall, contraceptive failure was considered to have occurred in 43 cases (21.5%); the methods involved were IUD (7 cases), pill (4 cases), condoms (27 cases), and spermicides (5 cases). Recommended to reduce the high rate of contraceptive failure are counseling on proper method use and the alleviation of concern about side effects associated with the most effective methods.

  15. Student nurses' lived experiences of caring for women undergoing a termination of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Exley, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and literature - It has been widely recognised in the literature regarding termination of pregnancy (TOP) care that it causes deleterious effects on those caring. Though this has been widely accepted there have been no studies, looking at student nurses lived experience in this area of care. With the increasing advancements in technology and nurses autonomy, day case TOPs are set to increase. With student regularly placed on day surgery units there is a need to explore how...

  16. Clinical, biological and hormonal study of mid-pregnancy termination in cats with aglepristone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieni, Francis; Martal, Jacques; Marnet, Pierre Guy; Siliart, Brigitte; Guittot, Franck

    2006-10-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy, the safety and the variation in plasma concentrations of estrogens, progesterone, PGFM, oxytocin, cortisol and prolactin after mid-pregnancy termination induced by aglepristone, 61 pregnant queens (33.3 + 4.2 days), were injected subcutaneously with 15 [corrected] mg/kg aglepristone, (Alizine) [corrected] repeated once 24 h later. Five queens served as control and received a placebo. The efficacy of aglepristone was 88.5% and termination of pregnancy was achieved in 50% of the queens within 3 days. Brief periods of depression and anorexia were noted in 9.3% of the queens before fetal expulsion (these symptoms were attributed to the phenomenon of fetal expulsions). Not one of the queens that aborted developed uterine disease. There were no changes in plasma concentrations of estrogen, prostaglandin, prolactin or oxytocin following aglepristone administration. However, there were significant increases in plasma concentrations of progesterone and cortisol 60 and 30 h, respectively, after aglepristone administration. Termination of pregnancy occurred with high plasma progesterone concentrations. Fetal expulsion was characterised by an increase in estrogen, PGFM and oxytocin concentrations, whereas prolactin and cortisol levels remained at a basal level.

  17. A Comparative Study of Vaginal Misoprostol and High Dose Intravenous Oxytocin for Second Trimester Pregnancy Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajaee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Second trimester labor induction is a major problem in obstetrics and is the cause of two-thirds of all abortion related complications and more than half of the maternal deaths associated with abortion. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin for termination of second trimester pregnancy.Materials & Methods: One hundred women were allocated in a randomized controlled way to one of the two induction groups: oxytocin group patients initially received an infusion of 50 units of oxytocin in 500 ml of ringer over 3 hours, 1 hour of no oxytocin followed by alternating 3 hours of oxytocin with 1 hour of rest. Oxytocin was increased by 50 units in each successive period until a final concentration of 300 units per 500 ml has been reached. Another group received 200 µg misoprostol tablets in posterior fornix vagina and was repeated after 12 hours if needed. The two groups were compared for induction to delivery intervals and their safety during induction. Results: The success rate within 24 hours of induction was 94% in the misoprostol group and 86% in oxytocin group (p= 0.182. The mean induction to delivery time was significantly longer in the oxytocin group compared with the misoprostol group.(13.5 versus 9.93 hours ; P=0.0057. Retained placenta requiring curettage was lower in the misoprostol group than the oxytocin group.Conclusion: Intravaginal misoprostol is more effective than high dose intravenous oxytocin in women with second trimester termination.

  18. The implementation of the choice on termination of pregnancy act: some empirical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Engelbrecht

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The Choice on Termination o f Pregnancy Act o f 1996substantially liberalised abortion law. Whilst a substantial number of terminations of pregnancies (TOPs have already been performed in terms of the new Act, it has also surfaced that an array of factors of various kinds may impede its further implementation and operation. A study was undertaken to determine the nature and extent of any such impediments to the implementation of the Choice on Termination o f Pregnancy Act. More specifically a survey was conducted amongst a sample of 75 women who had undergone a TOP since the implementation of the Act; health professionals and social workers who provide TOP services (n=16; and health professionals and social workers who are in a position to refer women to TOP facilities (n=63. Overall, the clients were well treated at the TOP facilities, and were satisfied with the service given to them. However, post-counselling and to a lesser extent pre-counselling, is lacking. Counselling is important as a considerable proportion of the clients suffered from emotional feelings usually associated with depression and/or self-reproach before and after the termination procedure. Furthermore these clients did not usually discuss their termination with family members. TOP service providers were dissatisfied with the TOP facilities, especially the insufficient number of consultation and counselling rooms. Health care workers in a position to refer clients to TOP facilities were not always willing to do so, thereby obstructing the referral system. In the main, it is recommended that the entire TOP procedure should be done at clinics/hospitals so that clients will not have to do inductions at home, more trained staff should be available, facilities should be adequate and accessible, and there should be psychological support for staff.

  19. Termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly after 23 weeks of gestation: a European register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, E; Khoshnood, B; Loane, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) after 23 weeks of gestation in European countries, and describe the spectrum of anomalies for which late TOPFA is recorded....

  20. Voluntary termination of pregnancy (medical or surgical abortion: forensic medicine issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piras Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Law 194 of 22 May 1978 provides for and regulates the voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTP. Medical abortion became popular nationwide after Mifepristone (RU-486 was authorized for the market by AIFA (Italian Drug Agency in July 2009. We searched articles in medical literature database with these terms: “medical abortion”, “RU486”, “surgical abortion”. We also searched laws and judgments concerning abortion in national legal databases. Ministerial guidelines were searched on official website of Italian Ministry of Health. We found many medical studies about medical and surgical abortion. We found also ministerial and regional guidelines, which were analyzed. From the point of view of legal medicine, the issues related to abortion with the pharmacological method consist in verifying compatibility and consistency with the safety principles and the parameters imposed by Law n. 194 of 1978, using off-label Misoprostol, what inpatient care should be used and informed consent. The doctor’s job is to provide the patient with comprehensive and clear information about how the procedure will be performed, any complications and the time period needed for both procedures.

  1. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, A

    2000-09-01

    This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these

  2. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Botes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based

  3. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerden, Leonoor; Van Oostwaard, Miriam F; Zeeman, Gerda G; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M; Pajkrt, Eva; Duvekot, Johannes J; Vandenbussche, Frank P; Oei, Swan G; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Van Eyck, Jim; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Koenen, Steven V; De Groot, Christianne J M; Bolte, Antoinette C

    2016-11-01

    To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n=10), between January 2000 and January 2014. All women who underwent termination of pregnancy, without fetal surveillance or intention to intervene for fetal reasons, for early-onset hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, were analyzed. Women eligible for this study were identified in the local delivery databases. Medical records were used to collect relevant data. Between January 2000 and January 2014, 2,456,584 women delivered in The Netherlands, of which 238,448 (9.7%) in a tertiary care centre. A total of 161 pregnancy terminations (11-12 per year) for severe early-onset preeclampsia were identified, including 6 women with a twin pregnancy. Mean gestational age at termination was 172 days (GA 24(4/7))±9.4 days. In 70% of cases termination was performed at or shortly after 24 weeks' gestation. 74.5% of women developed HELLP syndrome (n=96), eclampsia (n=10) or needed admission to an ICU (n=14). Birth weight was below 500g in 64% of cases. In 69% of the cases the estimated fetal weight was within a 10% margin of the actual birth weight. Termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders without intervention for fetal indication occurs approximately 12 times per year in The Netherlands. More data are needed to investigate contemporary best practice regarding termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive indications at the limits of fetal viability. Considering the frequency of maternal complications, termination of pregnancy and not expectant management should be considered for all women presenting with severe early onset hypertensive disorders at the limits of fetal viability. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Sonographic characteristics of the uterus in asymptomatic women after second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka Wang; Ngu, Siew-Fei; Cheung, Vincent Y T

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the uterus after apparently uncomplicated second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy and to follow the evolution of these findings until the return of menstruation. Twenty-three women who requested termination of pregnancy at gestational ages between 14 and 20 weeks were recruited. Uterine characteristics were measured by 2- and 3-dimensional transvaginal with or without transabdominal sonography. The uterine anteroposterior diameter, length, and width, endometrial thickness, presence of an endometrial mass, intrauterine vascularity, and endometrial volume were measured within 24 hours, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after termination, and during the postmenstrual phase. The mean uterine anteroposterior diameter, uterine length, uterine width, endometrial thickness, and endometrial volume ± SD deceased gradually from 66.1 ± 9.7 to 40.9 ± 5.3 mm, 131.4 ± 14.7 to 81.3 ± 13.8 mm, 84.6 ± 10.3 to 54.2 ± 7.6 mm, 25.6 ± 8.1 to 4.5 ± 2.6 mm, and 39.4 ± 22.6 to 2.5 ± 2.1 mL, respectively, from within 24 hours after termination to the postmenstrual phase. Endometrial masses were identified in 8 women (34.8%) within 4 weeks after termination, which could persist for up to 8 weeks. However, all endometrial masses resolved after menstruation. Minimal and moderate endometrial vascularity was detectable in up to 21.7% after termination; none was detectable in any women after menstruation. This study provides information on the normal sonographic parameters of the uterus after second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy, which has been lacking in the literature. Also, our findings suggest that all endometrial masses regress with time; therefore, asymptomatic women with an incidental finding of an endometrial mass can be followed without the need for an immediate intervention. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: impact of counseling patterns on parental perceptions and decisions regarding termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton-Kamm, Debra; Chang, Ruey-Kang; Sklansky, Mark

    2012-12-01

    An online survey for parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) was developed to study parents' experiences at the time of diagnosis. The survey was distributed to online support groups. A total of 841 responses from parents of children with CHD were received during a 4-week period. The current study examined those respondents (211 [25 %]) who reported their child's diagnosis as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Among these, 138 (65 %) reported receiving the diagnosis prenatally. 32 % of those receiving a prenatal diagnosis reported that after they declined to terminate the pregnancy, termination was mentioned again by their physicians. Parents who had termination mentioned again after their initial decline reported significantly lower optimism regarding their child's life expectancy than those who did not have it mentioned again (66 vs. 94 %, p parents, when termination of pregnancy was mentioned after the parents declined it, or if the parents felt pressure to terminate, the parents perceived a lower chance of survival, felt less optimistic about their child's life expectancy, and were more likely to choose another PC for long-term follow-up care. Our study could not determine whether repeated discussions of the possibility for termination of pregnancy independently impacts parental optimism regarding prognosis or whether those who counsel with repeated discussions of termination tend to have more guarded notions of the prognosis of children with HLHS. Further study is warranted to identify the implications of counseling patterns on parental perceptions and decisions regarding termination of pregnancy.

  6. Comparison of sublingual and vaginal misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy terminations.

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    Forozan Milani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparing sublingual and vaginal misoprostol in second trimester pregnancy termination.In this study 268 women at 12-24 weeks of gestation candidate for pregnancy termination were enrolled. Women were randomly divided in two groups. The first group received 400 µg sublingual misoprostol and vaginal placebo and the second group received 400 µg vaginal misoprostol and sublingual placebo every 4 hours for a maximum of five doses. The course of misoprostol was repeated if the women did not abort within 24 hours.The median induction-to-abortion interval was shorter in sublingual group (12/72 hours in sublingual and 14/67 hours in vaginal. There was no significant difference in the success rate at 24 and 48 hours and in side effects. The preference for the sublingual route of administration was higher.Both vaginal and sublingual misoprostol are effective for medical abortion in second trimester termination. But it appears from shorter induction interval in sublingual and higher acceptability that sublingual route is a better choice.

  7. Public Health Impact of Legal Termination of Pregnancy in the US: 40 Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Thorp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 40 years since the US Supreme Court decision in Doe versus Wade and Doe versus Bolton, restrictions on termination of pregnancy (TOP were overturned nationwide. The use of TOP was much wider than predicted and a substantial fraction of reproductive age women in the U.S. have had one or more TOPs and that widespread uptake makes the downstream impact of any possible harms have broad public health implications. While short-term harms do not appear to be excessive, from a public perspective longer term harm is conceiving, and clearly more study of particular relevance concerns the associations of TOP with subsequent preterm birth and mental health problems. Clearly more research is needed to quantify the magnitude of risk and accurately inform women with the crisis of unintended pregnancy considering TOP. The current US data-gathering mechanisms are inadequate for this important task.

  8. Analysis of ultrasonic features of the uterus after termination of pregnancy%终止妊娠后子宫的超声图像特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红英; 曹华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of the intrauterine circumstance after termination of pregnancy by Color Doppler ultrasound. Methods One thousand four hundred sixty-eight cases of termination of pregnancy were examined by Color Doppler ultrasound for observing intrauterine residue,fluid and endometrium in uterus. Results Intrauterine residues were common in the cases of pristine fetation after termination of pregnancy, in which major cases were medicamentous abortion, and the endometrial cavity fluid and endometrial thickening were more common in the cases of pristine fetation compared with intermediate or late fetation after termination of pregnancy. Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound has the noticeable value in diagnosis of the intrauterine condition after termination of pregnancy.%目的 探讨终止妊娠后子宫的彩色多普勒超声图像特征.方法 对1468例终止妊娠者进行子宫彩色多普勒超声检查,观察官内有无残留及其位置、官腔积液及内膜情况.结果 宫内残留以早孕终止妊娠者较常见,其中以药物流产居多,且官腔积液及内膜增厚也较中孕引产者及晚孕分娩者多见.结论 彩色多普勒超声检查在终止妊娠后观察官内情况具有极高的应用价值.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in undocumented migrants undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

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    Irion Olivier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI is the most frequent sexual transmitted disease (STI in Switzerland but its prevalence in undocumented migrants is unknown. We aimed to compare CTI prevalence among undocumented migrants undergoing termination of pregnancy (ToP to the prevalence among women with residency permit. Methods This prospective cohort study included all pregnant, undocumented women presenting from March 2005 to October 2006 to the University hospital for ToP. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit coming to the same hospital during the same time period for ToP Results One hundred seventy five undocumented women and 208 women with residency permit (controls were included in the study. Mean ages were 28.0 y (SD 5.5 and 28.2 y (SD 7.5, respectively (p = 0.77. Undocumented women came primarily from Latin-America (78%. Frequently, they lacked contraception (23%, controls 15%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.04;2.9. Thirteen percent of undocumented migrants were found to have CTI (compared to 4.4% of controls; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4;7.3. Conclusion This population of undocumented, pregnant migrants consisted primarily of young, Latino-American women. Compared to control women, undocumented migrants showed higher prevalence rates of genital CTI, which indicates that health professionals should consider systematic screening for STI in this population. There is a need to design programs providing better access to treatment and education and to increase migrants' awareness of the importance of contraception and transmission of STI.

  10. A survey of women seeking termination of pregnancy in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, P L; Frommer, M S; Weisberg, E

    1995-10-16

    The directors of 11 family planning clinics agreed to participate in a 6-week survey in late 1992. Clinic staff were asked to complete a questionnaire that covered demographic information, gestation, parity, previous termination, and intention to submit a Medicare claim for the procedure. The response rate was 94%. A total of 2406 questionnaires were received and 2249 were left for analysis. 59% of the respondents were from the Sydney metropolitan area. Women in their 20s accounted for 54% of all terminations and teenagers accounted for 17%. 1256 (56%) of the women were single and, of these, 875 women (70%) were under the age of 25. 735 women (33%) were married, 100 women (4%) were divorced, and 148 women (7%) were separated. With regard to educational status, 1099 women (49%) had a university, college, or technical education and 1105 women (49%) had reached high school. 53% of women had reached levels beyond high school. 1491 women stated a religious preference. The most common religions were: Protestant (811 women or 36%), Catholic (579 women or 26%), and Eastern religions (69 women or 3%). 1295 women (58%) were having their first pregnancy termination. Overall, 919 women (41%) had had one or more abortions and 587 women aged 25-39 (54%) had had a previous abortion. Women in the 35-39 year age group were most likely to have had a previous abortion (115 women; 60%). The most frequently listed factor for abortion given by 60% was financial concerns. Younger women were more likely to cite youth, career, single parenthood, and changes in life style as the reasons for terminating their pregnancy. Women over 30 were more likely to cite completed family. 123 respondents cited additional factors: child spacing, being too old, and a pregnancy too early in the relationship. 2117 women (95%) had a Medicare card, of whom 83% intended to claim a refund for the termination. 116 women (11%) in the 15-24 year age group and 92 women (8%) over 25 years of age reported that they

  11. Socio-epidemiological factors of medical termination of pregnancy:an overview in a tertiary care institute

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    Rajshree Dayanand Katke

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The awareness of MTP Act and impact of legalizing the abortion is increasing the society and the increasing number of service rendered through the government establishment underlines the increasing faith in the system. The incidence rate of MTP is 27.93/1000 live births in the institute. The primary reason of MTP is failure of contraception. This fact highlights the huge unmet need of contraception and counselling. The maternal age group of 21-30 yrs is availing MTP services the most. Though there is changing trends for medical method of termination of pregnancy but the surgical method is still favoured. The permanent method of contraception in the form of Tubal ligation is increasing as a choice of contraception after MTP. Still the religious differences are evident in availing the MTP services and needs to be addressed tactfully. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1061-1064

  12. [Risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-shun; Pan, Fei-xia; He, Sai-nan; Hu, Wen-sheng

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa. Clinical data of 24 pregnant women of second and third trimester with a scarred uterus and placenta previa,who requested termination in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from July 2009 to June 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. The method of mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate was adopted for all cases. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate and uterine artery embolization were routinely given for patients with complete placenta previa. Cesarean section was performed for patients who failed to delivery or underwent massive vaginal bleeding before delivery. Age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity, times of previous cesarean section, the interval from previous operation, the position and the type of placenta previa, placenta accretet, the indication and method of termination, postpartum hemorrhage, successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and uterus rupture were documented. The successful rate of labor induction was 83.3%. The analysis showed that age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity and times of previous cesarean section were not risk factors for failed labor induction, however the interval time from previous operation was related to induction failure (Pplacenta adhered to the antetheca of the uterus or placenta accrete increased risk to have cesarean section. There were no significant differences in postpartum hemorrhage, the successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and the rate of uterine rupture between patients with uterine artery embolization and those without. The labor induction would be feasible for women with a scarred uterus and placenta previa in second and third-trimester pregnancy. The previous operation ≥ 13 years, the antetheca placenta or placenta accrete might increase the incidence of labor induction, while the

  13. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1...

  14. Abortion, 1973: some recent world events in relation to pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    This selective report notes recent events relating to pregnancy termination in the U.S., France, England, Italy, East and West Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands. Due to the Supreme Court decision in January 1973, abortion is now legal in the U.S. Although abortions is illegal in France, an estimated 400,000-1,000,000 clandestine abortions occur each year. Although abortions are legal in Britain, the ease with which they can be obtained varies regionally. As of March 1973, contraceptives are part of Britain's National Health Service. In Italy, a bill to legalize abortion has been introduced in Parliament, though there is little likelihood of its passing. In East Germany, abortion can be granted for medical or social reasons, while in West Germany, the governmental policies are more conservative, resulting in an abundance of illegal abortions performed by physicians. There is a trend toward easier abortion laws in Norway and Sweden. Little is happening in the Netherlands as far as liberalizing the abortion laws. Rather liberal grounds for pregnancy termination exist in China (though emphasis is on contraception), India, Russia, and Eastern Europe (with the exception of Romania). Abortion is frowned upon in Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East resulting in a large number of illegal abortions. It is concluded that there is liberalized abortion in communist bloc countries, there is trend toward liberalizing abortion in a large group of western countries, and tradition and religion are responsible for conservative abortion laws in a third group of countries.

  15. Exploration of the views of traditional healers regarding the Termination of Pregnancy (TOP law

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    MA Rakhudu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The North-West Province is predominantly a rural area, and traditional healers remain the most important and influential members of the rural communities. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was used. In-depth, individual focused and interactive interviews were held with eight traditional healers from the rural areas of Mmabatho-Mafikeng. In addition, field notes and observations were utilised. The objective of this article is to explore the views of the traditional healers regarding termination of pregnancy (TOP law. The results reflected the following themes: termination of pregnancy is killing; a child is a precious gift from God and the ancestors; there are alternatives to TOP; people who had any type of abortion should be cleansed with “dipitsa” or herbs; TOP may be allowed only in case of rape and incest, rape and incest offenders should be severely punished; and the traditional healers were not consulted during formulation of the TOP Law. It is therefore recommended that traditional should be involved in TOP workshops and educational programmes to enable them to provide counselling before and after abortion.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Uterine Artery Embolization in Pregnancy Termination with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Renguang; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Heping; Huang, Xinyu; Yan, Xiaoxing; Yang, Xiaohua

    2017-03-01

    To appraise the efficacy and safety of prophylactic uterine artery embolization in pregnancy termination with placenta previa. A cohort of 54 consecutive patients with placenta previa underwent prophylactic uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery from February 2012 to March 2015. Vaginal delivery was attempted in all patients. Cesarean section or hysterectomy was introduced when vaginal delivery failed. Vaginal delivery succeeded in 50 patients (93.6%) and failed in 4 patients (6.4%), thereupon converted to cesarean delivery. No patients resorted to hysterectomy. Six patients (11.1%) underwent blood transfusion. None of clinical characteristics, including maternal age, gestational age, history of abortion, history of cesarean delivery, and volume of vaginal bleeding, was significantly associated with complete placenta previa (P > 0.05). However, patients with complete placenta previa had a significantly lower successful rate of vaginal delivery than did patients without complete placenta previa (81 vs 100%, P = 0.038). The rate of complications was 3.7%. No major complications were observed. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe technique to assist pregnancy termination with placenta previa, which may lower the risk of cesarean section, hysterectomy, and blood transfusion.

  17. Effect of Contragestazolin ( L 1 4 1 0 5 ) on Pregnancy Termination in Rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俏军; 叶金玲; 方瑞英

    1999-01-01

    Contragestazolin (L14105) belongs to the class of 2-phenyl-triazote [5, I-a] isoquinolines. When given subcutaneously, intramuscularly or orally showed potential pregnancy-terminating activity in mice, rats, hamsters and guinea pigs, but the dialy doses of oral administration needed were Z 1, 6. 3 and 47, 6 times (for mouse, rat and hamster) greater than those needed parenterally. L14105 had low affinity to rat uterine progesterone receptor. When cultured human deciduat cells were exposed to L14105 0. 077~0. 155 mmol/L for 24~48 h, the cells'' viability markedly dropped and structural changes occurred in comparison with controls, Histological examination of conceptuses of rats showed edema, degeneration, necrosis and atrophy or disappearance of decidual cells nuclei and absorption of embryos after the sc administration of L14105 5mg/kg for 24~48 h. L14105 stimulated the contractile force of uterine smooth muscle in vivo or in vitro. Conclusion: L14105 shows a very high pregnancy terminating activity. Multiple orat administration is also effective. The mode of action of contragestation is related to damage of decidual cells and stimulation of uterine contractility.

  18. Misoprostol for induction of labour to terminate pregnancy in the second or third trimester for women with a fetal anomaly or after intrauterine fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Crowther, Caroline A

    2010-04-14

    A woman may need to give birth prior to the spontaneous onset of labour in situations where the fetus has died in utero (also called a stillbirth), or for the termination of pregnancy where the fetus, if born alive would not survive or would have a permanent handicap. Misoprostol is a prostaglandin medication that can be used to induce labour in these situations. To compare the benefits and harms of misoprostol to induce labour to terminate pregnancy in the second and third trimester for women with a fetal anomaly or after intrauterine fetal death when compared with other methods of induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2009). Randomised controlled trials comparing misoprostol with placebo or no treatment, or any other method of induction of labour, for women undergoing induction of labour to terminate pregnancy in the second and third trimester following an intrauterine fetal death or for fetal anomalies. Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included 38 studies (3679 women).Nine studies included pregnancies after intrauterine deaths, five studies included termination of pregnancies because of fetal anomalies when the fetus was still alive and the rest (24) presented the pooled data for intrauterine deaths, fetal anomalies and social reasons.When compared with agents that have traditionally been used to induce labour in this setting (for example, gemeprost, prostaglandin E(2) and prostaglandin F(2alpha)), vaginal misoprostol is as effective in ensuring vaginal birth within 24 hours, with a similar induction to birth interval. Vaginal misoprostol is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of maternal gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea when compared with other prostaglandin preparations. While the different treatments involving various prostaglandin preparations appear comparable for the reported outcomes, the information

  19. Method of making hermetic seals for hermetic terminal assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2010-04-13

    This invention teaches methods of making a hermetic terminal assembly comprising the steps of: inserting temporary stops, shims and jigs on the bottom face of a terminal assembly thereby blocking assembly core open passageways; mounting the terminal assembly inside a vacuum chamber using a temporary assembly perimeter seal and flange or threaded assembly interfaces; mixing a seal admixture and hardener in a mixer conveyor to form a polymer seal material; conveying the polymer seal material into a polymer reservoir; feeding the polymer seal material from the reservoir through a polymer outlet valve and at least one polymer outlet tube into the terminal assembly core thereby filling interstitial spaces in the core adjacent to service conduits, temporary stop, and the terminal assembly casing; drying the polymer seal material at room temperature thereby hermetically sealing the core of the terminal assembly; removing the terminal assembly from the vacuum chamber, and; removing the temporary stops, shims.

  20. Termination of pregnancy at very early gestation without visible yolk sac on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Cameron, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Requests for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at very early gestation (≤6 weeks) can prove challenging for abortion services as the ultrasound feature usually accepted as definitive evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), the presence of a yolk sac within a gestational sac, may not yet be evident. In 2011 the Edinburgh TOP service introduced a protocol permitting women to proceed to treatment without further investigations provided that ultrasound showed the features of an eccentrically placed gestational sac (≥3 mm) with a decidual reaction, and there were no signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted of outcomes of women presenting for TOP at ≤6 weeks' gestation over a 2-year period using the hospital computerised database. A total of 1155 women presented for TOP with an ultrasound gestational age of ≤6 weeks. Of these, 1030 (89%) had ultrasound evidence of a yolk sac. Eighty-seven women (7.5%) had an eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction. All 87 women fulfilled our criteria to proceed to medical TOP, and 66 did so. In the remaining 21 cases, further investigations were performed before they proceeded to medical TOP. Two (0.17%) medical TOPs failed, both in women whose initial ultrasound had shown a yolk sac. Women with ultrasound features consistent with a very early IUP (≥3 mm eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction) and without signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy can proceed directly to medical TOP without the need for delay for further ultrasonography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. [Selective termination of pregnancy for monochorionic twins: a national survey of professional practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlicot, C; Potin, J; Simon, E; Perrotin, F

    2014-06-01

    Selective Termination of Pregnancy (STOP) for discordant fetal condition in monochorionic twin pregnancy is a rarely performed procedure raising technical and ethical considerations. There are no epidemiological data available in France concerning STOP and no guideline or scientific consensus on how or when to perform has been published. We conducted a study of national practice using a declarative questionnaire sent by e-mail to each medical coordinator of every 48 Multidisciplinary Center for Prenatal Diagnosis in France. The questions focused on the issues of 2010 and 2011. Two reminders were sent in case of no answer. The response rate to the questionnaire was 56 %; 81 % of centers have experienced at least once during the two years 2010-2011 a discordant fetal anomaly in monochorionic twin pregnancy. Only 59 % of centers perform all the techniques of STOP. When interruption of the umbilical blood flow is considered, bipolar forceps coagulation is the most used (75 %). Achieving STOP during a cesarean section is a common practice (75 % of centers). Locoregional anesthesia is the preferred mode of anesthesia for STOP. STOP on monochorionic twin pregnancy is not practiced in all Multidisciplinary Center for Prenatal Diagnosis in France. The most widely practiced and most studied technique is bipolar forceps coagulation. The option of an expectant management should always be considered and its risks should be balanced with those of STOP. The practice of STOP during cesarean section is not unusual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J.; Lebese, Tsakani R.; Sonto M. Maputle; Lindiwe Mulaudzi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A ...

  3. STD and HIV screening in general practice: a survey related to termination of pregnancy in south Thames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R L; Maguire, H C; Kurtz, Z

    1998-01-01

    It has been recommended that screening for sexually transmitted disease (STDs) be carried out at the time of termination of pregnancy to allow prevention of post-abortion infection. Screening offers the opportunity to treat an infected woman and prevent serious complications following the termination procedure. Our findings indicate that general practitioners (GPs) in South Thames did not routinely carry out screening and few realized it took place at referral centres. PMID:9624755

  4. A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL OF ORAL MIFEPRISTONE AND VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL IN TERMINATION OF PREGNANCIES UPTO 63 DAYS OF GESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Digel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: By convention, abortion is defined as pregnancy termination upto 20 weeks of gestation or less than 500 gram birth weight and can be either spontaneous or induced. Induced abortion is the medical or surgical intervention of pregnancy before the time of foetal viability. According to the Consortium on National Consensus for Medical Abortion in India, every year an average of about 11 million abortions take place annually and around 20,000 women die every year due to abortion related complications. Medical abortion is an important alternative to surgical abortion for women who do not want a surgical procedure. Various regimens have been proposed for the administration of the mifepristone/ misoprostol combination. The objectives of the study were to determine the effectiveness and side effects of the combined regime of 200mg oral mifepristone and 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving 100 women ≥18 years with upto 9 weeks of gestation and attended genecology OPD for MTP. The women received 200mg mifepristone orally followed by 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol 48 hours later and were sent home after an observation period of 6 hours. They returned 14 days later for an ultrasonographic evaluation. Surgical intervention was indicated for continuing pregnancy, excessive bleeding or other serious medical conditions. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects, 96% had complete abortion and 4% had undergone surgical intervention. The mean abortion induction interval was 4.7 hours. The commonest side effect was abdominal cramps (66%, followed by nausea (42% and vomiting (16%. CONCLUSION: It is a safe, effective, reliable, non-invasive method of medical abortion.

  5. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Termination of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan; Chappell, Lucy C.; Parnell, Bethany L.; Seed, Paul T.; Bewley, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) are global health concerns, but their interaction is undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between IPV and TOP. Methods and Findings A systematic review based on a search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Ovid Maternity and Infant Care from each database's inception to 21 September 2013 for peer-reviewed articles of any design and language found 74 studies regarding women who had undergone TOP and had experienced at least one domain (physical, sexual, or emotional) of IPV. Prevalence of IPV and association between IPV and TOP were meta-analysed. Sample sizes ranged from eight to 33,385 participants. Worldwide, rates of IPV in the preceding year in women undergoing TOP ranged from 2.5% to 30%. Lifetime prevalence by meta-analysis was shown to be 24.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 30.6%); heterogeneity was high (I 2>90%), and variation was not explained by study design, quality, or size, or country gross national income per capita. IPV, including history of rape, sexual assault, contraceptive sabotage, and coerced decision-making, was associated with TOP, and with repeat TOPs. By meta-analysis, partner not knowing about the TOP was shown to be significantly associated with IPV (pooled odds ratio 2.97, 95% CI 2.39 to 3.69). Women in violent relationships were more likely to have concealed the TOP from their partner than those who were not. Demographic factors including age, ethnicity, education, marital status, income, employment, and drug and alcohol use showed no strong or consistent mediating effect. Few long-term outcomes were studied. Women welcomed the opportunity to disclose IPV and be offered help. Limitations include study heterogeneity, potential underreporting of both IPV and TOP in primary data sources, and inherent difficulties in validation. Conclusions IPV is associated with TOP. Novel public health approaches are required to prevent IPV. TOP

  6. Associations between intimate partner violence and termination of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV and termination of pregnancy (TOP are global health concerns, but their interaction is undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between IPV and TOP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review based on a search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Ovid Maternity and Infant Care from each database's inception to 21 September 2013 for peer-reviewed articles of any design and language found 74 studies regarding women who had undergone TOP and had experienced at least one domain (physical, sexual, or emotional of IPV. Prevalence of IPV and association between IPV and TOP were meta-analysed. Sample sizes ranged from eight to 33,385 participants. Worldwide, rates of IPV in the preceding year in women undergoing TOP ranged from 2.5% to 30%. Lifetime prevalence by meta-analysis was shown to be 24.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 30.6%; heterogeneity was high (I (2>90%, and variation was not explained by study design, quality, or size, or country gross national income per capita. IPV, including history of rape, sexual assault, contraceptive sabotage, and coerced decision-making, was associated with TOP, and with repeat TOPs. By meta-analysis, partner not knowing about the TOP was shown to be significantly associated with IPV (pooled odds ratio 2.97, 95% CI 2.39 to 3.69. Women in violent relationships were more likely to have concealed the TOP from their partner than those who were not. Demographic factors including age, ethnicity, education, marital status, income, employment, and drug and alcohol use showed no strong or consistent mediating effect. Few long-term outcomes were studied. Women welcomed the opportunity to disclose IPV and be offered help. Limitations include study heterogeneity, potential underreporting of both IPV and TOP in primary data sources, and inherent difficulties in validation. CONCLUSIONS: IPV is associated with TOP. Novel public health approaches are required

  7. Would you terminate a pregnancy affected by sickle cell disease? Analysis of views of patients in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkam, Ambroise; de Vries, Jantina; Royal, Charmaine D; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-09-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects quality of life and life expectancy for patients. In Cameroon, it is now possible to opt for termination of an affected pregnancy (TAP) where the fetus is found to be affected by SCD. Our earlier studies found that, contrary to the views of Cameroonian physicians, a majority of parents with their children suffering from SCD would choose to abort if the fetuses were found to be affected. What have not yet been investigated are the views of people suffering from/living with SCD. We used a quantitative sociological method, with administered structured questionnaires, to study the attitudes of adult patients suffering from SCD on prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) and possible TAP. The majority of the 89 participants were urban dwellers (84.3%), women (57.3%), Christian (95.5%) and single (90.9%), with a secondary/tertiary education (79.5%). The majority (89.2%) would consider PND for SCD; almost half (48.5%) would reject TAP while 40.9% would consider it. Respondents who rejected TAP claimed mostly ethical reasons (78.1%) while those who found TAP acceptable cited fear of having an affected child (88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (81.5%). Cameroonian patients with SCD are generally supportive of PND and a remarkably high number of patients living with SCD reported that they would consider terminating a pregnancy based on their assessment of the future well-being of the child. Research is required to investigate the burden of SCD on families and their quality of life.

  8. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, L. van; Oostwaard, M.F. Van; Zeeman, G.G.; Page-Christiaens, G.C.; Pajkrt, E.; Duvekot, J.J.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.; Oei, S.G.; Scheepers, H.C.; Eyck, J. van; Middeldorp, J.M.; Koenen, S.V.; Groot, C.J. de; Bolte, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n=10), between January 2000 and January 2014. All

  9. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in th

  10. A PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PREGNANCY TERMINATION EFFECT OF COMPLEX PRESCRIPTION OF ELM WHITE BARK IN ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIUXi-Min; LIPci-Quan; ZHANGJian-Guo; YEXue-Min

    1989-01-01

    Complex prescription of elm white bark is made up of elm white bark and Olibanum, which has been used as a female contraceptive in China. Our animal experimental results showed that it had terminating effect of early, mid and fate pregnancies in

  11. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable : a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerden, Leonoor; Van Oostwaard, Miriam F.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C. M.; Pajkrt, Eva; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Vandenbussche, Frank P.; Oei, Swan G.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Van Eyck, Jim; Middeldorp, Johanna M.; Koenen, Steven V.; De Groot, Christianne J. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. Study design: Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n = 10), between January 2000 and January 2014.

  12. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable : a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerden, Leonoor; Van Oostwaard, Miriam F.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M; Pajkrt, Eva; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Vandenbussche, Frank P.; Oei, Swan G.; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Van Eyck, Jim; Middeldorp, Johanna M.; Koenen, Steven V.; De Groot, Christianne J M; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. Study design Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n = 10), between January 2000 and January 2014. All

  13. Randomised comparison of oral and vaginal misoprostol when combined with mifepristone for termination of second trimester pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri N.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: 200 and micro;g misoprostol inserted vaginally is better than 400 and micro;g of oral misoprostol, 36 hours after administration of tab. Mifepristone 200 mg for termination of second trimester pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 509-513

  14. Social and emotional adjustment following early pregnancy in young Australian women: a comparison of those who terminate, miscarry, or complete pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Craig A; Horwill, Emily; Moore, Elya; Eisenberg, Marla E; Venn, Alison; O'Loughlin, Christina; Patton, George C

    2014-06-01

    To compare social and emotional adjustment including educational attainment and substance use in women who had a child, pregnancy termination, or miscarriage by young adulthood. Data were from a population-based longitudinal study of the health and well-being of 1,943 young Australians (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study) followed from 15 to 24 years of age. The sample was restricted to female participants and based on pregnancies reported by age 24 years. Analyses were adjusted for early teenage depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use, and parent socioeconomic context. A total of 208 pregnancies (in 170 women) were reported from a sample of 824 young women by 24 years of age. Compared with those who had never been pregnant, those who had a child had lower tertiary education completion and a higher risk of nicotine dependence; those who terminated a pregnancy were more commonly single and had a higher risk of smoking and alcohol use as well as nicotine and alcohol dependence; and those who had a miscarriage had a higher risk of depressive symptomatology and binge drinking as well as nicotine and cannabis dependence. Young women who have been pregnant by their mid-twenties report a range of difficulties in social and emotional adjustment that vary across the different pregnancy outcomes. Broad-based psychosocial health care is essential not only for young women whose pregnancies proceed to live birth, but also for those whose pregnancies end with miscarriage or induced abortion. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMEZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF TWO REGIMENS OF VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL IN SECOND TRIMESTER TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Eslamian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The search continues for a safe effective and cheap method for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Misoprostol is a strong contender in this respect. The dose schedule is still not fixed. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of two dose regimens of vaginal misoprostol for second trimester termination. Prospective randomized double blind controlled trial was undertaken in 162 women at 14-24 weeks gestation in a teaching hospital. Subjects were randomized to receive either regime A: 400 µg of intra vaginal misoprostol every 6h, or regime B: 200 µg of intravaginal misoprostol every 6h. The main outcome measure was the success rate at 24h, total dose required, induction-abortion interval and adverse effects. Data was analyzed by student's t-test, Mann-whitney U-test, the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. There was a significant difference in the success rate at 24 and 48hr (regime A: 74% and 97.5%; regime B: 61.7% and 88.9% P=0.016 & 0.029 respectively and in the mean induction abortion interval (14 Vs 20h, P=0.01 Mean Misoprostol requirement was significantly higher for regime A (731 µg ± 362 µg vs. 531µg ± 357µgm, P=0.001. Use of 400 µg vaginal misoprostol is superior to 200 µg vaginal misoprostol for second trimester abortion.

  16. Fetal abnormalities leading to termination of twin pregnancies: the 17-year experience of a single medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcer, Yaakov; Svirsky, Ran; Vaknin, Zvi; Levinsohn-Tavor, Orna; Feldman, Noa; Maymon, Ron

    2017-02-01

    To assess fetal abnormalities leading to termination of pregnancy (TOP) performed in twin pregnancies. The current study consisted of all women with dichorionic twin pregnancies (study group) who underwent TOP due to fetal abnormalities in our institute from 1999 to 2015. The data were compared to our registry of all parturient women with a singleton pregnancy (control group) that underwent TOP due to fetal anomalies at the same period. There were 2495 cases of TOP because of fetal indications during the study period. Of them, 86 (3.4%) and 2409 (96.6%) were from the study and control group, respectively. Structural anomalies were the leading indication for TOP in twins compared with singleton pregnancies (81.4% versus 50.9%, respectively, p leading indication for TOP was central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and it was more common compared with singleton pregnancies (26.1% versus 12.2%, respectively, p leading to TOP in twins versus singleton pregnancies. The main indication for TOP in the study group was structural malformations, with a predominance of CNS abnormalities.

  17. Trends in teenage termination of pregnancy and its risk factors: a population-based study in Finland, 1987-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälahti, S; Gissler, M; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2012-09-01

    What are the current trends in teenage termination of pregnancy (TOP) and its risk factors? The incidence of teenage TOP fluctuated substantially during the study period and the incidence of repeat TOP among adolescents increased markedly in the 2000s. Teenage pregnancy is associated with difficulties in psychological, sexual and overall health. The proportion of teenage pregnancies resulting in termination varies by country and time, but only few countries have reliable statistics on TOPs. This nationwide retrospective register study included all the TOPs (n= 52 968) and deliveries (n= 58 882) in Finland between 1987 and 2009 among girls pregnancy. The cohorts were divided into three subgroups; 13-15- (n= 6087), 16-17- (n= 18 826) and 18-19- (n= 28 055) year-olds. After an initial steady decline, the incidence of teenage TOP increased by 44% between 1993 (8.0/1000) and 2003 (11.5/1000), and thereafter declined by 16% until 2009 (9.7/1000). The incidence was higher in older adolescents, but the trends were alike in all age groups. Early TOPs (performed at teenage TOP seems to rapidly reflect changes in national sexual and reproductive health services and policy. The rising rate of repeat TOP is alarming and may represent a sign of marginalization among these girls. All efforts to maintain a low rate of teenage pregnancy are welcomed.

  18. Primary prevention of hemoglobinopathies by prenatal diagnosis and selective pregnancy termination in a Muslim country: Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha Mustafa Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies (HBP are the most common genetic disorder in Oman and are in need of prevention programs due to the high incidence of β-thalassemia major and sickle cell disease. Prenatal diagnosis (PD and selective pregnancy termination is shown to be the most effective prevention tool for the control of HBP. However, PD is not available in Oman thus far because abortion is subject to religious, cultural and ethical issues. We have examined the attitude of a number of Omani HBP carrier couples towards prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion. We have interviewed 35 couples at risk visiting the main premarital clinic in Muscat between Jan 2011 and Jan 2012. Couples were interviewed using a pre-structured questionnaire. The majority would have accepted prenatal diagnosis (94% if the service would be available in the country but pregnancy termination was greatly influenced by religious values. 血红蛋白病(HBP)是一种在阿曼最常见的遗传性疾病,由于其高发的B型地中海贫血症及镰状细胞症,相关的预防措施对于这一国家来说,相当重要。产前诊断(PD)和选择性终止妊娠被证实是针对管控血红蛋白病(HBP)的最有效方法。然而,由于受到宗教、文化和伦理抵制堕胎的影响,产前诊断(PD)并不能在该国得以应用。我们对该国一部分血红蛋白病患夫妇做了一项关于产前诊断的意向调查。2011年一月至2012年一月,我们在马斯喀特(阿曼首都)的一家婚前诊所对35对夫妇做了相关的采访调查。调查的问卷是事先设置好的。大部分(94%)夫妇表示接受产前诊断如果相应的措施能得到广泛的普及,但是他们对于选择性终止妊娠的态度受到了其宗教价值观的极大影响。

  19. Sliding mode control method having terminal convergence in finite time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Inventor); Gulati, Sandeep (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide robust nonlinear controllers for robotic operations in unstructured environments based upon a new class of closed loop sliding control methods, sometimes denoted terminal sliders, where the new class will enforce closed-loop control convergence to equilibrium in finite time. Improved performance results from the elimination of high frequency control switching previously employed for robustness to parametric uncertainties. Improved performance also results from the dependence of terminal slider stability upon the rate of change of uncertainties over the sliding surface rather than the magnitude of the uncertainty itself for robust control. Terminal sliding mode control also yields improved convergence where convergence time is finite and is to be controlled. A further object is to apply terminal sliders to robot manipulator control and benchmark performance with the traditional computed torque control method and provide for design of control parameters.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: evaluation of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, V; Genco, F

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is usually subclinic or associated with non specific symptoms. Diagnosis and timing of infection are usually based on serological tests. In this short review we tried to summarize the serological patterns we can encounter and to discuss the interpretation of test results.

  1. Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde R. Özalp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10–14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5 whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5 were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl. The treatment dose was 10 mg⁄kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating. Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits.

  2. Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde R. Özalp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10–14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5 whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5 were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl. The treatment dose was 10 mg⁄kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating. Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits.

  3. Diagnosis of Fetal Anomaly and the Increased Maternal Psychological Toll Associated with Pregnancy Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 4% of U.S. abortions occur in desired pregnancies, with many resulting from fetal anomalies. The majority of terminations occur in the second trimester; however in recent years first-trimester ultrasound measurement for nuchal translucency, calculation of risk based on maternal age, and biochemistry at 11-14 weeks gestation, have resulted in earlier prenatal diagnoses for chromosomal abnormalities. First trimester ultrasound can also now lead to diagnoses of major structural abnormalities including anecephaly, ventral wall defects, and limb abnormalities. The American College of Medical Genetics released recommendations underscoring the crucial importance of ethical counseling and substantive communication with parents facing a prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly. Unfortunately, the inability of health care providers to understand and empathize with the ardent desire of some parents to refuse termination is likely to be a large factor in the common practice of professionals attempting to steer expectant parents toward termination. Perinatal hospice is family-centered, comprehensive, and integrative in nature. The care provided by perinatal hospice units is delivered by an interdisciplinary team of obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, social workers and chaplains in 130 locations throughout the U.S. Support is offered from diagnosis until death and beyond with time for "bonding, loving, and losing." "Hospice care is an interactive, and at times intense, form of care. Rather than simply 'letting nature take its course,' this approach empowers the family to take control of some of the consequences of their unfortunate situation." A primary focus of perinatal hospice is on fear reduction. Parents facing the death of an infant often fear isolation and abandonment in addition to worrying about their child experiencing pain. Parents are assured that they will be cared for and supported throughout this entire chapter of their lives, as their babies are kept

  4. Synergistic effects of DL111-IT in combination with mifepristone and misoprostol on termination of early pregnancy in preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiao-jun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Wei-fang; Wu, Hong-Hai; Fang, Rui-ying

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and acute toxicity of DL111-IT combined with mifepristone (RU486) and misoprostol (MISO) on early pregnancy termination. In the pregnant rats experiments, the ED(50) values of RU486 in two-drug combinations were 0.16 (combined with DL111-IT) and 0.40 (combined with MISO) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while in three-drug combination treatment group (DL111-IT 9.0 mg x kg(-1) (toxicity, the LD(50) values and 95% confidence limit of DL111-IT (i.p.) alone and in combination with RU486 and MISO were 1379.4 (1278.2-1514.7) mg x kg(-1) and 1574.1 (1407.8-1762.7) mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference. All data suggested that DL111-IT in combination with RU486 and MISO significantly increased the effect on early pregnancy termination without increasing acute toxicity compared to the treatment of DL111-IT alone, and this combination may be a promising regimen for early pregnancy termination.

  5. Clinical Observation on Termination of Early Pregnancy of 213 Cases after Caesarian Section with Repeated Use of Mifepristone and Misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佩佩; 汪平

    1999-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety in women after caesarian section for termination of early pregnancies by treatment, or repeated treatment with mifepristone and misoprostot.Subjects and Methods A total of 213 pregnant women with amenorrhea of 34-69d after caesarian section who asked for medical abortion were recruited,including 63 cases undergoing their second medical abortion.A total amount of mi feprisstone of 150 mg given in separate doses(25 mg×4 and 50 mg at the first time)was administered orally within 3d, followed by misoprostot of 0.6 mg orally in the morning of d 3.Results The complete abortion rate was 92.5%,incomplete abortion was 4.7% and failure was 2.8%.Conclusion The sequential use of mifepristone and misoprostol could be successfully and repeatedly used for induced abortion in those women with a caesarian section histo-ry.Its efficacy was similar to that for ordinary population.Its safety and effec-tiveness were satisfactory.

  6. Misoprostol use under routine conditions for termination of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the misoprostol use in pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD, considering mode of delivery and induction-delivery interval. METHODS: Descriptive study including 171 pregnant women with IUFD, in the second or third trimester, submitted to labor induction with vaginal misoprostol and/or induction/augmentation with intravenous oxytocin, from 2005 to 2008, at a teaching-hospital of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde -SUS. RESULTS: Misoprostol alone (treatment A, misoprostol plus oxytocin (treatment B, and oxytocin alone (treatment C were administered in 9.3%, 19.9%, and 70.8% of the cases, respectively. One-third of pregnancies were less than 28 weeks, and 2.9% required a caesarean section. The percentage of vaginal delivery in treatments A and B combined (98.0% was similar to treatment C (96.7%. The mean induction-delivery interval was 15.4 hours. Comparing multiple groups, the mean induction-delivery interval was significantly shorter in treatment A (20.1 hours than in treatment B (33.3 hours, and was longer than in treatment C (9.7 hours. The majority (71% of cases required a single administration of misoprostol, and the total dosage was lower in treatment A (mean: 98.4 µg compared with treatment B (mean: 157.0 µg. CONCLUSION: Misoprostol effectively contributed to delivery of IUFD by vaginal route assisted under routine conditions of a public health service in Brazil, demonstrating its importance in cases resistant to usual induction methods, and its availability in Brazilian public health services is recommended.

  7. Numerical methods for solving terminal optimal control problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornov, A. Yu.; Tyatyushkin, A. I.; Finkelstein, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical methods for solving optimal control problems with equality constraints at the right end of the trajectory are discussed. Algorithms for optimal control search are proposed that are based on the multimethod technique for finding an approximate solution of prescribed accuracy that satisfies terminal conditions. High accuracy is achieved by applying a second-order method analogous to Newton's method or Bellman's quasilinearization method. In the solution of problems with direct control constraints, the variation of the control is computed using a finite-dimensional approximation of an auxiliary problem, which is solved by applying linear programming methods.

  8. A comparison of intravaginal misoprostol with sublingual misoprostol for second trimester medical termination of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Pandey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second trimester abortions generally account for less number of patients as compared to first trimester abortions as patients generally come earlier as soon as pregnancy is recognized but now days due to advent of USG many cases of fetal anomaly are detected earlier accounting for increasing number of cases of second trimester. Methods: Present study was conducted among patients with pregnancy between 13-20 weeks of period of gestation (to be randomly assigned after getting approval from institutional ethics committee and informed consent from the patient. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 400 and micro;g of misoprostol either sublingually or intravaginally every six hours for a maximum of 5 doses. The blood pressure, pulse rate and temperature and side effects monitored every 3 hrs. If women in either group failed to abort after 48 hours of initiation of treatment termed as failure. In cases of failure they were given additional doses of sublingual misoprostol till abortion occurred. Primary outcome variable compared was success rate at 48 hours. Secondary outcome variables compared were bleeding patterns, completeness of abortion, induction abortion interval and any side effects. Results: It has been found that vaginal misoprostol 400 micro gm achieved a success rate to 100% in 48 hours, while the success rate was 93.33% with the sublingual route. (P = 0.4915, NS. Conclusions: Thus from our limited study population, we conclude that there is no significant difference in efficacy and complications between the two routes, although a larger cohort is required to get more dependable result. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 402-407

  9. Misoprostol use under routine conditions for termination of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Cunha, Alfredo de Almeida; Oliveira, Sandra Regina dos Santos Muri; Nunes, Glaucimara Gonzaga; Alvarez, Felipe Silva; Villas Bôas, Eduardo Loyola

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the misoprostol use in pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), considering mode of delivery and induction-delivery interval. Descriptive study including 171 pregnant women with IUFD, in the second or third trimester, submitted to labor induction with vaginal misoprostol and/or induction/augmentation with intravenous oxytocin, from 2005 to 2008, at a teaching-hospital of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). Misoprostol alone (treatment A), misoprostol plus oxytocin (treatment B), and oxytocin alone (treatment C) were administered in 9.3%, 19.9%, and 70.8% of the cases, respectively. One-third of pregnancies were less than 28 weeks, and 2.9% required a caesarean section. The percentage of vaginal delivery in treatments A and B combined (98.0%) was similar to treatment C (96.7%). The mean induction-delivery interval was 15.4hours. Comparing multiple groups, the mean induction-delivery interval was significantly shorter in treatment A (20.1hours) than in treatment B (33.3hours), and was longer than in treatment C (9.7hours). The majority (71%) of cases required a single administration of misoprostol, and the total dosage was lower in treatment A (mean: 98.4μg) compared with treatment B (mean: 157.0μg). Misoprostol effectively contributed to delivery of IUFD by vaginal route assisted under routine conditions of a public health service in Brazil, demonstrating its importance in cases resistant to usual induction methods, and its availability in Brazilian public health services is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of two misoprostol regimens for mid-trimester pregnancy terminations after FIGO's misoprostol dosage recommendation in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Cihan; Buyukkurt, Selim; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Kahveci, Bekir; Soysal, Cenk; Ozgunen, Fatma Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of two misoprostol regimens for mid-trimester pregnancy terminations. Retrospective analysis of 263 cases of pregnancy terminations with misoprostol between 12 and 24 weeks was performed. Group 1 (total 129 patients) consisted of patients who were given 200 mcg vaginal misoprostol every 4 h until the abortion, whereas Group 2 patients (total 134 patients) were given misoprostol as in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics's (FIGO) 2012 recommendation. In case of a previous cesarean section doses were halved in both groups. Primary outcomes of the study were the time to abortion and the total drug dose used. Secondary outcome was the rate of complications. Total dose and time to abortion did not differ between the groups. As for complications, one patient (%0.8) in group 1 developed HELLP syndrome and had hysterotomy. One patient (%0.8) in group 2 had uterine rupture and had total hysterectomy. Two patients in both groups considered failure of induction and terminated with surgery (hysterotomy). Groups did not show difference in induction failure rates. We respect the presence of dose recommendation stated by the FIGO and found similar results with our recent protocol. Other misoprostol regimens used worldwide should also be compared with this guideline in order to improve its efficacy.

  11. Medical termination of pregnancy in general practice in Australia: a descriptive-interpretive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angela J; Nicolls, Rachel; Bateson, Deborah; Doab, Anna; Estoesta, Jane; Brassil, Ann; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-14

    Australian Government approval in 2012 for the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) allows general practitioners (GPs) to provide early gestation abortion in primary care settings. However, uptake of the MTOP provision by GPs appears to be low and the reasons for this have been unclear. This study investigated the provision of and referral for MTOP by GPs. We undertook descriptive-interpretive qualitative research and selected participants for diversity using a matrix. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews and one focus group (N = 4), were conducted with 32 GPs (8 MTOP providers, 24 non MTOP providers) in New South Wales, Australia. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A framework to examine access to abortion services was used to develop the interview questions and emergent themes identified thematically. Three main themes emerged: scope of practice; MTOP demand, care and referral; and workforce needs. Many GPs saw abortion as beyond the scope of their practice (i.e. a service others provide in specialist private clinics). Some GPs had religious or moral objections; others regarded MTOP provision as complicated and difficult. While some GPs expressed interest in MTOP provision they were concerned about stigma and the impact it may have on perceptions of their practice and the views of colleagues. Despite a reported variance in demand most MTOP providers were busy but felt isolated. Difficulties in referral to a local public hospital in the case of complications or the provision of surgical abortion were noted. Exploring the factors which affect access to MTOP in general practice settings provides insights to assist the future planning and delivery of reproductive health services. This research identifies the need for support to increase the number of MTOP GP providers and for GPs who are currently providing MTOP. Alongside these actions provision in the public sector is required. In addition

  12. Legal termination of a pregnancy resulting from transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue due to cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, EH; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer.......To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer....

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMETRICAL CHANGES OF THE PLACENTAL TERMINAL VILLI IN NORMAL AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Bhanu P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJECTIVES Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is escalating in Indian women amounting to 10% of the total pregnancies mainly due to the diet, obesity and sedentary life style. Placenta is a crucial organ of intrauterine life. The functional units of the placenta such as chorionic villi, foetal blood vessels, and the syncytial knots are altered histologically in gestational diabetic condition. The present study is undertaken to observe the morphological and micrometrical changes of the GDM and normal placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total number of 96 placentas, out of which 48 are GDM and 48 from control were procured for the present study. The placentas were collected from our General Hospital, Nellore, AP. Morphology and micrometry of the placentas were studied. RESULTS The shape of placenta was similar in both groups, but the weight in GDM (537.27±131.97 g, diameter (168.2±13.23 mm and thickness (29.9±3.45 mm were significantly (P<0.005 increased when compared to control. The mean number (9.01±2.25 mm3 and diameter (0.08±0.03 mm of the terminal villi and number of foetal blood vessels (21.76±8.52 mm3 were found to be increased in GDM, but the diameter of the blood vessel (0.04±0.02 mm was decreased and highly significant (P<0.001. The syncytial knots and fibrinoid necrosis were also observed in GDM when compared to the normal placenta. CONCLUSION The placentas from GDM were observed with significant morphological and histological changes as compared to controls, which may alter the perinatal outcome resulting in macrosomia, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation.

  14. The legal aspects of the termination of unwanted pregnancies and the risks faced by the medical doctor: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C

    2003-03-01

    Historical perspective of terminations of unwanted pregnancies in the UK. Moral and ethical considerations imposed by established church's teachings becoming increasingly in conflict with the wishes and expectations of a more secular society. Recognition that illegal abortion was, as a matter of fact available, at great risk to vulnerable girls and women. Eventually public demand and a radical and reforming government led to the current Statutory Framework. Statutory provisions: Offences against the Person Act 1861, Sections 58 and 59; Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 Section 1. Recognition of the limited flexibility allowed by the law in the original restrictive statutory framework. The direction to the jury in July 1938 by Macnaghten J in the case of R. v. Bourne [1939] 1 KB 687, where an eminent obstetrician was acquitted after carrying out an abortion on a young rape victim. Then the modern statutory provisions: Abortion Act 1967, amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The statutory framework provides for healthcare professionals not to have to take part in terminations if they have a conscientious objection to doing so. While there are still fierce challenges from moral pressure groups when any changes in the detail of the law are proposed--such as reducing the maximum gestation period for a lawful termination--as a whole society seems to have accepted the current law. Issues affecting doctors who consider and provide terminations; current medico-legal problems relating to wanted pregnancies that have been lost by reason of clinical negligence, and unwanted children that have been born by reason of clinical negligence.

  15. A randomized clinical trial of mifepristone plus different routes of administration of misoprostol for terminating a pregnancy up to 37 days

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Kai-yan; Shao Wen-qi; Lei Zhen-wu; Li Yi; Huang Zi-rong; Ma Wen-xia; Jing Xiao-ping; Jia Meng-chun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of 400 μg of misoprostol administered sublingually on medical abortion for early pregnancy by comparing with routine administration of misoprostol.Methods: Women presenting for termination of early pregnancy,whose gestational ages were not more than 37 days,were randomly allocated into two groups.Women in group A were given 50 mg of mifepristone orally on the first day and 25 mg of mifepristone 8 to 12 hours later.The schedule on the second day was as the same as above followed by 400 μg of misoprostol orally on the third day.Women in group B were given a dose of 150 mg of mifepristone orally followed by 400 μg of misoprostol sublingually 36 to 48 hours later.Both completed abortion rates and side effects were evaluated.Results: The completed abortion rates were 93.4% in group A and 91.0% in group B,showing no significant difference (x2=2.3846,P>0.05).About 80% of the women experienced nausea,vomit,dizziness,headache and breast tenderness.There were no significant differences in side effects of the two groups (P all>0.05).The duration of vaginal bleeding in the two groups were (9.08±3.49) days and (9.04 ± 3.43) days,showing no significant difference (t=0.15,P>0.05).About 97.3% of validated questionnaires on patient satisfaction were recovered.The proportions of patient satisfaction were 88.1% in group A and 92.0% in group B,showing no significant difference (P>0.05).Conclusion: Administration of 150 mg mifepristone orally followed by 400 μg of misoprostol sublingually could be more suitable for termination of early pregnancy due to its higher complete abortion rate and less side effects.

  16. MIMO Terminal Performance Evaluation with a Novel Wireless Cable Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    Conventional conductive method, where antennas on the device under test (DUT) are disconnected from antenna ports and replaced with radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables, has been dominantly utilized in industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. However, direct RF...... emulator output ports, a wireless cable connection can be achieved. The proposed method can be executed in a small RF shielded anechoic box, and offers low system cost, high measurement reliability and repeatability.......Conventional conductive method, where antennas on the device under test (DUT) are disconnected from antenna ports and replaced with radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables, has been dominantly utilized in industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. However, direct RF...... cable connection introduces many practical problems and a radiated method to replace cable connection is highly desirable. Existing wireless cable method relies on the knowledge of a transfer matrix between the channel emulator (CE) output ports and DUT antenna ports, and also requires an anechoic...

  17. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  18. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Matsuzaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta, the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM. Study Design - Case report and review of the literature. Results - A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion - Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  19. Influence on Monkeys Generative Physiology after Terminating Early Pregnancy by Focused Ultrasound Beams%聚焦声束超声终止猴早孕对生殖生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永洪; 邹建中; 白晋; 贺正才; 王智彪

    2003-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to study the influence on monkey, s generative physiology after terminating early pregnancy by focused ultrasound beams. Methods Five early pregnancy Macaque monkeys were treated with focused ultrasound beams, observing the recovery of menstruation and the change of skin after treatment, which show the hormone level. Two circles after the coming of menstruation, we estimated the shape and size of uterus and determined if there are some injuries on adjacent organs , by color Doppler ultrasonography (CDFI). Results Menstruation of these Macaque monkeys came 40 days after being treated with focused ultrasound beams to terminate the pregnancy, the volume and lasting period were normal, CDFI shows that the size and shape of uterus were normal, the endometrial line was clear to be observed, and there are no injuries on adjacent organs. Conclusion it is safe to terminate an early pregnancy of monkey model by Focused Ultrasound Beams, and there is no influence on the generative physiology, it has a potential prospect of being applied in clinics.

  20. Teenagers Who Have Terminated Pregnancies: The Young Young and the Old Young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, J. Ross

    Pregnancies, abortions, and births to unmarried women occur frequently in the United States; these are of particular concern when they occur to teenagers. This study examined the effects of age on the decision to have an abortion for teenagers (N=256) at a clinic serving a predominantly white clientele from several mid-size cities and the…

  1. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  2. Traditional methods used in determining duration of pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although traditional healthcare contributes to maternal healthcare, ... Six indicators were documented to be used in determining duration of pregnancy. ... health, home-based healthcare, pregnancy, pregnancy management, gestational age.

  3. Comparison of pain, cortisol levels, and psychological distress in women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy under local anaesthesia versus intravenous sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Dan J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight of evidence suggests that women who freely choose to terminate a pregnancy are unlikely to experience significant mental health risks, however some studies have documented psychological distress in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the aftermath of termination. Choice of anaesthetic has been suggested as a determinant of outcome. This study compared the effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation, administered for elective surgical termination, on outcomes of pain, cortisol, and psychological distress. Methods 155 women were recruited from a private abortion clinic and state hospital (mean age: 25.4 ± 6.1 years and assessed on various symptom domains, using both clinician-administered interviews and self-report measures just prior to termination, immediately post-procedure, and at 1 month and 3 months post-procedure. Morning salivary cortisol assays were collected prior to anaesthesia and termination. Results The group who received local anaesthetic demonstrated higher baseline cortisol levels (mean = 4.7 vs 0.2, more dissociative symptoms immediately post-termination (mean = 14.7 vs 7.3, and higher levels of pain before (mean = 4.9 vs 3.0 and during the procedure (mean = 8.0 vs 4.4. However, in the longer-term (1 and 3 months, there were no significant differences in pain, psychological outcomes (PTSD, depression, self-esteem, state anxiety, or disability between the groups. More than 65% of the variance in PTSD symptoms at 3 months could be explained by baseline PTSD symptom severity and disability, and post-termination dissociative symptoms. Of interest was the finding that pre-procedural cortisol levels were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms at both 1 and 3 months. Conclusion High rates of PTSD characterise women who have undergone surgical abortions (almost one fifth of the sample meet criteria for PTSD, with women who receive local anaesthetic experiencing more

  4. A free terminal ileal perforation from active crohn disease in pregnancy: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sunu; Kamyab, Armin; Orfanou, Paraskevi

    2015-03-01

    The surgical management of the complications of Crohn disease is often challenging. These difficulties are compounded in pregnancy by competing interests of the mother and the baby. In this report, we describe the presentation and surgical management of a patient in her second trimester with active Crohn disease who required emergent surgical intervention. She had presented with the uncommon complication of a free perforation in the presence of active untreated disease.

  5. [Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

    2013-01-01

    There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures.

  6. Termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly after 23 weeks of gestation: a European register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne, E; Khoshnood, B; Loane, M; Boyd, Pa; Dolk, H

    2010-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) after 23 weeks of gestation in European countries, and describe the spectrum of anomalies for which late TOPFA is recorded. Population-based study. Twelve European countries. Nineteen registries of congenital anomaly in 12 European countries between 2000 and 2005. The number of total births covered was 2 695 832. TOPFAs in singleton pregnancies from the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies and Twins (EUROCAT) database. The prevalence of TOPFA and type of anomaly. There were 10 233 TOPFAs, 678 (6.6%) of which were performed at 24 weeks or more. The rate of TOPFA before 24 weeks was 3.4 per 1000 births, at 24-25 weeks 0.14 per 1000 births and at 26 weeks or more 0.11 per 1000 births. There was significant variation in the prevalence of TOPFA at >or=24 weeks between countries (P anomaly, with 4% of all TOPFAs for chromosomal anomalies and 9% of all TOPFAs for nonchromosomal anomalies resulting in late TOPFA (P anomalies, but longer (>or=5 weeks) for diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocoele, arthrogryposis multiplex and Turner's syndrome. Late TOPFA is rare in Europe, and varies in prevalence between countries. Compared with earlier TOPFA, late TOPFA is more often performed for a nonchromosomal isolated major structural anomaly and less often for a fetus with a chromosomal syndrome or multiple anomalies.

  7. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prolong pregnancy after preterm rupture of the membranes: early termination of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combs C Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progestational agents may reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with various risk factors. We sought to test the hypothesis that a weekly dose of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P given to women with preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM will prolong pregnancy and thereby reduce neonatal morbidity. Methods Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Women with PROM at 23.0 to 31.9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive a weekly intramuscular injection of 17P (250 mg in 1 mL castor oil or placebo (1 mL castor oil. The primary outcome was the rate of continuing the pregnancy until 34.0 weeks of gestation or until documentation of fetal lung maturity at 32.0 to 33.9 weeks of gestation. Planned secondary outcomes were duration of latency period and rate of composite neonatal morbidity. Enrollment of 111 participants per group, 222 total, was planned to yield 80% power to detect an increase in the primary outcome from 30% with placebo to 50% with 17P. Results Twelve women were enrolled of whom 4 were randomly assigned to receive 17P and 8 to receive placebo. The trial was terminated prematurely because of two separate issues related to the supply of 17P. No adverse events attributable to 17P were identified. Conclusion Because of premature termination, the trial does not have adequate statistical power to evaluate efficacy or safety of 17P in women with PROM. Nonetheless, ethical principles dictate that we report the results, which may contribute to possible future metaanalyses and systematic reviews. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01119963 Supported by a research grant from the Center for Research, Education, and Quality, Pediatrix Medical Group, Sunrise, FL

  8. Termination of pregnancy among very preterm births and its impact on very preterm mortality : results from ten European population-based cohorts in the MOSAIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Delmas, D.; Draper, E. S.; Gadzinowski, J.; Kuenzel, W.; Cuttini, M.; Di Lallo, D.; Weber, T.; Kollee, L.; Bekaert, A.; Breart, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) on very preterm mortality in Europe. Design European prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Ten regions from nine European countries participating in the MOSAIC (Models of OrganiSing Access to Intensive Care for very preter

  9. Termination of pregnancy among very preterm births and its impact on very preterm mortality: results from ten European population-based cohorts in the MOSAIC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Delmas, D.; Draper, E.S.; Gadzinowski, J.; Kunzel, W.; Cuttini, M.; Lallo, D. di; Weber, T.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Bekaert, A.; Breart, G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) on very preterm mortality in Europe. DESIGN: European prospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Ten regions from nine European countries participating in the MOSAIC (Models of OrganiSing Access to Intensive Care for very pre

  10. Silent Uterine Rupture with the Use of Misoprostol for Second Trimester Termination of Pregnancy : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cuellar Torriente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is an uncommon, but a life-threatening, complication following second trimester medical termination of pregnancy (TOP. The reported cases have been in both the scarred and unscarred uterus (Rajesh et al. 2002, Drey et al. 2006, and Dickinson. A 27-year-old with two previous deliveries, no previous caesarean section, no history of induced abortions, and no gynaecological operations. She presented with amenorrhoea, and according to her last normal menstruation, she was 10 weeks and 5 days. Ultrasound was done, and it reported 16 weeks and 5 days. She asked for TOP. According to the clinic's protocol, misoprostol 800 mcg (4 tabs were given to be used vaginally as a loading dose and another three to be taken orally after that. In the following day when she attended the clinic for follow up, a manual vacuum aspiration (MVA. A manual vacuum aspiration was indicated as an incomplete abortion. During the procedure, a uterine rupture was found in the uterine lower segment. A laparotomy was done and a lineal uterine rupture was found and sutured. The patient had a good postoperative recovery and was discharged from hospital after four days. The clinician dealing with second trimester terminations should be aware of the possibility of having a uterine rupture, especially in patients with a uterine scar in order to make an early diagnosis.

  11. Association of gestational age with the option of pregnancy termination for fetal abnormalities incompatible with neonatal survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Flavia; Fustinoni, Suzete Maria; Pinto, Vânia Lopes; Melo, Patrícia de Souza; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel

    2016-01-01

    To identify the profile of women seen in a Fetal Medicine unit, diagnosed with fetal abnormality incompatible with neonatal survival in their current pregnancy, and to check the association of gestational age upon diagnosis with the option of pregnancy termination. This is a retrospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Outpatients Clinic of a university hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, using medical records of pregnant women with fetus presenting abnormalities incompatible with neonatal survival. The sample comprised 94 medical records. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19, was used for the data statistical analysis. The population of the study included young adult women, who had complete or incomplete high school education, employed, with family income of one to three minimum wages, single, nonsmokers, who did not drink alcoholic beverages or used illicit drugs. Women with more advanced gestational age upon fetal diagnosis (p=0.0066) and/or upon admission to the specialized unit (p=0.0018) presented a lower percentage of termination of pregnancy. Due to characteristics different from those classically considered as of high gestational risk, these women might not be easily identified during the classification of gestational risk, what may contribute to a late diagnosis of fetal diseases. Early diagnosis enables access to specialized multiprofessional care in the proper time for couple's counseling on the possibility of requesting legal authorization for pregnancy termination. Identificar o perfil de mulheres atendidas em um serviço de Medicina Fetal, que receberam diagnóstico de anomalia fetal incompatível com a sobrevida neonatal na gestação atual, e verificar a associação da idade gestacional no diagnóstico com a opção pela interrupção da gravidez. Trata-se de um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, realizado no ambulatório de Medicina Fetal de um hospital universitário da cidade de S

  12. Experiences of prenatal diagnosis and decision-making about termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jan; Pitt, Penelope; Metcalfe, Sylvia; Halliday, Jane; Menezes, Melody; Fisher, Jane; Hickerton, Chriselle; Petersen, Kerry; McClaren, Belinda

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic technologies and ultrasound screening techniques have increased the ability to predict and diagnose congenital anomalies during pregnancy. As a result more prospective parents than ever before will receive a prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abnormality. Little is known about how Australian women and men experience receiving a prenatal diagnosis and how they make their decision about whether or not to continue the pregnancy. This qualitative study aims to describe parental experiences and examine how best to provide support after a prenatal diagnosis. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 102 women and men approximately six weeks post-diagnosis of fetal abnormality. Data were elicited using a narrative, chronological approach and women (n = 75) and a sample of male partners (n = 27) were separately interviewed. Thematic analysis, involving a rigorous process of qualitative coding, enabled iterative development and validation of emergent themes. Participants identified that the shock of the diagnosis can be lessened when good care is delivered, by provision of: clear, accurate and respectful communication; empathic, non-judgemental, professional support; timely access to further testing and appointments; seamless interactions with services and administration; appropriate choices about invasive testing; acknowledgment of the enormity and unexpected nature of the diagnosis, and of the subsequent decision-making challenges; and discussion of the myriad feelings likely to emerge throughout the process. This study has demonstrated the importance of providing timely access to accurate information and supportive, non-judgemental care for women and their partners following prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abnormality. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  14. Efficacy of concurrent administration of mifepristone and misoprostol for termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manju Lata; Singh, Uma; Singh, Nisha; Sankhwar, Pushpa Lata; Qureshi, Sabuhi

    2017-04-01

    In this prospective randomized parallel group study, subjects with a pregnancy of less than 63 d were randomized to receive either (i) 200 mg oral mifepristone plus 400 μg misoprostol per vaginally concurrently (group A); (ii) or the administration of misoprostol after 48 h (group B). Transvaginal sonography was performed on the 14th day of misoprostol administration to confirm complete abortion. The primary outcome was to compare the rates of complete abortion in two groups. Secondary outcomes were to compare induction abortion interval, side effects and compliance. A total of 200 subjects included in the study were randomized into groups A and B (100 each). Both the groups were comparable for age, parity, gestational age and history of previous abortion. The complete expulsion rate in group A was 96% (95% confidence interval (CI) 95.1-98.2%) and group B was 95% (95% CI 93.0-96.8%) (p > 0.100). A gestational age of more than 56 d was found to predict failure of treatment in both groups. The adverse effect profile in the two groups was the same. Efficacy of concurrent mifepristone and misoprostol in combination is similar to that when misoprostol is given 48 h later (ctri.nic.in CTRI/2010/091/001422).

  15. 妊娠高血压疾病终止妊娠时机及母婴结局临床分析%Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy termination timing of clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新琳

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期高血压疾病与母婴结局的关系.方法:回顾性分析2003年6月至2012年3月我院就诊的459例妊娠期高血压疾病患者的临床资料,分为重度子痫前期组、轻度子痫前期组、妊娠高血压组,对比研究母婴并发症及分娩方式.结果:妊娠高血压组胎儿窘迫、早产的发生率显著低于轻度组;轻度组孕产妇FGR、并发症显著低于重度组(P<0.0.01);妊娠期高血压组产后大出血的发生率显著低于轻度组,轻度组产后出血、早产、新生儿窒息、胎儿窘迫显著低于重度组(P<0.05).结论:围产儿预后与妊娠期高血压疾病的严重程度成正比,适时选择剖宫产终止妊娠是重要的治疗措施,对提高母婴的生存率有重要意义.%Objective: To investigate hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcomes of relationship.Methods A retrospective analysis of 2003 June to 2012 March in our hospital, 459 cases of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in patients with clinical data, according to the new diagnostic standard: classification of severe preeclampsia group, mild preeclampsia, gestational hypertensive group, comparative study of maternal complications and delivery mode.ResultS: The gestational hypertensive group fetal distress, the incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower than that of the mild group; group FGR, mild maternal complications were significantly lower than those of severe group (P<0.01); the gestational hypertensive group of postpartum hemorrhage incidence was significantly lower than that of the mild group, mild group of postpartum hemorrhage, neonatal asphyxia, premature delivery, fetal distress was significantly lower than that of the severe group (P <0.05).Conchision: The perinatal prognosis in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy proportional to its severity, timely choice of cesarean section pregnancy termination are important therapeutic measures, to

  16. First trimester myomectomy as an alternative to termination of pregnancy in a woman with a symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Kara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Performing a myomectomy during pregnancy is extremely rare due to the risk of pregnancy loss, hemorrhage and hysterectomy. Favorable outcomes have been demonstrated with select second trimester gravid myomectomies. Literature documenting first trimester surgical management of myomas during pregnancy is scant. Patients with symptomatic myomas failing conservative management in the first trimester may be counseled to abort the pregnancy and then undergo myomectomy. Reports focusing on myomectomy in the first trimester are needed to permit more thorough options counseling for patients failing conservative management in the first trimester. Case presentation A 30-year-old Caucasian primagravid (G1P0 was referred for termination of her pregnancy at 10 weeks due to a 14 cm myoma causing severe pain, constipation and urine retention. Her referring physician planned an interval myomectomy following the abortion. Instead, our patient underwent myomectomy at 11 weeks. Two leiomyomas were successfully removed; she delivered a healthy infant at term. Conclusion Patients in the first trimester should not be counseled that termination followed by myomectomy is the best option for symptomatic myomas, failing conservative treatment. Management should be individualized after taking into account the patient's symptoms, gestational age and the location of the myomas in relation to the placenta. Any field providing women's health services will be impacted by the ability to offer more thorough options counseling for women with refractory myomas in the first trimester.

  17. Capacity Analysis of Ro-Ro Terminals by Using Simulation Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Deniz Özkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Ro-Ro terminals, terminal capacity is more needed than other types of marine terminals since Ro-Ro cargoes cannot be stacked. In this sense, the variables affecting capacity of a Ro-Ro terminal can be listed as follows; number of vehicles arrived to a terminal, distance between terminals, ship capacity, terminal gates, customs control units, terminal traffic and local traffic, security check, bunkering services etc. In this study, a model generated intended for making capacity analysis in Ro-Ro terminals by using simulation modeling method. Effect of three variables to terminal capacity was investigated while generating the scenarios; ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’, ‘distance between terminals’ and ‘Ro-Ro ship capacity’. The results show that the variable which affect terminal capacity mostly is ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’. As a consequence of this situation, it is thought that a Ro-Ro terminal operator must prioritize the demand factor and make an effective demand forecasting in determination of the terminal area.

  18. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  19. System and method for sub-sea cable termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qin; Yin, Weijun; Zhang, Lili

    2016-04-05

    An electrical connector includes a first cable termination chamber configured to receive a first power cable having at least a first conductor sheathed at least in part by a first insulating layer and a first insulation screen layer. Also, the electrical connector includes a first non-linear resistive layer configured to be coupled to a portion of the first conductor unsheathed by at least the first insulation screen layer and configured to control a direct current electric field generated in the first cable termination chamber. In addition, the electrical connector includes a first deflector configured to be coupled to the first power cable and control an alternating current electric field generated in the first cable termination chamber.

  20. [The trend in pregnancies terminated by a cesarean operation in Mexico during 1991-1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez Ocaña, S J; Fajardo Gutiérrez, A; Pérez Palacios, G; Guerrero Morales, R G; Gómez Delgado, A

    1999-07-01

    In the last decades has been a worldwide trend to increase the number of cesarean sections as an alternative of obstetric resolution, phenomenon for which it was proposed a variety of explanation, this fact remains practically unknown in the institutions of the National Health System (NHS) in Mexico. To identify the trend of the pregnancy to end for cesarean sections during the years of 1991-1995 in the 32 states of de country, as well as of all the institutions of the National Health System. Descriptive, cross sectional and retrospective. We use the data of the Bureau of Statistics and Informatics of de Health Ministry of each one of the 32 states of the country, of the years 1991 to 1995, and of the number of cesarean sections made in the hospitals of the different institutions of the NHS. We started off with a data-base, to calculate frequency tables, and the specific rate of the cesarean section for each year, for each one of the states and institutions of the NHS. We calculate the secular trends using the annual rates of cesarean section, for each one of the states and institutions of the NHS. We also made bivariate analysis and estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% IC); and the statistic X2 for trend, setting the two tailed statistic significance level of 0.05. During the study period, there was 7,503,817 births in all hospitals of the NHS, of these births 1,929,865 (25.72%) was resolved by cesarean section. For the whole period it there was a clear trend to increment of the cesarean section, the rate for 1991 was 20.44%, and by 1995 was 28.58%, the raise for the period was 39.82%, with values of the OR for trend of 1.56; 95% IC (1.55-1.57). "P" PEMEX) and the Marine Ministry (SECMAR), all trends were statistically significant. When the analysis of the cesarean section rates for the 32 states of the Mexican Republic was carried out, we found that in 1995, the national average rate was 28.58%, the lowest rate corresponded to the state

  1. Evaluation of organic cover crop termination methods: flame or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of winter cover crops is an integral component of organic vegetable systems. However, timely spring termination currently relies on tillage in most instances due to time constraints. Thus, the use of conservation practices in organic systems is usually disjointed with some tillage required betw...

  2. Comparison of two doses and two routes of administration of misoprostol after pre-treatment with mifepristone for early pregnancy termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marions Lena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not known whether a 400 μg dose of misoprostol has a similar efficacy as an 800 μg dose when administered sublingually or vaginally 24 hours after 200 mg mifepristone. Methods It is proposed to undertake a placebo-controlled, randomized, non-inferiority trial (3% margin of equivalence of the two misoprostol doses when administered sublingually or vaginally using factorial design. A total of 3008 pregnant women ( The four treatment regimens will be compared in terms of: (i their efficacy to induce complete abortion; (ii induction-to-abortion interval when possible; (iii the frequency of side effects; and (iv women's perceptions. The initial judgment of the outcome of treatment is made at the follow-up visit on day 15 of the study and the final assessment four weeks later. It is estimated that the clinical phase will require 12–14 months for data collection. To compare the two routes and two doses, relative risks (RR of failure to achieve a complete abortion and failure to terminate pregnancy and the two-sided 95% CIs will be calculated by standard methods, as well as risk differences and two-sided 95% CIs. The latter will be used to test the non-inferiority hypotheses (at 2.5% level of significance for achieving complete abortion. The factorial structure will be taken into account in the analysis after testing the interaction. Trial registration ISRCTN87811512

  3. Pregnancy prevention and/or termination: On history of birth control in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Drezgić Rada

    2016-01-01

    This text gives a brief survey of history of fertility control in Serbia from the 19th century to present. Special attention is given to the mid 20th century, the period during which currently still prevalent model of fertility control has been constituted in Serbia. This model is marked by a combination of behavioral methods and abortion, as a backup method. The author scrutinizes structural and ideological features from different levels of social organiza...

  4. Pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of medication for termination of pregnancy in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of abortion information and methods in Kenya. Methods In 2013 we interviewed 235 pharmacy workers in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu about the medical abortion services they provide. We also used mystery clients, who made 401 visits to pharmacies to collect first-hand information on abortion practices. Results The majority (87.5%) of pharmacy workers had heard of misoprostol but only 39.2% had heard of mifepristone. We found that pharm...

  5. Analysis of effect of different delivery modes and termination of pregnancy for fetal prognosis of prolonged pregnancy%不同分娩方式与终止妊娠时机对过期妊娠胎儿预后的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静娴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同分娩方式与终止妊娠时机对过期妊娠胎儿预后的影响。方法选取2011年6月~2013年6月本院收治的过期妊娠产妇121例,延期妊娠产妇100例,对临床资料进行回顾性研究。结果顺产组胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息发生率显著高于剖宫产组;观察组胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息、妊娠产妇产后出血、产程延长发生率显著高于对照组。结论给予过期妊娠产妇进行剖宫产可以显著降低胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息的发生,延期妊娠产妇应重视产检,加强胎儿监护,适时终止妊娠,避免过期妊娠发生。%Objective To investigate the effects of different delivery modes and termination of pregnancy for fetal prognosis of prolonged pregnancy. Methods Selected from 2011-6 to 2013-6 in our hospital 121 cases of maternal pregnancy, maternal 100 cases of delayed pregnancy, retrospective study.Results Natural delivery group of fetal distress, neonatal asphyxia rate was significantly higher than that of cesarean section group;the observation group of fetal distress, neonatal asphyxia, postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy, prolonged labor were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusion Given the maternal pregnancy cesarean section can reduce the fetal distress, neonatal asphyxia, delayed pregnancy women should pay attention to check, strengthen the fetal monitoring, timely termination of pregnancy, to avoid the occurrence of prolonged pregnancy.

  6. A comparison of intraamniotic prostaglandin and extraamniotic prostaglandin gel for midtrimester termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D H; Dalrymple, J C

    1983-02-01

    A comparison between midtrimester abortion induced by the intraamniotic injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha and abortion induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha in Tylose gel administered extraamniotically was made in a group of 40 patients. The induction-abortion interval in the extraamniotic group was 12.1 hours which was significantly shorter (P less than 0.001) than the intraamniotic group (27.6 hours). The placenta was expelled completely more often and there were no cervical lacerations using the extraamniotic method whereas 2 patients required repair of cervical lacerations after intraamniotic prostaglandin. Extraamniotic administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha in Tylose gel is recommended as a safe and more effective method for inducing midtrimester abortion than intraamniotic prostaglandin.

  7. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wen; Low Wah; Wong Yut; Choong Sim; Jegasothy Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected ...

  8. Methods for identifying pregnancy-associated deaths: population-based data from Finland 1987-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Berg, Cynthia; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Buekens, Pierre

    2004-11-01

    To find maternal and pregnancy-related deaths, it is important that all pregnancy-associated deaths are identified. This article examines the effect of data linkages between national health care registers and complete death certificate data on pregnancy-associated deaths. All deaths among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Finland during the period 1987-2000 (n = 15 823) were identified from the Cause-of-Death Register and linked to the Medical Birth Register (n = 865 988 births), the Register on Induced Abortions (n = 156 789 induced abortions), and the Hospital Discharge Register (n = 118 490 spontaneous abortions) to determine whether women had been pregnant within 1 year before death. The death certificates of the 419 women thus identified were reviewed to find whether the pregnancy or its termination was coded or mentioned. In total, 405 deaths (96.7%) were identified in registers other than the Cause-of-Death Register. Without data linkages, 73% of all pregnancy-associated deaths would have been missed; the percentage after induced and spontaneous abortions was even higher. Data linkages to national health care registers provide better information on maternal deaths and pregnancy-associated deaths than death certificates alone. If possible, pregnancies not ending in a live birth should be included in the data linkages.

  9. Health care providers' attitudes towards termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Phyllis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the abortion legislation in South Africa in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortion services still exist including provider opposition to abortions and a shortage of trained and willing abortion care providers. The dearth of abortion providers undermines the availability of safe, legal abortion, and has serious implications for women's access to abortion services and health service planning. In South Africa, little is known about the personal and professional attitudes of individuals who are currently working in abortion service provision. Exploring the factors which determine health care providers' involvement or disengagement in abortion services may facilitate improvement in the planning and provision of future services. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Thirty four in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted during 2006 and 2007 with health care providers who were involved in a range of abortion provision in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Complex patterns of service delivery were prevalent throughout many of the health care facilities, and fragmented levels of service provision operated in order to accommodate health care providers' willingness to be involved in different aspects of abortion provision. Related to this was the need expressed by many providers for dedicated, stand-alone abortion clinics thereby creating a more supportive environment for both clients and providers. Almost all providers were concerned about the numerous difficulties women faced in seeking an abortion and their general quality of care. An overriding concern was poor pre and post abortion counselling including contraceptive counselling and provision. Conclusion This is the first known qualitative study undertaken in South Africa exploring providers' attitudes towards abortion and adds to the body of

  10. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected from an urban family planning clinic in Penang, Malaysia based on inclusion criteria of being aged 21 and above and having experienced an induced abortion. A semi-structured interview guide consisting of open ended questions eliciting women’s experiences and needs with regard to abortion were utilized to facilitate the interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results Thirty-one women, with ages ranging from 21–43 years (mean 30.16 ±6.41, who had induced surgical/medical abortions were recruited from an urban family planning clinic. Ten women reported only to have had one previous abortion while the remaining had multiple abortions ranging from 2–8 times. The findings revealed that although women had abortions, nevertheless they faced problems in seeking for abortion information and services. They also had fears about the consequences and side effects of abortion and wish to receive more information on abortion. Women with post-abortion feelings ranged from no feelings to not wanting to think about the abortion, relief, feeling of sadness and loss. Abortion decisions were primarily theirs but would seek partner/husband’s agreement. In terms of the women’s needs for abortion, or if they wished for more information on abortion, pre and post abortion counseling and post-abortion follow up. Conclusions The existing abortion laws in Malaysia should enable the government to provide abortion services within the

  11. Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 is not involved in the induction of non-pregnant guinea pig uterine contractions associated with terminal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Wes; Riccardi, Keith; Grasser, W A; Terry, Ketti; Thompson, David; Paralkar, V M

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts its biological effects through 4 different receptor subtypes, EP-1, EP-2, EP-3, and EP-4. Recently we have demonstrated the importance of the prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 in the healing of bone defects and fractures. This discovery led to the identification of CP-533,536, an EP-2 selective agonist, a promising therapeutic alternative for the enhancement of bone healing and the treatment of fractures (J Bone Miner Res 18 (2003) 2033). PGE2 has a myriad of effects throughout the body including the induction of uterine contractions, which results in termination of pregnancies. Our objective in this study was to determine the role of the EP-2 receptor and specifically that of CP-533,536, an EP-2 specific agonist, to induce uterine contractions and terminate pregnancy in guinea pigs, an animal model of human pregnancy. Preliminary experiments confirmed earlier reports that the guinea pig uterus was more sensitive than that of the rat. The guinea pig uterus contains the four PGE2 receptor subtypes, and ex vivo treatment of the uterus with PGE2 as expected causes profound uterine contractions. However, using receptor selective prostaglandin agonists including CP-533,536 we showed that the EP-1 and 3 receptors not the EP-2 receptor is responsible for the induction of uterine contractions of PGE2. Further, CP-533,536 did not antagonize the ability of PGE2 to induce uterine contractions in this model.

  12. Survey of the Definition of Fetal Viability and the Availability, Indications, and Decision Making Processes for Post-Viability Termination of Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormalities and Health Conditions in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Danna; Davies, Gregory; Armour, Christine M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the definition of fetal viability and the availability, indications, and decision making processes for post-viability termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities and health conditions in Canada. An online survey of members of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists, and the Canadian Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine who provide direct counselling to, or management of, prenatal patients in Canada (total sample size 815). Results of this study showed that the majority of respondents indicated that their centre will offer post-viability termination of pregnancy (98/123; 80 %). Sixty-seven percent (68/101) of respondents reported the definition of fetal viability to be 24 weeks' gestation. Most respondents reported that a collaborative decision making process was used to determine if post-viability termination of pregnancy would be offered (136/170; 80 %). For conditions presumed to be lethal/likely lethal, the majority of respondents would "sometimes" or "always" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy, whereas for conditions presumed to have a mild effect, the majority of respondents would "rarely" or "never" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy. Ninety percent (77/86) of respondents reported that perinatal hospice is offered as an alternative to termination of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that although post-viability termination is available in many provinces in Canada, variation in the definition of fetal viability and indications appear to exist. While these variations may lead to unequal access to post-viability termination of pregnancy across Canada, they might also represent the complexity of the decision making process and the importance of examining individual factors to ensure that the most appropriate decision is made in each case.

  13. Junction termination extension (JTE) with variation lateral doping (VLD) optimization method

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavskiy, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    A simple and effective method for the junction termination design was suggested. Optimization method uses lateral charge function F(x) which depends from two arguments and can be changed in wide range of shapes. To demonstrate method effectiveness, design and optimization example for the HV diode (1800 V) edge termination was shown. Achieved breakdown voltage is 93% of the corresponding 1D structure breakdown voltage.

  14. Clinical Analysis of 206 Cases of Severe Preeclampsia Terminate the Pregnancy Timing and the Way%206例重度子痫前期终止妊娠时机和方式的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉仙

    2012-01-01

      Objective To explore the time and method of pregnancy termination of early onset severe preeclampsia, and the influence on newborns, to research the clinical definition of early onset severe preeclampsia and the meaning of expectant management. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on 206 patients with severe preeclampsia, all the patients were divided into three groups according to week of gestation:Ⅰ(≥34 wks);Ⅱ(32~34 wks);Ⅲ(≤32 wks), observed the effect of gestational age on neonatal survival and the damage of complications to maternal during expectant management. Results 206 patients were all survived , there was no significant differences in the method of delivery ,neonatal asphyxia and death rate(P>0.05); neonatal asphyxia and mortality in groupⅢwas highly significant than groupⅠandⅡ(P0.05).Conclusion Patients with severe preeclampsia should be timely terminated ,termination of pregnancy is one of the most important factors to effect neonatal outcomes , it is much more accurately to defined 32 weeks as the severe preeclampsia which can reflect the relationship between pregnancy termination and the outcomes of neonatal.%  目的探讨重度子痫前期终止妊娠的时机和方式,以及对新生儿的影响,并进一步研究早发型重度子痫前期的临床界定及期待治疗的意义.方法通过对206例重度子痫前期进行回顾性分析,根据入院孕周分为三组:I组≥34周,Ⅱ组≥32周0.05),新生儿窒息率与病死率Ⅲ组明显高于I和Ⅱ组,但Ⅱ组和I组间无显著差异(P>0.05).结论重度子痫前期患者应适时终止妊娠,终止妊娠孕周是影响围生儿结局的重要因素,临床上以32周界定早发型重度子痫前期更能准确反应终止孕周与新生儿结局的关系.

  15. Decrease of uteroplacental blood flow after feticide during second-trimester pregnancy termination with complete placenta previa: quantitative analysis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poret-Bazin, H; Simon, E G; Bleuzen, A; Dujardin, P A; Patat, F; Perrotin, F

    2013-11-01

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was used to quantify the dynamic changes in uteroplacental blood flow before and after the interruption of fetal villus circulation resulting from feticide during a second trimester pregnancy termination in a patient with complete placenta previa. Quantitative analysis was performed on time-intensity curves acquired 24 h before and 48 h and 120 h after feticide and demonstrated the persistence of utero-placental blood flow with a progressive and two-step reduction in intervillous space and uteroplacental blood flow. Our results suggest that placental blood flow reduction after interruption of fetal circulation is a progressive and delayed mechanism.

  16. A Novel Preparation Method of C-Terminal Glutamine Dipeptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shao-Song; LIU Yi; CHEN Ran; LI Jia-You; WU Xiao-Yan; JIAO Qing-Cai

    2006-01-01

    A novel synthesis method of dipeptides containing glutamine is reported. Protected L-amino acids were prepared by using inexpensive phthaloyl as the protecting group. Then the phthaloyl-L-amino acids were condensed with glutamine salts by the mixed anhydride method to afford phthaloyl dipeptides. Subsequently, the phthaloyl was removed from the dipeptides with hydrazine hydrate. As a result, optically pure glutamine-containing dipeptides were obtained in good yields.

  17. Comparisons of four dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Lyu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The combinations of 24-hour recalls for the short-term dietary changes and the CFFQ for long-term dietary patterns are suggested as appropriate dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwan.

  18. 药物与人工流产终止早期妊娠的临床比较%Clinical comparison on termination of early pregnancy with medical abortion and induced abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯梅英; 岑秋妹; 冯亦芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较药物流产和人工流产两种不同方式在终止早期妊娠上的被接受程度以及临床效果。方法选取2008~2012年在茂名市人口和计划生育综合服务中心终止早期妊娠的286例受术者,根据终止妊娠方式的不同,分为药物流产组(128例)和人工流产组(158例),比较两组受术者终止妊娠的临床效果以及再次意外妊娠后会选择的终止妊娠方式。结果两组在完全流产率、不完全流产率、人工流产综合征发生率、流产后阴道出血时间上比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。两组再次意外妊娠后会选择的终止妊娠方式比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05). Significant difference were fOund between twO grOuPs in chOOsing the terminatiOn methOd Of Pregnancy with anOther unexPected Pregnancy(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Drug abOrtiOn and induced abOrtiOn in the terminatiOn Of early Pregnancy have different advantages and disadvantages,aPPrOPriate terminatiOn Of early Pregnancy shOuld be chOsen accOrding tO the Patientˊs sPecific situatiOn and PreviOus abOrtiOn histOry tO imPrOve the clinical effect.

  19. 水囊联合缩宫素终止晚期妊娠临床观察%Clinical observation of water bag combined with oxytocin in late termination of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the safety and efficacy of applying water bag combined with oxytocin in later termination of pregnancy. Methods Eighty 28 to 36 weeks pregnant women who demanded termination of pregnancy due to fetal death, fetal abnormalities and pregnancy complications were divided into study group (n = 40) and control group (n = 40). The study group received water bag combined with oxytocin to induce abortion and the control group took rivanol. Results The delivery duration of the study group was shorter than that of the control group (P<0. 05). The residual rate of placental membranes and postpartum bleeding were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.01). The study group had no adverse events in the process of induced abortion. Conclusion Water bag combined with oxytocin in late termination of pregnancy is safe and effective. Thus it is worthy of wider clinical application.%目的 观察妊娠晚期应用水囊联合缩宫素引产的安全性与有效性.方法 选择妊娠28~36周,因死胎、胎儿畸形、妊娠并发症等要求终止妊娠的妇女80例,将80例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组40例,采用水囊联合缩宫素法引产;对照组40例,采用依沙吖啶引产.结果 观察组胎儿娩出时间短于对照组(P<0.05),胎盘胎膜残留率和产后阴道出血量均明显低于对照组(P<0.01).观察组引产过程中无任何不良反应.结论 水囊联合缩宫素终止晚期妊娠是安全有效的,临床值得推广.

  20. Working with women experiencing mid-trimester termination of pregnancy: the integration of nursing and feminist knowledge in the gynaecological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Annette D

    2002-03-01

    1. Working with women experiencing a mid-trimester termination of pregnancy is part of clinical practice in many gynaecological services. In this paper recent research with nurses working in the gynaecological area is drawn on to explore the issues for nurses working with women experiencing mid-trimester termination. Mid-trimester terminations are those carried out between approximately 12 and 20 weeks. 2. Mid-trimester termination results in the delivery of a fetus and this event requires sensitive management as it is has the potential to cause distress for the women due to the psychological and physical impact of the procedure. However, health professionals involved can also find this a distressing clinical event due to the complex nature of the management and care required. 3. Consideration of this clinical event from a feminist perspective led to my exploring the way in which feminist theory could be applied in the situation of mid-trimester termination. Using notions from feminist theory can assist in the management of this process, and feminist concepts related to the centrality of women's experience can be integrated into actual practice. 4. A series of recommendations are provided in this paper to show the way in which feminist concepts can be integrated into clinical practice. Integrating feminist principles into practice can support both the woman experiencing the abortion and the nurse whose role in the event is sustained and intimate, and result in positive outcomes for both women. This can result in an environment that is safe and supportive for all women involved in mid-trimester terminations.

  1. Mifepristone and misoprostol to terminate pregnancy of medium-term analysis%米非司酮配伍米索前列醇终止中期妊娠的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘光华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the oral administration of mifepristone and misoprostol pregnancy safety and efficacy. Methods Retrospective analysis of termination of pregnancy for women's 154 cases. A group were randomly divided into 77 cases of oral mifepristone and misoprostol, B group of 77 cases of amniotic puncture to accept induction technique. Results A group of complete abortion rate was significantly higher than B group (Ptermination of the medium-term pregnancy, induced labor amniotic more effective than surgery, suitable for clinical widely.%目的 探讨口服米非司酮配伍米索前列醇终止中期妊娠的安全性及疗效.方法 回顾性分析154例终止妊娠患者的临床资料.随机分为A、B两组,A组77例,口服米非司酮配伍米索前列醇,B组77例,接受羊膜腔穿刺引产术.结果 A组完全流产率明显高于B组(P<0.01),A,B两组不全流产相比,有显著性差异(p<0.01),同时A组所致腹痛较轻,且产程时间缩短、产后出血量少.结论 口服米非司酮配伍米索前列醇阴道上药用于终止中期妊娠,效果优于羊膜腔引产术,适宜在临床广泛推广.

  2. 过期妊娠胎儿的分娩方式及妊娠终止时机差异性预后影响分析%Analysis of the Effect of Different Mode of Delivery and Pregnancy Termination Timing for Prolonged Pregnancy on the Fetal Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂眉

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析过期妊娠胎儿的分娩方式及妊娠终止时机差异性对预后的影响。方法回顾性分析某院2012年5月—2014年11月收治的100例过期妊娠产妇(研究组)及同期80例延期产妇(对照组)临床资料,探究不同分娩方式及妊娠终止时机对胎儿预后的影响。结果研究组顺产胎儿中新生儿窒息8例(25%)、胎儿窘迫15例(46.9%),与剖宫产新生儿窒息3例(4.4%)、胎儿窘迫12例(17.6%)相比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);研究组胎儿窘迫27例(27%)、新生儿窒息11例(11%)、产后出血11例(11%)、产程延长25例(25%),对照组分别为12例(15%)、2例(2.5%)、4例(5%)、3例(3.8%),组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论过期妊娠产妇采取剖宫产能够有效降低胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息发生率,提高胎儿预后,而延期妊娠产妇应加强临床产检、适时终止妊娠,以避免形成过期妊娠,影响胎儿预后。%ObjectiveTo analyze the effect of different mode of delivery and pregnancy termination timing for prolonged pregnancy on the fetal outcome.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 100 puerperants with prolonged pregnancy(study group) and 80 puerperants with delayed pregnancy(control group) admitted in our hospital from May 2012 to November 2014. And the effect of different mode of delivery and pregnancy termination timing on the prognosis of fetal outcome was investigated.Results In the study group, of the fetuses delivered naturally, there were 8 cases with neonatal asphyxia(25%), 15 cases with fetal distress(46.9%); of the fetuses delivered by cesarean section, there were 3 cases with neonatal asphyxia(4.4%), 12 cases with fetal distress(17.6%), the differences in neonatal asphyxia and fetal distress between the fetuses delivered naturally and those delivered by cesarean section in the study group were statistically significant(P<0.05). In the study group, there were 27 cases

  3. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate for the second-trimester pregnancy termination in women with placenta previa and/or prior cesarean deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunqin; Lin, Feikai; Wang, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Yaping; Wu, Sufang

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the second-trimester medical abortions using mifepristone and ethacridine lactate in women with placenta previa and/or prior cesarean deliveries. The patients who underwent a second-trimester pregnancy termination from January 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The eligible patients were assigned to four groups based on placentation and cesarean history. The abortion interval (AI), blood loss, hospital stays, incidence of curettage, and transfusion were reviewed. Two women underwent cesarean sections for placenta increta. Finally, 443 patients were enrolled in this study, including 92 with placenta previa, 153 with prior cesarean deliveries, 36 with the both factors, and 236 with normal placentation and no cesarean delivery history. All the included cases had a successful vaginal delivery. There was no significant difference in AI, hospital stay, rate of hemorrhage, and transfusion among the four groups. Patients with prior cesarean section had higher blood loss than the normal group (P = 0.0017), as well as patients with both placenta previa and prior cesarean (P = 0.0018). However, there was no obvious blood loss in patients with placenta previa when compared with normal placetal patients (P = 0.23). No uterine rupture occurred in all patients. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate is safe and effective for patients with low placentation or/and prior cesarean in the second-trimester pregnancy termination.

  4. TEEN PREGNANCY AND THE USE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Spindola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivos: Conhecer a percepção das gestantes adolescentes sobre emprego dos métodos contraceptivos; discutir a vivência das jovens relacionada à contracepção e práticas sexuais. Método: Pesquisa descritiva em abordagem qualitativa, com emprego da entrevista semi-estruturada e técnica de análise de conteúdo. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 17 gestantes adolescentes. Na análise temática das entrevistas emergiram quatro categorias: As adolescentes e adoção dos métodos contraceptivos; A contracepção na visão das gestantes adolescentes; As atividades educativas e a participação das jovens; Métodos Contraceptivos: dúvidas e incertezas das adolescentes. Conclusão: O estudo revela a vulnerabilidade das jovens para a ocorrência de uma gestação não planejada e o risco de uma reincidência. Acreditamos que as práticas educativas podem contribuir para o esclarecimento dos jovens acerca de sua sexualidade e práticas sexuais, prevenindo agravos na saúde sexual e reprodutiva.Abstract Goals: Perceptions of pregnant adolescents about employment of contraceptive methods; discuss the experience of young people regarding contraception and sexual practices. Method: Descriptive Research, qualitative approach, employment of content analysis technique and semi-structured interview. Results: Participated in the study 17 pregnant adolescents. The thematic analysis of interviews emerged four categories: The adolescent and adoption of contraception; contraception in vision of pregnant adolescents; educational activities and participation of young people; methods contraceptives: doubts and uncertainties of teenagers. Conclusion: The study highlights the vulnerability of youth to the occurrence of an unplanned pregnancy and the risk of a recurrence. We believe that educational practices can contribute to the understanding of young people about their sexuality and sexual practices, preventing injuries from sexual and reproductive

  5. Perinatal care and outcome of fetuses with trisomies 13 and 18 following a parental decision not to terminate the pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Gavard, Laurent; Floch-Tudal, Corinne; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    To describe pregnancy outcomes of fetuses affected by trisomies 13 and 18 following prenatal diagnosis and a decision to continue the pregnancy. A single-center, retrospective study of 34 cases with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of trisomy 13 or 18. Fourteen of 34 (41%) families chose to continue the pregnancy after a diagnosis of trisomy 13 or 18 was made. Nine fetuses subsequently died in utero (IUD). No prenatal signs were predictive of IUD. There were no intrapartum deaths. All 4 live-born babies were delivered vaginally; 2 died immediately after birth in the labor ward whilst 2 were transferred to the neonatal unit, dying at 10 and 11 days, respectively. Couples should be counseled that the precise outcome of trisomy 13 or 18 is unpredictable, and they should receive multidisciplinary support. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. 169 cases of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy termination of pregnancy timing and mode of delivery clinical analysis%妊娠期高血压疾病169例终止妊娠时机及分娩方式临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠高血压疾病终止妊娠时机及分娩方式.方法:回顾性分析我院2004年6月至2012年3月169例住院分娩的妊娠期高血压疾病患者,观察产后出血及新生儿窒息率.结果:21例经阴道分娩,148例剖宫产,剖宫产率87.04%;产后出血发生率经阴道分娩者9.50%,剖宫产9.45%(P>0.05);新生儿窒息发生率经阴道分娩者28.57%,剖宫产者8.11%(P< 0.05).结论:妊娠期高血压疾病的终止妊娠时间及分娩方式的选择应视孕周、病情进展、胎儿成熟及药物治疗的效果等情况综合而定.%Objective: To investigate hypertensive disorders of pregnancy termination of pregnancy time and delivery mode.Methods: A retrospective analysis of our hospital in 2004 June to 2012 March, 169 cases of hospital delivery in patients with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia rate observation.Results: 21 cases of vaginal birth, cesarean section in 148 cases, and cesarean section rate was 87.04%; the rate of postpartum hemorrhage of vaginal birth after cesarean section in 9.50%, 9.45% (P > 0.05); the incidence of neonatal asphyxia rate of vaginal birth after cesarean section in 28.57%, and 8.11% (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy the time of termination of pregnancy and childbirth way choice should be considered the week of pregnancy, fetal maturation progresses, and effect of drug treatment, comprehensive and.

  7. Analysis on the comparative efficacy of termination of pregnancy and conservative therapy in the treatment of late trimester of pregnancy combining hypertension or preeclampsia%终止妊娠与保守治疗对于妊娠晚期合并妊娠期高血压疾病患者的疗效对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 尚丽新; 肖英

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠晚期合并妊娠期高血压疾病患者保守治疗的疗效及终止妊娠的最佳时机.方法 回顾性分析198例妊娠晚期发现的妊娠期高血压疾病患者的临床资料,其中保守治疗组107例,行保守治疗,终止妊娠组91例,行终止妊娠治疗,记录并分析两组患者的分娩方式、围生期并发症发生率和新生儿不良事件发生率等情况.结果 保守治疗组患者剖宫产率为54.2%(58/107),终止妊娠组为51.6%(47/91),两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);保守治疗组患者围生期并发症发生率为15.9%(17/107),终止妊娠组为17.6%( 16/91),两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);保守治疗组患者围生期胎盘早剥、血小板减少症、低蛋白血症、产后出血发生率与终止妊娠组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);保守治疗组出现3例新生儿窒息,1例新生儿死亡;终止妊娠组出现7例新生儿窒息,1例新生儿死亡,保守治疗组新生儿不良事件发生率低于终止妊娠组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);保守治疗组新生儿体重(2.635±0.446) kg,终止妊娠组新生儿体重(2.014±0.721) kg,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用药物控制血压、解痉,在确保母婴安全的前提下,适当地延长妊娠时间,保守治疗中加强产前保健、严密监护,一有状况及时干预,可以最大限度地提高新生儿预后而不危及母儿健康.%Objective To explore the best opportunity of termination of pregnancy and conservative therapy in the treatment of lata trimester of pregnancy combining hypertension or preeclampsia.Methods The clinical data of 198 patients with pregnancy combining hypertension or preeclampsia were studied retrospectively.Among the total patients,107 patients performed conservative therapy (conservative therapy group),91 patients performed termination of pregnancy (termination of pregnancy group).The prognosis of two groups

  8. Immediate versus delayed initiation of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system following medical termination of pregnancy - 1 year continuation rates: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, R; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2017-06-26

    To assess the 1-year continuation rates and new pregnancies following immediate versus delayed insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) after medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) up to 20 weeks of gestation. A randomised controlled trial. Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 267 women requesting MTOP and planning LNG-IUS for post-MTOP contraception. Insertion of LNG-IUS occurred immediately (0-3 days) or after a delay (2-4 weeks) following MTOP. Follow-up visits were at 3 months and 1 year after MTOP. LNG-IUS use at 1 year after MTOP. Women were randomised to immediate (n = 134) or delayed (n = 133) insertion of the LNG-IUS, and 133 and 131 were analysed; 127 (95.5%) women received immediate insertion and 111 (84.7%) women had delayed insertion of the LNG-IUS (risk ratio [RR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The verified numbers of women continuing the LNG-IUS use at 1 year were 83 (62.4%) and 52 (39.7%) (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.23-2.02). The numbers of new pregnancies were 6 (4.5%) and 16 (12.2%) (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and numbers of subsequent TOPs were 4 (3.0%) and 5 (3.8%) (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.22-2.87). Immediate insertion of the LNG-IUS following MTOP resulted in higher 1-year continuation rates compared with delayed insertion. In addition, those receiving immediate insertion demonstrated a decreased new pregnancy rate, but no difference in the numbers of another TOP. Immediate LNG-IUS insertion after MTOP results in a higher 1-year continuation compared with delayed insertion. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Impact of having a high-risk pregnancy on future postpartum contraceptive method choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiykac Altinbas, Sadiman; Bayoglu Tekin, Yesim; Dilbaz, Berna; Kilic, Selim; Khalil, Susan S; Kandemir, Omer

    2014-12-01

    To compare the knowledge and preference of preconceptional contraception to future postpartum contraceptive method choice in high-risk pregnancies. Does a high-risk pregnancy condition affect future postpartum contraceptive method choice? Women hospitalised at the High Risk Pregnancy unit of a tertiary research and training hospital were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, presence of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive method of choice before the current pregnancy, plans for contraceptive use following delivery and requests for any contraceptive counselling in the postpartum period. A total of 655 pregnant women were recruited. The mean age, gravidity and parity of the women were 27.48 ± 6.25 years, 2.81 ± 2.15 and 1.40 ± 1.77, respectively. High-risk pregnancy indications included 207 (31.6%) maternal, 396 (60.5%) foetal and 52 (7.9%) uterine factors. All postpartum contraceptive choices except for combined oral contraceptives (COCs) usage were significantly different from preconceptional contraceptive preferences (pcontraceptive choices. While the leading contraceptive method in the postpartum period was long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (non-hormonal copper intrauterine device Cu-IUD, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) (40%), the least preferred method was COCs use (5.2%) and preference of COCs use showed no difference between the preconceptional and postpartum periods (p=0.202). Overall 73.7% of the women wanted to receive contraceptive counselling before their discharge. A high-risk pregnancy condition may change the opinion and preference of contraceptive use, and also seems to affect the awareness of family planning methods. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  10. 超声对药物流产后持续阴道出血的诊断及原因分析%Ultrasound diagnosis and analysis of cause of prolonged vaginal bleeding after medical termination of early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨超声对药物流产后持续阴道出血患者的声像图特征及其相应的原因浅析.方法 对65例药物流产后7~20 d仍有持续阴道出血患者进行经腹及经阴道超声检查,观察子宫形态、大小,宫腔组织回声及血流情况.结果 药物流产后持续阴道出血患者的声像图特征:①子宫内膜粗糙、宫内小片状、团块样强回声,彩色多普勒超声提示无明显血流信号、局部星点状或丰富血流信号,其原因多为绒毛或滋养细胞残留;②宫内出现小孕囊或孕囊继续增大提示药物流产失败;③附件区包块(本文为异位妊娠误用药物流产);④子宫肌瘤且子宫位置极度后倾后屈合并早孕(药物流产后胚胎物排出不够通畅,导致阴道出血时间延长).结论 通过超声对药物流产后持续阴道出血患者的声像图特征及其相应原因的分析,认为经腹及经阴道超声检查对临床处理具有重要指导意义.%Objective To investigate ultrasound characteristics and analyze their corresponding causes for prolonged vaginal bleeding after medical termination of early pregnancy. Methods Sixty - five cases who still had prolonged vaginal bleeding 7 - 20 days after drug - induced abortion were examined with transabdominal sonography ( TAS ) and transvaginal sonography ( TVS ) to observe the uterine shape, size, the situation of intrauterine remainder and blood flow. Results The characteristic ultrasonographic features and causes for prolonged vaginal bleeding after med ical termination of pregnancy were shown as four different types: ①The endometrial roughness, intrauterine thin pieces echo and intrauterine blob - like echo were observed; and the color Doppler flow signals indicated no ohvious flows, local satellite signal points, or rich blood flows. It was often caused by residual villous trophoblast cells. ②Intrauterine gestational sac or a small gestational sac suggested drug - induced abortion failure

  11. Termination of the MRI via parasitic instabilities in core-collapse supernovae: influence of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rembiasz, T; Cerdá-Durán, P; Aloy, M Á; Müller, E

    2016-01-01

    We study the influence of numerical methods and grid resolution on the termination of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) by means of parasitic instabilities in three-dimensional shearing-disc simulations reproducing typical conditions found in core-collapse supernovae. Whether or not the MRI is able to amplify weak magnetic fields in this context strongly depends, among other factors, on the amplitude at which its growth terminates. The qualitative results of our study do not depend on the numerical scheme. In all our models, MRI termination is caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, consistent with theoretical predictions. Quantitatively, however, there are differences, but numerical convergence can be achieved even at relatively low grid resolutions if high-order reconstruction methods are used.

  12. Study of Continuance Rate and Related Causes of Discontinuance of Pregnancy Prevention Methods among Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fallahzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From maturity to menopause, women are worried about pregnancy. Abstinence from sex or use of pregnancy prevention methods are choices for them. As abstinence is impossible, the only remaining choice is use of pregnancy prevention methods. Effective control of pregnancy is really essential for the health of mother and infant and also control of unplanned increase in population. Regarding the importance of continuance rate of pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom &DMPA & the reasons for their disruption, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the continuance rate and reasons for discontinuance of pregnancy prevention methods in Yazd women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Six urban health care centers of Yazd were selected as study clusters and information of 15-49 year old women using the pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom& injection was collected via a questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by Coplan- Mayer statistic method and variance analysis test. Results: Pregnancy prevention methods were most prevalent in the 25-34 years old age group (57%. Mean duration of pregnancy prevention method usage was 27.98 months using Caplan-mayer method with a median of 24 months. 86.3% for 6 months, 72.8% for 12 months, 62.5% for 18 months, 47.9% for 24 months, 39.9% for 30 months and 37% for 37 months had used four certain methods of pregnancy prevention (OCP, IUD, Condom and Injection. The reasons of discontinuance were disease (15.6% for OCPS, bleeding (27% for IUD, unwanted pregnancy (21% for Condoms and also disease (75% for Injection method. Discussion: According to the results, not only education programs regarding family planning before starting each pregnancy prevention method to women is recommended, but a complete incentive consultation about these methods is essential. This educational & consultation programs should be implemented initially for women using OCP method.

  13. Occurrence of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes during isotretinoin therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dormuth, Colin; Winquist, Brandace; Carney, Greg; Bugden, Shawn; Teare, Gary; Lévesque, Linda E.; Bérard, Anick; Paterson, J. Michael; Platt, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data, we identified 4 historical cohorts of female users of isotretinoin (aged 12–48 yr) for the period 1996 to 2011. We defined pregnancy using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and billing codes. One definition included only cases with documented pregnancy outcomes (high-specificity definition); the other definition also included individuals recorded as receiving prenatal care (high-sensitivity definition). We studied new courses of isotretinoin and detected pregnancies in 2 time windows: during isotretinoin treatment only and up to 42 weeks after treatment. Live births were followed for 1 year to identify congenital malformations. Results: A total of 59 271 female patients received 102 308 courses of isotretinoin. Between 24.3% and 32.9% of participants received prescriptions for oral contraceptives while they were taking isotretinoin, compared with 28.3% to 35.9% in the 12 months before isotretinoin was started. According to the high-specificity definition of pregnancy, there were 186 pregnancies during isotretinoin treatment (3.1/1000 isotretinoin users), compared with 367 (6.2/1000 users) according to the high-sensitivity definition. By 42 weeks after treatment, there were 1473 pregnancies (24.9/1000 users), according to the high-specificity definition. Of these, 1331 (90.4%) terminated spontaneously or were terminated by medical intervention. Among the 118 live births were 11 (9.3%) cases of congenital malformation. Pregnancy rates during isotretinoin treatment remained constant between 1996 and 2011

  14. Exploiting Equivalence Reduction and the Sweep-Line Method for Detecting Terminal States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billington, Jonathan; Gallasch, Gay Edward; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2004-01-01

    by recording terminal states of the system on-the-fly during state-space exploration. We derive expressions for the complexity of the algorithms and demonstrate their usefulness with an industrial case study. Our results show that the combined method achieves at least a six-fold reduction of the state space...

  15. Method Based on Confidence Radius to Adjust the Location of Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Juan Antonio; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Fernández-Navarro, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    of the geographical positions associated to all reported mobile terminals will be remarkable improved independent on the geolocation technique employed. The proposed method will move each position estimate towards a previously calculated area of confidence in a smart manner. This reduced area of confidence...

  16. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  17. Midwifery tutors' capacity and willingness to teach contraception, post-abortion care, and legal pregnancy termination in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Ellen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has a high maternal mortality rate of 540 per 100 000. Although abortion complications usually are treatable, the risks of morbidity and death increase when treatment is delayed. Delay in care may occur when women have difficulty accessing treatment because health care providers are not trained, equipped, or willing to treat the complications of abortion. Gaps in the midwifery tutors' knowledge on comprehensive abortion care (CAC have resulted in most midwives in Ghana not knowing the legal indications under which safe abortion care can be provided, and lacking the skills and competencies for CAC services. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity and willingness of midwifery tutors to teach contraception, post abortion care and legal termination in Ghana. Methods This study focused on all 14 midwifery schools in the country. A total of 74 midwifery tutors were interviewed for this study. Structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were entered and checked for consistencies using Epiinfo 6.04 and analyzed using Stata 8. Descriptive analysis was used and frequencies reported with percentages. Results In total, 74 midwifery tutors were interviewed. Of these, 66 (89.2% were females. The tutors had mainly been trained as midwives (51.4% and graduate nurses (33.8%. Respondents were predominantly Christians (97.3%. The study discovered that only 18.9% of the tutors knew all the legal indications under which safe abortion care could be provided. The content of pre-service training of tutors did not include uterine evacuation with manual vacuum aspirator (MVA. The study also highlighted some factors that influence midwifery tutors' willingness to teach comprehensive abortion care. It was also revealed that personal and religious beliefs greatly influence teaching of Comprehensive Abortion Care. Conclusion The findings of this survey suggest that the majority of tutors did not know

  18. Experiences and characteristics of women seeking and completing at-home medical termination of pregnancy through online telemedicine in Ireland and Northern Ireland: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Ara; Gomperts, R; Trussell, J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the characteristics and experiences of women in Ireland and Northern Ireland seeking at-home medical termination of pregnancy (TOP) using online telemedicine. Population-based study. Ireland and Northern Ireland. Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015, 5650 women requested at-home medical TOP through online telemedicine initiative Women on Web. We examined the demographics and circumstances of women requesting medical TOP and examined the experiences of the 1023 women who completed TOP between January 2010 and December 2012. We conducted a content analysis of women's evaluations and used logistic regression to examine factors associated with lack of emotional support during and after TOP MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Satisfaction with TOP; feelings before and after TOP; emotional support during TOP. Women requesting TOP were diverse with respect to age, pregnancy circumstances and reasons for seeking TOP. Among those completing TOP, 97% felt they made the right choice and 98% would recommend it to others in a similar situation. Women commonly reported serious mental stress caused by their pregnancies and their inability to afford travel abroad to access TOP. The feelings women most commonly reported after completing TOP were 'relieved' (70%) and 'satisfied' (36%). Women with financial hardship had twice the risk of lacking emotional support (odds ratio = 2.0, P < 0.001). The vast majority of women who completed at-home medical TOP through Women on Web had a positive experience. These demonstrated benefits to health and wellbeing contribute new evidence to the debate surrounding abortion laws in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Irish and Northern Irish women completing at-home medical TOP report benefits for health, wellbeing and autonomy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Can the delivery method influence lower urinary tract symptoms triggered by the first pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Botelho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The increase of the intensity of urinary symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum has been well documented by several authors, but their causes remain uncertain, partly because of its probable multifactor origin. There are also controversies whether the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms during pregnancy is the same as postpartum and whether the method of delivery could influence the risk of onset of urinary symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the urinary symptoms triggered during pregnancy and its evolution in the late puerperium, correlating them with the delivery method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted, which included 75 primigravidae women, classified according to method of delivery as: (VD vaginal delivery with right mediolateral episiotomy (n = 28; (CS elective caesarean section (n = 26; and (EC emergency caesarean section (n = 21. Urinary symptoms were assessed in the last trimester of pregnancy and at 45 days (± 10 of puerperium with validated versions for Portuguese language of the following questionnaires: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB. RESULTS: It was observed that frequency, urgency, nocturia and urge incontinence, triggered during pregnancy, decreased significantly in the postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method (p = 0.0001. However, symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress persisted after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Urgency, frequency and nocturia triggered during pregnancy tend to disappear in the late postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method, but the symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress tend to persist in late postpartum period after vaginal delivery.

  20. Randomized Terminal Linker-dependent PCR: A Versatile and Sensitive Method for Detection of DNA Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To design and develop a novel, sensitive and versatile method for in vivo foot printing and studies of DNA damage, such as DNA adducts and strand breaks. Methods Starting with mammalian genomic DNA, single-stranded products were made by repeated primer extension, these products were ligated to a double-stranded linker having a randomized 3′ overhang, and used for PCR.DNA breaks in p53 gene produced by restriction endonuclease AfaI were detected by using this new method followed by Southern hybridization with DIG-labeled probe. Results This randomized terminal linker-dependent PCR (RDPCR) method could generate band signals many-fold stronger than conventional ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR), and it was more rapid, convenient and accurate than the terminal transferase-dependent PCR (TDPCR). Conclusion DNA strand breakage can be detected sensitively in the gene level by RDPCR. Any lesion that blocks primer extension should be detectable.

  1. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  2. [207-POS]: Termination of pregnancy for hypertensive disorders prior to fetal viability in the Netherlands: A retrospective cohort study in 10 Dutch tertiary care centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, L. van; Zeeman, G.G.; Christiaens, G.C.; Vandenbussche, F.P.; Oei, S.G.; Scheepers, H.C.J.; Eyck, J. van; Middledorp, J.M.; Pajkrt, E.; Duvekot, J.J.; Groot, C.J. de; Bolte, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the incidence and demographic data of TOP for hypertensive disorders at the limits of fetal viability. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. All terminations for hypertensive disorders between 2000 and 2009 in the ten Dutch tertiary care centers with a gestatio

  3. 妊娠期高血压疾病终止妊娠时机及分娩方式212例临床探讨%Hypertensive Disorder Complicating Pregnancy Termination of the Clinical Study of 212 Cases of Pregnancy and Delivery Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骧; 陈艺菲

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the best time in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension and termination of pregnancy,as wel as the correct mode of delivery. Methods: from 2011June to 2013 June in patients with hypertension of pregnancytreated in our hospital, a total of 212 cases, the clinicaltreatment, these patients track record, combined with asphyxia,neonatal birth after uterine bleeding were analyzed. Results: 212 cases of patients, 31 cases of delivery mode for vaginal delivery, 182 cases of cesarean section, Caesarean birth 85.85%; vaginal delivery occurred postpartum hemorrhage in 13 cases, accounting for 6.12% of the total, cesarean deliveryin patients with postpartum hemorrhage in 16 cases, accounting for 7.54% of the total. 30.24% appear in vaginal delivery,neonatal asphyxia, cesarean section in 12.31%newborns with asphyxia. Vaginal delivery in neonatal asphyxia is higher than that of cesarean section (P> 0.05). Conclusion: for the patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, when is the best time for termination of pregnancy is inconclusive, according to the research results and research data shows, in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension of pregnancy termination timing according to clinical manifestations, gestational weeks,the progression of the disease, drug treatment and fetal development comprehensively evaluation and discussion.%目的:探讨妊娠期高血压患者终止妊娠的最佳时机,以及正确的分娩方式。方法选取2011年6月~2013年6月在我院治疗的妊娠期高血压患者,共212例,对这些患者的临床治疗情况、跟踪记录情况,结合分娩后子宫出血情况、新生儿的窒息情况进行全面分析。结果212例患者中,31例分娩方式为阴道分娩,182例为剖宫产,剖宫产占85.85%;阴道分娩的发生产后出血13例,占总数的6.12%,剖宫产分娩的患者发生产后出血16例,占总数的7.54%。阴道分娩中30.24%出现

  4. AN INTELLIGENT NEURO-FUZZY TERMINAL SLIDING MODE CONTROL METHOD WITH APPLICATION TO ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Yasser Nikoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy fast terminal sliding mode control method is proposed for controlling a class of nonlinear systems with bounded uncertainties and disturbances. In this method, a nonlinear terminal sliding surface is firstly designed. Then, this sliding surface is considered as input for an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system which is the main controller. A proportinal-integral-derivative controller is also used to asist the neuro-fuzzy controller in order to improve the performance of the system at the begining stage of control operation. In addition, bee algorithm is used in this paper to update the weights of neuro-fuzzy system as well as the parameters of the proportinal-integral-derivative controller. The proposed control scheme is simulated for vibration control in a model of atomic force microscope system and the results are compared with conventional sliding mode controllers. The simulation results show that the chattering effect in the proposed controller is decreased in comparison with the sliding mode and the terminal sliding mode controllers. Also, the method provides the advantages of fast convergence and low model dependency compared to the conventional methods.

  5. Effect of age of equine embryos and method of transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, M F; Squires, E L; Cook, V M

    1985-01-01

    A 2 X 2 cross-classified experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of age of equine embryo (7 vs 8 d postovulation) and method of transfer (surgical vs nonsurgical) on pregnancy rates at 50 d of gestation. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 d postovulation using a Foley catheter and 3 liters of modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Upon identification, the embryos were placed in millipore-filtered PBS containing 20% heat-inactivated steer serum and maintained at room temperature until transferred. At the time of recovery, embryos were randomly assigned to be transferred either nonsurgically using a sterile insemination pipette or surgically via a flank incision. For nonsurgical transfer, the embryo was deposited into the uterine body; whereas, in surgical transfer, the embryo was placed in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. Recovery rates for embryos collected on d 7 (75.5%) or 8 (81.9%) were similar (P greater than .05). Age of embryo did not affect (P greater than .05) pregnancy rate. At 50 d, pregnancy rates were 60 and 57% for mares receiving d 7 or 8 embryos. However, more (P less than .05) pregnancies were obtained after transfer of embryos surgically (72%) than nonsurgically (45%). More (P less than .05) pregnancies were obtained after transfer of d 8 embryos surgically (75%) compared with nonsurgically (40%). Within method of transfer, pregnancy rates were similar (P less than .05) for surgical transfer of d 7 and 8 embryos (69 and 75%), but tended (P less than .25) to be higher for nonsurgical transfer of d 7 embryos (50%) compared with d 8 embryos (40%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Urquiza, Rosa María; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; García-Barrios, Cecilia; González, Dolores; Walker, Dylis

    2003-01-01

    To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE) and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR = 3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7.) An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR = 2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33) and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive method six weeks after delivery. No difference in frequency of contraceptive use was found among the adolescent mothers, according to whether they wanted their last pregnancy. Only 43.39% of mothers who delivered at hospitals or health centers were using an effective contraceptive method. These findings suggest that there is a great potential for family planning programs to target adolescents, and that the use of contraceptive methods after delivery should be promoted among adolescent mothers, especially those lacking access to public medical

  7. 422例终止妊娠的梅毒患者既往随访结果分析%Follow-up Analysis on the Pregnancy Termination in 422 Patients with Syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁东平; 鲁菊香; 秦琴; 付敏; 张荣; 李湘辉; 贾婕

    2016-01-01

    目的:对深圳市宝安区终止妊娠的梅毒患者的随访结果进行分析,为有针对性地开展梅毒预防与控制工作提供依据。方法:收集宝安区终止妊娠的422例梅毒患者的相关资料,并进行回顾性分析。结果:422例终止妊娠的梅毒患者中20~35岁女性357例(84.60%);经婚前性传播者194例(45.97%),婚内性传播81例(19.19%),婚外性传播32例(7.58%);潜伏梅毒321例(76.07%);422例终止妊娠的梅毒患者中人工流产者187例(44.31%),其中初筛 TRUST 滴度≤1∶4者129例(30.57%);自然流产者35例(8.29%),其中初筛TRUST滴度≤1∶4者22例(5.21%);死胎死产者63例(14.93%),其中初筛TRUST滴度≥1∶8者53例(12.56%);异位妊娠者137例(32.46%),其中初筛TRUST滴度≤1∶4者106例(25.12%)。378例患者(89.57%)在孕28周之前进行梅毒筛查,其中352例患者(83.41%)选择苄星青霉素治疗。69.43%的患者6个月后就失访,极少数(1.9%)终止妊娠的梅毒患者随访到两年。结论:加强梅毒孕产妇的管理对降低梅毒患者终止妊娠发生率有重要意义。%Objective:To analyze the follow up results of pregnancy termination in syphilis pa-tients in Bao′an District , and to provide evidences for the prevention and control measures toward syphilis.Methods:422 cases of pregnancy termination in syphilis patients were collected in Bao′an district , and were analyzed retrospectively .Results:84.60%syphilis patients with termination of pregnancy were between the age of 20 to 35 years old;45.97%syphilis patients were premarital sexual transmission , marital sexual transmission accounted for 19.19%, extramarital sexual trans-mission accounted for 7.58%;76.07%patients had latent syphilis .Artificial abortion accounted for 44.31%, 30.57%patients of them had TRUST titer ≤1∶4;8.29%patients had spontaneous

  8. 34例系统性红斑狼疮患者行中期引产术临床分析%Analysis of Mid-trimester Termination of Pregnancy in 34 Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蔚琳; 金力; 刘欣燕; 彭萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者于妊娠中期终止妊娠的原因及引产方式的选择,探讨SLE患者的生育管理和中期引产相关问题.方法:回顾性分析1994年1月-2012年4月收治的34例SLE患者于妊娠中期行中期引产的相关数据.引产原因分为可避免和不可避免2类,可避免中期引产指社会因素和SLE治疗中意外妊娠;不可避免中期引产包括胎儿因素、妊娠期SLE初发和疾病稳定期计划内妊娠后妊娠期SLE复发.结果:可避免中期引产者共15例(占44.1%),不可避免中期引产者共19例(占55.9%).引产方式中:12~16周行大钳刮术者3例,行米非司酮加米索前列醇药物引产者2例,17~28周行依沙吖啶羊膜腔内引产者25例,行剖宫取胎术者4例.除1例钳刮时大出血外,无手术并发症.2组相比妊娠周及引产方式差异无统计学意义,但妊娠期疾病活动者在不可避免组(16/19)显著高于可避免组(6/15),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:SLE妇女缺乏生育管理,应加强该人群的妊娠前和避孕咨询,以减少可避免的引产手术.此类患者的中期引产系高危手术,术前应全面评估,选择适合的手术方法以确保母亲的安全.%Objective:To evaluate the optimal operation method for the midtrimester termination of pregnancy in those women with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE),and to investigate the family planning and midtrimester termination methods in those SLE women.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out on 34 cases with SLE who accepted mid-trimester induced abortion in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from Jan.1994 to Apr.2012.Results:There were 15(44.1%) avoidable abortion cases with the reasons of social factors or unintended pregnancy during SLE treatment.There were 19(55.9%) inevitable abortion cases.Main reasons included fetus factors,the first attack of SLE during pregnancy,SLE flare with planning pregnancy during the SLE stable period

  9. PRINT: A Protein Bioconjugation Method with Exquisite N-terminal Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Surojit; Qiao, Yuan; Fries, Anja; O'Meally, Robert N.; Cole, Robert N.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhou, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    Chemical conjugation is commonly used to enhance the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and potency of protein therapeutics, but often leads to non-specific modification or loss of bioactivity. Here, we present a simple, versatile and widely applicable method that allows exquisite N-terminal specific modification of proteins. Combining reversible side-chain blocking and protease mediated cleavage of a commonly used HIS tag appended to a protein, we generate with high yield and purity exquisitely site specific and selective bio-conjugates of TNF-α by using amine reactive NHS ester chemistry. We confirm the N terminal selectivity and specificity using mass spectral analyses and show near complete retention of the biological activity of our model protein both in vitro and in vivo murine models. We believe that this methodology would be applicable to a variety of potentially therapeutic proteins and the specificity afforded by this technique would allow for rapid generation of novel biologics.

  10. Longitudinal assessment of energy expenditure in pregnancy by the doubly labeled water method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, G R; Prentice, A M; Coward, W A; Davies, H L; Murgatroyd, P R; Wensing, C; Black, A E; Harding, M; Sawyer, M

    1993-04-01

    Twelve women were studied before pregnancy and at 6-wk intervals from 6 to 36 wk gestation. Total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method, basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy intake, and body composition were assessed on each occasion. There was substantial interindividual variation in the response to pregnancy. Mean total energy costs were as follows: delta BMR 112 +/- 104 MJ (range -53 to 273), delta TEE 243 +/- 279 MJ (range -61 to 869 MJ), and fat deposition 132 +/- 127 MJ (range -99 to 280 MJ). The mean total cost of pregnancy (cumulative TEE above baseline+energy deposited as fat and as products of conception) was 418 +/- 348 MJ (range 34-1192 MJ). This was much higher than current recommendations for incremental energy intakes. Self-recorded incremental intakes (208 +/- 272 MJ) seriously underestimated the additional costs. The variability in response emphasizes the problems in making prescriptive recommendations for individual women, because there is no way of predicting metabolic or behavioral responses to pregnancy.

  11. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leung, Brenda M Y; Field, Catherine J; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C; Manca, Donna P; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W; Pop, Victor J; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Termination for fetal anomaly: are women in England given a choice of method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Lohr, P A; Lafarge, C; Robson, S C

    2015-02-01

    Choice of a medical or surgical method of termination for fetal anomaly (TFA) is advocated in national guidelines based on a similar risk profile. We investigated whether women are offered a choice of method, by surveying members of a UK parent support organisation. An online questionnaire was designed to examine respondents' experience of TFA. A total of 351 responses were included in the final analysis. TFAs after 24 weeks' gestation and selective reductions were excluded. Mean gestational age at TFA was 17 weeks; 14% (n = 50) were offered a choice of method, falling to 8% (n = 19) after 14 weeks' gestation. Overall, 78% (n = 275) underwent medical TFA with 88% stating they chose it because it was the only method offered; 60% (n = 30) of those offered a choice had a surgical TFA. Our survey suggests that women having TFA are not offered a choice of method. Service delivery should be improved to meet national guidance and women's needs.

  13. Pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Gatny; Yasamin Kusunoki; Jennifer Barber

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial number of young women experience pregnancy scares - thinking they might be pregnant, and later discovering that they are not. Although pregnancy scares are distressing events, little is known about who experiences them and whether they are important to our understanding of unintended pregnancy. Objective: We describe the young women who experience pregnancy scares, and examine the link between pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Methods: We us...

  14. Progesterone and estradiol-17β as a potential method for pregnancy diagnosis in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; López-Béjar, Manel

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the period of pregnancy of nine collared peccary females has been monitored through the analysis of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β profiles. Serum concentrations of progesterone increased by Day 4 after conception, reaching concentrations of 33.4±5.6 ng/mL on Day 10. Between Days 10 and 130 progesterone values were maintained between 20 and 60 ng/mL. In the collared peccary, embryonic estradiol synthesis is first observed in the systemic circulation by Day 15 of pregnancy. Between Days 0 and 50 of pregnancy, average estradiol-17β concentrations were between 0 and 30 pg/mL. From Day 75 of pregnancy onwards, estradiol concentrations were constantly increasing, reaching maximum concentrations (131.4±40.8 pg/mL) on the day of parturition. The combined study of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations as a potential method for early pregnancy diagnosis presented the best overall accuracy (73%) when the threshold was established at 20 ng/mL serum progesterone and 20 pg/mL serum estradiol. Nevertheless, the accuracy for diagnosing pregnancy of females at mid and late pregnancy was 78% and 95%, respectively. The analysis of the sexual hormones during pregnancy could be a useful tool as a potential pregnancy diagnosis and an efficient predictor of the day of parturition in the captive collared peccary.

  15. Advances in interspecific pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific pregnancy in which the conceptus and female carrying the pregnancy are of different species is a key step to interspecific cloning. Cloning endangered animals by interspecific pregnancy is such a highlight catching people's eyes nowadays. In this article, the history of interspecific pregnancy, the methods for establishment of interspecific pregnancy, the corresponding theories, barriers and applied prospects are reviewed.``

  16. 米非司酮联合米索前列醇终止妊娠的临床效果分析%The analysis of clinical effect of mifepristone combined with misoprostol for pregnancy termination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊严

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of mifepristone combined with misoprostol for pregnancy termination.Methods:76 pregnant woman with medication pregnancy termination were selected from February 2013 to May 2014.They were randomLy divided into the control group and the observation group with 38 cases in each.The control group were given mifepristone 150 mg, who were kept fasting before and after medication 2 hours.On the basis of in the control group,the observation group were given misoprostol 600μg oral treatment on the third day morning,if the patients had no or slight stomachache 6 hours after taking the drugs,they were continued to give 600μg.The gestational sac discharge conditions of patients were observed.The operation would implement when necessary,and we would do a good job of vital signs monitoring.Results:The began contractions time,the postpartum hemorrhage and the total production process of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).In the observation group,35 cases(92.1%) were complete abortion;3 cases(7.9%) were incomplete abortion.In the control group,15 cases(39.5%) were complete abortion;18 cases(47.4%) were incomplete abortion;5 cases were failed;the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The complete abortion rate of mifepristone combined with misoprostol for pregnancy termination is high.It is worthy of the clinical promotion.%目的:探讨米非司酮联合米索前列醇终止妊娠的临床效果。方法:2013年2月-2014年5月收治药物终止妊娠孕妇76例,随机分成对照组和观察组,各38例,对照组给予米非司酮150 mg,患者在服药前后2 h均保持空腹,观察组在对照组的基础上于第3天早晨给予米索前列醇600μg口服治疗,如患者在服药6 h后无或轻微腹痛,继续给予600μg,观察患者妊娠囊排出情况,必要时实施清宫手术,并做

  17. The Clinical Efficacy of Rivanol Combined with Mifepristone in the Treatment of the Termination of Second Trimester Pregnancy%米非司酮联合利凡诺用于中孕引产的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of rivanol combined with mifepristone for the termination of second trimester pregnancy.Methods:The clinical data of 60 cases of termination of second trimester pregnancy (14-27 week) were analyzed retrospectively. The experimental group contained 30 cases. They took 75mg of mifeprist one orally at first. At the same time they conducted the amniocentesis with injection of 100mg of rivanol. They further took 75mg of mifepristone orally 12 hours later, all of which added up to a total of 150mg. The other 30 cases in the control group conducted the amniocentesis with injection of 100mg of rivanol directly.Results:In the experimental group, the mean time for fetal delivery was shortened significantly. It also has a lower rate of placental membrane residues and less bleeding. Conclusion:Due to the significant efficacy, it is worthy of being widely applied in clinic.%目的:评价米非司酮联合利凡诺用于中孕引产的效果。方法:回顾性分析某医院妊娠14~27周中孕要求引产患者60例,随机分为两组,其中实验组30例,先口服米非司酮75mg,同时行羊膜腔穿刺注射利凡诺100mg,12h后再口服75mg,共150mg;对照组30例直接行羊膜腔穿刺注射利凡诺100mg。结果:实验组能明显缩短胎儿娩出时间,胎盘胎膜残留率低,出血量少。结论:米非司酮联合利凡诺用于中孕引产具有显著的效果,值得临床推广应用。

  18. Medical versus surgical termination of early pregnancy: satisfaction with care, emotional impact and acceptability of the procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna L. Akkenapally

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Satisfaction with both the methods of medical and surgical abortion is high. Acceptability of the procedure next time was more with surgical abortion. MTOP had higher emotional impact. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3158-3166

  19. Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation.

  20. The impact of African ethnicity and migration on pregnancy in women living with HIV in the UK: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Shema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pregnancies in women with diagnosed HIV in the UK increased from 80 in 1990 to over 1400 in 2010; the majority were among women born in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a paucity of research on how social adversity impacts upon pregnancy in HIV positive women in the UK; furthermore, little is known about important outcomes such as treatment uptake and return for follow-up after pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. Methods and design This was a two phase mixed methods study. The first phase involved analysis of data on approximately 12,000 pregnancies occurring between 2000 and 2010 reported to the UK’s National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. The second phase was based in London and comprised: (i semi-structured interviews with 23 pregnant African women living with HIV, 4 health care professionals and 2 voluntary sector workers; (ii approximately 90 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV charity; and (iii approximately 40 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in a Pentecostal church. Discussion We have developed an innovative methodology utilising epidemiological and anthropological methods to explore pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. The data collected in this mixed methods study are currently being analysed and will facilitate the development of appropriate services for this group.

  1. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F

    2015-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature.

  2. Analysis of printing terminals installation methods; Analise de terminais de impressao e metodos de instalacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmel, Lutz [Gustav Klauke GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The installation of terminals on cables is part of the routine of electricians. The various cable types require different types of terminals and connectors to ensure a work technically correct. These combinations in turn, depending on the material, model and application, require the selection of an adequate compression of the terminals, a subject discussed in this article.

  3. Methods for estimating vehicle queues at a marine terminal: A computational comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A long queue of vehicles at the gate of a marine terminal is a common traffic phenomenon in a port-city, which sometimes causes problems in urban traffic. In order to be able to solve this issue, we firstly need accurate models to estimate such a vehicle queue length. In this paper, we compare the existing methods in a case study, and evaluate their advantages and disadvantages. Particularly, we develop a simulation-based regression model, using the micro traffic simulation software PARAMIC. In simulation, it is found that the queue transient process follows a natural logarithm curve. Then, based on these curves, we develop a queue length estimation model. In the numerical experiment, the proposed model exhibits better estimation accuracy than the other existing methods

  4. Development of Closed-Loop Simulation Methods for a Next-Generation Terminal Area Automation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    A next-generation air traffic decision support tool, known as the Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST), will generate heading, speed and altitude commands to achieve more precise separation of aircraft in the terminal area. The techniques used to analyze the performance of earlier generation decision support tools are not adequate to analyze the performance of aFAST. This paper summarizes the development of a new and innovative fully closed-loop testing method for aFAST. This method, called trajectory feedback testing, closes each aircraft's control loop inside of the aFAST scheduling algorithm. Validation of trajectory feedback testing by examination of the variation of aircraft time-of-arrival predictions between schedule updates and the variation of aircraft excess separation distances between simulation runs is presented.

  5. Serum levels of N-terminal fragment of precursor protein brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Koyama, Takahiro; Furuta, Itsuko; Takeda, Masamitsu; Nishida, Ryutaro; Yamada, Takahiro; Morikawa, Mamoru; Minakami, Hisanori

    2013-01-16

    Twin pregnancy differs considerably from singleton pregnancy in many aspects and it is unknown how serum NT-proBNP level behaves in women with twin pregnancies. Serum NT-proBNP levels were determined longitudinally at gestational weeks (GW) 24 and 35 in normotensive women with 13 twin and 99 singleton pregnancies. The effects of maternal demographic characteristics on NT-proBNP levels were also analyzed. The serum NT-proBNP levels (pg/ml) in twin pregnancies, which were not different from those in singleton pregnancies at 24 GW (26±15 vs. 40±27, respectively, P=0.0718), increased significantly (P=0.0038) and were significantly higher than those in singleton pregnancies at 35 GW (72±49 vs. 34±24, Ptwin pregnancy were likely to exhibit an increase in serum NT-proBNP levels in the late stage of pregnancy, especially in lean and nulliparous women. The relative greater blood volume expansion occurring in twin than in singleton pregnancies was considered to be responsible for this phenomenon.

  6. Methods of linking mothers and infants using health plan data for studies of pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karin E.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Andrade, Susan E.; Cheetham, T. Craig; Scott, Pamela E.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Dashevsky, Inna; Cooper, William O.; Davis, Robert L.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Dublin, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research on medication safety in pregnancy often utilizes health plan and birth certificate records. This study discusses methods used to link mothers with infants, a crucial step in such research. Methods We describe how 8 sites participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program created linkages between deliveries, infants and birth certificates for the 2001–2007 birth cohorts. We describe linkage rates across sites and, for two sites, we compare the characteristics of populations linked using different methods. Results Of 299,260 deliveries, 256,563 (86%; range by site, 74–99%) could be linked to infants using a deterministic algorithm. At two sites, using birth certificate data to augment mother-infant linkage increased the representation of mothers who were Hispanic or non-white, younger, Medicaid recipients, or had low educational level. A total of 236,460 (92%; range by site, 82–100%) deliveries could be linked to a birth certificate. Conclusions Tailored approaches enabled linking most deliveries to infants and to birth certificates, even when data systems differed. The methods used may affect the composition of the population identified. Linkages established with such methods can support sound pharmacoepidemiology studies of maternal drug exposure outside the context of a formal registry. PMID:23596095

  7. A study on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: prevalence, etiology and comparison of screening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheya Mukherjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in women with prevalence of 4-7% in pregnancy. The traditional reference test for bacteriuria is quantitative culture of urine which is relatively expensive time consuming and laborious. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, to identify pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and to device a single or combined rapid screening method as an acceptable alternative to urine culture. Methods: Clean catch mid-stream urine were collected from 250 pregnant women aged between 18-45 years attending antenatal clinic, for a period of one year (November 2008-2009. Screening tests such as gram staining of uncentrifuged urine, pus cell count, nitrite test and leukocyte esterase test were done. Identification of organisms and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed as per standard methods. Results: Out of the 250 pregnant women, 21 (8.4% had significant bacteriuria. High percentage of asymptomatic bacteriuria was seen in 2nd trimester (42.86% and in primigravidas (52.38%. E. coli (57.14% was the most common organism. Among screening tests gram staining of uncentrifuged urine had a sensitivity of 85.71%. Nitrite and leukocyte esterase tests alone showed sensitivity of 71.42%. However, the combination of these two tests, either tests positive, showed sensitivity and negative predictive value of 90.47% and 99.09% respectively. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy can be identified by simple and combined rapid screening methods and urine culture along with antibiogram so that early treatment can be started thereby preventing complications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1085-1091

  8. 早孕期终止瘢痕子宫患者意外妊娠的临床分析%Clinical analysis of unplanned pregnancy termination in patients with scarred uterus during early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小艳; 杨合荣; 王江; 常青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characeristics and ending of induced abortion conducted in unplannedly pregnant women with scarred uterus. Methods Clinical data of 599 patients admitted to hospital with unplanned pregnancy after cesarean section who had been subjected to induced abortion from January 2010 to March 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 588 pregnant women with scarred uterus were divided into 2 groups according to the abortion methods which were induced abortion group (n-274) and curettage after medical abortion group(n -314). The clinical data of 600 unplannedly pregnant women without scarred uterus(300 cases of painless induced abortion and 300 cases of curettage after medical abortion) in the same period served as control. Results Among 599 patients,11 patients hospitalized due to uterine incision pregnancy and treated with laparoscopic surgery. In 588 pregnant women with scarred uterus,the success rates of surgery of patients in induced abortion group and curettage after medical abortion group showed no significantly difference(P>0. 05) , however, they were both markedly lower than those of patients without scarred uterus(P0.05). The success rate of induced abortion accepted at the time within a year from previous cesarean section was obviously lower than that of induced abortion accepted after a year(P0.05);妊娠距前次剖宫产术时间在1年内的人工流产的成功率显著低于1年后(P<0.05).结论 剖宫产术后意外妊娠行人工流产手术难度大,风险高,非切口妊娠患者应选择合理的流产方式以降低手术风险.

  9. Novel Optimization Method of Active Frequency Multiplier Utilizing Harmonic Terminating Impedances with DGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for the optimization of the active frequency multiplier utilizing the harmonic terminating impedances with the defected ground structures (DGS has been developed. Furthermore, a new type of the low-pass filter with DGS for the higher harmonic suppression will be reported. Experimental conversion gains (14.52 dB for the doubler, 5.56 dB for the tripler and 0.43 dB for the quadrupler and real power-added efficiency (32.76 % for the doubler, 10.15 % for the tripler and 1.42 % for the quadrupler have been attained. To our knowledge, in the considered frequency range, these results represent the best performance reported up to date for the active frequency multipliers utilizing the low-cost BJTs.

  10. A Direct Multiple Shooting Method for Missile Trajectory Optimization with The Terminal Bunt Manoeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subchan Subchan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solution of constrained nonlinear optimal control problem is an important field in a wide range of applications in science and engineering. The real time solution for an optimal control problem is a challenge issue especially the state constrained handling. Missile trajectory shaping with terminal bunt manoeuvre with state constaints is addressed. The problem can be stated as an optimal control problem in which an objective function is minimised satisfying a series of constraints on the trajectory which includes state and control constraints. Numerical solution based on a direct multiple shooting is proposed. As an example the method has been implemented to a design of optimal trajectory for a missile where the missile must struck the target by vertical dive. The qualitative analysis and physical interpretation of the numerical solutions are given.

  11. Improving Access to Long-Acting Contraceptive Methods and Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy Among Women with Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kirsten I; Day, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the consequences of substance use in pregnancy, but there has been far less focus on the prevention of unintended pregnancies in women with substance use disorders (SUDs). We examine the literature on pregnancy incidence for women with SUDs, the clinical and economic benefits of increasing access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods in this population, and the current hurdles to increased access and uptake. High rates of unintended pregnancies and poor physical and psychosocial outcomes among women with SUDs underscore the need for increased access to, and uptake of, LARC methods among these women. A small number of studies that focused on improving access to contraception, especially LARC, via integrated contraception services predominantly provided in drug treatment programs were identified. However, a number of barriers remain, highlighting that much more research is needed in this area.

  12. A Reference Point Construction Method Using Mobile Terminals and the Indoor Localization Evaluation in the Centroid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamaguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As smartphones become widespread, a variety of smartphone applications are being developed. This paper proposes a method for indoor localization (i.e., positioning that uses only smartphones, which are general-purpose mobile terminals, as reference point devices. This method has the following features: (a the localization system is built with smartphones whose movements are confined to respective limited areas. No fixed reference point devices are used; (b the method does not depend on the wireless performance of smartphones and does not require information about the propagation characteristics of the radio waves sent from reference point devices, and (c the method determines the location at the application layer, at which location information can be easily incorporated into high-level services. We have evaluated the level of localization accuracy of the proposed method by building a software emulator that modeled an underground shopping mall. We have confirmed that the determined location is within a small area in which the user can find target objects visually.

  13. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS: Questionnai...... in screening and with intentions about selective termination, women's perceptions of lives of the disabled should receive more attention in future studies.......AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...

  14. 前置胎盘终止妊娠的时间对产后出血和新生儿预后的影响%To Explore the Effect of Terminated Pregnancy Time for the Patients With Placenta Previa on the Postpartum Hemorrhage and Newborn Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农芳琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the inlfuence of different time of pregnancy termination to the patients with placenta previa on the postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal condition.Methods There were two groups of patients in this study. The patients with placenta previa who terminated pregnancy before 36 weeks of pregnancy were in the first group, while those who terminated pregnancy after 36 weeks of pregnancy were in the second group. There were 150 patients in each group. The data (including the incidence of prenatal and postpartum hemorrhage, the amount of postpartum hemorrhage, neonatal asphyxia, the situation of perinatal neonatal death) of the two groups were compared. The results including the incidence of maternal prenatal bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage of the ifrst groups were signiifcantly higher than those of the second group, with statistical signiifcant differences (P<0.05). The amount of postpartum hemorrhage of the ifrst group was obviously higher than that of the second group with the statistical significant difference (P<0.05). The number of patients with neonatal asphyxia and perinatal deaths of the ifrst group were more than those of the second groups with statistical signiifcant differences (P<0.05).Conclusion Cesarean section is still the first choice for the patients with placenta previa. We usually terminate pregnancy after 36 weeks of pregnancy, which will be better for the outcomes of maternal and neonatal.%目的:对存在前置胎盘症状的患者以不同的时间终止妊娠对产妇产后出血和新生儿产生的影响情况进行研究。方法选择在我院就诊的孕36周之前(含孕36周)终止妊娠的前置胎盘患者和孕36周以后终止妊娠的前置胎盘患者各150例,分别将其定义为研究1组和研究2组。对两组研究对象的产前出血率、产后出血率、产后平均出血量、新生儿窒息、围产期新生儿死亡等情况进行对比。结果研究1组产妇在产前出血率和产

  15. 胎儿先天畸形终止妊娠后对患者的心理影响及社会支持%Psychological Influence and Social Supports in Women With Congenital Fetal Malformations After Termination of Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖书娟; 罗碧如

    2012-01-01

    胎儿先天畸形是指胎儿由于内在发育异常而引起的器官或身体某部位的形态学缺陷.大部分产前诊断为胎儿先天畸形的孕妇选择接受人工终止妊娠术治疗.终止妊娠后患者可出现焦虑、抑郁和悲伤情绪,而持续长时间或高水平的悲伤情绪常与缺乏有效社会支持有关.目前,对胎儿先天畸形终止妊娠后患者的治疗及护理主要集中于生理方面.作者拟就国外对胎儿先天畸形终止妊娠后女性的心理影响和社会支持的研究进展进行综述如下.%Congenital fetal malformations is a physical defect present in a fetus before birth.Most pregnant women with prediagnosis of congenital fetal malformations accept artificial abortion for treatment.After termination of pregnancy,women usually have emotional problems,such as anxiety,depression and sadness.These problems which can last long-term and high-level are related to lack of psychological and social supports.Nowadays,the treatment and nursing care of women with congenital fetal malformations are only focus on physiological needs after termination of pregnancy instead of social supports.This paper reviewed the psychological influence and social supports in women with congenital fetal malformations after termination of pregnancy.

  16. A clinical study on mifepristone combining with misoprostol for early pregnancy termination%米非司酮配伍米索前列醇终止早期妊娠的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雄山; 訾艳芳; 赵红敏

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mifepristone combining with misoprostol in different ways for early pregnancy termination.Methods A total of 239 early pregnant women requesting medical abortion were randomly divided into trial group and control group. The women in the trial group administrated 150mg mifepristone orally and vaginal misoprostol 600mg after 36 to 72 hours, while the women in the control group took 50mg mifepristone orally for the first dosage, and then took 25mg mifepristone every other 12 hours. The total dose of mifepristone was 150mg and 600mg mifepristone was administrated orally in the fourth morning. Mifepristone was administrated on empty stomach in two groups. The clinical efficacy of two dosage regimens was analyzed. Results The complete abortion rate in the trial group was 97.5%, which was obviously higher than that ( 90.8% ) in the control group (x2=4.785 ,P= 0.03 ). The interval between misoprostol intake and expulsion of gestational sac in the trial group and the control group was 2.27 ± 1.3 hours and 2.89 ± 1.4 hours respectively,and the difference was significant ( t= 3.533 ,P= 0.001 ). The differences in bleeding duration, diarrhea, abdominal pain and time needed for menstrual recovery between two groups were not significant ( all P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion The vaginal administration of 600μgmisoprostol 36 to 72 hours after oral administration of 150mg mifepristone on empty stomach is a convenient, safe and effective method to terminate early pregnancy with little pain. It is worth applying in clinics.%目的 研究米非司酮配伍米索前列醇不同用药方法对终止早期妊娠效果的影响.方法 将239例早孕妇女随机分为对照组和试验组,试验组给予米非司酮150mg空腹顿服,服药36~72小时后,阴道后穹隆放置米索前列醇600μg;对照组给予米非司酮空腹首剂50mg口服,后每12小时空腹顿服25mg,总量150mg,第4天晨给予米索前列醇600μg空腹顿服.对两组的

  17. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  18. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  19. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention methods during pregnancy in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonara, Shakira; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby; Elwange, Bob Charlestine

    2015-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, which, during pregnancy, is associated with adverse health outcomes for both mother and foetus. Utilization of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPTp) is advocated to prevent malaria during pregnancy. To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention methods among pregnant women in Kenya. This study used 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health survey. Pregnant women aged 15-49 years were included (622 women). Distribution of the study population was assessed in frequency tables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed. Fifty-two percent of women used ITNs and 38.5% reported uptake of IPTp. In multivariate analysis age, malaria risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria risk areas and marital status were found to influence IPTP uptake. ITN use and IPTp uptake were well below the 80% Kenya Malaria Strategy 2006 target. In an effort to increase uptake it is vital for future research to understand reasons for low usage and uptake of malaria prevention programmes so as to enable policy-makers to make informed decisions.

  20. 6H-SiC Schottky diode edge terminated using amorphous SiC by sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K.; Chen, Y.; Kuzmik, J.; Nishino, S. [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Electronics and Information Science

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the experimental methods and the results on the evaluation of the Schottky barrier which is formed by vacuum-evaporation aluminum on chemically etched n-type 6H-SiC. And we report the effects of edge termination of amorphous SiC using reactive ion etching (RIE) and sputtering method. Edge termination was done by amorphous SiC in the trench etched by RIE using CF4 and O2. Amorphous SiC was formed by sputtering poly-SiC. Schottky barrier diodes have higher breakdown voltage at 300 V and lower leakage current than those without the edge termination. (orig.) 4 refs.

  1. Psychological effects of nursing interference on systemic lupus erythematosus patients after pregnancy termination%护理干预对系统性红斑狼疮患者终止妊娠心理状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟玲; 陈丽娜; 许璧瑜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the psychological features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) women who underwent pregnancy termination and to investigate the effects of nursing interference on their psychological state.Methods Psychological nursing and symptomatic nursing were performed in 12 patients.The psychological state was evaluated by Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) before and after the interference.Results SAS and SDS score were remarkably reduced after nursing interference.Conclusions Nursing interference can reduce the negative effects caused by psychological state,reduce their psychological pressure,increase compliance to medical orders and promote recovery.%目的 了解系统性红斑狼疮终止妊娠患者的心理特征,探讨护理干预措施对患者心理状态的影响.方法 对12例系统性红斑狼疮终止妊娠患者采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)进行护理干预前及干预后的评分,并实施心理护理及有效的症状护理.结果 患者实施护理干预后SAS和SDS评分明显低于实施护理干预前.结论 实施护理干预可明显减轻系统性红斑狼疮终止妊娠患者心理状态对疾病带来的负面影响,减轻其心理压力,增强患者的遵医行为,促进疾病的康复.

  2. Clinical Observation of Mifepristone Combined with Misoprostol for Termination of Mid-pregnancy Abortion in Uterine Scar%米非司酮联合米索前列醇用于瘢痕子宫中期妊娠引产临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷肃洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of mifepristone combined with misoprostol in termination of Mid-pregnancy abortion in uterine scar.Methods:Choice of 90 cases of uterine scar pregnancy volunteered to induction of mifepristone combined with misoprostol for induction of labor in pregnant women. Observed in this group of patients induced condition.Results:The success of 88 cases, the success rate is 97.8%. The single delivery success rate was 84.4%, the incidence of adverse reactions of misoprostol for adverse reactions occurred at a rate of 16.7%. Conclusion:Mifepristone combined with misoprostol for termination of Mid-pregnancy abortion in uterine scar clinical effect, be worth to advocate.%目的:探讨米非司酮联合米索前列醇用于瘢痕子宫中期妊娠引产的临床效果.方法:选择我院瘢痕子宫妊娠自愿要求引产孕妇90例,本组患者行米非司酮联合米索前列醇药物引产.观察本组患者引产情况.结果:引产成功共88例,引产成功率为97.8%.单次给药引产成功率为84.4%,米索前列醇不良反应发生率为不良反应发生率为16.7%.结论:米非司酮联合米索前列醇用于瘢痕子宫中期妊娠引产临床效果显著,值得借鉴.

  3. Two Abortion on Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pregnancy Termination%两种流产方式对终止妊娠患者临床效果的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟桂敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of two abortion on pregnancy termination in patients.Methods:322 cases of patients with termination of pregnancy, were randomly divided into group I (painless abortion group): operation room anaesthetists with propofol intravenous anesthesia in artificial abortion was negative; group II (abortion group): Mifepristone Combined with misoprostol. Comparison of two groups of abortion which the average recovery time, power and time of vaginal bleeding after abortion menstrual.Results:Painless artificial abortion composed of power of 98%; the success rate of drug abortion was 93%. Painless artificial abortion group vaginal bleeding time was (5.2±0.5) days; drug abortion group vaginal bleeding time (12.2±0.3) days. Painless artificial abortion group after abortion menstrual recovery time (36±0.3) days, the drug abortion group (42 ±0.8) days.Conclusion: Painless artificial abortion, vaginal bleeding time is short, after abortion menstrual recovery time than drug abortion faster, more suitable as a remedy for contraception failure.%目的:探讨两种流产方式对终止妊娠患者的临床效果。方法:要求终止妊娠患者322例,随机分成Ⅰ组(无痛人工流产组):手术室麻醉师用丙泊酚静脉麻醉成功后行负压人工流产术;Ⅱ组(药物流产组):米非司酮联合米索前列醇口服。比较两组流产组成功率、阴道出血时间和流产后月经平均恢复时间。结果:无痛人工流产组成功率为98%;药物流产成功率为93%。无痛人工流产组阴道出血时间为(5.2±0.5)天;药物流产组阴道出血时间(12.2±0.3)天。无痛人工流产组流产后月经平均恢复时间(36±0.3)天,药物流产组(42±0.8)天。结论:无痛人工流产完全流产率高,阴道出血时间短,流产后月经恢复时间较药物流产快,更适宜作为避孕失败的补救措施。

  4. Weak Sharp Minima and Finite Termination of the Proximal Point Method for Convex Functions on Hadamard Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, G C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we proved that the sequence generated by the proximal point method, associated to a unconstrained optimization problem in the Riemannian context, has finite termination when the objective function has a weak sharp minima on the solution set of the problem.

  5. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  6. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  7. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  8. Termination of single-crystal B i2S e3 surfaces prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weimin; Zhu, Haoshan; Yarmoff, Jory A.

    2016-11-01

    Bismuth Selenide (B i2S e3) is a topological insulator with a two-dimensional layered structure that enables clean and well-ordered surfaces to be prepared by cleaving. Although some studies have demonstrated that the cleaved surface is terminated with Se, as expected from the bulk crystal structure, other reports have indicated either a Bi- or mixed-termination. Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used here to compare surfaces prepared by ex situ cleaving, in situ cleaving, and ion bombardment and annealing (IBA) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Surfaces prepared by in situ cleaving and IBA are well ordered and Se-terminated. Ex situ cleaved samples could be either Se-terminated or Bi-rich, are less well ordered and have adsorbed contaminants. This suggests that a chemical reaction involving atmospheric contaminants, which may preferentially adsorb at surface defects, could contribute to the nonreproducibility of the termination.

  9. Statistical methods for estimating the probability of spontaneous abortion in observational studies--analyzing pregnancies exposed to coumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2008-09-01

    Spontaneous abortion rates are of general interest when investigating pregnancy outcome. In most studies observations are left truncated as pregnant women enter with a delay of several weeks after conception. Apart from spontaneous abortion pregnancy may end in induced abortion or live birth. These outcomes are considered as competing events (risks). Although statistical methods for handling this setting are available since more than 10 years, studies on pregnancy outcome after drug exposure usually report crude rates of spontaneous abortions, ignoring left truncation and competing risks. The authors propose simple methods which remove bias inherent to crude rates. The probability of spontaneous abortion is estimated using an event-history based approach for the subdistribution of competing risks that handles left truncation appropriately. Variance estimation enables the construction of approximate confidence intervals and of a simple test-statistic for comparing rates between different cohorts. The proposed methods are applied to a comparative prospective study on the association of spontaneous abortion and exposure to coumarin derivatives. The naive analysis using crude rates gives substantially different results than those based on the proposed methods, with up to a twofold change. Correctly incorporating left truncation into the analysis may increase the variance of the estimators, relative to an ideal sample where all pregnancies are followed from the time of conception. The consequences of such truncation for study design are discussed. Combining corrections for left truncation and competing risks offers a powerful method for analyzing miscarriage risk.

  10. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Sileny N; Kesic, Vesna I; Van Calsteren, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the treatment possibilities for patients with cancer in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-item questionnaire was mailed electronically to physicians across Europe, who were potentially involved in care of pregnant patients and....../or cancer, using the membership directories of different professional societies. RESULTS: 142 surveys were eligible for analysis. A median of 2 (range 0-100) patients with cancer in pregnancy were treated per center in 2010. The vast majority of respondents (94%) agreed that management of pregnant patients......% of respondents. Univariate logistic regression analysis found a trend that non-academic hospitals prefer termination of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]=0.68; 95% CI, 0.28-1.63; P=0.39), and also no treatment during pregnancy (OR=0.70; 95% CI, 0.33-1.50; P=0.36). CONCLUSION: Termination of pregnancy, delay of maternal...

  11. Determinants and Experiences of Repeat Pregnancy among HIV-Positive Kenyan Women--A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Akelo

    Full Text Available To identify factors associated with repeat pregnancy subsequent to an index pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLWH in western Kenya who were enrolled in a 24-month phase-II clinical trial of triple-ART prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and to contextualize social and cultural influences on WLWH's reproductive decision making.A mixed-methods approach was used to examine repeat pregnancy within a 24 month period after birth. Counselor-administered questionnaires were collected from 500 WLWH. Forty women (22 with a repeat pregnancy; 18 with no repeat pregnancy were purposively selected for a qualitative interview (QI. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for quantitative data. Thematic coding and saliency analysis were undertaken for qualitative data.Eighty-eight (17.6% women had a repeat pregnancy. Median maternal age was 23 years (range 15-43 years and median gestational age at enrollment was 34 weeks. In multiple logistic regression analyses, living in the same compound with a husband (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.14, 4.75 was associated with increased odds of repeat pregnancy (p ≤ 0.05. Being in the 30-43 age group (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.87, having talked to a partner about family planning (FP use (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.98, and prior usage of FP (AOR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.82 were associated with a decrease in odds of repeat pregnancy. QI findings centered on concerns about modern contraception methods (side effects and views that they 'ruined the womb' and a desire to have the right number of children. Religious leaders, family, and the broader community were viewed as reinforcing cultural expectations for married women to have children. Repeat pregnancy was commonly attributed to contraception failure or to lack of knowledge about post-delivery fertility.In addition to cultural context, reproductive health programs for WLWH may need to

  12. Determinants of accepting unintended pregnancies by Ukrainian women: Results of a 2007 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barska, Julia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Ukraine, much public attention is given to adolescent girls and young women as a main ‘risk group’ for terminating an unplanned pregnancy in case it occurs. The objective of the study was to clarify whether this concern is substantiated.METHODS. Data from a nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey on women of reproductive age were used to examine the relationship of pregnancy order number, age when a woman became pregnant and her marital status to accepting unintended pregnancy. A subsample of 517 women having been pregnant within five years preceding the interview were divided into non-acceptors (unintended pregnancy was terminated and acceptors (pregnancy ended with live birth though was unintended at the time of conception. Independent variables included pregnancy- and childbearing-related, socio-demographic, and behavioral characteristics. Odds ratios were calculated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS. Controlling for all other factors, being 23 years and younger compared to 24-37 years old was positively associated with accepting an unintended pregnancy. With every next pregnancy, odds of accepting an unintended pregnancy decreased by 0.6. Being married compared to being unmarried was negatively associated with accepting an unintended pregnancy in bivariate analysis, which was attenuated in multivariate analysis because of predominance of the first pregnancies among never married women. Furthermore, women from all other regions of Ukraine compared to women from Western regions were less likely to accept an unintended pregnancy, and so did women of Christian Orthodox and no religion compared to women of other religions. CONCLUSIONS. Attention of public health programs and policies should be paid to the women with children, whose needs in reliable contraceptive methods are not met. Post-delivery contraceptive consultations may be a great tool in overcoming this gap. In

  13. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  14. Congenital Aortic Stenosis in Adults: Update on clinical outcome, diagnostic methods and pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-C. Yap (Sing-Chien)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aim of the study: The pulmonary autograft has been recommended as the valve of choice for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in young women contemplating pregnancy. However, current information on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancy in women with pulmonary autograft va

  15. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : Rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, B.J.; Giesbrecht, G.F.; Leung, B.M.; Field, C.J.; Dewey, D.; Bell, R.C.; Manca, D.P.; O'Beirne, M.; Johnston, D.W.; Pop, V.J.M.; Singhal, N.; Gagnon, L.; Bernier, F.P.; Eliasziw, M.; McCargar, L.J.; Kooistra, L.; Farmer, A.; Cantell, M.; Goonewardene, L.; Casey, L.M.; Letourneau, N.; Martin, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their

  16. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their

  17. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offsp

  18. Congenital Aortic Stenosis in Adults: Update on clinical outcome, diagnostic methods and pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-C. Yap (Sing-Chien)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aim of the study: The pulmonary autograft has been recommended as the valve of choice for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in young women contemplating pregnancy. However, current information on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancy in women with pulmonary autograft

  19. Developing the Reconfiguration Method to Increase Life Expectancy of Dynamic Wireless Sensor Network in Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurenoks Aleksejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays control and management logistics solutions that are used in terminals apply sensor based technologies to identify and localize containers in the yard. Nevertheless, because of the limits in the existing sensor technical specification, the position of nodes is still affected by some errors or sometimes it cannot be determined in real-time systems due to battery fall.

  20. Termination review committees: are they necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Nicole L

    2003-07-21

    In Victoria, decisions regarding late termination of pregnancy no longer involve just pregnant women and their clinicians. At two major women's hospitals, committees now govern the decision-making process for approval of a late termination of pregnancy. The legal and ethical implications of clinical decision-making by committee need to be widely debated.

  1. Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods ...

  2. "I need to terminate this pregnancy even if it will take my life": a qualitative study of the effect of being denied legal abortion on women's lives in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Gerdts, Caitlin; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-10-14

    Although abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, many women are not able to obtain legal services. Using qualitative data from women who were denied legal abortion services, we examined reasons for seeking an abortion, options considered and pursued after being denied an abortion, reasons for delaying seeking care, as well as complications experienced among women who were denied legal abortion. After obtaining authorization from two health facilities in Nepal, we requested informed consent from all women who were seeking abortion services to complete a case report form to determine their eligibility for the study. We then recruited all eligible and interested women in to the study. Two months after recruitment, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 women who were denied abortion services from the two recruitment facilities due to advanced gestational age (>12 weeks). Interviews were translated and transcribed, and the transcripts were analyzed through an iterative process grounded in thematic analysis, involving both a priori and emergent codes. Eleven women were recruited from the government hospital and 14 from an NGO facility. The majority of women (15 women or 60 %) were living rural settings, ranged in age from 18 to 40 years and had an average of 2 children. None had completed any post-secondary education. Women most commonly cited financial concerns and health concerns as reasons for seeking termination. Not recognizing pregnancy, uncertainty about how to proceed, needing time to coordinate the trip to the facility or raise money, and waiting to know the sex of fetus were the commonly cited delays. Among the women interviewed, 12 decided to continue their pregnancies following denial, 12 terminated their pregnancies elsewhere, and one self-induced using medication. At least two women experienced significant complications after obtaining an abortion. Most women who continued their pregnancies anticipated negative consequences for their health, family

  3. 探讨无痛人工流产用于终止早期妊娠的临床应用价值%The Clinical Value of the Induced Abortion in the Termination Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the application value of the induced abortion used to the early pregnancy for clinical make guidance.Method:One hundred and four healthy pregnant women admitted to our hospital from March 2010 to March 2013 were selected,they were divided into the abortion group and the medical abortion group,52 cases in each group.The abortion group was given induced abortion,the medical abortion group was given Mifepristone Tablets and Misoprostol Tablets,The indexes(the amount of vaginal bleeding,vaginal bleeding time,menstrual recovery time,duration of abdominal pain),the rate of complete abortion and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups after treatment.Result:The abortion group was significantly better than the medical abortion group after treatment,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05);The abortion rate of the abortion group was 98.08%,it was significantly higher than the medical abortion group(80.77%),the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05);the adverse reaction rate of the abortion group was 11.54%,it was significantly lower than the medical abortion group(36.54%),the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Painless artificial abortion for termination of early pregnancy clinical effect significantly, has the characteristics of simple operation,less bleeding,complete abortion rate is high,less adverse reaction,and it is worthy of wide application.%目的:分析总结无痛人工流产用于终止早期妊娠的临床应用价值,为临床推广做出指导。方法:选取本站2010年3月-2013年3月收治的104例自愿终止妊娠的健康孕妇,按照随机数字表法将其分为人工流产组和药物流产组各52例,人工流产组给予无痛人工流产,药物流产组给予米非司酮联合米索前列醇口服,观察比较两组患者治疗后各项指标(阴道出血量、阴道出血时间、月经恢复时间、腹痛持续时间)、治

  4. The Case Analysis of Illegal Termination of Pregnancy and Study on Its Le-gal Application%违法开展终止妊娠案例解析及其法律适用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂亚涛

    2015-01-01

    卫生行政部门在查处医疗机构违法开展终止妊娠时,在证据收集及法律适用方面常遇到一些问题,笔者通过违法开展终止妊娠案例进行分析,探讨相关法律适用问题,以期对此类案件的查处有所裨益。%The administrative departments of public health often encounter some problems in terms of evidence collection and the applicable law ,when they investigate the illegal medical institutions .In this paper,the author analyzed the relevant termination of pregnancy cases and explored the applicable problem of related laws to benifit the investigation of such cases.

  5. Adolescent pregnancy and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Jessica; Hayon, Ronni; Carlson, Jensena

    2014-09-01

    7% of US teen women became pregnant in 2008, totaling 750,000 pregnancies nationwide. For women ages 15 to 19, 82% of pregnancies are unintended. Adolescents have a disproportionate risk of medical complications in pregnancy. Furthermore, adolescent parents and their infants both tend to suffer poor psychosocial outcomes. Preventing unintended and adolescent pregnancies are key public health objectives for Healthy People 2020. Screening for sexual activity and pregnancy risk should be a routine part of all adolescent visits. Proven reductions in unintended pregnancy in teens are attained by providing access to contraception at no cost and promoting the most-effective methods.

  6. An International Study of the Ability and Cost-Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to Facilitate Study Participant Self-Enrolment Into a Pilot Pharmacovigilance Study During Early Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Jonathan Luke; Stephens, Sally; Thomas, Simon Hugh Lynton; Jamry-Dziurla, Anna; Jong-van den Berg, de Lolkje; Zetstra-van der Woude, Priscilla; Laursen, Maja; Hliva, Valerie; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Bourke, Alison; Dreyer, Nancy A; Blackburn, Stella Cf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the fetal effects of maternal medication use in pregnancy is often inadequate and current pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PV) surveillance methods have important limitations. Patient self-reporting may be able to mitigate some of these limitations, providing an adequately sized

  7. Reproductive Outcomes Following Ectopic Pregnancy: Register-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sohinee; McLernon, David J; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to compare reproductive outcomes following ectopic pregnancy (EP) versus livebirth, miscarriage, or termination in a first pregnancy. Methods And Findings A retrospective cohort study design was used. Scottish national data on all women whose first pregnancy occurred between 1981 and 2000 were linked to records of a subsequent pregnancy. The exposed cohort comprised women with an EP in their first pregnancy. There were three unexposed cohorts: women with livebirth, miscarriage, and termination of their first pregnancies. Any differences in rates of second pregnancy, livebirth, EP, miscarriage, or terminations and complications of a second ongoing pregnancy and delivery were assessed among the different exposure groups. A total of 2,969 women had an initial EP; 667,299 had a livebirth, 39,705 women miscarried, and 78,697 terminated their first pregnancies. Women with an initial EP had an increased chance of another pregnancy within 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 2.76 [95% CI 2.58–2.95]) or after 6 years (AHR 1.57 [95% CI 1.29–1.91]) compared to women with a livebirth. In comparison with women with an initial miscarriage, women who had an EP had a lower chance of a second pregnancy (AHR 0.53 [95% CI 0.50–0.56]). Compared to women with an initial termination, women with an EP had an increased chance of a second pregnancy (AHR 2.38 [95% CI 2.23–2.55]) within 2 years. Women with an initial EP suffered an increased risk of another EP compared to women with a livebirth (AHR 13.0 [95% CI 11.63–16.86]), miscarriage (AHR 6.07 [95% CI 4.83–7.62]), or termination (AHR 12.84 [95% CI 10.07–16.37]). Perinatal complications in a pregnancy following EP were not significantly higher than those in primigravidae or in women with a previous miscarriage or termination. Conclusion Women with an initial EP have a lower chance of conception than those who miscarry but an increased risk of a repeat EP in comparison with all three comparison groups. A

  8. An Effective Recognition Method for Road Information Based on Mobile Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a design of fast recognition of road information based on mobile terminal. Firstly, based on the HOG algorithm, we study and verify the effects of different parameters on the performance of the algorithm. Secondly, we test 800 images randomly selected from the INRIA pedestrian dataset to obtain the optimal parameters for the mobile terminal and the proportion of video resolution and detection window. Then, under the same test conditions, the time overheads of the SVMLight and the LibSVM are recorded and SVMLight training time is significantly less than LibSVM. Thirdly, we design and implement a real-time road information recognition and warning system on the Windows platform and Android platform. Features include real-time pedestrians detection, voice warning, and road signs recognition. When the vehicle speed is less than 30 km/h, the video resolution is less than 720 × 576 and the detection window/image ratio is less than 1 : 50; the system can guarantee low delay and high recognition rate (97.2%.

  9. Palliative care for people with dementia in the terminal phase: a mixed-methods qualitative study to inform service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Lemos Dekker, Natashe; Gijsberts, Marie-José H E; Vermeulen, Laura H; Mahler, Margje M; The, B Anne-Mei

    2017-04-28

    When entering the dying phase, the nature of physical, psychosocial and spiritual care needs of people with dementia and their families may change. Our objective was to understand what needs to be in place to develop optimal palliative care services for the terminal phase in the face of a small evidence base. In 2015-2016, we performed a mixed-methods qualitative study in which we (1) analysed the domains and recommendations from the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) dementia white paper and identified those with particular relevance for the terminal phase; (2) performed a series of focus group discussions with Dutch family caregivers of people with dementia in variable stages; (3) conducted interviews with experts involved in 15 special forms of terminal care for people with dementia in five countries. The terminal phase was defined as dying but because of the difficulty predicting it, we included advanced dementia. We initially analysed the three parts separately, followed by an integrated analysis of (1)-(3) to inform service development. (1) The EAPC domain of "avoiding overly aggressive, burdensome, or futile treatment" was regarded of particular relevance in the terminal phase, along with a number of recommendations that refer to providing of comfort. (2) Families preferred continuity in care and living arrangements. Despite a recognition that this was a time when they had complex support needs, they found it difficult to accept involvement of a large team of unfamiliar (professional) caregivers. Mostly, terminal care was preferred at the place of residence. (3) The expert interviews identified preferred, successful models in which a representative of a well-trained team has the time, authority and necessary expertise to provide care and education of staff and family to where people are and which ensure continuity of relationships with and around the patient. A mobile team that specializes in palliative care in dementia and supports professional

  10. 依沙吖啶与米非司酮配伍米索前列醇用于孕16~28周引产对比观察%Intraamniotic ethacridine lactate instillation versus mifepristone and misoprostol combination in 16-28 weeks termination of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋梅英; 赖爱鸾

    2009-01-01

    目的 对依沙吖啶(利凡诺)与米非司酮配伍米索前列醇用于孕16~28周引产进行对比观察.方法因各种原因自愿终止妊娠的孕16~28周患者100例,随机均分为两组:A组依沙吖啶100 mg经腹羊膜腔内注射,B组清晨空腹口服米非司酮150 mg,同时阴道后穹窿放置米索前列醇.观察两组患者胎盘及胎儿排除时间、阴道流血量、住院时间及引产效果等.结果 A组完全引产率为76%(38/50)、清宫率为20%(10/50)、胎盘及胎儿排除时间为(42.0±5.8)h、住院时间为(96±6)h、阴道流血量为(110.6±6.5)ml,B组各指标分别为98%(49/50)、2%(1/50)、(12.5±4.5)h、(72±4)h、(46.3±5.6)ml,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论口服米非司酮配伍阴道用米索前列醇用于孕16~28周引产,与依沙吖啶羊膜腔内注射比较,胎盘及胎儿排除时间、住院时间短,阴道流血量少,成功率高,值得临床推广.%Objective To observe oral mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol combination (medical induction labor)for 16-28 weeks termination of pregnancy and compare the effectiveness with intrannmiotic instillation of ethacridine lactate (EL) in this setting. Methods 16-28 weeks gestation, total 100 pregnant women from February 2006 to June 2007 were elected. Two groups were divided randomly: group A (intraamniotic injection of ethacridine lactate)and group B(mifepristone and misoprostol combination). Main outcome measures: success rate, induction-delivery interval, intrapartum hemorrhage, length of stay complications. Results Termination of pregnancy was successful in 38 cases (76%), induction-delivery interval was (42.0±5.8) h, length of stay was (96±6) h and intrapartum hemorrhage was (110.6±6.5) ml in group A. The matched pair analysis revealed termination of pregnancy was successful in 49 cases (98%), there were significantly shorter induction-delivery interval (12.5±4.5) h, length of stay (72±4) h and lower intrapartum hemorrhage

  11. 口服流产药配伍依沙吖啶终止中晚期妊娠效果观察%Effect observation of oral abortion drug combined with ethacridine in termination of middle and late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of oral abortion drug combined with wuyisha acridine in termination of middle and late pregnancy. Methods 92 cases of middle and late pregnancy cured in our hospital from November 2014 to May 2016 were selected and randomly divided into study group and control group according to digital method with 46 cases in each.Pregnant women in control group were given ethacridine injection induced abortion, and pregnant women in control group were given mifepristone on the basis of the drug induced labor. Induced labor effects of the two groups were compared. Results The number of successful cases of induced abortion in control group was 36 (78.26%).The number of successful cases in study group was 44 cases (95.65%).Fetal placental delivery time, amount of bleeding and hospitalization time of patients in study group were (40.6±3.4)h,(124±13.2) ml,(4.4±0.3)d.Fetal placental delivery time, amount of bleeding and hospitalization time of patients in control group were(59.7±7.8)h,(176±15.8)mL,(7.6±0.9)d.And the differences were significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusion For middle and late pregnancy,ethacridine combined with oral mifepristone and misoprostol two kinds of drug assisted induction of labor can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding, and further shorten the hospital stay.It is not only convenient and safe.%目的:对口服流产药联合依沙吖啶终止中晚期妊娠的临床疗效进行分析。方法抽取2014年11月~2016年5月我院接受的92例中晚期妊娠者按数字分组法随机分为研究组(46例)和对比组(46例),对比组单纯给予依沙吖啶注射液引产,研究组患者在药物引产的基础上增加米非司酮药物引产,进而对用药后两组患者的引产效果进行比较。结果用药后对比组患者的引产成功例数为36例(78.26%),研究组患者的引产成功例数为44例(95.65%),同时经观察发现研究组患者的胎儿胎盘

  12. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  13. [Dopplerometry at prolonged pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salii-Prenichi, L; Milchev, N; Markova, D; Apiosjan, Zh

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged pregnancy, associated with low amniotic fluid is a reason for the increase of fetal mortality and morbidity. There is no a define test at prolonged pregnancy which can determine which pregnancy are at a risk for adverse outcome and complications. Dopplerometry as a noninvasive method for examination of blood circulation, and especially a. cerebri media and a. umbilicalis can be used for the prediction of the outcome of prolonged pregnancy.

  14. The Effect(s) of Teen Pregnancy: Reconciling Theory, Methods, and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Christina J; Fiel, Jeremy E

    2016-02-01

    Although teenage mothers have lower educational attainment and earnings than women who delay fertility, causal interpretations of this relationship remain controversial. Scholars argue that there are reasons to predict negative, trivial, or even positive effects, and different methodological approaches provide some support for each perspective. We reconcile this ongoing debate by drawing on two heuristics: (1) each methodological strategy emphasizes different women in estimation procedures, and (2) the effects of teenage fertility likely vary in the population. Analyses of the Child and Young Adult Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,661) confirm that teen pregnancy has negative effects on most women's attainment and earnings. More striking, however, is that effects on college completion and early earnings vary considerably and are most pronounced among those least likely to experience an early pregnancy. Further analyses suggest that teen pregnancy is particularly harmful for those with the brightest socioeconomic prospects and who are least prepared for the transition to motherhood.

  15. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  16. [Late interruption of pregnancy due to foetal disease: is an inductive method for the generation of ethical principles applicable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J B; Hönig, A; Häusler, S F M; Rehn, M; Dietl, J; Djakovic, A

    2011-12-01

    The current study investigates if an inductive method for the generation of ethical principles can be applied to the crucial moral question if late interruption of pregnancy due to fetal disease is ethically adequate. This method originates from the US American philosopher John Rawls and puts a group of so-called competent moral investigators in the beginning of the decision process. These competent moral investigators should be objective, tolerant and sensitive. Thus, real cases which lead to an intuitive, unanimous and clear decision of the competent moral investigators are analysed for the underlying ethical principles. The ethical principles thus detected are then applied to more complicated cases which could not be assessed clearly. In the current study, the case of foetal trisomy 18 and foetal palate cleft could be clearly judged with a yes and a no, respectively, with regard to an approval of late interruption of pregnancy. The underlying ethical principle leading to these decisions is the utilitaristic principle of minimising harm for mother and fetus. We then tried to apply this principle to a case of foetal trisomy 21, however, no clear decision for an approval or a disapproval of the interruption of pregnancy could be found as it was not possible to assess foetal interests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. [Development of a cytological method to detect pregnancy in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M D; Boxaca, M C

    1982-01-01

    Diagnosis of guinea pig pregnancy by the inhibition hemagglutination test used to detect chorionic gonadotrophin in urine showed to be unreliable after the 57% false positive and 3% false negative results obtained over 79 urine samples tested. On the other hand, by comparing the cell morphology of about 60 vaginal smears taken from 20 non-pregnant guinea pigs, stained by a Papanicolaou modified technique, the 4 estrous cycle stages were characterized. The subsequent study of many vaginal smears taken from 15 pregnant guinea pigs showed no pathognomic cells but a picture where 60-70% proestrus and 40-30% diestrus cells appeared. This proestrus-diestrus (Pd) picture was accepted as typical for pregnancy, because it showed up in every pregnant guinea pig lasting all the gestation period, changing only after delivery or abortion. Fecundation does not change the estrous cycle sequence which, as it was proved, progressed normally until it reached this Pd picture. Therefore, the persistence of a Pd picture during +/- 6 days should be considered as diagnosis for pregnancy; when estrus has been detected a Pd picture 12-14 days post estrus as prognosis, and at 16-19 days post-estrus as diagnosis for pregnancy. This cytologic assay proved to be reliable. Besides, once cell characterization has been performed, the staining procedure can be substituted by a direct observation of wet specimen, saving time without loosing accuracy.

  18. METHODS OF DETECTING PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED PLASMA PROTEIN-A2 (PAPP-A2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides pregnancy associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2), its nucleotide and amino acid sequences, antisense molecules to the nucleotide sequences which encode PAPP-A2, expression vectors for the production of purified PAPP-A2, antibodies capable of binding specifically...

  19. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...

  20. Adolescent Students and Their Experiences of Dealing with Pregnancy: A Mexican Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E.; Campero, Lourdes; Marín, Eréndira; González, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In impoverished communities in Mexico, most adolescent mothers do not attend school; but typically, they become pregnant once they dropped out. Understanding the experiences of adolescents who have had a pregnancy and continue in school is complicated since few manage to do it. The goal of this study is to describe experiences within the family…

  1. METHODS OF DETECTING PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED PLASMA PROTEIN-A2 (PAPP-A2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides pregnancy associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2), its nucleotide and amino acid sequences, antisense molecules to the nucleotide sequences which encode PAPP-A2, expression vectors for the production of purified PAPP-A2, antibodies capable of binding specifically...

  2. Security authentication method of mobile terminals%一种移动终端的安全认证方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚盠; 丁玲玲; 李千目

    2016-01-01

    为了确保移动终端的信息安全,针对一种结合移动云计算技术的移动终端安全认证方法进行研究,设计基于多跳接入的最优截断带宽分配方案 D2 MSMC 网络覆盖扩展机制,对无线网络拓扑结构进行优化。D2 MSMC算法最大化了认证服务器网络的服务质量,确保移动终端安全认证的过程顺利进行,保护移动终端的信息安全。仿真实验结果表明,该方法有效地提高了移动终端安全认证的可靠性和稳定性。%Security certification is a key measure of information security for the mobile terminals,this paper presented a secur-ity certification method of mobile terminals combined with mobile cloud computing.This method designed D2 MSMC multichip access network coverage extension mechanism based on optimal bandwidth allocation scheme,to optimize the topology of wire-less networks and maximize authentication network’s quality of service,as well as,to ensure the stability of certification process.The simulation results show that new security authentication technology can effectively improve the reliability and sta-bility of security certification for mobile terminal.

  3. Study on silk anti-crease finishing with polycarboxyl-terminated trichlorotriazine derivatives by surface analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoshan [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xing Tieling [College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xu Dongmei, E-mail: xdm.sd@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Chen Guoqiang [College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silk fabric was modified with polycarboxyl-terminated trichlorotriazine derivatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The treated fabric exhibited high wet resiliency and strength retention rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The treated fabric showed good whiteness and washing durability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modification process could be carried out at lower temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface analysis methods were employed to study the anticreasing mechanism. - Abstract: The natural silk fabric was finished with polycarboxyl-terminated trichlorotriazine derivatives for anticreasing purpose. The treated fabric exhibited better wet resiliency, higher strength retention rate and whiteness than those treated with 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) under the same conditions, and they also have similar good washing durability to those treated with BTCA. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated the crosslinking reaction between the chlorine atom, the carboxyl in the trichlorotriazine derivatives and the amino, the hydroxyl on the surface of the silk fabric. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that the surface of the treated fabric became a little rough. The chlorine atom and the carboxyl in the trichlorotriazine derivatives, and the surface roughness of the treated silk fabric were all contributive to the wrinkle resistance of silk.

  4. Kidneys cytomembranes stability in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and pregnancy outcomes dependingon the method of insulin delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zul'fiya Raisovna Alimetova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate of kidney cytomembranes stability during pregnancy and its outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus type on type 1 with different stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN according to the route of insulin administration.Materials and Methods. We study 100 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes with the introduction of insulin in the mode of multiple subcutaneous injections (MSII and with portable dispenser with a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII. DN stage determined by the level of albumin in the daily urine. Cytomembranes stability assessment conducted on daily excretion of ethanolamine and phospholipids with urine in each trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 52 patients with type 1 diabetes. In the group of pregnant women with delivery at term 38-40 weeks we also analyzed the status of newborns.Results. Indicators of cytomembranes stability of kidneys in pregnant women on CSII consistent with those in healthy pregnant women (p>0.05 the whole pregnancy, regardless of the level of daily urinary albumin excretion. There were no differences in cytomembrana stability of kidneys between the group of patients on MSII with normal albumin excretion (NAU and the control group regardless to the gestational age (p>0.05. With the introduction of insulin in the mode of MSII on the stage of microalbuminuria (MAU in the 3rd trimester we found the increase of ethanolamine excretion as compared to control groupy (U=8,00, p=0.012 and the group on CSII with a similar stage of nephropathy (U=2.00, p=0.033. In patients with proteinuria (PU in the group on the MSII in the third trimester phospholipids excretion is increased with a daily urine (U=27,5, p=0.03 and U=22,00, p=0.07 for patients MSII and CSII, respectively. The use of an insulin pump allowed to prolong gestational period, even in severe proteinuric stage of nephropathy. Manifestations of diabetic fetopathy as macrosomia, hypoglycemia in the fetus at birth time

  5. Research on High Pressure Gas Injection As a Method of Fueling, Disruption Mitigation and Plasma Termination for Future Tokamak Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure gas injection has proved to be an effective disruption mitigation technique in DⅢ-D tokamak experiments. If the method can be applied in future tokamak reactors not only for disruption mitigation but also for plasma termination and fueling, it will have an attractive advantage over the pellet and liquid injection from the viewpoint of economy and engineering design. In order to investigate the feasibility of this option, a study has been carried out with relevant parameters for conveying tubes of different geometrical sizes and for different gases.These parameters include pressure drop, lagger time after the valve's opening, gas diffusion in an ultra-high vacuum condition, and particle number contour.

  6. Development of a simple maintenance method for condition assessment of oil filled XLPE terminations. Diagnostic testing, oil, humidity and asset management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liland, Knut Brede

    2011-02-15

    Development of a simple method for condition assessment of oil filled XLPE terminations An on-site/off-line prototype method for measuring water content at different positions inside oil filled high voltage cable terminations has been developed. The method consists of: 1) Measurement rod with relative humidity and temperature sensors in addition to a conductivity sensor for measuring free water in the bottom of the termination, 2) Characterisation database for three oils for converting relative humidity and temperature to absolute humidity, 3) Wireless unit for data transfer from the measurement rod to a computer and 4) Procedure for doing the measurements. The method proved to be a powerful and very simple tool in estimating the humidity and level of the oil in the termination and also detecting free water. The method was compared with more traditional and time consuming methods taking oil samples from the terminations. The agreement between the laboratory and the on-site measurements were very good. In only 10-15 minutes it was possible to diagnose the condition of the termination with respect to humidity. During the project more fundamental work studying from a provoked leakage of water into a transparent cable termination were performed by master student Geir Birkenes (NTNU) supervised by Frank Mauseth (NTNU) and Sverre Hvidsten (SINTEF Energy Research). The behavior of water droplets during leakage was visually studied and the development of the relative humidity from installed relative humidity sensors in the zero field regions below the cone was monitored on-line. Partial discharge activity (pd) was also monitored and proved that such installations are very robust. PD is not a very good method for detecting water leakage and water content in such devices due to the intermittent and in general very low discharge levels. (Author)

  7. 气动机械手轨迹的 Terminal 滑模控制方法%Trajectory Control for Cartesian Pneumatic Manipulator Using the Terminal Sliding Mode Control Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘世因; 袁锐波; 易鹏

    2014-01-01

    应用 Terminal 滑模控制方法对三轴直角坐标型气动机械手进行连续轨迹控制。首先建立了气动位置伺服系统的数学模型,然后运用 Terminal滑模控制对机械手进行轨迹控制。仿真研究结果表明,采用高阶非线性的 Terminal 滑模控制方法,可以使该机械手对空间直线轨迹的跟踪误差只在未达到收敛点的时间段内较大,在到达收敛点后能完全跟踪目标轨迹。%This paper applies the terminal slid-ing mode control method to control the trajectory of a three axises cartesian pneumatic manipulator. A mathematical model of the pneumatic servo con-trol system was established at first,then the termi-nal sliding mode control method was used for traj-ectory control.The simulation results shows that the tracking error of the terminal sliding mode con-trol method become large only in the time period of not fully reaching the convergence point in time when the manipulator tracks the space straight line,whereas it can fully track the target trajectory after reaching the convergence point.

  8. Comparison of the Reference Intervals Used for the Evaluation of Maternal Thyroid Function During Pregnancy Using Sequential and Nonsequential Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xia Fan; Shuai Yang; Wei Qian; Feng-Tao Shi; He-Feng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Maternal thyroid dysfunction is common during pregnancy,and physiological changes during pregnancy can lead to the overdiagnosis of hyperthyroidism and misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism with nongestation-specific reference intervals.Our aim was to compare sequential with nonsequential methods for the evaluation of thyroid function in pregnant women.Methods:We tested pregnant women who underwent their trimester prenatal screening at our hospital from February 2011 to September 2012 for serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) using the Abbott and Roche kits.There were 447 and 200 patients enrolled in the nonsequential and sequential groups,respectively.The central 95% range between the 2.5th and the 97.5th percentiles was used as the reference interval for the thyroid function parameter.Results:The nonsequential group exhibited a significantly larger degree of dispersion in the TSH reference interval during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters as measured using both the Abbott and Roche kits (all P < 0.05).The TSH reference intervals were significantly larger in the nonsequential group than in the sequential group during the 3rd trimester as measured with both the Abbott (4.95 vs.3.77 mU/L,P < 0.001) and Roche kits (6.62 vs.5.01 mU/L,P =0.004).The nonsequential group had a significantly larger FT4 reference interval as measured with the Abbott kit during all trimesters (12.64 vs.5.82 pmol/L;7.96 vs.4.77 pmol/L;8.10 vs.4.77 pmol/L,respectively,all P < 0.05),whereas a significantly larger FT4 reference interval was only observed during the 24 trimester with the Roche kit (7.76 vs.5.52 pmol/L,P =0.002).Conclusions:It was more reasonable to establish reference intervals for the evaluation of maternal thyroid function using the sequential method during each trimester of pregnancy.Moreover,the exclusion of pregnancy-related complications should be considered in the inclusion criteria for thyroid function tests.

  9. Increased Nuchal Translucency and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tahmasebpour

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the outcome of cases with nuchal translucency (NT ≥ 95th centile in the first trimester of pregnancy.Methods: This cross sectional study was performed at Iranian Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF between January 2009 and December 2011. Totally, 186 cases with NT≥ 95th centile who attended for the first trimester screening were studied. All cases with increased NT including those with normal karyotype were followed up with anomaly scan at 18-22 weeks and fetal echocardiography at 22-24 weeks. Pregnancy outcome was extracted from delivery records and pediatrics notes and telephone interviews.Results: Of screened cases, 186 fetuses had an NT≥95th centile, of them 19.8% were abnormal karyotype, including 29 cases of trisomy 21, three of trisomy 18, two of trisomy 13, three of Turner syndrome. 77.8% did not show any abnormalities on follow-up examinations. 4.6% of cases were found to have malformation antenatally and 4% cases postnatally. 11.4% women elected termination of pregnancy without further follow up. There were 4.6% fetal loss and 1.3% hydrops fetalis.Conclusion: In this unselected population, the study showed one out of four fetuses with enlarged NT had an adverse pregnancy outcome (miscarriage, fetal loss, and fetal abnormalities, however the chance of having a normal child after exclusion of chromosomal abnormalities and adverse pregnancy outcome was 95%.

  10. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  11. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn.

  12. Cardiac arrhythmias in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotts, Robert J; Garan, Hasan

    2014-08-01

    As more women with repaired congenital heart disease survive to their reproductive years and many other women are delaying pregnancy until later in life, a rising concern is the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy. Naturally occurring cardiovascular changes during pregnancy increase the likelihood that a recurrence of a previously experienced cardiac arrhythmia or a de novo arrhythmia will occur. Arrhythmias should be thoroughly investigated to determine if there is a reversible etiology, and risks/benefits of treatment options should be fully explored. We discuss the approach to working up and treating various arrhythmias during pregnancy with attention to fetal and maternal risks as well as treatment of fetal arrhythmias. Acute management in stable patients includes close monitoring and intravenous pharmacologic therapy, while DC cardioversion should be used to terminate arrhythmias in hemodynamically unstable patients. Long-term management may require continued oral antiarrhythmic therapy, with particular attention to fetal safety, to prevent complications associated with arrhythmias.

  13. Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozsurmeli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia, which is encountered in 7-10% of pregnancies is characterized with decreased number of thrombocytes. The most frequent cause of thrombocytopenia during pregnancy is gestational thrombocytopenia. These patients usually do not have symptoms due to mild thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis is usually established by excluding connective tissue disorders, drug effects and obstetric causes. The etiology of thrombocytopenia during early pregnancy is most frequently due to autoimmune causes. Thrombocytopenia secondary to obstetric causes like preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome should always be kept in mind. Under these circumstances the thrombocytopenia will not resolve unless pregnancy is terminated. The clinician should be able to distinguish between thrombocytopenia that does not require treatment and the causes that require emergent and serious medical interventions. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 420-432

  14. A small-gain method for integrated guidance and control in terminal phase of reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Tan, Shuping; He, Yingzi

    2017-03-01

    The guidance and control systems of reentry vehicles are usually designed separately and then integrated, but the scheme can be argued that synergistic relationships between the two subsystems are not fully exploited. In order to improve the performance of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), this paper proposes an integrated guidance and control law for approach and landing of a RLV. According to the idea of reference-trajectory guidance, the angle of attack and bank angle commands are designed using sliding mode control (SMC) method to make the reference-trajectory tacking error converge into a small neighborhood of zero. An integrated guidance and control (IGC) law is developed utilizing generalized small-gain theorem to enforce the commands, and theoretical analysis shows that the law can guarantee the stability of the overall system. The Monte Carlo simulation confirms the effectiveness of the proposed design approach.

  15. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Wang

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9% of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge.

  16. Morning sickness in pregnancy: mini review of possible causes with proposal for monitoring by diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wylde

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nausea, vomiting in pregnancy (NVP and hyperemesis gravidarum (HG can have adverse effects on the mother and foetus. High risk groups for HG seem to include young women, non-smokers, non-Caucasian and women carrying multiple foetuses. Medical databases show that oestrogen, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, thyroxine and insulin are associated with NVP and HG by mechanisms that are unclear. It is possible that NVP and HG may have different hormonal aetiologies. Other risk factors implicated in NVP and HG include psychological and genetic as well as external factors such as smoking status, age, bacterial infection and diet. The hypothesis hereby proposed is that hypoglycaemia, nausea and vomiting are associated with pregnancy perhaps due to disturbances in metabolic control and increased requirements for glucose by growing foetus. During overnight fasting, the resultant hypoglycaemia possibly triggers nausea and vomiting. This calls for investigations and of note is whether severities of NVP and HG correlate to blood glucose levels. This proposal reviews current thinking on the causes of NVP and HG as well as possible pathology evidence-based monitoring measures. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 261-267

  17. Interrupção da gestação após o diagnóstico de malformação fetal letal: aspectos emocionais Termination of pregnancy after the diagnosis of lethal fetal malformation: emotional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Rosana Guerra Benute

    2006-01-01

    experienced with termination of pregnancy after the diagnosis of lethal fetal malformation. METHODS: thirty-five pregnant women who underwent termination of pregnancy for lethal fetal anomaly after judicial permission were interviewed. The most frequent fetal malformation was anencephaly (71.5%. The patients were submitted to an open interview as soon as the diagnosis of fetal malformation was confirmed, allowing them to express their feelings and stimulating them to think about asking for termination of pregnancy. The mean time spent until the judicial agreement was 16.6 days. The women who requested and were submitted to the procedure of abortion were invited to return for psychological evaluation after 30-60 days. At this moment, a semi-structured interview was performed to find the emotional aspects and feelings that existed. RESULTS: thirty-five patients were interviewed. The decision-making feelings about termination of pregnancy were negative for 60%, 51.4% declared that they had no doubts about the assumed decision and 65.7% declared that their own opinion was more important for decision than anyone else's. Most of the women (89% affirmed to remember the facts about the procedure that they experienced, 91% affirmed that they would have the same attitude in the case of another similar situation in the future and 60% declared that they would advise someone to opt for termination of pregnancy if asked about the same situation. CONCLUSIONS: the anguish experienced showed that the process of thinking is very important for the decision-making process and posterior satisfaction with the assumed posture. The psychological follow-up allows to review the moral and cultural values in order to help the decision-making process with the aim of minimizing the suffering.

  18. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  19. Quantification of urinary chorionic gonadotropin in spontaneous abortion of pre-clinically recognized pregnancy: method development and analytical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Aniceto, Pedro; Aguiar, Pedro; Simão, Filipa; Segurado, Susana

    2007-05-01

    Determination of environmental impacts on reproductive health and specifically on the incidence of early spontaneous abortion requires accurate estimates of the latter. This negative reproductive outcome can be detected by the pattern of elevation and decline of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels near and shortly beyond the expected time of implantation, requiring daily biomonitoring of hCG levels during the relevant period of the menstrual cycle. Prospective pregnancy studies to assess effects of potentially toxic exposures on human reproductive outcomes can involve up to three menstrual cycles and a huge number of samples in each, for the quantification of the inherently very low hCG levels usually can be determined only in serum. The invasive nature of blood collection, the number of samples needed for the development of prospective studies, and the lack of quantitative methods for the determination of low hCG levels in urine point to the need for collecting urine rather than blood and make it imperative to develop suitable quantitative methods for biomonitoring of very low levels of hCG in urine. This paper describes the development and validation procedures of an automated solid-phase two-site chemiluminescent immunometric assay for the quantification of urinary hCG in early pregnancy and early pregnancy loss. For the validation, both undiluted and diluted urine and control samples have been prepared. From the results, it can be concluded that the assay has a calibration range that extends to 5000 mIU/ml, with a detection limit of approximately 1.2 mIU/ml, practically identical to that found by the IMMULITE 2000 manufacturer's validation study. The intra- and inter-assay precision ranges up to a maximum of around 7%, meaning that the practical limit for functional sensitivity can be established as low as 10%. This means that the immunoassay from DPC can identify, with relatively high confidence, non-pregnant women and the typical "rise and fall" pattern

  20. Nurses' nonverbal methods of communicating with patients in the terminal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Lena; Doboszynska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain what methods of communication nurses use during interactions with patients nearing the end of their lives, with a particular focus on nonverbal communication. A questionnaire containing 24 questions was completed by 95 nurses working in one of five hospices in Poland. A total of 48% of the sample reported frequently using nonverbal communication consciously and with a certain aim, and a further 37 (39%) reported that they sometimes use it. The sample's responses indicate that for patients the best form of touch is holding hands. In addition, 63% of the respondents stated that they had been educated in communicating with palliative care patients, but only 56% thought that nurses' communication knowledge and skills were satisfactory, and 50% would like to undergo training in communication skills specific to palliative care. Most nurses are aware of the importance of nonverbal communication to their interactions with palliative care patients, but a substantial proportion think that they need to be better educated in theoretical and practical aspects of communication.

  1. Local Termination: theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Joerg; Waldmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of termination using well-founded monotone algebras has been a milestone on the way to automated termination techniques, of which we have seen an extensive development over the past years. Both the semantic characterisation and most known termination methods are concerned with global termination, uniformly of all the terms of a term rewriting system (TRS). In this paper we consider local termination, of specific sets of terms within a given TRS. The principal goal of this paper is generalising the semantic characterisation of global termination to local termination. This is made possible by admitting the well-founded monotone algebras to be partial. We also extend our approach to local relative termination. The interest in local termination naturally arises in program verification, where one is probably interested only in sensible inputs, or just wants to characterise the set of inputs for which a program terminates. Local termination will be also be of interest when dealing with a specif...

  2. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  3. 项重写系统弱基终止性的归纳证明%An Inductive Proving Method for Weakly Ground Termination of Term Rewriting Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯速

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for proving weakly ground termination in a restricted domain of a term rewriting system based on structural and cover set induction. For this prupose,we introduce the concepts of base set and set of ground terms defined recursively over base sets,which plays a crucial role in the inductive method. The method can be used for non-terminating,non-confluent and/or non-linear term rewriting systems,and have application in inductive equivalence testing and program verification.

  4. Analysis and fabrication of micro scale self-terminated electrochemical growth by a pressure-driven method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Fatemeh; Wlasenko, Alex; Steeves, Geoff

    2010-03-01

    A self-terminated electrochemical method was used to fabricate microscopic-scale contacts between two Au electrodes in a microfluidic channel. The conductance of contacts varies in a stepwise fashion with a tendency to quantize near the integer multiples of the conductance quantum (G0). The mechanism works by a pressure-driven flow parallel with a pair of Au electrodes with a gap in order of micron in an electrolyte of HCl. When applying a bias voltage between electrodes, metal atoms are etched off the anode and deposited onto the cathode. Consequently, the gap decreases to the atomic scale and then completely closed as the two electrodes form a contact. The electrochemical fabrication approach introduces large variance in the formation and location of individual junctions. Controlling this process will enable the precise positioning of reproducible geometries into nano-electronic devices. To investigate the high speed behavior of a QPC, it can be integrated with a transmission line structure patterned on a photoconductive GaAs substrate. The nonlinear conductance of the QPC (due to the finite density of states of the conductors) can be examined and compared with recent theoretical studies. Samples are fabricated in situ using an electrochemical procedure to produce QPCs along the transmission line structure. This method may provide insight into Terahertz Optoelectronic devices and ultrafast communication systems.

  5. Teen pregnancy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-10-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.

  6. A novel gene trap method using terminator-REMI and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kosuke; Saito, Tamao; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Morio, Takahiro; Maeda, Mineko; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Ochiai, Hiroshi

    2003-07-17

    We describe a novel restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) method for gene trapping in Dictyostelium based on the use of a terminator-deficient vector. The vector has a blasticidin deaminase (bsr) gene as a selectable marker but lacks a terminator containing a poly(A) addition signal (AATAAA). Thus, the vector was expected to integrate into the coding region of a gene to create a fusion transcript flanked by the 3' proximal region of the trapped gene. The trapped gene can be identified by simply amplifying the fusion transcript by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE). In the analysis of 35 integration events into known genes, the vectors were found to be integrated 20 times in close proximity to the 3' ends of the genes and in the direction of transcription. This strictly localized insertion seemed to be mediated by negative selection via the surveillance system referred to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. In contrast, in 15 events the vector integrated in the opposite direction to transcription and at random positions throughout the coding sequence. Analysis of the trapped 3' sequences showed that the transcription of the fusion gene terminated prematurely without the apparent use of an endogenous terminator; nevertheless the transcript did exhibit a poly(A) tail. Based on these results, we designated the method terminator-REMI. Using this method, we have generated a library of tagged Dictyostelium clones from which we have thus far isolated 242 developmental mutants.

  7. Clinical Study on Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy in 26 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qihui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper investigated the pathogenesis and treatment strategies of acute pancreatitis (AP in pregnancy. Methods. We analyzed retrospectively the characteristics, auxiliary diagnosis, treatment strategies, and clinical outcomes of 26 cases of patients with AP in pregnancy. Results. All patients were cured finally. (1 Nine cases of 22 mild acute pancreatitis (MAP patients selected automatic termination of pregnancy because of the unsatisfied therapeutic efficacy or those patients’ requirements. (2 Four cases of all patients were complicated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP; 2 cases underwent uterine incision delivery while one of them also received cholecystectomy, debridement and drainage of pancreatic necrosis, and percutaneous jejunostomy. One case had a fetal death when complicated with SAP; she had to receive extraction of bile duct stones and drainage of abdominal cavity after induced abortion. The other one case with hyperlipidemic pancreatitis was given induced abortion and hemofiltration. Conclusions. The first choice of MAP in pregnancy is the conventional therapy. Apart from the conventional therapy, we need to terminate pregnancy as early as possible for patients with SAP. Removing biliary calculi and drainage is supposed to be considered for acute biliary pancreatitis. Lowering blood lipids treatment should be applied to hyperlipidemic pancreatitis or given to hemofiltration when necessary.

  8. Expulsions and adverse events following immediate and later insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system after medical termination of late first- and second-trimester pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, R; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2017-07-10

    To compare expulsions and adverse events (AEs) between immediate and delayed insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) following medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP). Randomised controlled trial. Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, January 2013-December 2014. Cohorts of 102 (gestational age 64-84 days, late first trimester) and 57 (gestational age 85-140 days, second trimester) women requesting MTOP and LNG-IUS contraception. LNG-IUS insertion occurred immediately (same day) or 2-4 weeks following MTOP. Follow-up visits were at 2-4 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year. LNG-IUS expulsion by 3 months and 1 year. AEs and bleeding profiles within 3 months. Following late first-trimester MTOP the LNG-IUS expulsion rates by 3 months were 14 (27.5%) in the immediate-insertion group and two (4.0%) in the delayed-insertion group (risk ratio, RR 6.86; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.64-28.66). By 1 year the expulsion rates were 17 (33.3%) and six (12.0%) (RR 2.78, 95% CI 1.19-6.47). Following second-trimester MTOP LNG-IUS expulsion rates by 3 months and 1 year were five (18.5%) in the immediate-insertion group and one (3.6%) in the delayed-insertion group (RR 5.19, 95% CI 0.65-41.54). No differences in AEs and bleeding profiles emerged between the groups. Immediate LNG-IUS insertion after late first- or second-trimester MTOP is feasible, does not increase the complication rate, or alter the uterine bleeding patterns; however, immediate insertion increased the expulsion rate, which may limit the cost-effectiveness. Immediate insertion of LNG-IUS following MTOP at 9-20 weeks of gestation is feasible and safe. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. 米索前列醇终止足月妊娠的临床效果和安全性研究%Clinical efficacy and safety study on full-term pregnancy termination with misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雪琼; 仇春波; 李娜

    2015-01-01

    目的 探究米索前列醇终止足月妊娠的临床效果和安全性.方法 2013年7月~2014年3月来宁波大学医学附属医院妇产科进行终止足月妊娠的孕妇共78例,将上述孕妇随机分为实验组和对照组.实验组采用米索前列醇进行引产,对照组采用缩宫素进行引产.观察对比2组孕妇的引产效果指标:引产成功率、产后2h内出血量、临产时间及胎儿分娩时间、剖宫产率;引产安全指标:产妇并发症及副作用发生情况,新生儿生理状况及Apgar评分.结果 实验组引产成功率为97.44%,对照组引产成功率为82.05%,实验组成功率明显高于对照组(P0.05), the experimental group had one case of mild neonatal asphyxia, there are two cases in the control group and one case of mild asphyxia neonatal asphyxia.Conclusion Effect of misoprostol which is used to terminate the pregnancy term is significant, and has high security, has high clinical value.

  10. Hormones in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug′s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  11. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  12. Operating System Security Assessment Method for the Mobile Intelligent Terminal%移动智能终端操作系统安全评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈雷

    2012-01-01

    随着移动互联网的发展,移动智能终端成为了访问互联网的主要方式之一。由于移动智能终端的自身能力受限,传统的基本安全防护方法难以直接应用于移动智能终端。文中针对移动智能终端面临的安全问题,结合移动智能终端的自身特性,提出了移动智能终端安全操作系统的评估体系和方法,给出了移动智能终端安全功能的测试过程和方法。此方法具有开销小,安全性高的特点,能够从源头上保证移动互联网的安全。%With the development of the mobile Internet,the mobile intelligent terminal has become one of the main ways to access the Internet.As the mobile terminal's capacity is limited,the available basic security methods cannot be applied directly to the mobile intelligent terminal.To solve the security issues of the mobile intelligent terminal,this paper proposes an operating system security assessment method for the mobile intelligent terminal with the characteristics of the mobile intelligent terminal considered.The process and method of testing the security function for the mobile intelligent terminal are presented.The proposed method has the advantages of low overhead and high security level,and can ensure the security of the mobile internet from the source.

  13. Does unemployment in family affect pregnancy outcome in conditions of high quality maternity care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Seppo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of unemployment in the family on pregnancy outcome is controversial. Only a few studies have involved investigation of the effect of unemployment of the father on pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of unemployment of one or both parents on obstetric outcome in conditions of free antenatal care attended by the entire pregnant population. Methods The data of 24 939 pregnancies included maternal risk factors, pregnancy characteristics and outcome, and was based on a self administered questionnaire at 20 weeks of pregnancy and on clinical records. Results Unemployment was associated with adolescent maternal age, unmarried status and overweight, anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption and prior pregnancy terminations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that after controlling for these maternal risk factors small differences only were found in pregnancy outcomes between unemployed and employed families. Unemployed women had significantly more often small-for-gestational-age (SGA infants, at an OR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12 – 1.42 whereas, in families where both parents were unemployed, the risk of SGA was even higher at an OR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.18 – 1.73. Otherwise, pregnancy outcome was comparable in the groups studied. Conclusion Free antenatal care was unable to fully overcome the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with unemployment, SGA risk being highest when both parents are unemployed.

  14. Pregnancy Outcome following Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosomal Anomaly: A Record Linkage Study of 26,261 Pregnancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Cooper, Sally-Ann; McGowan, Ruth; Nelson, Scott M; Pell, Jill P

    2016-01-01

    ... and terminated with chromosomal anomalies. However, we are unaware of any population studies examining pregnancy terminations after diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies that has included all aneuploidies and the influence of maternal factors...

  15. A novel method to isolate protein N-terminal peptides from proteome samples using sulfydryl tagging and gold-nanoparticle-based depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanting; Wu, Runqing; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to isolate global N-termini using sulfydryl tagging and gold-nanoparticle-based depletion (STagAu method) is presented. The N-terminal and lysine amino groups were first completely dimethylated at the protein level, after which the proteins were digested. The newly generated internal peptides were tagged with sulfydryl by Traut's reagent through digested N-terminal amines in yields of 96%. The resulting sulfydryl peptides were depleted through binding onto nano gold composite materials. The Au-S bond is stable and widely used in materials science. Nano gold composite materials showed nearly complete depletion of sulfydryl peptides. A set of the acetylated and dimethylated N-terminal peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This method was demonstrated to be an efficient N-terminus enrichment method because of the use of an effective derivatization reaction, in combination with robust and relative easy to implement Au-S coupling. We identified 632 N-terminal peptides from 386 proteins in a mouse liver sample. The STagAu approach presented is therefore a facile and efficient method for mass-spectrometry-based analysis of proteome N-termini or protease-generated cleavage products.

  16. An International Study of the Ability and Cost-Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to Facilitate Study Participant Self-Enrolment Into a Pilot Pharmacovigilance Study During Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the fetal effects of maternal medication use in pregnancy is often inadequate and current pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PV) surveillance methods have important limitations. Patient self-reporting may be able to mitigate some of these limitations, providing an adequately sized study sample can be recruited. Objective To compare the ability and cost-effectiveness of several direct-to-participant advertising methods for the recruitment of pregnant participants into a study of self-reported gestational exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Methods The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium (PROTECT) pregnancy study is a non-interventional, prospective pilot study of self-reported medication use and obstetric outcomes provided by a cohort of pregnant women that was conducted in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Direct-to-participant advertisements were provided via websites, emails, leaflets, television, and social media platforms. Results Over a 70-week recruitment period direct-to-participant advertisements engaged 43,234 individuals with the study website or telephone system; 4.78% (2065/43,234) of which were successfully enrolled and provided study data. Of these 90.4% (1867/2065) were recruited via paid advertising methods, 23.0% (475/2065) of whom were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The overall costs per active recruited participant were lowest for email (€23.24) and website (€24.41) advertisements and highest for leaflet (€83.14) and television (€100.89). Website adverts were substantially superior in their ability to recruit participants during their first trimester of pregnancy (317/668, 47.5%) in comparison with other advertising methods (P<.001). However, we identified international variations in both the cost-effectiveness of the various advertisement methods used and in their ability to recruit participants in early pregnancy. Conclusions Recruitment of a

  17. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience.

  18. Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Halder

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background0 : Human chimerism is rare and usually uncovered through investigations of ambiguous genitalia or blood grouping or prenatal diagnosis. Most of the publications on placental chimerism are mainly case reports. There is no systematic search with sensitive techniques for placental chimerism in human. Aim0 : This study was aimed to asses placental chimerism through two sensitive molecular techniques i.e., interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative fluorescent PCR. Material and methods0 : Placental chimerism was analyzed using X & Y dual color fluorescent in-situ hybridization onto 154 placentae from natural conceptions, obtained at termination of pregnancy between 7 to 16 weeks of gestation. Results0 : Three cases of placental sex chromosome chimerism were observed (1.95%. Exclusion of maternal contamination and diagnosis was confirmed later by quantitative fluorescent PCR. Conclusion0 : This finding indicates that placental chimerism in early human pregnancy is not rare.

  19. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012 assessment of violence against women aged 15-49 years in 34 countries show that ... health consequences, and associated risk factors of vio- lence against women in ten countries (Bangladesh, Brazil,. Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, ...

  20. A randomized clinical trial of mifepristone plus different routes of administration of misoprostol for terminating a pregnancy within 5 weeks%米非司酮配伍不同给药途径米索前列醇用于终止5周内妊娠的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴开颜; 邵文祺; 雷贞武; 李奕; 黄紫蓉; 马文侠; 经小平; 贾孟春

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过与常规药物流产方法进行对比分析,探讨400 μg米索前列醇舌下给药用于早期流产的效果.方法 2008年6月至2009年9月接收就诊于全国6个研究中心停经0.05).约>80%妇女有恶心、呕吐、头晕、乏力、头痛和乳胀的反应,两组副反应比较无显著性差异(P均>0.05).服药后两组出血分别为(9.08±3.49)和(9.04±3.43) d,差异无统计学意义(t=0.15,P>0.05).两组受试者满意度调查的有效问卷回收率为97.3%,对研究方法的满意率分别为88.1%(245/278)和92.0%(256/278),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 400 μg米索前列醇舌下用药用于早期流产可获得较好的效果,且副反应较少.%Objective: To explore the efficacy of 400 μg of misoprostol administered sublingually on medical abortion for early pregnancy by comparing with routine administration of mosoprostol.Methods: Women presenting for termination of early pregnancy, whose gestational ages were not more than 37 days, were randomly allocated into two groups. Women in group A were given 50mg of mifepristone and 25 mg 8 to 12 hours later orally on the first day. The schedule on the second day was as the same as above followed by 400 μg of misoprostol orally on the third day. Women in group B were given a dose of 150 mg of mifepristone orally followed by 400 μg of misoprostol sublingually 36 to 48 hours later.Both completed abortion rates and side effects were evaluated.Results: A total of 575 women were enrolled and four women were lost to follow-up. The completed abortion rates were 93.4% in group A and 91.0% in group B, showing no significant difference (x2 =2. 3846,P>0.05). About 80% of the women experienced nausea, vomit, dizziness, headache and breast tenderness. There were no significant differences (P > 0. 05) in side effects of the two groups. The duration of vaginal bleeding in the two groups were (9.08±3.49) days and (9. 04±3.43) days, showing no significant difference (t

  1. Organ-specific systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Guan, Hongshu; Fine, Alexander; Costenbader, Karen H; Bermas, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of reproductive-age women, and thus questions regarding how disease influences pregnancy outcomes arise. We investigated whether five specific types of SLE activity during the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy (nephritis, cytopenias, skin disease, arthritis, serositis) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcomes among women with SLE at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lupus Center. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, elective termination due to SLE, spontaneous miscarriage at weeks 12-20, and stillbirth. SLE and obstetric history, laboratories, and medications were obtained from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify predictors of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Most pregnancies resulted in a live term delivery (76.5 %). After adjustment for Hispanic ethnicity, prior adverse pregnancy outcome and medication use 6 months before conception, nephritis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-12.8), cytopenias during pregnancy (OR 3.9, 95 % CI 1.3-11.4), and serositis during pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 1.0-34.0) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Specific types of SLE disease activity during pregnancy were related to adverse pregnancy outcome. Nephritis, cytopenias, and serositis carried a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, suggesting that these abnormalities should be carefully monitored during pregnancy.

  2. “Drug-resistant tuberculosis and pregnancy: Management and treatment outcomes of 38 cases in Lima, Peru”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, E; Dallman, R; Munoz, M; Hurtado, R; Chalco, K; Guerra, D; Mestanza, L; Llaro, K; Bonilla, C; Drobac, P; Bayona, J; Lygizos, M; Anger, H; Shin, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) disproportionately affects young adults, including women of childbearing age; however, treatment of MDR-TB during pregnancy is still controversial. This study looks at the treatment and pregnancy outcomes of a ten-year cohort of women who were treated for MDR-TB during pregnancy. Methods A retrospective case series was performed using a standardized data collection form and data from three ranked sources of patient records. All 38 participants were treated with individualized regimes which included second-line tuberculosis medications during pregnancy. We examined the frequency of favorable and adverse outcomes in terms of disease and pregnancy. Results Upon completion of MDR-TB treatment, 61% of the women were cured, 13% died, 13% defaulted, 5% remain in treatment, and 5% failed. Four of the women experienced clinical deterioration of TB during pregnancy. Five of the pregnancies terminated in spontaneous abortions and one child was stillborn. Among the live births, 3 were born with low birth weight, one was premature, and one had fetal distress. Conclusions The rates of success in treating MDR-TB in our cohort are comparable to those of other MDR-TB treatment programs in Peru. The birth outcomes of our cohort are similar to data on the general Peru population. Therefore, we advocate that a woman should be given the option to continue treatment of MDR-TB rather than termination of pregnancy or discontinuation of MDR-TB treatment. PMID:19361302

  3. Effect of chemotherapy before or after termination in pregnancy-associated breast cancer patients:two cases report%妊娠乳腺癌患者2例终止妊娠前或后行首程化疗的疗效分析并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xing; Guangyan Ji; Liangbin Jin; Jianbo Huang; Shengchun Liu; Hongyuan Li; Guosheng Ren; Kainan Wu; Lingquan Kong

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as breast cancer occurring anytime during gestation, lactation, or within 1 year after delivery. The incidence is between 1 in 3000 and 1 in 10,000 pregnancies and comprises about 0.2% to 3.8% of all breast cancers diagnosed in women under the age of 50 years. As women tend to delay childbearing into their third and fourth decades, the incidence of PABC is expected to increase. Here we reported two PABC patients with similar clinic and pathologic characters received chemotherapy before or after termination of pregnancy respectively, and found that the former got pathologic complete response. Based on the phenomena and the fact that endocrine hormones may have chemosensitization role in cancer chemotherapy, which is called hormonosensitizing chemotherapy (HSCT), endocrinosensitizing chemotherapy (ESCT) or neoendocrinochemotherapy (NECT), suggestion is proposed that chemotherapy should be taken before or immediately after termination for PABC, especially for the patients who prefer to artificial abortion, which may possibly acquire improved chemotherapeutic effect.

  4. Anti-early pregnancy by PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ling

    1993-03-01

    The effect of laser on anti-early pregnancy in rabbits showed that laser in combination with HPD could induce necrosis of blastocysts and complete absorption. The anti-fertility efficiency of the combined treatment was more effective than that of the He-Ne laser or the HPD treatment alone. The fluorescence spectrum of HPD determined by PNQ3 showed that its affinity to embryonic tissue was about 4 times greater than that to uterine tissue. This may underlie the mechanisms of anti-early pregnancy of the laser. The operation of artificial abortion is a routine method to terminate early pregnancy. Though it is simple and easy, its syndrome and complications can not be absolutely avoided. Many antifertility drugs have been reported, however, they often bring in general reaction. Our present work is to explore a new way of anti-early pregnancy in rabbits by means of the light inhibitory and light sensitive effects of laser. It is a quite safe and painless treatment without expanding and scraping of the uterus.

  5. Acute burn during pregnancy: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The incidence of acute burn injuries in pregnant women is very low. Burn injuries during pregnancy are often associated with a high rate of fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. In this study, we aimed to review the cases of acute burn during pregnancy and evaluate the outcome of these patients in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This retrospective study was performed using the medical records of 48 pregnant women with thermal injuries over a 13-year period. Results: The results showed that 8 (16.7%, 27 (56.3%, and 13 (27.1% patients were in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Moreover, 14 mothers (29.2% died, 24 (50.0% were discharged without any fetal problems, eight (16.7% had fetal death, 13 (27.1% had abortion, two (4.2% had normal vaginal delivery, and one (2.1% underwent normal caesarean section. Conclusion: The rate ofmaternal survival in the first and second trimesters was higher than the third one. In the third trimester, pregnancy termination is indicated only after fetal maturation.

  6. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  7. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may check for other medical problems, including: Preeclampsia Hyperthyroidism Anemia A molar pregnancy can't continue as a normal viable pregnancy. To prevent complications, the molar tissue must be removed. Treatment usually consists of one or more of the ...

  8. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  9. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother ... later on. They have a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure and its complications. Risks ...

  10. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... low blood pressure (also caused by blood loss) lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic ...

  11. Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS): a mixed-methods study to inform trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Heather; Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Crossland, Nicola; Farrar, Shelley; Yi, Deokhee; Hislop, Jenni; Moran, Victoria Hall; MacLennan, Graeme; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Rothnie, Kieran; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Ludbrook, Anne; Dykes, Fiona; Sniehotta, Falko F; Tappin, David; Campbell, Marion

    2015-04-01

    Smoking in pregnancy and/or not breastfeeding have considerable negative health outcomes for mother and baby. To understand incentive mechanisms of action for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding, develop a taxonomy and identify promising, acceptable and feasible interventions to inform trial design. Evidence syntheses, primary qualitative survey, and discrete choice experiment (DCE) research using multidisciplinary, mixed methods. Two mother-and-baby groups in disadvantaged areas collaborated throughout. UK. The qualitative study included 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners, 53 service providers, 24 experts/decision-makers and 63 conference attendees. The surveys included 1144 members of the general public and 497 health professionals. The DCE study included 320 women with a history of smoking. (1) Evidence syntheses: incentive effectiveness (including meta-analysis and effect size estimates), delivery processes, barriers to and facilitators of smoking cessation in pregnancy and/or breastfeeding, scoping review of incentives for lifestyle behaviours; (2) qualitative research: grounded theory to understand incentive mechanisms of action and a framework approach for trial design; (3) survey: multivariable ordered logit models; (4) DCE: conditional logit regression and the log-likelihood ratio test. Out of 1469 smoking cessation and 5408 breastfeeding multicomponent studies identified, 23 smoking cessation and 19 breastfeeding studies were included in the review. Vouchers contingent on biochemically proven smoking cessation in pregnancy were effective, with a relative risk of 2.58 (95% confidence interval 1.63 to 4.07) compared with non-contingent incentives for participation (four studies, 344 participants). Effects continued until 3 months post partum. Inconclusive effects were found for breastfeeding incentives compared with no/smaller incentives (13 studies) but provider commitment contracts for breastfeeding show promise. Intervention intensity

  12. Pregnancy Outcomes among Adolescent Tribal Women: Insights from South-East Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Patidar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Adolescent pregnancy has been common in India and it hosts to several health consequences to the mothers and children. A detailed investigation of the prevalence and consequences of adolescent pregnancy is required.Objective: This study, thus, examines the association of pregnancy outcomes among adolescent women with various socio-cultural, economic and demographic backgrounds.Material & Methods: This study is based on primary data collected from ever married tribal women of south-eastern districts of Rajasthan, India. The birth outcomes of first order pregnancy have been considered to highlight the adolescent pregnancy. Analyses have been done by employing SPSS 16.0.Results: 9.7 percent of the total pregnancies conceived ever by the all respondents and 15.4 percent of total first order pregnancies have been reported to have terminated into non-live births. Women who experienced their first pregnancy at age 20 and above are 3.889 times (p<0.01 more likely tohave live birth outcome than to women of 16 years. Meena women are 1.95 times (p<0.05 more likely to experience live pregnancy outcome than counterpart Bhil women. Women belonging to rich wealth index are significantly 4 times (p<0.01 more likely to give live births.Conclusion: results demonstrate that considerable share of pregnancies among adolescent women turn into miscarriages and this prevalence is more likely among young, rural, uneducated and poor women than their counterpart women. Hence, it is an urgent need to enhance the awareness and improve the socio-economic conditions of tribal women for better health outcomes of mothers and children.  Keywords: Adolescent pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes, tribal women, maternal age, socio-economic factors

  13. Global fuel consumption optimization of an open-time terminal rendezvous and docking with large-eccentricity elliptic-orbit by the method of interval analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Shijie

    2016-11-01

    By defining two open-time impulse points, the optimization of a two-impulse, open-time terminal rendezvous and docking with target spacecraft on large-eccentricity elliptical orbit is proposed in this paper. The purpose of optimization is to minimize the velocity increment for a terminal elliptic-reference-orbit rendezvous and docking. Current methods for solving this type of optimization problem include for example genetic algorithms and gradient based optimization. Unlike these methods, interval methods can guarantee that the globally best solution is found for a given parameterization of the input. The non-linear Tschauner- Hempel(TH) equations of the state transitions for a terminal elliptic target orbit are transformed form time domain to target orbital true anomaly domain. Their homogenous solutions and approximate state transition matrix for the control with a short true anomaly interval can be used to avoid interval integration. The interval branch and bound optimization algorithm is introduced for solving the presented rendezvous and docking optimization problem and optimizing two open-time impulse points and thruster pulse amplitudes, which systematically eliminates parts of the control and open-time input spaces that do not satisfy the path and final time state constraints. Several numerical examples are undertaken to validate the interval optimization algorithm. The results indicate that the sufficiently narrow spaces containing the global optimization solution for the open-time two-impulse terminal rendezvous and docking with target spacecraft on large-eccentricity elliptical orbit can be obtained by the interval algorithm (IA). Combining the gradient-based method, the global optimization solution for the discontinuous nonconvex optimization problem in the specifically remained search space can be found. Interval analysis is shown to be a useful tool and preponderant in the discontinuous nonconvex optimization problem of the terminal rendezvous and

  14. An Improved Method for the Preparation of Organic Monolayers of 1-Alkenes on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieval, A.B.; Vleeming, V.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The possibility to use dilute alkene solutions for the formation of alkene monolayers with 1-hexadecene on a hydrogen-terminated silicon(100) surface has been investigated for a variety of solvents. The resulting monolayers were analyzed by water contact angles. Anisole, n-butylbenzene, and n-decane

  15. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share with Women Dental Care in Pregnancy Why is dental care in pregnancy important? During pregnancy, you are more likely to have problems ... There are 2 major reasons women can have dental problems during pregnancy: Pregnancy gingivitis— During pregnancy, changes ...

  16. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format Exercise During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is it safe to exercise during pregnancy? ...

  17. Effectiveness of a physical activity programme based on the Pilates method in pregnancy and labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Luciano; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Vázquez-Lara, Juana María; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Torres-Luque, Gema

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of a physical activity programme based on use of the Pilates method, over eight weeks in pregnant women, on functional parameters, such as weight, blood pressure, strength, flexibility and spinal curvature, and on labour parameters, such as, type of delivery, episiotomy, analgesia and newborn weight. A randomized clinical trial was carried out on pregnant women, applying a programme of physical activity using the Pilates method, designed specifically for this population. A sample consisting of a total of 105 pregnant women was divided into two groups: intervention group (n=50) (32.87±4.46 years old) and control group (n=55) (31.52±4.95 years old). The intervention group followed a physical activity programme based on the Pilates method, for 2 weekly sessions, whereas the control group did not follow the program. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in blood pressure, hand grip strength, hamstring flexibility and spinal curvature, in addition to improvements during labour, decreasing the number of Caesareans and obstructed labour, episiotomies, analgesia and the weight of the newborns were found at the end of the intervention. A physical activity programme of 8 weeks based on the Pilates method improves functional parameters in pregnant women and benefits delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Ambivalence and Pregnancy: Adolescents' Attitudes, Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hannah Brückner; Anne Martin; Peter S. Bearman

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: It is often argued that adolescents who become pregnant do not sufficiently appreciate the negative consequences, and that prevention programs should target participants' attitudes toward pregnancy. METHODS...

  19. Spontaneous pregnancy outcome after prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquier, M; Klein, A; Boltshauser, E

    2006-08-01

    Parents are usually told that many anencephalic offspring die in utero or soon after delivery, and many obstetricians offer elective termination of the pregnancy. Following the personal experience of the first author, a personal website was created with the intention of providing information and exchanging views with other parents confronted with a prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly. Data were collected from 211 pregnancies where the parents opted not to terminate pregnancy. These data revealed that polyhydramnios was a feature in 56 (26%) pregnancies, death in utero in 15 (7%) pregnancies, 72 (34%) babies were born prematurely (anencephaly is medically safe and should be considered as an option.

  20. A Fmoc-compatible Method for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Peptide C-Terminal (alpha)-Thioesters based on the Safety-Catch Hydrazine Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Hackel, B J; de Yoreo, J J; Mitchell, A R

    2003-11-22

    C-terminal peptide thioesters are key intermediates for the synthesis/semisynthesis of proteins and for the production of cyclic peptides by native chemical ligation. They can be synthetically prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) methods or biosynthetically by protein splicing techniques. Until recently, the chemical synthesis of C-terminal a-thioester peptides by SPPS was largely restricted to the Boc/Benzyl methodology because of the poor stability of the thioester bond to the basic conditions employed for the deprotection of the N{sup {alpha}}-Fmoc group. In the present work, we describe a new method for the SPPS of C-terminal thioesters by Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazide linker, which is totally stable to the Fmoc-SPPS conditions. Once the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker can be achieved by mild oxidation. This step transforms the hydrazide group into a highly reactive diazene intermediate which can react with different H-AA-SEt to yield the corresponding {alpha}-thioester peptide in good yields. This method has been successfully used for the generation of different thioester peptides, circular peptides and a fully functional SH3 protein domain.

  1. A New and Accurate Fault Location Method in Three-Terminal Transmission Lines Compensated by Series-Connected Flexible AC Transmission System Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Marefatjou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to fault location in the three terminals transmission line compensated with series FACTS Devices. This method is based on the converting three line networks to two line networks after recognizing the faulty section and solving accessing the fault distance. So to solve the problem of fault location before determining distance to faulty section, new method to determine faulty section is proposed and then by converting three line networks to two line networks, the location of fault is determined using the proposed algorithm. In this method distributed transmission line model in time domain has been used which is another advantage of the proposed method compared to previous methods. This method for determining the faulty section used simultaneous voltage and current of all three terminals as input data. Due to problems in the modeling of FACTS devices during fault location, our proposed method does not used modeling series FACTS devices. Our proposed algorithm is not sensitive to the resistance of fault, the fault inception angle and fault type and do not dependent on compensator device location and its parameters. This method is good for all transmission lines compensated with any type of series compensator. Different types of fault in any different distance and situation simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software on compensated three line network with Thyristor Control Series Capacitor(TCSC. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated under different structural and fault conditions. The simulation results confirm the high accuracy of the proposed algorithm

  2. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  3. The unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggory, P

    1977-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a measure of contraceptive failure - either method failure, motivation failure, or contraceptive inaccessibility. Unwanted pregnancies can end in criminal abortion, therapeutic abortion, forced marriage, or illegitimate birth. Figures for these occurrences in Great Britain in 1969 are cited. The figures make no allowance for unsuccessful attempts at self-abortion and unwanted but accepted pregnancies within marriage. It is estimated that approximately 1/4 of all British and American women married more than 10 years have at least 1 unwanted child. Contraception must be provided by the British National Health Service.

  4. Borders of fertility: unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Burmese women migrating to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Suzanne

    2007-04-01

    Burmese women are forced to migrate to find work and security in Thailand due to the social, political, and economic disarray present in Burma. Unplanned pregnancies are common in this area, and one third of pregnancy loss is self-induced. Poverty, lack of employment rights, and domestic violence are important factors in deciding to terminate the pregnancy. Women face multiple barriers in managing their fertility and use traditional techniques often with the help of lay midwives. The research methods include a retrospective review of medical records held in Thai and Burmese-led health facilities, as well as semistructured interviews and group discussions with Burmese women experiencing a pregnancy loss, Burmese traditional and modern health workers, and their husbands and community members.

  5. Urological disorders and pregnancy: An overall experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasmita Mandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pregnancy is an anatomical and physiological altered state and the presence of various urological problems not only aggravates the disease itself, but also results in unfavourable pregnancy outcome. Aim is to highlight obstetric outcome in pregnant women with urological problems. Materials and Methods: Longitudinal prospective cohort study conducted in tertiary care hospital, IPGME and R, Kolkata from Jan 2011 to Dec 2012. All pregnant women with urological problems were included as subjects. Results: A total of 33 subjects were followed up throughout their antenatal period. Among them majority (72.72% presented with hydro nephrosis followed by hydroureter (60.6%, PUJ obstruction and pyelonephritis each with incidence of 15.15%, then urolithiasis (12.12%, nephrolithiasis (6.06% and renal abscess (12.12%. Interventions required were DJ stenting (72.72%, pyeloplasty (15.15% and others were RURSL, abscess drainage and ATT. The pregnancy outcome was complicated with preterm labor in majority of patients (45.45%, oligohydramnious (18.18%, PIH (9.09% and still birth (6.06%. Twenty four live birth were there. Majority required NICU admissions as predominantly prematurity was an important concern. Majority women with hydronephrosis underwent DJ stenting. Conclusion: Preterm labor is an important obstetric concern. Vaginal delivery is the choicest mode of termination and LSCS can be reserved for obstetric reason. DJ stenting is safe and practical approach for continuation of pregnancy with hydronephrosis. Regular follow up, vigilant antenatal care and multidisciplinary approach from urologist, obstetrician and neonatologist will bring out successful pregnancy outcome.

  6. Urological disorders and pregnancy: An overall experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debasmita; Saha, Mriganka Mouli; Pal, Dillip Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Pregnancy is an anatomical and physiological altered state and the presence of various urological problems not only aggravates the disease itself, but also results in unfavourable pregnancy outcome. Aim is to highlight obstetric outcome in pregnant women with urological problems. Materials and Methods: Longitudinal prospective cohort study conducted in tertiary care hospital, IPGME and R, Kolkata from Jan 2011 to Dec 2012. All pregnant women with urological problems were included as subjects. Results: A total of 33 subjects were followed up throughout their antenatal period. Among them majority (72.72%) presented with hydro nephrosis followed by hydroureter (60.6%), PUJ obstruction and pyelonephritis each with incidence of 15.15%, then urolithiasis (12.12%), nephrolithiasis (6.06%) and renal abscess (12.12%). Interventions required were DJ stenting (72.72%), pyeloplasty (15.15%) and others were RURSL, abscess drainage and ATT. The pregnancy outcome was complicated with preterm labor in majority of patients (45.45%), oligohydramnious (18.18%), PIH (9.09%) and still birth (6.06%). Twenty four live birth were there. Majority required NICU admissions as predominantly prematurity was an important concern. Majority women with hydronephrosis underwent DJ stenting. Conclusion: Preterm labor is an important obstetric concern. Vaginal delivery is the choicest mode of termination and LSCS can be reserved for obstetric reason. DJ stenting is safe and practical approach for continuation of pregnancy with hydronephrosis. Regular follow up, vigilant antenatal care and multidisciplinary approach from urologist, obstetrician and neonatologist will bring out successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:28216926

  7. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachcar, P

    1990-01-01

    The number of adolescent pregnancies brought to term in France has continued to decline while the number of abortions remains stable. Adolescent pregnancies cannot be considered "accidents" either in their social or psychological aspects. Pregnant adolescents carrying to term tend to be more disadvantaged than those seeking abortions. Early pregnancy may be a response to difficult life conditions. Despite appearing to constitute an infraction of a social code, adolescent pregnancy may in fact represent an attempt at social integration through motherhood. Adolescents failing in school, with poor employment prospects and feeling family pressures may view pregnancy as a means of social recognition. But such factors by themselves do not explain pregnancy; the primordial role of psychological factors must be examined. For some adolescents, pregnancy may represent an attempt to understand their own sexual identity as the transformations of puberty unsettle their previous self-images. Or they may be failing to perceive or actively denying the possibility of pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancies may be the result of transgressions of prohibitions. The traditional prohibition of sexual activity has relaxed to the degree that it is being replaced by a new prohibition on adolescent pregnancy and a prescription to use contraception. But contraception deprives an adolescent in search of sexual identity of proof of fertility as well as of the image of spontaneity and naturalness. Use of contraception is in conflict with the questions, doubts, and anxieties of adolescence. For adolescents in a reactivated oedipal stage, heterosexuality is often at the service of incestuous fantasies involving the mother. Abortion and perhaps pregnancy itself may assume the character of a rite of passage into adulthood for some adolescents. The important thing for many is the ability to become pregnant, to be a mother like their own mother.

  8. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  9. Relation between time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatave Ghasemi Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown significant correlation between time to pregnancy (TTP and pregnancy  outcomes. But  understanding of these mechanisms may not be facilitated. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between TTP and pregnancy outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was a case cohort study that was done in Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital during 2006-2007. Women aged 18-35 years, who had only one pregnancy without using any contraception method before pregnancy and delivered their first child, were enrolled in this study. Thus, 801 women were selected and followed up for pregnancy outcome and TTP until the end of pregnancy. All the participants filled in a special questionnaire. Finally the collected data were entered into computer and analyzed by SPSS ver. 20 software. Results: The frequency distribution of TTP-based pregnancy outcome showed that TTP >48 weeks was higher in normal delivery than in abnormal delivery (5.6% vs. 19.4%. According to Chi-square test, the frequency distribution of pregnancy outcome was related to TTP (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there is a significant relationship between TTP and pregnancy outcome, and TTP may lead to unwanted complications such as ectopic pregnancy, preterm labor, and abortion. Thus, all women with a long time of contraception, especially in the rural areas, mast be controlled.

  10. Uptake of family planning methods and unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals: a cross-sectional survey among clients at HIV clinics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyenze Rhoda K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals is critical to the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT, but its potential has not been fully utilized by PMTCT programmes. The uptake of family planning methods among women in Uganda is low, with current use of family planning methods estimated at 24%, but available data has not been disaggregated by HIV status. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of family planning and unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected people in Uganda. Methods We conducted exit interviews with 1100 HIV-infected individuals, including 441 men and 659 women, from 12 HIV clinics in three districts in Uganda to assess the uptake of family planning services, and unplanned pregnancies, among HIV-infected people. We conducted multivariate analysis for predictors of current use of family planning among women who were married or in consensual union and were not pregnant at the time of the interview. Results One-third (33%, 216 of the women reported being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses and 28% (123 of the men reported their partner being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses. Of these, 43% (105 said these pregnancies were not planned: 53% (80 among women compared with 26% (25 among men. Most respondents (58%; 640 reported that they were currently using family planning methods. Among women who were married or in consensual union and not pregnant, 80% (242 were currently using any family planning method and 68% were currently using modern family planning methods (excluding withdrawal, lactational amenorrhoea and rhythm. At multivariate analysis, women who did not discuss the number of children they wanted with their partners and those who did not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners were less likely to use modern family planning methods (adjusted OR 0.40, range 0.20-0.81, and 0.30, range 0.10-0.85, respectively. Conclusions The uptake of family planning

  11. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  12. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  13. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  14. Pregnancy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of ... A pregnancy test is done using blood or urine. There are 2 types of ... how much HCG is present The blood test is done by drawing ...

  15. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  16. Women’s experiences of unwanted pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroughossadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite expanded coverage of family planning in Iran, unwanted pregnancy is a common problem. The aim of this study was to explore women’s experiences of unwanted pregnancy in Shahroud public health centers.Methods: Purposive Sampling was conducted by means of focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews and by a semi-constructed questionnaire in this qualitative research. Five (FGDs with 23 women in third trimester in pregnancy and 4 in-depth interviews with women with history of induced abortion were done. The method of Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Results of the study can be divided into 4 categories: causes of naming pregnancy as an unwanted pregnancy, causes of unwanted pregnancy; husband, family and relatives’ reaction to unwanted pregnancy and the process of acceptance of unwanted pregnancy. Not planning for pregnancy due to physical, emotional and financial non-readiness for pregnancy and believe in two child policy were the main causes of naming pregnancy as unwanted by women. Process of adapting to pregnancy included not accepting pregnancy, trying abortion, accepting fetus and finally negative emotions towards past thoughts about abortion. Fathers and mothers had important roles in acceptance and continuation of pregnancy.Conclusion: Women with unwanted pregnancy face emotional and psychological problems. Health care providers need to support couples to combat this critical period.

  17. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? How ...

  18. Pregnancy and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile Home About IC Women & IC Pregnancy & IC Pregnancy & IC How Pregnancy Affects IC Unfortunately, there is limited scientific data ... 2009 issue of the ICA Update . Planning Your Pregnancy Planning ahead for your pregnancy will let you: ...

  19. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  20. Synthesis of BiFeO3 thin films on single-terminated Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates by intermittent microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Velasco-Davalos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a simple and fast procedure to create arrays of atomically flat terraces on single crystal SrTiO3 (111 substrates and the deposition of ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films on such single-terminated surfaces. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in deionized water and ammonia solution selectively removes either (SrO34− or Ti4+ layers to ensure the same chemical termination on all terraces. Measured step heights of 0.225 nm (d111 and uniform contrast in the phase image of the terraces confirm the single termination in pure and Nb doped SrTiO3 single crystal substrates. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films were then deposited by the same microwave assisted hydrothermal process on Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates. Bi(NO33 and Fe(NO33 along with KOH served as the precursors solution. Ferroelectric behavior of the BiFeO3 films on Nb : SrTiO3 (100 substrates was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy.

  1. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  2. Highly efficient synthetic method onpyroacm resin using the boc SPPS protocol for C-terminal cysteine peptide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvekar, Vinayak; Kim, Kang Tae; Gong, Young Dae [Innovative Drug Library Research Center, Dept. of Chemistry, College of Science, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    A very effective process on Pyroacm resin was developed for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal cysteine and cysteine ester peptides. The process uses cysteine side chain anchoring to the Pyroacm resin and the Boc protocol for SPPS. The Pyroacm resin showed remarkable stability under standard trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) cleavage condition. TFMSA cleavage of protecting groups generates a peptide-linked resin, which can be subjected to peptide modification reactions. Finally, the peptide can be cleaved from the resin using methoxycarbonylsulfenyl chloride. The utility of this protocol was demonstrated by its applications to the synthesis of model peptides, key intermediates in the preparation of natural products riparin 1.2 and a-factor.

  3. 双胎妊娠胎儿选择性生长受限终止妊娠时机的分析%Twin Pregnancy Fetal Selective Growth Restriction Termination Timing Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海英; 李莎; 张平世; 冯惠庆

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨双胎妊娠胎儿选择性生长受限终止妊娠的时机。方法选取2010年6月至2014年6月在我院活产分娩的60例双胎妊娠产妇为研究对象,将其分成观察组30例(双胎发育一致)和对照组30例(选择性宫内生长受限),分析其妊娠情况。结果两组在妊娠期高血压的发病率、分娩方式、小胎龄出生率、新生儿窒息率、围生儿病死率、入住NICU率等方面相比差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论对于双胎妊娠并出现生长受限的情况时,应根据产妇的情况在适当的时间内采取有效的处理方法,但是由于相关频谱检查与预后的关系尚未完全研究清楚,一般建议对于发病严重的,应适时采用选择性减胎术,去除发育相对不良或出现畸形的胎儿。%Objective  To evaluate the selective twin pregnancy fetal growth restriction to terminate pregnancy time. Method  Selection in June 2010 to June 2014 in our hospital live-birth deliveries of 60 cases of twin pregnancy women as the research object, the 30 patients were divided into observation group (twins development) and the control group of 30 cases of intrauterine growth restriction (selectivity), analyze their pregnancies.Results  Two groups in the incidence of hypertension during pregnancy, childbirth way, small gestational age, birth rate, newborn asphyxia rate and perinatal mortality, the rate of check in NICU, has signiifcant difference compared with (P<0.05). Conclusion  For twin pregnancy and growth restriction, should be based on the situation of the women at the appropriate time to take effective treatment method, but because of the correlation spectrum examination and prognosis is not fully research clear, general recommendation for

  4. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  5. RESEARCH ON FAST IMAGE ENCRYPTION METHOD FOR MOBILE TERMINALS%移动终端的图像快速加密方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵戈; 万玉晴

    2015-01-01

    According to the requirements of intelligent terminals of mobile Internet in image encryption,this article puts forward the four selection principles in regard to encryption approaches for images of mobile terminals based on analysing the traditional methods of image pixel positions scrambling and pixel greyscale value encryption by transformation,and based on these principles we design the encryption algorithm with dual image keys and dual scrambling which combines the Arnold conversion and the chaotic sequence encryption.Meanwhile,in order to improve computing speed of encryption and decryption,and to realise fast image encryption and decryption of mobile terminals,based on periodic verification and theoretical derivation of Arnold conversion,we derive a fast look-up table method for image encryption and decryption matrix of mobile terminals.It is proved by application that the algorithm can satisfy the requirement of transaction processing in image encryption of mobile terminals.%针对移动互联网智能终端的图像加密需求,在对传统的图像像素位置置乱以及像素灰度值变换加密等方法的分析与实验基础上,提出移动终端图像加密方法的四项选择原则,并按此原则设计Arnold变换和混沌序列加密相结合的图像双重密钥双重置乱加密算法。同时,为了提高加解密运算速度,实现移动终端快速图像加解密工作,在基于对Arnold变换的周期性验证和理论推导,得出移动终端的图像加解密矩阵的快速查表法。应用证明,该算法能满足事务处理对移动终端图像加密的需求。

  6. Distribution of sialoglycoconjugates in the oviductal isthmus of the horse during anoestrus, oestrus and pregnancy: a lectin histochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Desantis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of sialic acid residues as well as other glycosidic sugars has been investigated in the horse oviductal isthmus during anoestrus, oestrus and pregnancy by means of lectin and pre-lectin methods. Ciliated cells and non-ciliated (secretory cells exhibited different lectin binding profiles that were found to change during the investigated stages. Ciliated cells did not show any reactivity in the basal cytoplasm, while the supra-nuclear cytoplasm displayed a few of oligosaccharides with terminal and internal amannose (Man and/or aglucose (Glc during oestrus and pregnancy and a moderate presence of oligosaccharides terminating in afucose (Fuc during oestrus; cilia exhibited a more complex glycoconjugate pattern for the presence of oligosaccharides terminating in N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, GalNAca1,3 GalNAca1,3galactose(Galb1,4Galb1,4N-acetylglucosamine( GlcNAc, Fuc, sialic acid (Neu5Ac-aGalNAc belonging or not to the GalNAca1,3GalNAca1,3 Galb1,4 Galb1, 4GlcNAc sequence, and.aGalNAc and Neu5Aca 2,6Gal/GalNAc increased during oestrus. Cilia displayed terminal Galb1,3 GalNAc in pregnancy, terminal aGal in anoestrus and pregnancy and terminal or internal D-GlcNAc during anoestrus and pregnancy, respectively. The whole cytoplasm of non-ciliated cells showed oligosaccharides terminating with aGalNAc, Neu5Aca2,6Gal/GalNAc, Neu5Ac GalNAca 1,3GalNAca1,3Galb1,4Galb1,4GlcNAc during the investigated stages, as well as GlcNAc in anoestrus and pregnancy. The supra-nuclear zone of non-ciliated cells exhibited oligosaccharides with terminal Galb1,4GlcNAc and internal Man during oestrus and pregnancy as well as terminal aGal and Fuc in oestrus and Neu5Ac-Galb1,3GalNAc in pregnancy. The luminal surface of non-ciliated cells showed glycans terminating with aGalNAc and/or Neu5Ac GalNAca1,3 GalNAca1,3Galb1,4Galb1,4GlcNAc in all specimens, oligosaccharides with terminal Galb1,4GlcNAc and internal Man during oestrus and pregnancy, Neu5Ac a2,6Gal

  7. A step towards helping mothers with unwanted pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S

    1992-01-01

    Changing attitudes towards sex and reproduction are evidenced by the desire to understand their physiological, behavioral, and social aspects. Illicit relationships are condemned, at the same time adolescents get sexual messages from television, movies, and books. In India high moral codes consider adolescent sexuality and the resultant motherhood a disgrace. 100 unwed mainly rural girls who came for medical termination of pregnancy to the Mahatma Gandhi Institution of Medical Sciences Sevagram were interviewed. 88% of the girls did not know the consequences of having sexual relations; 90% did not know anything about contraception and 66% had come in the second trimester. A prospective study of school girls about their knowledge of menstruation, reproductive physiology, and birth control methods showed that 75.1% of girls lacked that knowledge (87.6% of rural girls, as compared to 62.6% of urban girls). The knowledge sources were mainly literature and movies (77.93%). Some girls seek pregnancy termination when it is no longer possible; in these instances, the infant is often abandoned or killed. Health education and sex education are needed, and various welfare programs should reach impoverished and rural areas. Premarital sexual intimacy among unwed adolescents is widespread, although, in a traditional society, out-of-wedlock pregnancy carries a social stigma. But in spite of the social stigma attached to illegitimate pregnancies, unwed motherhood continues to be a problem. In an attempt to help girls who seek abortion at a stage beyond eligibility for termination, a program funded by foreign assistance cares for these girls until they deliver.

  8. Survey of prenatal screening policies in Europe for structural malformations and chromosome anomalies, and their impact on detection and termination rates for neural tube defects and Down's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, P A; Devigan, C; Khoshnood, B

    2008-01-01

    screening policies in 18 countries and 1.13 million births in 12 countries in 2002-04. METHODS: (i) Questionnaire on national screening policies and termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) laws in 2004. (ii) Analysis of data on prenatal detection and termination for Down's syndrome and neural...... tube defects (NTDs) using the EUROCAT database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Existence of national prenatal screening policies, legal gestation limit for TOPFA, prenatal detection and termination rates for Down's syndrome and NTD. RESULTS: Ten of the 18 countries had a national country-wide policy for Down...

  9. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: a method for systematic review of studies with different designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlain Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes in pregnancy, which includes gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is associated with poor outcomes for both mother and infant during pregnancy, at birth and in the longer term. Recent international guidelines recommend changes to the current GDM screening criteria. While some controversy remains, there appears to be consensus that women at high risk of T2DM, including indigenous women, should be offered screening for GDM early in pregnancy, rather than waiting until 24-28 weeks as is current practice. A range of criteria should be considered before changing screening practice in a population sub-group, including: prevalence, current practice, acceptability and whether adequate treatment pathways and follow-up systems are available. There are also specific issues related to screening in pregnancy and indigenous populations. The evidence that these criteria are met for indigenous populations is yet to be reported. A range of study designs can be considered to generate relevant evidence for these issues, including epidemiological, observational, qualitative, and intervention studies, which are not usually included within a single systematic review. The aim of this paper is to describe the methods we used to systematically review studies of different designs and present the evidence in a pragmatic format for policy discussion. Methods/Design The inclusion criteria will be broad to ensure inclusion of the critical perspectives of indigenous women. Abstracts of the search results will be reviewed by two persons; the full texts of all potentially eligible papers will be reviewed by one person, and 10% will be checked by a second person for validation. Data extraction will be standardised, using existing tools to identify risks for bias in intervention, measurement, qualitative studies and reviews; and adapting criteria for appraising risk for bias in descriptive studies. External validity

  10. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography – case study and suggestion of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Michoński

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST, systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. Case presentation The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %. Conclusions This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature

  11. Phytoestrogens in Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jarrell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The hormonal milieu associated with pregnancy has become a focus of interest owing to potential links with the developmental origins of health and disease. Phytoestrogens are hormonally active plant-derived chemicals that may have an impact on human reproductive processes. However, developmental exposure to phytoestrogens has not been well characterized and thus our objective was to quantify phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and lactation. Methods. Women in the second trimester of pregnancy entered the study during counseling for prenatal genetic information. Women who had an indication for a genetic amniocentesis on the basis of late maternal age were approached for inclusion. They completed an environmental questionnaire; a sample of amniotic fluid was collected for karyotype, blood was collected from women during pregnancy and at birth, from the umbilical cord and breast milk. Samples were tested for the presence of daidzein and genistein by GC Mass Spectroscopy. Findings. Phytoestrogens are commonly found in pregnant women’s serum and amniotic fluid during pregnancy. There is a sex difference in the concentrations with higher levels in amniotic fluid containing female fetuses. This difference was not present in maternal serum. Soy ingestion increases amniotic fluid phytoestrogen concentrations in female and male fetuses. The presence and concentrations of phytoestrogens did not differ in relation to common pregnancy complications or preexisting infertility.

  12. Pregnancy with autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, António Costa; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Braga, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to review our experience with gestations in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Background: There are only limited data describing pregnancy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of pregnancies with autoimmune hepatitis followed in Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal in the last ten years. Results: We reported nine pregnancies in seven patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Two patients had documented liver cirrhosis prior to the pregnancy. In this study, 66.7% of patients were treated with azathioprine and 88.9% with prednisolone. Clinical improvements were observed in 11.1% of pregnancies and 22.2% exacerbations were diagnosed. There were six live births and two preterm deliveries (preterm delivery rate of 33%). We also report three first trimester miscarriages (early gestation miscarriage rate of 33%). There were no neonatal or maternal deaths. Conclusion: The favorable obstetric outcome is a realistic expectation in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Tight monitoring and control of asymptomatic and unpredictable exacerbations, which are unrelated to the severity of the underlying disease, are essential to the prognosis of the current pregnancy. PMID:27458515

  13. Theoretical efficiency limit for a two-terminal multi-junction "step-cell" using detailed balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hadi, Sabina; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2016-02-01

    Here we present detailed balance efficiency limit for a novel two-terminal dual and triple junction "step-cell" under AM 1.5G and AM 0 incident spectrums. The step-cell is a multi-junction (MJ) solar cell in which part of the top cell is removed, exposing some of the bottom cell area to unfiltered incident light, thus increasing bottom cell's photogenerated current. Optical generation of the bottom cell is modeled in two parts: step part, limited by the bottom cell bandgap, and conventional part, additionally limited by the top cell absorption. Our results show that conventionally designed MJ cell with optimized bandgap combination of 1.64 eV/0.96 eV for dual junction and 1.91 eV/1.37 eV/0.93 eV for triple junction has the highest theoretical efficiency limit. However, the step-cell design provides significant efficiency improvement for cells with non-optimum bandgap values. For example, for 1.41 eV ( ˜GaAs)/Si dual junction under AM 1.5G, efficiency limit increases from ˜21% in a conventional design to 38.7% for optimized step-cell. Similar benefits are observed for three-junction step-cell and for AM 0 spectrum studied here. Step-cell relaxes bandgap requirements for efficient MJ solar cells, providing an opportunity for a wider selection of materials and cost reduction.

  14. Documents from malicious terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  15. [RDBH-method and big DyeTM terminator technology in accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akperova, G A

    2014-11-01

    IThe purpose of this study was to evaluate of the efficiency of RDBH-method and Big DyeTM Terminator technology in an accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster. It was done a complete hematology analysis (HB, MCH, MCV, MCHC, RBC, Hct, HbA2, HbF, Serum iron, Serum ferritin at four children (males, 6-10 years old) and their parents. Molecular analysis included Reverse Dot-Blot Hybridization StripAssay (RDBH) and DNA sequencing on ABI PRISM Big DyeTM Terminator. Hematologic and molecular parameters were contradictory. The homozygosity for β0-thalassemia (β0IVS2.1[G>A] and β0codon 8[-AA]) at three boys with the mild clinical manifestation and heterozygosity of their parents for mutations, and the absence of β-globin mutations at parents and a boy who holds monthly transfusion was established by RDBH-analysis. DNA sequencing by technology Big DyeTM Terminator showed polymorphism at positions -551 and -521 of Cap5'-region (-650-250) - (AT)7(T)7 and (AT)8(T)5. Application of the integrated clinical-molecular approach is an ideal method for an accurate diagnosis, identification of asymptomatic carriers and a reduce of the risk of complications from β-thalassemia, moreover screening of γG-gene and the level of fetal hemoglobin in early childhood will help manage of β-thalassemia clinic and prevent heavy consequences of the disease.

  16. Leukemia and lymphoma in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Uri; Koren, Gideon; Lishner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Treatment of pregnant women with chemotherapy may pose a risk to the fetus, raising therapeutic, ethical, moral, and social dilemmas. Publications on this issue are limited to retrospective series and case reports, thus further complicating decision making. Diagnosis and staging are usually performed as in nonpregnant women, but procedures that expose the fetus to radiation are excluded. Chemotherapy is not recommended in the first trimester to avoid fetal malformations. Thus, the option is either treatment delay or pregnancy termination. Later in pregnancy, treatment is often initiated without delay, with no apparent evidence of teratogenicity.

  17. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fab glycosylation analysis using a new mass spectrometric high-throughput profiling method reveals pregnancy-associated changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondt, Albert; Rombouts, Yoann; Selman, Maurice H J; Hensbergen, Paul J; Reiding, Karli R; Hazes, Johanna M W; Dolhain, Radboud J E M; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2014-11-01

    The N-linked glycosylation of the constant fragment (Fc) of immunoglobulin G has been shown to change during pathological and physiological events and to strongly influence antibody inflammatory properties. In contrast, little is known about Fab-linked N-glycosylation, carried by ∼ 20% of IgG. Here we present a high-throughput workflow to analyze Fab and Fc glycosylation of polyclonal IgG purified from 5 μl of serum. We were able to detect and quantify 37 different N-glycans by means of MALDI-TOF-MS analysis in reflectron positive mode using a novel linkage-specific derivatization of sialic acid. This method was applied to 174 samples of a pregnancy cohort to reveal Fab glycosylation features and their change with pregnancy. Data analysis revealed marked differences between Fab and Fc glycosylation, especially in the levels of galactosylation and sialylation, incidence of bisecting GlcNAc, and presence of high mannose structures, which were all higher in the Fab portion than the Fc, whereas Fc showed higher levels of fucosylation. Additionally, we observed several changes during pregnancy and after delivery. Fab N-glycan sialylation was increased and bisection was decreased relative to postpartum time points, and nearly complete galactosylation of Fab glycans was observed throughout. Fc glycosylation changes were similar to results described before, with increased galactosylation and sialylation and decreased bisection during pregnancy. We expect that the parallel analysis of IgG Fab and Fc, as set up in this paper, will be important for unraveling roles of these glycans in (auto)immunity, which may be mediated via recognition by human lectins or modulation of antigen binding.

  18. Management of Pregnancy with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zhou; Xu-ming Bian; Jun-tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    To discuss the interaction between pregnancy and ankylosing spondylitis,and the management of pregnancy with ankylosing spondylitis.Methods Twelve cases of pregnancy with ankylosing spondylitis in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from September 2004 to July 2011 were analyzed retrospectively,focusing on the arteritis condition,pregnancy complications,and outcomes.Results All the 12 patients had full-term pregnancy.Five cases gave birth naturally,and 7 cases received cesarean section for maternity factors.No adverse pregnancy outcomes were encountered.Waist pain appeared in 2 cases in the second trimester,for both of which medication failed.One of the 2 cases had natural childbirth,while the other maintained pregnancy smoothly to cesarean section.Conclusions Pregnancy monitoring can help obtain favorable pregnancy outcomes.Attention should be paid to postpartum change of the illness.

  19. Teenage pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-01-01

    .... Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development...

  20. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Pregnancy Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  1. Denied pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko

    2010-06-01

    Two cases of non-psychotic denied pregnancy are presented and discussed. Following obstetric expertise, the forensic-criminal evaluation should investigate the reported crimes of denied pregnancy associated infanticide or criminal abortion as well as the potential involvement of other persons in these crimes. All this would require close collaboration between obstetricians, psychiatrists and crime investigation experts in the forensic expertise of these criminal offences.

  2. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  3. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008). Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births) and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.13) for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in infants. PMID:22709681

  4. Characteristics of early-onset and late-onset severe preeclampsia and the choice of opportunity of pregnancy termination%早发型与晚发型重度子痫前期特点及终止妊娠时机选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国萃

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨早发型与晚发型重度子痫前期特点及终止妊娠时机选择.方法:对重度子痫前期孕妇47例以孕34周为界分为早发型重度子痫前期组17例和晚发型重度子痫前期组30例的临床资料及围产结局进行综合分析.结果:两组的年龄、≥35岁比例、孕产次、血压、高血压病史差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05),两组24 h尿蛋白定量、肌酐差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),而PT、APTT、血小板、ALT、AST、尿酸差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).两组在分娩前治疗时间、分娩孕周、胎盘早剥、腹水差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),在分娩方式、羊水过少、合并ICP、合并GDM的发生率差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).两组在新生儿出生体重、低体重儿比例、新生儿放弃抢救、新生儿窒息、死胎、死产差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:早发型重度子痫前期起病急、病情重、并发症多、母儿预后差,而晚发型相对较温和.对于孕周较小的早发型重度子痫前期,严密监护下延长孕周降低围产儿不良并发症及死亡率,再适时终止妊娠以最大限度降低母儿并发症的发生.%Objective: To explore the characteristics of early - onset and late - onset severe preeclampsia and the choice of opportunity of pregnancy termination. Methods; Forty - seven pregnant women with severe preeclampsia were divided into early - onset severe preeclampsia group ( 17 cases) and late - onset severe preeclampsia group (30 cases) with 34 gestational weeks as boundary, then the clinical data and perinatal outcomes in the two groups were analyzed comprehensively. Results; There was no statistically significant difference in age, the proportion of cases ≥ 35 years, the times of pregnancy and delivery, blood pressure, and medical history of hypertension between the two groups (P > 0. 05 ) . There was statistically significant difference in 24 - hour urine protein and creatinine between

  5. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  6. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, H

    2000-10-01

    This article examines trends in teenage pregnancy in Canada, focussing on induced abortions, live births and fetal loss among women aged 15 to 19 in 1997. The data come from the Hospital Morbidity Data Base and the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base at Statistics Canada, and the annual Therapeutic Abortion Survey, conducted by the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Data on abortions performed on Canadian residents in the United States are from an annual survey of selected states. International data are from the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Pregnancy rates, abortion rates, live birth rates and fetal loss rates are calculated using population counts of women in the age groups 15 to 17, 18 to 19, and 15 to 19. The percentages of pregnancies that ended in the three outcomes are also calculated for these years. The teenage pregnancy rate declined from 1994 to 1997, reflecting lower teenage birth and fetal loss rates. Through this period the abortion rate remained stable, with the result that slightly more than half of all teenage pregnancies ended in abortion by 1997. Younger teens are more likely to have an abortion than to give birth. The majority of pregnancies among older teens end in a live birth, although the number of live births is decreasing.

  7. [Laparoscopic surgery in ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E; Novachkov, V

    1995-01-01

    The authors present two cases of women with unruptured tubal pregnancies who were treated by methods of laparoscopic surgery. A salpingotomy as well as an aspiration of the pregnancy was performed. The operations reported are the first in gynaecological practice in Bulgaria and the operative technique is described.

  8. Liver diseases in pregnancy: diseases not unique to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-11-21

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. Few challenges arise in reaching an accurate diagnosis in light of such physiological changes. Laboratory test results should be carefully interpreted and the knowledge of what normal changes to expect is prudent to avoid clinical misjudgment. Other challenges entail the methods of treatment and their safety for both the mother and the baby. This review summarizes liver diseases that are not unique to pregnancy. We focus on viral hepatitis and its mode of transmission, diagnosis, effect on the pregnancy, the mother, the infant, treatment, and breast-feeding. Autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Wilson's disease, Budd Chiari and portal vein thrombosis in pregnancy are also discussed. Pregnancy is rare in patients with cirrhosis because of the metabolic and hormonal changes associated with cirrhosis. Variceal bleeding can happen in up to 38% of cirrhotic pregnant women. Management of portal hypertension during pregnancy is discussed. Pregnancy increases the pathogenicity leading to an increase in the rate of gallstones. We discuss some of the interventions for gallstones in pregnancy if symptoms arise. Finally, we provide an overview of some of the options in managing hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma during pregnancy.

  9. Discussion of therapeutic method of cesarean scar pregnancy%瘢痕部位妊娠治疗方式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 庄雅丽; 汪海妍; 张莉; 朱婷婷; 吴芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:近年来剖宫产瘢痕妊娠(CSP)发生率不断提高,该文对比研究CSP各种治疗方法的优缺点。方法:回顾性分析37例剖宫产CSP患者的临床资料,对比3种治疗方法(A:B超引导下囊内注射甲氨蝶呤(MTX)+5-FU静滴+B超下清宫术;B:腹腔镜下子宫切口处妊娠组织取出术;C:经阴道切口妊娠物取出术)的治疗效果及费用、愈后等。结果:B、C治疗方法明显优于A方法,而C不需要腹腔镜等特殊设备。结论:经阴道切口妊娠物取出术更适合在广大基层医院开展应用。%The morbidity of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is increasing in recent years, but the effects of differ-ent therapeutic methods are little known. In this study, the clinical data of 37 cesarean scar pregnancy patients from 2009 to 2014 were collected and divided into three groups according to their therapies:group A (received injection of methotrexate (MTX), 5-FU intravenous infusion and surgery curettage), group B (received laparoscopic surgery) and group C (received cesarean scar pregnancy tissue taking-out technique through vaginal incision). Through compara-tive analysis, we found the cure rates and the decreased ratios of HCG of group B and group C were significantly higher than that of group A. Laparoscopic surgery and cesarean scar pregnancy tissue taking-out technique through vaginal incision were both safe and effective therapies for CSP treatment. But cesarean scar pregnancy tissue taking-out technique through vaginal incision do not need special medical devices, such as laparoscope, and easily to operate. So it is more suitable to carry out in primary hospitals.

  10. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy PM₂.₅ exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven J; Ridgway, William L; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-06-18

    Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅) levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000-2008). Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM₂.₅ at the spatial resolution of a 10x10 km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM₂.₅ exposure and birth weight (among full term births) and PM₂.₅ exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Birth weight was negatively associated with PM₂.₅ across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m³ increase of PM₂.₅ exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.13) for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM₂.₅ exposure during the entire pregnancy period. The presented study suggests that exposure to PM₂.₅ during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in infants.

  11. Liver diseases in pregnancy: Diseases unique to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khulood T; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. This review summarizes liver diseases that are unique to pregnancy. We discuss clinical conditions that are seen only in pregnant women and involve the liver; from Hyperemesis Gravidarum that happens in 1 out of 200 pregnancies and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (0.5%-1.5% prevalence), to the more frequent condition of preeclampsia (10% prevalence) and its severe form; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count syndrome (12% of pregnancies with preeclampsia), to the rare entity of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (incidence of 1 per 7270 to 13000 deliveries). Although pathogeneses behind the development of these aliments are not fully understood, theories have been proposed. Some propose the special physiological changes that accompany pregnancy as a precipitant. Others suggest a constellation of factors including both the mother and her fetus that come together to trigger those unique conditions. Reaching a timely and accurate diagnosis of such conditions can be challenging. The timing of the condition in relation toward which trimester it starts at is a key. Accurate diagnosis can be made using specific clinical findings and blood tests. Some entities have well-defined criteria that help not only in making the diagnosis, but also in classifying the disease according to its severity. Management of these conditions range from simple medical remedies to measures such as immediate termination of the pregnancy. In specific conditions, it is prudent to have expert obstetric and medical specialists teaming up to help improve the outcomes. PMID:24282353

  12. Pregnancy rates and predictors in women with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Khalili Friedman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and predictors of first pregnancy among women with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1996 and 2003. This study comprised 225 women with HIV/AIDS followed up until their first pregnancy or first censored event (hysterectomy, tubal ligation, menopause, 50 years of age, loss to follow-up, death or the end of December 2003. Pregnancy and abortion rates were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify baseline characteristics associated with pregnancy risk. RESULTS: The women were followed up for 565 person/years with a median follow-up of 3 years per women. The mean age was 32 years (SD: 7, and 54.7% were white. There were 60 pregnancies in 39 women, and 18 were terminated (induced abortions, accounting for a rate of 6.9% and 2.1% women/year, respectively. Repeated pregnancies occurred in 33.3% of the women (13/39. Higher pregnancy risk was seen among younger women (HR=3.42; 95%CI: 1.69;6.95 and those living with their partners (HR=1.89; 95%CI: 1.00;3.57. Lower pregnancy risk was associated with higher education level (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19;0.99 and use of antiretroviral therapy (HR=061; 95%CI: 0.31;1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Lower pregnancy rates were found in our cohort than in the general population. Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into consideration in the management of reproductive health in HIV-positive childbearing age women. Reproductive and family planning counseling must be incorporated into HIV/AIDS programs for women to help preventing HIV transmission to their partners and offspring.

  13. A MOBILE TERMINAL REMOTE DATA ACCESS CONTROL METHOD%一种移动终端远程数据访问控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪凯; 夏海波; 魏建明; 程嘉昇; 李焱

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of mobile communication and Internet technologies, there have generated requirements for teal-time access and data response for mobile terminal devices. Based on researches on remote data access on the Android mobile platform, relying on Socket communication mechanism, exploiting Java's multiple threads implementation method, the authors have designed and realized a data access control container that will solve the real-timeliness and concurrency of backend data access by mobile terminal devices; the requirements of remote data access by grouped Android handheld phones are hence satisfied.%移动通信技术与互联网技术的飞速发展,对移动终端设备的实时接入与数据响应提出了要求.针对Android手机平台的远程数据访问进行研究,依据Socket通信机制,利用Java的多线程实现方法,设计实现一个数据访问控制容器,解决移动终端设备对后台数据访问的实时性、并发性问题,满足群组Android手机远程数据访问的需求.

  14. Spin accumulation at in-situ grown Fe/GaAs(100) Schottky barriers measured using the three- and four-terminal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Song Hyeon; Park, Tae-Eon; Park, Youn Ho; Ihm, Hae-In; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyung-jun; Han, Suk Hee; Chang, Joonyeon

    2016-09-01

    We examined the spin accumulation in Fe/n-GaAs Schottky barriers to evaluate the accuracy of the three-terminal (3T) and four-terminal (4T) measurement geometries. A fully epitaxial Fe/n-GaAs junction was grown in situ using cluster molecular beam epitaxy without breaking the vacuum to exclude the formation of an oxide layer or surface roughness at the interface during intermixing. The spin resistance of the 4T nonlocal spin valve (ΔRNLSV = 0.71 Ω) was twice the value obtained using the 4T Hanle effect method (ΔR4TH = 0.35 Ω) at 10 K, as predicted theoretically, and this value remained constant over the temperature range examined, from 10 K to 77 K. The temperature-dependent spin lifetimes measured using the 3T and 4T Hanle effects exhibited similar behaviors. Although the spin resistance obtained using the 3T Hanle effect was enhanced compared with that obtained using the 4T effect, it was reasonable to conclude that the spin signals obtained from the 3T and 4T measurements originated from spin accumulation in n-GaAs due to the absence of an oxide tunnel barrier or a well-defined interface in our samples. These results completely ruled out any other sources of artifacts.

  15. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...

  16. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  17. Long-acting reversible contraceptive acceptability and unintended pregnancy among women presenting for short-acting methods: a randomized patient preference trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Measures of contraceptive effectiveness combine technology and user-related factors. Observational studies show higher effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception compared with short-acting reversible contraception. Women who choose long-acting reversible contraception may differ in key ways from women who choose short-acting reversible contraception, and it may be these differences that are responsible for the high effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. Wider use of long-acting reversible contraception is recommended, but scientific evidence of acceptability and successful use is lacking in a population that typically opts for short-acting methods. The objective of the study was to reduce bias in measuring contraceptive effectiveness and better isolate the independent role that long-acting reversible contraception has in preventing unintended pregnancy relative to short-acting reversible contraception. We conducted a partially randomized patient preference trial and recruited women aged 18-29 years who were seeking a short-acting method (pills or injectable). Participants who agreed to randomization were assigned to 1 of 2 categories: long-acting reversible contraception or short-acting reversible contraception. Women who declined randomization but agreed to follow-up in the observational cohort chose their preferred method. Under randomization, participants chose a specific method in the category and received it for free, whereas participants in the preference cohort paid for the contraception in their usual fashion. Participants were followed up prospectively to measure primary outcomes of method continuation and unintended pregnancy at 12 months. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate method continuation probabilities. Intent-to-treat principles were applied after method initiation for comparing incidence of unintended pregnancy. We also measured acceptability in terms of level of happiness with the products. Of the 916

  18. 不同方法治疗输卵管妊娠的疗效对比%Therapeutic effect comparison of different treatment methods for tubal pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛敬

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨腹腔镜保守手术治疗输卵管妊娠的临床疗效及预后.方法 275例输卵管妊娠患者分别采用腹腔镜保守手术、开腹保守手术及药物保守治疗,对比观察3组治疗的临床疗效、输卵管复通率、受孕率及 再次宫外孕几率.结果 腹腔镜保守治疗组与开腹手术组及药物保守治疗组比较效果最好,输卵管通畅率及宫内妊娠率最高,再次宫外妊娠发生率最低,差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 腹腔镜保守手术治疗输卵管妊娠不仅疗效肯定,而且提高了宫内妊娠率,降低了再次异位妊娠率,成为有生育要求的患者的首选治疗方法.%[Objective] To investigate the clinical effect and prognosis of peritoneoscopic conservative treatment for tubal pregnancy. [ Methods ] 275 patients of tubal pregnancy were divided into three groups and performed peritoneoscopic conservative treatment, laparotomy conservative treatment and drug conservative treatment, respectively. Then the clinical effect, oviduct patency rate, conception rate and the recurrent exfetation rate were observed. [Results] Compared with the laparotomy conservative treatment and drug conservative treatment groups, effects of the peritoneoscopic conservative treatment group was the best with higher oviduct patency rate, conception rate and lower recurrent exfetation rate. The results showed a significant difference (P <0.05). [ Conclusion ] Peritoneoscopic conservative treatment is an effective method for tubal pregnancy. This method can improve conception rate and decrease recurrent exfetation rate. For patients with pregnancy requirement, peritoneoscopic conservative treatment is the first choice.

  19. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  1. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy A A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  2. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  4. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  5. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  7. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  10. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  11. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  12. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  13. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  14. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  15. Pregnancy Complications: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  16. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  17. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  18. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  19. Pregnancy Complications: Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  20. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  1. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise After Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format Exercise After Pregnancy Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are some ...

  2. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  3. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  4. Getting Fit Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  6. Heroin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  7. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  8. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  9. Cravings during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  10. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  11. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  12. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  13. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to ...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A; Chandak, P; Tiptaft, R; Glass, J; Dasgupta, P

    2004-08-01

    Most cases of urolithiasis in pregnancy are managed conservatively either with ureteric stents or percutaneous nephrostomy tubes, which need to be changed at regular intervals. Definitive management of the stone is usually delayed till after delivery. We describe a patient who presented with pyonephrosis in the fifth week of gestation, due to a stone obstructing the right ureteropelvic junction. This was managed by insertion of a nephrostomy tube. She declined nephrostomy tube/stent changes during the rest of her pregnancy and requested termination as an alternative. She successfully underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the 14th week of pregnancy, with radiation exposure strictly localised to the kidney for 6 s. A healthy male baby was delivered at term.

  17. Dynamic collaborative indoor locating method based on multiple terminals%一种基于多终端动态协同的室内定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 刘军发; 陈益强

    2012-01-01

    由于Wi-Fi环境的高动态性,当标定样本类稀少或者逐渐失去其原始价值时,将严重影响定位精度;若重新标定样本,又会带来大量人力物力投入,不利于实际应用.针对这一问题,提出了一种基于多终端动态协同的室内定位方法——OC-ELM.该方法利用环境中多个终端提供的Wi-Fi信息动态协同定位,并在每轮定位结束后及时更新样本库.实验结果表明此方法不仅能实现高精度定位,更重要的是避免了重复的标定工作,提高了实际应用能力.%Due to high dynamic of Wi-Fi environment, positioning accuracy will be affected under the situation of fewer sam-ples of calibration or their original value lost. It will aggravate workload and be disadvantage of practical application if get new calibration samples. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposed a dynamic collaborative indoor locating method based on multiple terminals. The method used Wi-Fi information which provided by terminals for co-location of dynamic, and upda-ted sample after locating. Experimental results show that the method not only realize high precision positioning, but also can a-void repetitive calibration, beneficial to actual application.

  18. The impact of social relations among men and women in fertility treatment on the decision to terminate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Lund, Rikke; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    clinics during their initial visit and follow-up data were collected after 1 year. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study group (n = 777; 427 women, 350 men) consisted of patients who did not achieve a live birth or an ongoing pregnancy during follow-up. Social support and strain from......STUDY QUESTION: Do social support and social strain from social relations have an impact on the decision to terminate fertility treatment among men and women after 1 year of unsuccessful treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: Several functional aspects of social relations show an impact on the probability...... to terminate treatment; social support from family significantly decreases the probability to terminate and experience of conflicts or problematic communication with the partner significantly increases the probability to terminate treatment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fertility patients can experience...

  19. Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...

  20. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  1. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Thrombophilia in complicated pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the incidence and etiology of pregnancy complications associated with thrombophilic factors. Methods: Fifty-four patients with complicated pregnancy and 40 healthy pregnant subjects were included the study. Factor V Leiden (FVL mutation, protein S, protein C, anti-thrombin deficiency levels were investigated. Results: Of the 54 patients with complicated pregnancy, 29 had preeclampsia, 18 had intra uterine growth retardation, and 7 had intrauterine fetal loss. The most common defect was FVL mutation. FVL mutations in patient group and the control group were 27.2% and 10%, respectively, which were statistically significant. The protein S, protein C, and anti-thrombin deficiencies were found higher in the patient group compared to control (p>0.05 for each. Conclusion: FVL mutation was found higher in patient group compared to the control group, Protein C deficiency and anti-thrombin deficiency were related to preeclampsia but not other pregnancy complications. Clinicians should take into account the thrombophilia in complicated pregnancy, especially preeclampsia. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 497-502

  3. Comparison of Pregnancy Stress Between In Vitro Fertilization/Embryo Transfer and Spontaneous Pregnancy in Women During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Fen-Fen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Chiao, Chia-Yi; Li, Chi-Rong; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Women who undergo in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) face complicated psychological stress and negative emotions, which may affect health during pregnancy and the development of the fetus. The current literature does not address the question of whether women who become pregnant spontaneously and women who undergo IVF face similar levels of pregnancy stress. This study investigates the differences in pregnancy stress between women with spontaneous pregnancy and women with IVF/ET pregnancy living in central Taiwan during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures, generalized estimated equations model, Wilks' λ, and Bonferroni test was used. Purposive samples of 163 women who had undergone IVF/ET and of 94 women who had undergone spontaneous pregnancy were enrolled as participants. Pregnancy stress was measured using the Chinese version of the self-administered Pregnancy Stress Scale at the 9th, 12th, and 20th weeks of pregnancy. The psychological stress experienced by IVF participants significantly increased with gestational week during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p pregnancy participants. Gestational week was the main factor found to influence stress ratings for "identifying maternal role." "Altering body structure and body function" was the main factor found to influence pregnancy stress (p pregnancy stress during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p > .05). The results of this study provide clinical evidence that IVF/ET does not cause more stress for women than spontaneous pregnancy. However, the intensity and trend of stresses differed between these two groups. These findings suggest that nurses should consider method of pregnancy when assessing the risk of stress in expectant mothers for each gestational week and when providing appropriate care and support.

  4. The Terminal Responses of the Two-Wire Line in Multiaperture Cavities Based on Electromagnetic Topology and Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation technique based on electromagnetic topology (EMT theory is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic interference (EMI coupling through apertures onto the two-transmission line enclosed within metallic structures. The electromagnetic interactions between apertures and the external-internal interactions were treated through the topological decomposition and the multistep iterative method. Then, the load responses of the two-wire transmission line are resolved by the the Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT equation. The simulation results both without and with the electromagnetic interaction are presented for the frequency range from 100 MHz to 3 GHz. These numerical results obtained by two methods imply that the electromagnetic interaction cannot be simply ignored, especially for the frequency range up to 1 GHz.

  5. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    : We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of antithyroid drug treatments for hyperthyroidism in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews......INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism is characterised by high levels of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The main causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy are Graves' disease and chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-mediated hyperthyroidism. METHODS AND OUTCOMES...

  6. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism is characterised by high levels of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The main causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy are Graves' disease and chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-mediated hyperthyroidism. METHODS AND OUTCOMES......: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of antithyroid drug treatments for hyperthyroidism in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews...

  7. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism is characterised by high levels of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The main causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy are Graves' disease and chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-mediated hyperthyroidism. METHODS AND OUTCOMES......: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of antithyroid drug treatments for hyperthyroidism in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews...

  8. Diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feig, Denice S; Corcoy, Rosa; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising rates of diabetes in pregnancy have led to an escalation in research in this area. As in any area of clinical research, outcome definitions vary from study to study, making it difficult to compare research findings and draw conclusions. Our aim was to compile and create...... a repository of definitions, which could then be used universally. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed of published and ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the area of diabetes in pregnancy between Jan 1, 2000 and June 1, 2012. Other sources included the World Health...... Organization and Academic Society Statements. The advice of experts was sought when appropriate definitions were lacking. RESULTS: Among the published RCTs on diabetes and pregnancy, 171 abstracts were retrieved, 64 full texts were reviewed, and 53 were included. Among the ongoing RCTs published in Clinical...

  9. RUPTURED RUDIMENTARY HORN PREGNANCY OF UNICORNUATE UTERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus can sometimes be associated with rudimentary horn. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and usually ends up in rupture. Diagnosis is difficult and can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and is usually detected after rupture. We report a case of G1P1 with rudimentary horn pregnancy which raised suspicion on ultr asound and was later diagnosed by MR imaging. Patient refused termination and presented next day with shock. Laparotomy revealed ruptured right rudimentary horn pregnancy.

  10. Nursing Methods of 128 cases of patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy%妊娠期高血压疾病128例临床护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏阳

    2012-01-01

    objective To probe into the nursing methods of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy. Method To explore the effect of standardized nursing through retrospective analysis of the 128 cases of patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy. Result All the 128 patients are cured and discharged. Conclusion By applying prompt.effective,standardized and comprehensive nursing measures,complications are prevented and the nursing quality of obstetrics is highly improved.%目的:探讨妊娠期高血压疾病的临床护理方法.方法:回顾性分析我院128例妊娠高血压疾病患者住院期间规范化护理的效果.结果:128例患者产后全部痊愈出院,母婴健康.结论:进行及时有效、规范化综合性的护理措施可以预防并发症的发生,改善母婴预后,促进患者早日康复,提高产科护理质量.

  11. Healthcare databases in Europe for studying medicine use and safety during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Sue

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a number of electronic healthcare databases in Europe in terms of the population covered, the source of the data captured and the availability of data on key variables required for evaluating medicine use and medicine safety during pregnancy. METHODS......: A sample of electronic healthcare databases that captured pregnancies and prescription data was selected on the basis of contacts within the EUROCAT network. For each participating database, a database inventory was completed. RESULTS: Eight databases were included, and the total population covered was 25...... million. All databases recorded live births, seven captured stillbirths and five had full data available on spontaneous pregnancy losses and induced terminations. In six databases, data were usually available to determine the date of the woman's last menstrual period, whereas in the remainder, algorithms...

  12. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant use in first trimester pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemakor, A.; Casson, K.; Garne, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective / Background The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed in pregnancy, but there is evidence that they may cause congenital anomalies, particularly congenital heart defects (CHD). Objective: To determine the specificity of association between...... first trimester pregnancy exposure to individual SSRI and specific congenital anomalies (CAs). Methods Population-based case-malformed control study covering 3.3 million births from 12 EUROCAT registries 1995-2009. CAs included non-syndromic live births, fetal deaths and terminations of pregnancy...... % CI 1.67-6.75, n=9), and Ebstein's anomaly (OR 8.23, 95 % CI 2.91-23.28, n=4) were detected. Statistically significant associations between SSRI and four of the 15 non- CHDsignals (anorectal atresia and stenosis, gastroschisis, renal dysplasia, clubfoot) were found. In all the statistically...

  13. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avoid all alcohol and drug use and limit caffeine. Quit smoking, if you smoke. Go for prenatal visits and tests: You will see your provider many times during your pregnancy for prenatal care. The number of visits and types of exams you receive will change, depending on where you ...

  14. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more frequently and are likely to have their babies by cesarean delivery . How can multiple pregnancy affect my risk of ... the result of a recognized disease. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen ...

  15. Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-16

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the issue of teen pregnancy and some strategies to address it.  Created: 4/16/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/16/2014.

  16. Causes and consequences of unwanted pregnancy from Asian women's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, S M

    1989-01-01

    Shortcomings of contraceptives and of family planning delivery systems are major reasons for unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Third World countries. Family planning and health programs should provide empathetic counseling for contraceptive choices and pregnancy termination, adjust management systems and procedures to facilitate women's access to services and information, and offer comprehensive services to meet their multiple reproductive health needs.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations in 500 pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leschot, N.J.; Treffers, P.E.; Verjaal, M.; Weduwen, J.J. der; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The organization, techniques used and diagnostic findings of 500 prenatal diagnoses are reported in detail. In 15 cases the pregnancy was terminated because of abnormal laboratory findings. Follow-up of the remaining pregnancies revealed a perinatal mortality of 1.7%, and the risk of an abortion ind

  18. 胎儿异常引产孕妇创伤后应激反应及与大五人格的相关性分析%Posttraumatic stress symptom in women with termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies and its correlation with big five personality traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淑殷; 李君琴; 王虹; 莫妮娜; 肖云霄; 胡健波; 余晓燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know about the post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) of women with termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies (TOPFA),and investigate the relationship of PTSD and the big five personality traits.Methods The general questionnaire,the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Big Five Questionnaire were administered to the women with TOPFA in hospital from February 2014 to February 2015.Results The total score of IES-R of 84 cases was 26.20 ± 16.38.The scores of 49 cases(58.3%) were more than 19 and that of 20 cases (23.8%) more than 35.Women who had the first pregnancy had higher level of arousal symptoms,12.84±7.41 vs.9.65±5.53 (t =2.25,P < 0.05).Women whose scores were above 19 had lower adaptation,sociality,altruism and conscience compared with those scored ≤ 19,14.96±3.29,16.84±3.00,18.55±3.49,17.57±2.99 vs.13.57±2.82,18.31±2.65,20.03±2.32,18.86±2.21,t=2.02-2.33,P < 0.05.The IES-R score had no linear correlation with that of the big five personalities,and intrusion subscale had linear correlation with the adaptation.Avoidance symptoms had low positive relationship with sociality in women whose IES-R were above 19,r =0.23,P < 0.05.In populations whose IES-R scored above 19,avoidance subscale had positive weak correlation with sociality,r=0.31,P <0.05.Conclusions The women with TOPFA had high level of PTSD before termination.Women with sever posttraumatic stress symptoms had lower sociality and altruism.Moreover,of the women who had sever posttraumatic stress symptoms,one with higher sociality always had higher avoidance symptoms.%目的 了解因胎儿异常引产孕妇终止妊娠前的创伤后应激症状,并探讨其与大五人格的关系.方法 对2014年2月至2015年2月因胎儿异常需引产的孕妇,在入院24 h内进行问卷调查,内容包括一般资料调查表、意外事件影响量表修订版(IES-R)和大五人格量表.结果 在84例胎儿异常引产孕妇中,IES-R总分为(26.20±16.38)

  19. 赛米司酮或米非司酮经口给药终止猕猴早孕有效剂量的研究%Study on the effective doses of samistone and mifepristone in terminating early pregnancy of rhesus monkeys by oral administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫芳; 张美云; 廖爱华; 左明达; 庞雪冰; 朱继望; 周慧; 常翠芳; 张翠群; 伏晓敏; 金爱华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of samistone on terminating early pregnancy of rhesus monkeys and its impact on the a-mount of vaginal bleeding, provide an experimental basis for researching and developing new drugs. Methods: The pregnant rhesus monkeys were randomly divided into seven groups: the rhesus monkeys in samistone group and mifepristone group were divided into low - dose group, middle -dose group, and high -dose group (5 mg ? Kg-1 ? D-1, 10 mg ? Kg-1 ? D-1, and 15 mg ? Kg-1 ? D-1), respectively; excipient (0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose) group was designed, five rhesus monkeys in each group. The rhesus monkeys in samistone group and mifepristone group were treated with different doses of samistone and mifepristone in a fasting state on the 42nd -48th day during menstrual cycle, once a day for three days, 200 μg misoprostol was administrated on the fourth day; the adverse reactions were observed after treatment, B ultrasound was applied to predict abortion and development of embryos on the fifteenth day. Results: The complete abortion rates in high - dose samistone group and middle - dose samistone group were 60.00% (3/5) and 20.00% (1 /5), respectively; while in low - dose samistone group, no abortion occurred. The complete abortion rates in high - dose mifeprislone group, middle - dose mifepristone group, and low - dose mifepristone group were 80. 00% (4/5 ) , 40.00% (2/5 ) , and 20.00% ( 1/5), respectively. The total abortion rates in samistone group and mifepristone group were 26. 67% (4/15) and 46.67% (7/15), there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05) . The duration time of vaginal bleeding in samistone group was significantly shorter than that in mifepristone group, the amount of vaginal bleeding in samistone group was significantly less than that in mifepristone group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion: Samistone can terminate early pregnancy of rhesus monkeys, shorten the bleeding time, and reduce the amount of

  20. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G.; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the extent to which Danish women attending antenatal care plan their pregnancies and to determine the association between pregnancy planning and the intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking habits prior to conception and before the 16th week of gestation....... Methods A cross-sectional survey of 258 women. Main outcome measures: intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking. Pregnancy planning was assessed by the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) and the five graded Swedish Pregnancy Planning Scale. Results Most (77%) of the participants...... reported that their pregnancies were very or fairly well planned. Higher median LMUP scores were observed in women taking folic acid (p...

  1. Prenatal decision-making in the second and third trimester in trisomy 21-affected pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Alexander; Braun, Thorsten; Deutinger, Christine; Henrich, Wolfgang; Kalache, Karim D; Neymeyer, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosome abnormality among live-born infants and the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. The majority of pregnancies affected by DS are terminated. The decision concerning whether or not to continue a pregnancy following the prenatal diagnosis of DS is complex and amongst others, motivated by attitudes towards termination, socioeconomic factors, and ultrasound findings. In Germany, termination of pregnancy (TOP) is a legal option, even during the later stages of gestation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes as well as possible factors that influence the decisions made by women with trisomy 21-affected pregnancies. In our study 112 pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 were included. Our data confirm that most patients are more likely to terminate a trisomy 21-affected pregnancy [76 (67.9%) vs. 36 (32.1%) continued pregnancies]. Beyond that we found that women who continued their pregnancy tended to be at an advanced stage in their pregnancy at the time of karyotyping. With regards to factors from their medical history as well as sonographic findings there was no identifiable single factor that could distinguish between women that opted to continue or terminate their pregnancy.

  2. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  3. Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Savasci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic infection that caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The clinical progress is generally asymptomatic in patient with normal immune system, on the other hand severe clinical presentations seen in patients with immune deficiency or pregnancy. Congenital toxoplasmosis can emerge due to contamination during pregnancy but 6-8 weeks prior to pregnancy are also at risk. Infants with toxoplasmosis have some clinical semptoms such as chorioretinitis, epilepsia, hypotonia, psychomotor disorders, mental retardation, encephalitis, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, hepatosplenomegaly. Early diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent treatment. may prevent malformations. Toxoplasmosis diagnosis during pregnancy is mostly based on IgM and IgG antibody screening tests. While IgM indicates the acute infection, it disappears in early period and can be detected in low consantrations through long ages. Therefore IgG avidity test takes more place in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. High avidity levels indicate acquired infection prior than 16 weeks, so that it is recommended to perform the test in the first trimester. Low IgG avidity level may indicate a newly onset infection. Amniotic fluid T.gondii PCR, anomaly screening with ultrasonography, Toxoplasma gondii cyst dying with Wright-Giemsa dye in plasental and fetal tissue are the other diagnostic tools can be performed during pregnancy. Avidity test methods during the 16 weeks of pregnancy reduce repeating serum analysis, amniotic fluid PCR reguirement, unnecessary antibiotic treatments and noncompulsory abortus. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 767-772

  4. [Differences in the use of family planning methods by adolescent females according to the education model utilized during pregnancy. Monterrey, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Alanís Alanís, María de Jesús; Alanís Salazar, Jorge; Salinas Martínez, Ana María; Garza Elizondo, M E; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to compare the use of family planning methods during the immediate postpartum period and two years following childbirth among the adolescent females who had followed two different intervention programs during their pregnancies. A quasi-experimental study was designed. A total of 62 pregnant adolescents were selected to comprised two intervention groups, the PRECEDE model and the Health Belief model (MCS) groups. Non-parametric statistical tests were employed and 95% confidence intervals estimated. The average starting knowledge in the MCS groups was 69.12 points (95% CI 63.27-74.97) and ending 89.71 points (95% CI 86.24-93.17), while the starting knowledge for the PRECEDE group was 49.39 points (95% Cl 42.24-56.54) and ending 75.25 points (95% CI 71.12-79.38). IN the immediate postpartum, 93% (95% CI 83.5-100) of the adolescents in the PRECED group accepted the use of a family planning method similar to that employed by the MCS group, of 94.2 (95% CI 86.3-100). As regards the continued use of the method, that is, two years later, the PRECEDE strategy had a greater effect that the MCS strategy, respectively 92% (95% Cl 82-100) and 72% (95% CI 56.9-87.1). A difference was found to exist between models as regards the use of family planning methods 2 years following childbirth. The PRECEDE program is proposed as the education strategy for preventing a second pregnancy among adolescent females.

  5. Terminal Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    of simple algebraic equations, but require either approximate solutions or solution by numerical methods. AERODYNAMICS OF A PROJECTILE The aerodynamic...projectiles with the granular component of the mediUzm. Assumnina. that the Sandia empirical equations are basica ~fy representatIions of the Poncelet

  6. Embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, y utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Núñez-Urquiza

    2003-01-01

    potencial de cobertura aún no alcanzado entre el grupo de adolescentes, especialmente entre las que viven en áreas suburbanas y entre las no derechohabientes de la seguridad social. Asimismo, sugiere la necesidad de insistir en la promoción de la utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto en este grupo considerado de alto riesgo reproductivo. Además, se evidencia la necesidad de investigar sobre métodos de educación sexual y reproductiva que puedan introducirse en el sistema escolar desde el nivel primario.OBJECTIVE: To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. RESULTS: Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7. An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33 and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive

  7. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a mixed methods prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There has been insufficient attention to long-term care and treatment for pregnant women diagnosed with HIV. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study of 100 HIV-positive women recruited within pregnancy-related services in a district hospital in Kenya employed quantitative methods to assess attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services. Qualitative methods were used to explore barriers and facilitators to navigating these services. Structured questionnaires were administered to cohort participants at enrolment and 90+ days later. Participants' medical records were monitored prospectively. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a sub-set of 19 participants. FINDINGS: Only 53/100 (53% women registered at an HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis, of whom 27/53 (51% had a CD4 count result in their file. 11/27 (41% women were eligible for immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART; only 6/11 (55% started ART during study follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with registration at the HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis were: having cared for someone with HIV (aOR:3.67(95%CI:1.22, 11.09, not having to pay for transport to the hospital (aOR:2.73(95%CI:1.09, 6.84, and having received enough information to decide to have an HIV test (aOR:3.61(95%CI:0.83, 15.71. Qualitative data revealed multiple factors underlying high patient drop-out related to women's social support networks (e.g. partner's attitude to HIV status, interactions with health workers (e.g. being given unclear/incorrect HIV-related information and health services characteristics (e.g. restricted opening hours, long waiting times. CONCLUSION: HIV testing within pregnancy-related services is an important entry point to HIV care and treatment services, but few women successfully completed the steps needed for

  8. 两种胚胎冻融方法对累积妊娠率的影响%Influence of two embryo freezing methods on cumulative pregnancy rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秘祖霞; 卢伟英; 徐雯

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of two embryo freezing methods on cumulative pregnancy rate. Methods Seventy-eight patients received 92 F-ET cycles of slow freezing (group A), and 114 patients received 179 F-ET cycles in vitification warmed (group B). After warming, the survival rate, cumulative clinical pregnancy rates were compared between the two groups. Results The survival rate (94.3% vs 53.9%, P0.05). Conclusion In contrast to slow freezing, Vitrification provides a higher cumulative pregnancy rate, which serves as an efficient method for the cryopreservation of human cleavage stage embryos.%目的 比较玻璃化法和程序法对人第3天卵裂期胚胎冻融移植周期累积妊娠率的影响.方法 选取程序化冻融周期92例、玻璃化法冻融周期179例,比较分析这两种冻融方法在存活率、累积临床妊娠率等方面的效果.结果 玻璃化法在胚胎复苏存活率(94.3% vs 53.9%,P<0.01)、复苏完整胚胎形态(89.4% vs 36.3%,P<0.01)、累积临床妊娠率(28.2% vs 43%,0.01<P <0.05)等方面均明显优于程序化法,但在在胚胎植入率(13.7% vs 13.5%)、流产率(18.2% vs 22.4%)等方面差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 与程序化法比较,玻璃化法可以提高累积妊娠率,是一种高效胚胎冻融方法.

  9. Epidemiology of Ectopic Pregnancy in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%. Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2% were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.

  10. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvanen Annukka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. Results In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9% more often than other pregnant women (15.5%. Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02. A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65. The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies, followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0% and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%. Conclusions The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlighs the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth.

  11. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  12. Pregnancy Outcomes Based on Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Japanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Kimiko; Aoki, Shigeru; Toma, Rie; Fujiwara, Kana; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify whether body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is valid in Japanese women. Method A study was conducted in 97,157 women with singleton pregnancies registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System between January 2013 and December 2013, to examine pregnancy outcomes in four groups stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI category according to the 2009 criteria recommended by the I...

  13. Pregnancy and Parenting among Runaway Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Syliva B.

    1980-01-01

    Alienated adolescent girls tend to be sexually active, tend not to use contraception effectively, and tend not to terminate pregnancy. Although they welcome a baby as a solution to lifelong problems, their poverty and drug abuse, inadequate nutrition, and lack of prenatal care put offspring at high risk. (Author/NRB)

  14. Effect of oestrus synchronization methods on oestrus behaviour, timing of ovulation and pregnancy rate during the breeding and low breeding seasons in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Channa, Aijaz Ali; Ahmad, Nasim

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oestrous synchronization methods on oestrous behaviour, timing of ovulation and pregnancy rate during the breeding and low breeding seasons in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. In Experiment 1, oestrous behaviour and timing of ovulation were determined from (n=34) oestruses. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) time of ovulation after the onset of standing oestrus was greater (P0.05) from those which were inseminated during the low breeding season (55.5%) and (30.4%), respectively. This study demonstrates clearly that (1) timing of ovulation in Nili-Ravi buffalo is about 30h after the onset of standing oestrus and (2) buffaloes can be successfully synchronized with optimum fertility using either PGF(2alpha) alone (detected oestrus) or using (Ovsynch protocol) during low breeding season, to calve during the period when milk availability is short.

  15. The prevention of teenage pregnancy in adolescent's view

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Milla Wildemberg; Araújo, Alisson; Souza, Márcia Christina Caetano de

    2015-01-01

    ...: perception about the importance of preventing teenage pregnancy, knowledge about the use of contraception methods, use of contraceptives methods, barriers to access to health services for the prevention of pregnancy...

  16. Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  17. Flu Vaccine during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  18. Ending a Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  19. Linkage between the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, and other Danish registries as a tool for the study of drug safety in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen LH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars H Pedersen,1,2 Olav B Petersen,1,2 Mette Nørgaard,3 Charlotte Ekelund,4 Lars Pedersen,3 Ann Tabor,4 Henrik T Sørensen3 1Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Fetal Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: A linked population-based database is being created in Denmark for research on drug safety during pregnancy. It combines information from the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database (with information on all prescriptions reimbursed in Denmark since 2004, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, the Danish National Registry of Patients, and the Medical Birth Registry. The new linked database will provide validated information on malformations diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally. The cohort from 2008 to 2014 will comprise 589,000 pregnancies with information on 424,000 pregnancies resulting in live-born children, ~420,000 pregnancies undergoing prenatal ultrasound scans, 65,000 miscarriages, and 92,000 terminations. It will be updated yearly with information on ~80,000 pregnancies. The cohort will enable identification of drug exposures associated with severe malformations, not only based on malformations diagnosed after birth but also including those having led to termination of pregnancy or miscarriage. Such combined data will provide a unique source of information for research on the safety of medications used during pregnancy. Keywords: malformations, teratology, therapeutic drug monitoring, epidemiological methods, registries

  20. Neurosurgical procedures in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirak Bayram

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Over the past few decades maternal mortality has progressively declined because of improved management of the major obstetric problems of hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. As a result, the relative incidence of deaths resulting from non obstetric causes has increased. Chief among nonobstetric causes are neurologic disorders. Those most common during pregnancy are low back pain, intracranial tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and neurotrauma. The management of the neurosurgical pathologies during pregnancy needs some specifications for both the mother and the fetus. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study evaluating the clinical, radiological, and surgical characteristics of 9 patients who have cranial neuropathologies and have undergone neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS: Most of the patients in this study had vaginal delivery. Prominent neurosurgical disease related to cerebral damage. Every patient underwent a laboratory and radiological evaluation. All except one survived the neurosurgical pathology. Neither baby nor mother had significant problem during delivery and neurosurgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women may face to every kind of neurosurgical pathology that nonpregnant women have faced. In addition, pregnancy itself, gives rise some metabolic changes in the women and those changes may cause some neurologic pathologies to be symptomatic or to aggravate the present symptomatology. Because of those reasons, close neurologic follow up of a pregnant woman is of vital importance. At the end of a pregnancy having experienced some neurologic interventions including diagnostic evaluation or surgical intervention does not necessitates the cesarean section for a neurologically intact infant and mother.