WorldWideScience

Sample records for pregnancy related conditions

  1. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis.

  2. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  3. Association of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Pregnancy-Related Weight Changes, and Parity With the Risk of Developing Degenerative Musculoskeletal Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and pregnancy-related weight changes are associated with long-term risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions. Methods A total of 79,687 mothers with singleton births from the Danish National Birth Cohort were included....... Information on height and weight prior to pregnancy and 6 months postpartum as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) was obtained from telephone interviews, while parity was derived from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Diagnoses of musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc disorders, low...... back pain, and soft tissue disorders, were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results The cumulative incidence of musculoskeletal conditions during a median follow-up of 12.4 years was 19.7%. The risk...

  4. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appear on the skin during pregnancy? • What are stretch marks? • Is acne common during pregnancy? • How can I ... runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes in nail ...

  5. Pregnancy-related osteoporosis and spinal fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ka Yeong; Han, Si Eun; Kim, Seung Chul; Lee, Kyu Sup

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy-related osteoporosis is a very rare condition characterized by the occurrence of fracture during pregnancy or the puerperium. Despite its relative rarity, it can be a dangerous condition that causes severe back pain, height loss and disability. Normal physiologic changes during pregnancy, genetic or racial difference, obstetrical history and obstetrical disease, such as preterm labor or pregnancy-induced hypertension, are presumed risk factors of pregnancy-related osteooporosis. However, exact etiology and pathogenesis are uncertain. The management and natural history are still poorly defined. Traditional medications for osteoporosis are calcium/vitamin D and bisphosphonate. Concerns with bisphosphonate include accumulation in bone and fetal exposure in subsequent pregnancies. The newly developed medication, teriparatide, has shown good results. We report six cases of pregnancy-related osteoporosis and spinal fracture with literature review. PMID:28217686

  6. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  7. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  8. Helicobacter pylori and pregnancy-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaropoli, Simona; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is investigated in gastric diseases even during pregnancy. In particular, this Gram-negative bacterium seems to be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, a severe form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. During the last decade, the relationship among H. pylori and several extra-gastric diseases strongly emerged in literature. The correlation among H. pylori infection and pregnancy-related disorders was mainly focused on iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytopenia, fetal malformations, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. H. pylori infection may have a role in the pathogenesis of various pregnancy-related disorders through different mechanisms: depletion of micronutrients (iron and vitamin B12) in maternal anemia and fetal neural tube defects; local or systemic induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines release and oxidative stress in gastrointestinal disorders and pre-eclampsia; cross-reaction between specific anti-H. pylori antibodies and antigens localized in placental tissue and endothelial cells (pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, miscarriage). Since H. pylori infection is most likely acquired before pregnancy, it is widely believed that hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy could activate latent H. pylori with a negative impact not only on maternal health (nutritional deficiency, organ injury, death), but also on the fetus (insufficient growth, malformation, death) and sometime consequences can be observed later in life. Another important issue addressed by investigators was to determine whether it is possible to transmit H. pylori infection from mother to child and whether maternal anti-H. pylori antibodies could prevent infant’s infection. Studies on novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods for H. pylori are no less important, since these are particularly sensitive topics in pregnancy conditions. It could be interesting to study the possible correlation between H

  9. Relation between time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatave Ghasemi Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown significant correlation between time to pregnancy (TTP and pregnancy  outcomes. But  understanding of these mechanisms may not be facilitated. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between TTP and pregnancy outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was a case cohort study that was done in Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital during 2006-2007. Women aged 18-35 years, who had only one pregnancy without using any contraception method before pregnancy and delivered their first child, were enrolled in this study. Thus, 801 women were selected and followed up for pregnancy outcome and TTP until the end of pregnancy. All the participants filled in a special questionnaire. Finally the collected data were entered into computer and analyzed by SPSS ver. 20 software. Results: The frequency distribution of TTP-based pregnancy outcome showed that TTP >48 weeks was higher in normal delivery than in abnormal delivery (5.6% vs. 19.4%. According to Chi-square test, the frequency distribution of pregnancy outcome was related to TTP (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there is a significant relationship between TTP and pregnancy outcome, and TTP may lead to unwanted complications such as ectopic pregnancy, preterm labor, and abortion. Thus, all women with a long time of contraception, especially in the rural areas, mast be controlled.

  10. Pregnancy-related myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, H.; Lont, M. C.; Buter, H.; van Boven, A. J.; Boonstra, P. W.; Pieper, P. G.

    Introduction The risk of acute myocardial infarction in young women is low, but increases during pregnancy due to the physiological changes in pregnancy, including hypercoagulability. Ischaemic heart disease during pregnancy is not only associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality, but

  11. [Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowicz, Ewa; Staszków, Monika

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in obstetrics may be caused by the same disorders that are observed in the general population or may be specific for a pregnancy such as: preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The renal changes may be only temporary, and resolve within a few weeks postpartum, or may become irreversible leading to a progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the article the most important pregnancy related syndromes associated with AKI have been shortly reviewed.

  12. Pregnancy related acute kidney injury: nondialytic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliki Hymavathi Reddy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute Kidney Injury (AKI is associated with increased mortality and morbidity unless timely diagnosed and promptly managed. An understanding of the renal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy is essential for Proper evaluation, diagnosis, and management of Pregnancy Related AKI (PRAKI. In the general population, AKI can occur from prerenal, intrinsic/renal, and post-renal causes. Major causes of pre-renal azotemia include hyperemesis gravidarum and uterine hemorrhage in the setting of placental abruption. Intrinsic etiologies include infections from acute pyelonephritis and septic abortion, bilateral cortical necrosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Particular attention should be paid to specific conditions that lead to AKI during the second and third trimesters, such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and TTP-HUS. An understanding of the various etiologies of AKI in the pregnant patient is key to the appropriate clinical management and prevention of adverse maternal/fetal outcomes. Sometimes PRAKI may require intensive management and even dialysis adding additional economical burden to the patient. We here, with report an interesting case of PRAKI diagnosed and managed in time by simple medical measures thus delivering an effective treatment at a much lesser cost. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 486-489

  13. Imaging of acute neurological conditions in pregnancy and the puerperium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dineen, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: robert.dineen@nhs.net; Banks, A. [Department of Anaesthesia, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lenthall, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Eclampsia is one of the most common acute neurological events occurring during pregnancy. However, there are many other conditions that can present during pregnancy and the puerperium and that may either mimic eclampsia or produce other acute neurological manifestations. Frequently the symptoms and signs are non-specific, and it can be difficult to differentiate between these conditions on clinical grounds alone. Neuroradiological studies can provide valuable diagnostic information, and interventional radiological procedures may play a part in the subsequent management of these conditions. This review focuses on the imaging of acute neurological conditions which may be associated with, or present during, pregnancy and the puerperium.

  14. Major flood related strains and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Kvasnicka-Gates, Lexi; Teoh, Ai Ni; Bresin, Konrad; Fiebiger, Siri

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of experiencing a major flood during pregnancy on fetal growth and length of gestation, and to consider how flood-related strains might contribute to these effects. The Red River Pregnancy Project was a prospective study carried out for 3 months immediately after the historic 2009 crest of the Red River in Fargo, North Dakota. Pregnant community residents who were at least 18 years old with a singleton, intrauterine pregnancy participated in the study (N = 169). Analyses examined if birth weight and length of gestation were associated with residential distance from flooding and gestational age at time of the flood crest. For pregnancies earlier in gestation during the crest (-1 SD = 12 weeks), birth weight decreased as distance from flooding decreased (-42.29 g/mi, p .10). Biparietal growth trajectories showed a decrease in growth after the crest of the flood but only for women early in pregnancy. However, various measures of flood related and general stress or strain did not explain these effects. Length of gestation was not associated with distance from or the timing of the flood. Pregnant women in the first trimester who experience a major flood near their homes are at risk of having lower birth weight neonates due to a reduction in fetal growth. The mechanisms of this effect deserve further attention in rapidly mounted investigations after disaster. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. BREAST CONDITIONS DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day with either an elevated temperature or constitutional symptoms of fever. ... Blood-stained nipple discharge during pregnancy and or lactation is fairly common. .... malignancy during gestation, after cervical cancer.16 ... (after surgery) or neo-adjuvant (prior to surgery). It is best avoided during the first trimester of ...

  16. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, le...

  17. Proteomic analysis of pregnancy-related proteins from pig uterus endometrium during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sunghyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many important molecular events associated with implantation and development occur within the female reproductive tract, especially within the uterus endometrium, during pregnancy periods. The endometrium includes the mucosal lining of the uterus, which provides a suitable site for implantation and development of a fertilized egg and fetus. To date, the molecular cascades in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy periods in pigs have not been elucidated fully. In this study, we compared the functional regulated proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy periods with those in non-pregnant conditions and investigated changes in expression patterns during pregnancy (days 40, 70, and 93 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and western blotting. The functional regulated proteins were identified and discovered from differentially expressed proteins in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy. We discovered 820 protein spots in a proteomic analysis of uterus endometrium tissues with 2-DE gels. We identified 63 of the 98 proteins regulated differentially among non-pregnant and pregnant tissues (matched and unmatched spots. Interestingly, 10 of these 63 proteins are development-, cytoskeleton- and chaperon-related proteins such as transferrin, protein DJ-1, transgelin, galectin-1, septin 2, stathmin 1, cofilin 1, fascin 1, heat shock protein (HSP 90β and HSP 27. The specific expression patterns of these proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy were confirmed by western blotting. Our results suggest that the expressions of these genes involved in endometrium function and endometrium development from early to late gestation are associated with the regulation of endometrium development for maintaining pregnancy.

  18. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic micro-angiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  19. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  20. Pregnancy-related low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katonis, P; Kampouroglou, A; Aggelopoulos, A; Kakavelakis, K; Lykoudis, S; Makrigiannakis, A; Alpantaki, K

    2011-07-01

    Pregnancy related low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It can potentially have a negative impact on their quality of life. The aim of this article is to present a current review of the literature concerning this issue.By using PubMed database and low back pain, pelvic girdle pain, pregnancy as keywords, abstracts and original articles in English investigating the diagnosis treatment of back pain during pregnancy were searched and analyzedLow back pain could present as either a pelvic girdle pain between the posterior iliac crest and the gluteal fold or as a lumbar pain over and around the lumbar spine. The source of the pain should be diagnosed and differentiated early.The appropriate treatment aims to reduce the discomfort and the impact on the pregnant womans quality of life. This article reveals the most common risk factors, as well as treatment methods, which may help to alleviate the pain. Some suggestions for additional research are also discussed.

  1. Osteonecrosis of the humerus related to pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    McGuigan, L; Fleming, A

    1983-01-01

    A case of osteonecrosis of the head of the humerus is described in which the only likely precipitant was pregnancy. The association of pregnancy and osteonecrosis is reviewed. This is the first reported case of osteonecrosis of the humerus alone associated with pregnancy.

  2. Urological conditions in pregnancy: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, K N; Morrison, I D; Shrotri, N C

    2007-10-01

    Urological conditions in pregnancy represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The potential adverse effects of anaesthesia, radiation and drugs on the fetus often complicate traditional diagnostic and treatment measures. As frontline clinicians, obstetricians need an awareness of symptoms, associated obstetric complications and an appreciation of available current diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and their associated risks. This article describes common urinary problems encountered in pregnancy: infection, hydronephrosis and urolithiasis specifically. The aim of this paper is to review the safety, efficacy and role of different imaging studies available for the diagnosis of urolithiasis in pregnancy. Conservative management as first line treatment and a variety of interventional urological procedures with postoperative management are also discussed. Such a background may facilitate a rational management protocol for urological problems in a pregnant woman.

  3. SUDEP and epilepsy-related mortality in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edey, Stephan; Moran, Nicholas; Nashef, Lina

    2014-07-01

    Although data are limited, research in 2004 estimated a 10-fold increase in mortality in pregnancy in the United Kingdom in women with epilepsy (WWE) compared to women without epilepsy. We highlight epilepsy mortality in pregnancy based on the 2011 report of the United Kingdom Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, relating its findings to previous reports and epilepsy-rates in pregnancy. Among 2,291,493 maternities (2006-2008), we estimated 0.6% or 13,978 were in WWE. Fourteen deaths were epilepsy-related, of which 11 (79%) were sudden and unexpected (SUDEP). Nine occurred during pregnancy and five were postpartum. Nine (64%) were in women taking lamotrigine, seven as monotherapy. We estimated that 1:1,000 women died from epilepsy (mostly SUDEP) during or shortly after pregnancy. Epilepsy-related mortality is a significant risk in pregnancy. Antiepileptic drug-related factors may be relevant. The high proportion of women taking lamotrigine may reflect United Kingdom prescribing practice. Recent observations from the European and International Registry of Antiepileptic Drugs and Pregnancy (EURAP), whereby women on lamotrigine, the levels of which significantly decrease in pregnancy, had more difficulties with epilepsy control, argue against this being the sole explanation. Given the potential risks, every attempt should be made to prevent seizures, particularly convulsive, during pregnancy and postpartum. This, we believe, includes being proactive in maintaining lamotrigine levels during pregnancy.

  4. Pregnancy-related characteristics and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hutson, Alan D; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B; Edge, Stephen B; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-09-01

    Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend pregnancies (p trend pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  5. Pregnancy related listeriosis: treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, Franz; Huhulescu, Steliana

    2015-03-01

    Listeriosis during pregnancy usually presents as an unremarkable febrile illness in the mother but can be fatal for the fetus and newborn. Reliable laboratory testing for early diagnosis is lacking. Serological antibody tests and bacteriological stool tests are not helpful since Listeria-specific antibodies and stool cultures yielding the organism can be found in healthy pregnant women. Because early diagnosis is difficult, diagnosis is usually made by culturing the pathogen from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, placenta or meconium. The mortality rate for fetal and newborn listeriosis remains approximately 20%. Two to three cases of pregnancy-associated listeriosis are reported annually in Austria among approximately 79,000 births, 20-30 cases are reported annually in Germany among approximately 680,000 births and 50-100 cases are reported annually in the USA among approximately 4 million births. Although Listeria infections in pregnancy are rare, they should be considered as a cause of fever of unknown origin during pregnancy.

  6. Age at menarche and pregnancy-related pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette J; Biering, Karin; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Menarcheal age is a predictor of several complications related to pregnancy and diseases later in life. We aimed to study if menarcheal age is a risk factor for pregnancy-related pelvic pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within the Danish National Birth...... Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women, recruited during 1996-2002, and their children. In the second trimester of pregnancy the women provided information about age at menarche and potential confounders. Selection of cases (n = 2227) was based on self-reported pelvic pain during pregnancy from an interview...... done 6 months post-partum. The controls (n = 2588) were randomly selected among women who did not report pelvic pain. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (OR) for pregnancy-related pelvic pain according to age at menarche. RESULTS: In the cohort, 18.5% of all pregnant women...

  7. How I treat pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates ~ 1 to 2 of 1000 pregnancies, with pulmonary embolism being a leading cause of maternal mortality and deep vein thrombosis an important cause of maternal morbidity, also on the long term. However, a strong evidence base for the management of pregnancy-related

  8. Objective Measures for Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Groot (Mirthe)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPain in the lumbar spine and pelvic region is a frequent complication of pregnancy and delivery. The prevalence of pregnancy related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) varies between 14.2 and 56%. In 6 to 15% the pain is so severe that it impedes daily life activities. The symptoms of PL

  9. How I treat pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Middeldorp

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates ~ 1 to 2 of 1000 pregnancies, with pulmonary embolism being a leading cause of maternal mortality and deep vein thrombosis an important cause of maternal morbidity, also on the long term. However, a strong evidence base for the management of pregnancy-related

  10. Treatment of pregnancy related venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Gorana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy are complicated since the use of antithrombotic drugs carries a certain risk to the mother, the fetus or both. Coumarins cross the placental barrier and may be responsible for bleeding, teratogenicity and central nervous system abnormalities. The risk of embriopathy is particularly high between 6 and 12 weeks of gestation. Treatement. Heparin is the treatment of choice for thrombosis during pregnancy because it is entirely safe for the fetus, unlike oral anticoagulants. The frequency of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and osteoporosis is significantly lower if LMWH is applied, so this heparin type is preferable to UFH during pregnancy. Treatment of women with VTE during pregnancy, especially those with thrombophilia, requires individualized dosing and duration of antithrombotic thrapy. Peripartal management. In order to avoid the peripartum anticoagulant heparin effect and possible bleeding, heparin should be discontinued prior to the delivery and reintroduced after the parturition. PROPHYLACTIC REGIMEn. Prophylactic antithrombotic regimen during subsequent pregnancies should also be individualized. The use of low molecular weight heparins is becoming more widespread. They have reliable pharmacokinetics, require less frequent injections than unfractionated heparin and carry a lower risk of treatment complications. LMW heparins are safe and effective and they are replacing UFH as the anticoagulant of choice during pregnancy. Both UFH and LMWH are not secreted into breast milk and can be safely given to nursing mothers. Warfarin does not induce an anticoagulant effect in the breast-fed infant, so it can be safely used in women who require postpartum anticoagulant therapy.

  11. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    . Similarly, between the groups, there were no differences in pregnancy adaptation with similar trends in cardiovascular function changes from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. Whilst this is the first study to investigate preconception and early pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function in relation to viability, the relatively modest number of miscarriages may not be sufficient to show subtle differences in haemodynamic changes if these were present. This study suggests that pre-pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function is unlikely to be the causal link between miscarriages and future cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggests that factors other than the presence of a viable embryo drive cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy. This study raises new questions about miscarriages as an independent risk event which predisposes women to increased cardiovascular risk later in life. The investigators are funded by NIHR Imperial BRC, NIHR Cambridge BRC, Action Medical Research, Imperial College Healthcare Charity and Tommy's Charity. We acknowledge the loan of ultrasound equipment from Samsung Medison (South Korea)/MIS Ltd and provision of fertility monitors from SPD Development Company Ltd (Bedford, UK). There are no competing interests. C.C.L. is supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust and Imperial College London. N/A.

  12. Improving the accuracy of maternal mortality and pregnancy related death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Burk

    2014-01-01

    Comparing abortion-related death and pregnancy-related death remains difficult due to the limitations within the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). These methods lack a systematic and comprehensive method of collecting complete records regarding abortion outcomes in each state and fail to properly identify longitudinal cause of death related to induced abortion. This article seeks to analyze the current method of comparing abortion-related death with pregnancy-related death and provide solutions to improve data collection regarding these subjects.

  13. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  14. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  15. Delusion of pregnancy and other pregnancy-mimicking conditions: Dissecting through differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The delusion of pregnancy is defined as the belief of being pregnant despite factual evidence to the contrary. Even being more common in a developing country, the literature about delusion of pregnancy from India is meager. The present article reports the case of delusion of pregnancy in an unmarried female associated with subclinical hypothyroidism and prominent sibling rivalry from psychological aspect. The literature in this field has addressed for the organic and psychodynamic, psychosocial aspect of this disorder and its difference from other disorders mimicking pregnancy and its relevance to the treatment plan.

  16. [Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chiang, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Most women experience the worse sleep quality of their life during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Although pregnancy typically accounts for a relatively short part of a woman's life, the related sleep disturbances may have a significant and negative impact on her long-term health. Approximately 78-80% of pregnant women experience sleep disturbances, including interruptions in deep sleep, decreased total sleep time, poor subjective sleep quality, frequent night waking, and reduced sleep efficacy. Sleep disturbances during pregnancy start during the first trimester and become prevalent during the third trimester. Related factors include physiological and psychosocial changes and an unhealthy lifestyle. As non-pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve sleep quality in 70% to 80% of patients with insomnia, this is the main approached that is currently used to treat pregnancy-related sleep disturbances. Examples of these non-pharmacological interventions include music therapy, aerobic exercise, massage, progressive muscle relaxation, multi-modal interventions, and the use of a maternity support belt. The efficacy and safety of other related non-pharmacological interventions such as auricular acupressure, cognitive therapy, tai chi, and aromatherapy remain uncertain, with more empirical research required. Additionally, non-pharmacological interventions do not effectively treat sleep disturbances in all pregnant women.

  17. Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, A S; Skuladottir, G V; Thorsdottir, I; Hauksson, A; Steingrimsdottir, L

    2006-03-01

    To identify dietary factors related to the risk of gaining weight outside recommendations for pregnancy weight gain and birth outcome. An observational study with free-living conditions. Four hundred and ninety five healthy pregnant Icelandic women. The dietary intake of the women was estimated with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire covering food intake together with lifestyle factors for the previous 3 months. Questionnaires were filled out at between 11 and 15 weeks and between 34 and 37 weeks gestation. Comparison of birth outcome between the three weight gain groups was made with ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Dietary factors related to at least optimal and excessive weight gain during pregnancy were represented with logistic regression controlling for potential confounding. Of the women, 26% gained suboptimal and 34% excessive weight during pregnancy. Women in late pregnancy with at least optimal, compared with women with suboptimal, weight gain were eating more (OR = 3.32, confidence interval (CI)=1.81-6.09, P lifestyle modifications affecting consequent weight gain during pregnancy. They are most likely to gain excessive weight and therefore most likely to suffer pregnancy and delivery complications and struggle with increasing overweight and obesity after giving birth.

  18. Vascular related pregnancy complications: genetics and remote cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Berends (Anne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPreeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are common vascular related pregnancy syndromes of unknown cause. Both preeclampsia and IUGR are responsible for a significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preeclampsia affects approximately 2.5-3.0% of

  19. Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorell Eva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain with onset during pregnancy is common and approximately one out of three women have disabling pain. The pathogenesis of the pain condition is uncertain and there is no information on the role of physical fitness. Whether poorer physical conditioning is a cause or effect of back pain is also disputed and information from prospective studies needed. Methods A cohort of pregnant women, recruited from maternal health care centers in central Sweden, were examined regarding estimated peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometer test in early pregnancy, reported physical activity prior to pregnancy, basic characteristics, back pain during pregnancy and back pain postpartum. Results Back pain during the current pregnancy was reported by nearly 80% of the women. At the postpartum appointment this prevalence was 40%. No association was displayed between estimated peak oxygen uptake and incidence of back pain during and after pregnancy, adjusted for physical activity, back pain before present pregnancy, previous deliveries, age and weight. A significant inverse association was found between estimated peak oxygen uptake and back pain intensity during pregnancy and a direct association post partum, in a fully adjusted multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions Estimated peak oxygen uptake and reported physical activity in early pregnancy displayed no influence on the onset of subsequent back pain during or after pregnancy, where the time sequence support the hypothesis that poorer physical deconditioning is not a cause but a consequence of the back pain condition. The mechanism for the attenuating effect of increased oxygen uptake on back pain intensity is uncertain.

  20. Pregnancy-Related Lumbopelvic Pain: Listening to Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Pierce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence and nature of lumbo-pelvic pain (LPP, that is experienced by women in the lumbar and/or sacro-iliac area and/or symphysis pubis during pregnancy. Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting. An Australian public hospital antenatal clinic. Sample population: Women in their third trimester of pregnancy. Method. Women were recruited to the study as they presented for their antenatal appointment. A survey collected demographic data and was used to self report LPP. A pain diagram differentiated low back, pelvic girdle or combined pain. Closed and open ended questions explored the experiences of the women. Main Outcome Measures. The Visual Analogue Scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (Version 2.1a. Results. There was a high prevalence of self reported LPP during the pregnancy (71%. An association was found between the reporting of LPP, multiparity, and a previous history of LPP. The mean intensity score for usual pain was 6/10 and four out of five women reported disability associated with the condition. Most women (71% had reported their symptoms to their maternity carer however only a small proportion of these women received intervention. Conclusion. LPP is a potentially significant health issue during pregnancy.

  1. Does unemployment in family affect pregnancy outcome in conditions of high quality maternity care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Seppo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of unemployment in the family on pregnancy outcome is controversial. Only a few studies have involved investigation of the effect of unemployment of the father on pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of unemployment of one or both parents on obstetric outcome in conditions of free antenatal care attended by the entire pregnant population. Methods The data of 24 939 pregnancies included maternal risk factors, pregnancy characteristics and outcome, and was based on a self administered questionnaire at 20 weeks of pregnancy and on clinical records. Results Unemployment was associated with adolescent maternal age, unmarried status and overweight, anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption and prior pregnancy terminations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that after controlling for these maternal risk factors small differences only were found in pregnancy outcomes between unemployed and employed families. Unemployed women had significantly more often small-for-gestational-age (SGA infants, at an OR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12 – 1.42 whereas, in families where both parents were unemployed, the risk of SGA was even higher at an OR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.18 – 1.73. Otherwise, pregnancy outcome was comparable in the groups studied. Conclusion Free antenatal care was unable to fully overcome the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with unemployment, SGA risk being highest when both parents are unemployed.

  2. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For the pres

  3. Increasing pregnancy-related use of prescribed opioid analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A.; Bobo, William V.; Martin, Peter R.; Morrow, James A.; Wang, Wei; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Cooper, William O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the prevalence of prescribed opioid analgesics among pregnant women enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid from 1995 to 2009. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 277,555 pregnancies identified from birth and fetal death certificates, and linked to previously-validated computerized pharmacy records. Poisson regression was used to estimate trends over time, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results During the study period, 29% of pregnant women filled a prescription for an opioid analgesic. From 1995 to 2009, any pregnancy-related use increased 1.90-fold (95% CI = 1.83, 1.98), first trimester use increased 2.27-fold (95% CI = 2.14, 2.41), and second or third trimester use increased 2.02-fold (95% CI = 1.93, 2.12), after adjusting for maternal characteristics. Any pregnancy-related, first trimester, and second or third trimester use were each more likely among mothers who were at least 21 years old, white, non-Hispanic, prima gravid, resided in non-urban areas, enrolled in Medicaid due to disability, and who had less than a high school education. Conclusions Opioid analgesic use by Tennessee Medicaid-insured pregnant women increased nearly 2-fold from 1995 to 2009. Additional study is warranted in order to understand the implications of this increased use. PMID:23889859

  4. Vaginitis in pregnancy is related to adverse perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fengqiu; Du, Xiaodong; Xie, Lili

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether education level and occupation are risk factors of vaginitis in pregnant women and to investigate relationship between vaginitis occurrence during pregnancy and perinatal mortality rates. A total of 319 women of early pregnancy or mid-pregnancy were enrolled. Six specimens were collected from posterior fornix of each pregnant woman and then cultured for identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, general bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and chlamydia, respectively. The pregnant women in the "elementary school or below" group and the "middle school" group had significantly higher incidences of vaginitis compared with the pregnant women in the groups of "high school", "skill education", and "college or above". The pregnant women in the groups of "Worker", "Government employee", "Company employee", and "Professionals" had significantly lower vaginitis incidences. The women with infections of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, and general bacteria had higher perinatal mortalities (0.063 ± 0.011, 0.052 ± 0.012, and 0.017 ± 0.008, respectively) than women with infections of fungi, mycoplasma, and Chlamydia (0.002 ± 0.007, 0.003 ± 0.004, and 0.001 ± 0.001, respectively). Education level and occupation are risk factors related to incidences of vaginitis in pregnant women. The bacteria-related vaginitis is a major reason of perinatal mortality.

  5. Pregnancy related pelvic pain is more frequent in women with increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting and population. The Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women and their children recruited 1996–2002. Methods. The women...... had not given birth before. Conclusion. The risk of pregnancy-related pelvic pain increasedwith pre-pregnancy BMI in an exposure–response relation and potentially adds another maternal complication to obesity....... were interviewed twice during pregnancy and twice after childbirth. The first pregnancy interview provided information on self-reported pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and possible confounders, while data on pregnancy-related pelvic pain came from an interview sixmonths postpartum. Cases (n=2 271...

  6. [Pregnancy-associated hormones and fetal-maternal relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailly-Fabre, E; Kerlan, V; Christin-Maitre, S

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is an immunological paradox that implies that a semi-allogeneic fetus is not rejected by the maternal immune system, from implantation of the embryo to delivery. Progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), contribute to the transformation of immune cells in a transient tolerance state, necessary to the maintenance of pregnancy. The effects of pregnancy hormones depend probably of their maternal plasma level. hCG is dangerous at high concentrations because it can stimulate autoantibodies production, whereas in physiological concentrations, hCG, P4 and E2 upregulate immune response expanding regulatory T and B cells, allowing the fetus to grow within the maternal uterus in a protective environment. A second example of fetal-maternal relation found recently is the role of maternal nutrition on development of the fetal hypothalamic neurons. Experiments in mice fed on a high fat diet reveal a critical timing when altered maternal metabolism affect formation of hypothalamic neurocircuits of the offspring and predispose him to long-term metabolic disorders.

  7. Frequency and related factors of tubal patency after methotrexate treatment in women with ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedoshohadaei, Fariba; Mohammadbeigi, Robabeh; Tahmuri, Atefe; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2016-03-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a medical emergency. The classic treatment for this condition is surgery but early diagnosis allows for non-surgical treatment. In recent years, intramuscular methotrexate has been considered, due to easy administration, its less invasive nature and low complications, but there are arguments about its effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate tubal patency after treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate and related factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 80 women with ectopic pregnancy who were admitted to Sanandaj Be'sat Hospital in 2014. Patients who had successful treatment for ectopic pregnancy with single or multiple doses of methotrexate 50 mL/m(2) were enrolled. Three to 6 months after treatment, the patients were evaluated for tubal patency by hysterosalpingography. Data were analyzed using spss, t-tests, χ(2) -test and logistic regression. The tubal patency rate after treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate was 75% in hysterosalpingography. The average size of the ectopic pregnancy mass of women with open fallopian tubes was 22.5 ± 7.0 mm and for women with closed fallopian tubes it was 34.7 ± 10.0 mm (P = 0.0001). β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were 642.1 ± 850.5 in women with open fallopian tubes and 3816.3 ± 4487.3 for women with closed fallopian tubes (P = 0.0001). There was no significant correlation statistically between tubal patency with a history of stillbirth and number of pregnancies (P > 0.5). There was a statistically significant relation between tubal patency and the number of births and also methotrexate dose (P ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate is effective for saving tubal patency. Levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin-β ectopic pregnancy mass size smaller than 33.5 mm are significant predictors of tubal patency. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Validation of Iranian Version of Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarizadeh, Ghasem; Karamoozian, Mahsa; Darekordi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is an acute period in the lifetime of women, during which numerous excitatory physical and social changes occur. The purpose of this study is confirmatory factor analysis of Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ) that is designed in Iranian pregnant women population. Methods: A total of 170 pregnant women in health centers of Kerman city were chosen through random sampling method and completed PRAQ questionnaire and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In this study, confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity are used to evaluate the validity of models; and to test-retest and Cronbach alpha were used for evaluating external and internal reliability in SPSS-19 and the AMOS software to evaluate reliability of models. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis gave an acceptable value for the latent PRAQ in the question scale and 5 micro-scale level. Furthermore, significant correlation between the components and the overall scale of the PRAQ questionnaire with the BAI confirmed concurrent validity of questionnaire. The reliability of questionnaire is confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient value of 0.78 that calculated 0.69–0.76 for the five-factors. A month later, reliability coefficient amplitude of test-retest on forty pregnant women was between 0.65 and 0.72 which shows the reliability of PRAQ over time. Conclusions: The short form of anxiety during pregnancy questionnaire has the essential psychometric properties. In this study, five-factors extracted in the PRAQ were adapted with the factors extracted from the original version. This study introduces an instrument that can be benefit in measuring anxiety and concerns of women during pregnancy.

  9. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  10. [Maternal metabolic diseases related to pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in mexican women with high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Higareda, Salvador; Pérez-Pérez, Omar-Alejandro; Balderas-Peña, Luz-Ma-Adriana; Martínez-Herrera, Brenda-Eugenia; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana-Leticia; Ramírez-Conchas, Rosa-Emilia

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been proposed as a risk factor related to gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Identify pregnancy related diseases associated with pre-pregnancy obesity as a risk factor ina high risk preganancy patient population. 600 patients whose pre-pregnancy obesity had been assessed as a high risk factor were included in the study. The means, standard deviation, median, interquartile intervals, Pearson and Spearman correlation and logistic regression to estimate risk with the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index was 29.59 ± 6.42 kg/m(2). The mean for recommended pregnancy weight gain was 2.31 ± 1.03 kg, but the mean of real weight gain was 8.91 ± 6.84 kg. A significant correlation between pre-pregnancy obesity and family history of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000), systemic hypertension (p=0.003), cardiac diseases (p=0.000), dyslipidemia (p=0.000) and obesity (p=0.000) was identified. Pre-pregnancy obesity was identified as a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes (OR: 1.95; IC95%: 1.39 to 2.76; p=0.000) in this kind of patient. 75% of high risk pregnancy women in a high specialty hospital in West Mexico are overweight or obese when they become pregnant. These are risk factors in the development of gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping in Women with Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Şeyhmus; Alpayci, Mahmut; Karaman, Erbil; Çetin, Orkun; Özkan, Yasemin; İlter, Server; Şah, Volkan; Şahin, Hanım Güler

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-related low back pain is a common condition during pregnancy. Kinesio tape is a drug-free elastic therapeutic tape used for treating various musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of lumbar Kinesio taping on pain intensity and disability in women with pregnancy-related low back pain. Material/Methods A total of 65 patients with pregnancy-related low back pain were randomly allocated into either Kinesio taping (n=33) or co...

  12. Teenage pregnancies: Consequences of poverty, ethnic background, and social conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    The study investigates the economic, ethnic and social background of teenagers before becoming teenage mothers or before having an induced abortion for the first time in order to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation or ethnicity are causes of teen...... childbearing. A discrete-time proportional hazard model is applied to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering 1981-2003 for girls born in 1981, and their parents. Results show a significant economic and social gradient for first-time teenage pregnancies. Teenagers who had...... were at the same level for ethnic minorities as for ethnic Danes, this was not the case for teen motherhood, when controlling for social disadvantage and poverty....

  13. Recurrent pregnancy-related upper airway obstruction caused by intratracheal ectopic thyroid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, H; Jørgensen, K E; Oster-Jørgensen, E

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of recurrent pregnancy-related thyroid growth stimulation is reported. A 27-year-old euthyroid woman had pulmonary symptoms, thought to be asthma during her first pregnancy, that improved postpartum. Bronchodilatators had no effect and symptoms recurred from gestational week 22 du...... intratracheal ectopic thyroid tissue diagnosed during pregnancy....

  14. Pregnancy-related hemangioblastoma progression and complications in von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzen, C.; Kruizinga, R.C.; Asselt, S.J. van; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Herder, W.W. de; Walenkamp, A.M.; Giles, R.H.; Hes, F.J.; Sluiter, W.J.; Pampus, M.G. van; Links, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the reciprocal effect of pregnancy and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease by analyzing the influence of pregnancy on VHL disease-related lesions and VHL disease on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Medical charts and imaging reports from the VHL disease expertise centers in the Netherla

  15. [Pregnancy-related pelvic ring disease and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wu, X B; Yang, M H; Jiang, Y; Zhao, G; Zhang, Z A

    2015-04-18

    Pregnancy-related pelvic ring disease brings great suffering to pregnant women, including the separation of the pubic symphysis and sacroiliac joint pain. Hormonal changes leading to ligamentous laxity is the main reason for Pregnancy-related pelvic ring disease. In normal pregnant cases, and the physiologic widening at the symphysis is about 3-7 mm. When the widening of the symphysis is more than 10 mm, it may lead to symptoms and need active treatment. Currently the diagnosis of the pubic symphysis separation is based on the clinical symptoms and signs. The treatment of acute pubic symphysis separation bases on conservative therapy, includes bed rest and physical therapy. But when the widening of the symphysis is more than 4 cm, the surgery intervention may be a good treatment. If the conservative treatment is not obviously effective, the surgery consists of plate fixation in the pubic symphysis and sacroiliac screw fixation. Other indications for the surgical intervention include inadequate reduction, recurrent diastasis, intractable symptoms, and open rupture.

  16. Work and work-related stress in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vern L

    2012-09-01

    Work, in general, does not increase the risks of pregnancy complications. Work that is stressful, physically, psychologically, or both, has deleterious effects on pregnancy. Stressful work increases the risks of miscarriage, preterm labor, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. The greater the stress, the greater the risks of pregnancy complications. Women with a history of pregnancy complications should be counseled about reducing stressful work before pregnancy. Women with stressful jobs should be followed closely during pregnancy, and if signs of preterm labor or delayed fetal growth develop, then occupational stress should be decreased or eliminated. Some occupations expose pregnant women to teratogens such as organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides. A careful work history should be part of every preconception and early pregnancy visit.

  17. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part II: specific underlying renal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The obstetric outcome in women with kidney disease has improved in recent years due to continuous progress in obstetrics and neonatology, as well as better medical management of hypertension and renal disease. However, every pregnancy in these women remains a high-risk pregnancy. When considering the interaction between renal disease and pregnancy, maternal outcomes are related to the initial level of renal dysfunction more than to the specific underlying disease. With regards to fetal outcomes, though, a distinction may exist between renal dysfunction resulting from primary renal disease and that in which renal involvement is part of a systemic disease. In part II of this review, some specific causes of renal failure affecting pregnancy are considered.

  18. Relations between pregnancy-related low back pain, pelvic floor activity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.; Slieker ten Hove, M.C.; Vierhout, M.E.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Pool, J.; Snijders, C.J.; Stoeckart, R.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) in pregnancy- related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) patients, a cross-sectional study was performed, comprising 77 subjects. Each subject underwent physical assessment, and filled in the Urogenital Distress Inventory completed with gynaeco

  19. Odontogenic deep neck space infection as life-threatening condition in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre, D; Burtscher, D; Höfer, D; Kloss, F R

    2014-09-01

    Odontogenic deep neck space infections represent a severe disease with possible life-threatening complications. Despite knowledge of these infectious diseases, treatment remains a challenge for every maxillofacial surgeon. Therapy of severe neck infections is even more crucial during pregnancy because of the possible life-threatening situation for both the mother and the foetus. The possible compromise of oral health during pregnancy is well known, however severe odontogenic infections are rarely considered in the literature. The following case report describes the dramatic course of a deep neck space infection in a pregnant patient, commencing with typical symptoms of localized odontogenic infection and ending in a critical, life-threatening condition for the patient and a lethal condition for the foetus. The case represents the first description of intrauterine, foetal death caused by a deep neck space infection. Implications for dental and medical treatment during pregnancy, especially regarding odontogenic infections, are presented and discussed with findings in the international literature.

  20. Relation Between Stress During Pregnancy and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ortiz Martínez, Roberth Alirio; Castillo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, psychopathological components emerge as potentially important risk factors. To determine the relationship between the presence of stress during pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth...

  1. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  2. Increased time to pregnancy is associated with suboptimal neurological condition of 2-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Bos, Arend F.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J.; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with neurological condition of 2-year-old children born to subfertile parents. Design Data collected in a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study were used for cross-sectional analyses. Patients Participants were the singleton

  3. Study of correlation between placental morphology and adverse perinatal outcome in different conditions affecting pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Sirpurkar

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: These conditions also affect the perinatal outcome. Placental parameters are also altered along with foetal parameters like foetal weight. So the diagnosis of such risk factors in pregnancies during antenatal period will improve the outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1165-1168

  4. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  5. Association between periodontal condition and subgingival microbiota in women during pregnancy: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Viola BORGO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectivo In this study, the gingival conditions and the quantitative detection for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in pregnant women were determined. Material and Methods Quantitative determinations of periodontal bacteria by using a SyBr green system in women during pregnancy were performed. Women at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy and non-pregnant women were included in this study. A. actinomycetemcomitans was observed in high numbers in women at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy with a significant difference (p<0.05. F. nucleatum and P. intermedia were also observed in high levels. Results and Conclusion Our results show that pregnant women are more susceptible to gingivitis, and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival biofilm might be taken into account for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  6. Association between periodontal condition and subgingival microbiota in women during pregnancy: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BORGO, Priscila Viola; RODRIGUES, Viviane Aparecida Arenas; FEITOSA, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; XAVIER, Karla Correa Barcelos; AVILA-CAMPOS, Mario Julio

    2014-01-01

    Objectivo In this study, the gingival conditions and the quantitative detection for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in pregnant women were determined. Material and Methods Quantitative determinations of periodontal bacteria by using a SyBr green system in women during pregnancy were performed. Women at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy and non-pregnant women were included in this study. A. actinomycetemcomitans was observed in high numbers in women at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy with a significant difference (p<0.05). F. nucleatum and P. intermedia were also observed in high levels. Results and Conclusion Our results show that pregnant women are more susceptible to gingivitis, and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival biofilm might be taken into account for the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:25591021

  7. Selenium status in U.K. pregnant women and its relationship with hypertensive conditions of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Margaret P; Bath, Sarah C; Westaway, Jacob; Williams, Peter; Mao, Jinyuan; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G

    2015-01-28

    Dietary intake/status of the trace mineral Se may affect the risk of developing hypertensive conditions of pregnancy, i.e. pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PE/PIH). In the present study, we evaluated Se status in U.K. pregnant women to establish whether pre-pregnant Se status or Se supplementation affected the risk of developing PE/PIH. The samples originated from the SPRINT (Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention) study that randomised 230 U.K. primiparous women to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at 12 and 35 weeks, toenail Se concentration at 16 weeks, plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity at 12, 20 and 35 weeks. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Participants completed a FFQ. U.K. pregnant women had whole-blood Se concentration lower than the mid-range of other populations, toenail Se concentration considerably lower than U.S. women, GPx3 activity considerably lower than U.S. and Australian pregnant women, and low baseline SEPP1 concentration (median 3.00, range 0.90-5.80 mg/l). Maternal age, education and social class were positively associated with Se status. After adjustment, whole-blood Se concentration was higher in women consuming Brazil nuts (P= 0.040) and in those consuming more than two seafood portions per week (P= 0.054). A stepwise logistic regression model revealed that among the Se-related risk factors, only toenail Se (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17, 0.87, P= 0.021) significantly affected the OR for PE/PIH. On excluding non-compliers with Se treatment, Se supplementation also significantly reduced the OR for PE/PIH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09, 1.00, P= 0.049). In conclusion, U.K. women have low Se status that increases their risk of developing PE/PIH. Therefore, U.K. women of childbearing age need to improve their Se status.

  8. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Tendais

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  9. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendais, Iva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Mota, Jorge; Conde, Ana

    2011-02-01

    This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  10. Relative socioeconomic advantage and mood during advanced pregnancy in women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnamese women. This was the subsidiary aim of an investigation of sexual beliefs and behaviours in pregnancy in Vietnam. Methods Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics at Hanoi Obstetric Hospital. Inclusion criteria were to be in advanced pregnancy and appear well educated and confident and therefore potentially be willing to discuss sexual matters. Data were collected by individual structured interviews assessing socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, quality of intimate relationship and adequacy of support. Emotional wellbeing was assessed by the Vietnamese translation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS. Results In total 61/74 (82% of women approached to participate were recruited. The mean EDS score of 5.42 ± 3.8, was similar to that of community cohorts in high income countries and only one participant scored above 15. The cohort was relatively socioeconomically advantaged with high rates of post-secondary education, secure salaried employment, reproductive autonomy and ability to afford higher quality antenatal care. Most participants were able to confide in their husbands and their pregnancies were welcome. Worse mood was associated with insecure casual work, crowded living conditions and experiencing critical coercion in the marital relationship. Conclusion There is an apparently low prevalence of symptoms of depression in relatively socioeconomically advantaged pregnant women in Vietnam.

  11. The prognostic value of asymmetric laxity of the sacroiliac joints in pregnancy-related pelvic pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, L.; Buyruk, H.M.; Guler-Uysal, F.; Lotgering, F.K.; Snijders, C.J.; Stam, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of asymmetric laxity of the sacroiliac joints during pregnancy on pregnancy-related pelvic pain postpartum. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In a previous study, we observed a significant relation between asymmetric laxi

  12. Pregnancy-related issues in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abha G; Chowdhary, Vaidehi R

    2015-02-01

    While fertility is preserved in females with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), it is well established that pregnancy in these patients is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation, as well as neonatal mortality. Mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes are poorly understood, and better understanding of these would allow development of targeted and personalized treatment strategies. Established risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes include active disease within 6 months prior to conception and during pregnancy, active nephritis, maternal hypertension, antiphospholipid antibodies and hypocomplementemia. While intensive monitoring is recommended, the comparative effectiveness of appropriate management strategies is unclear. While current strategies are able to achieve live births in 85-90% of pregnancies, certain aspects such as prevention of preterm birth, treatment of congenital heart block due to neonatal lupus and recurrent pregnancy loss despite best management, remains challenging. Pregnancy is also associated with an increased risk of flare of lupus, particularly in patients with active disease at time of conception or within 6 months prior to conception. Pregnant patients with SLE should be followed in a high-risk obstetric clinic, and care should be closely coordinated between the obstetrician and rheumatologist.

  13. The relation of maternal blood arsenic to anemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Shinohara, Atsuko; Ohtani, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the relationship of prenatal arsenic exposure to hemoglobin concentrations and anemia during pregnancy, a longitudinal study was conducted of 364 participants during early pregnancy from October 2006 to March 2011 in Tehran, Iran. Maternal whole blood (taken between 8-12 and 20-24 weeks of gestation, and at delivery) and umbilical cord blood samples were collected for arsenic measurement. The mean concentration of maternal blood arsenic in the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly lower in anemic women compared with non-anemic participants (mean ± SD: 12.4 ± 3.4 versus 14.8 ± 4.0 μg/L, respectively, p anemia during pregnancy (OR = 0.85, CI: 0.77-0.94, p anemia.

  14. plasmodium falciparium parasitemia in pregnancy in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    ... malaria parasite. Prevalence of malaria in pregnancy was highest amongst women ... advocacy for inclusion of malaria treatment in safe motherhood should be continued because of its beneficial ..... plasma corticosteroid levels may have an.

  15. An examination of pregnancy- related deaths among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transition into healthy and productive adults are a key social and .... Trends in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by age of the mother and year of death, 2006 ..... adolescent pregnancies: The Global Network's Maternal Newborn Health Registry.

  16. Impact on quality of life and physical ability of pregnancy-related back pain in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Ayden; Arslan, Gülsah Gürol; Colakfakioglu, Arzu; Sirlan, Aygül

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of pregnancy-related back pain on quality of life and physical ability in the third trimester of pregnancy. One hundred women in the 28th-40th week of pregnancy were asked to fill out questionnaires including: general questions about background factors, the Katz's Activity's Daily Living Index (ADL), and Short Form of WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). Back pain intensity was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and functional limitation was measured by Oswestry Low Back Disability Questionnaire (OSW). It was found that, in the third trimester, pregnant women with back pain (PBP) with low pain intensity and moderate functional limitation did not have an impact on quality of life but decreased physical ability when compared to pregnant women with no back pain (NBP). As the back pain intensity of pregnant women increases, physical ability decreases.

  17. Relationship between Unwanted Pregnancy and Health-Related Quality of Life in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azizi

    2016-06-01

    To determine the relationship between unwanted pregnancy and health-related quality of life in pregnant women. Case-control study. Department of Community Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, from October 2013 to July 2014. Of the pregnant women who presented to primary healthcare centers of Kermanshah, Iran to receive prenatal care at 6 - 10 weeks of their pregnancy, those with unwanted pregnancy were selected as cases and those with wanted pregnancy were selected as control group. The selection process was done using multi-stage stratified random sampling. Frequency matching was applied to match the two groups. Quality of life was measured by the SF-36 questionnaire and was compared by the t-test. Relationship power between pregnancy type (wanted or unwanted pregnancy) and impairment of quality of life subscales as the outcome was assessed using odds ratio (OR). Frequency distribution of matched variables was not statistically different between the two studied groups. Mean scores of mental component summary and physical component summary as well as eight subscales (physical functioning, role, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health) were lower in the unwanted pregnancy group compared to women with wanted pregnancy (p women with unwanted pregnancy is affected more than their physical health. Mental health in women with unwanted pregnancy is 9.19 times more likely to be reduced. Among mental health subscales, vitality (energy/fatigue) showed the highest decrease.

  18. Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S. F; Osterdal, M. L; Salvig, J. D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between exposure to seafood intake during two periods of pregnancy on the one hand and risks of preterm delivery and postterm delivery on the other. In a prospective cohort of 8729 pregnant Danish women, we assessed frequency of fish meals during the first and second.......23-4.61) times in those who never consumed fish (n = 308) vs. those who consumed both fish as main meal and fish in sandwiches at least once per week (n = 785). These measures were similar when fish intake was based solely on intake reported for mid-pregnancy. In the subgroup of women reporting same intake.......12-0.95), respectively, in zero fish consumers. All analyses were adjusted for potential confounding by factors such as maternal smoking, height, and prepregnant weight. We conclude that never consuming fish in the first two trimesters of pregnancy was an extremely strong risk factor for preterm delivery but was also...

  19. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S. F; Osterdal, M. L; Salvig, J. D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association between exposure to seafood intake during two periods of pregnancy on the one hand and risks of preterm delivery and postterm delivery on the other. In a prospective cohort of 8729 pregnant Danish women, we assessed frequency of fish meals during the first and second.......23-4.61) times in those who never consumed fish (n = 308) vs. those who consumed both fish as main meal and fish in sandwiches at least once per week (n = 785). These measures were similar when fish intake was based solely on intake reported for mid-pregnancy. In the subgroup of women reporting same intake...

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior related to pregnancy in a rural teenage population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly F; Spear, Hila J

    2002-01-01

    Despite recent declining national trends, teenage pregnancy continues to be a community health problem warranting attention, especially in rural areas of the southern United States. Communities are unique and require assessment of risk populations to develop appropriate initiatives. This pilot study examined consent strategies and survey procedures and tools. Additionally, descriptive statistics related to pregnancy and pregnancy prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were examined. The study sample consisted of 52 boys and girls who perceived themselves to be in the middle or upper levels of their 9th-grade class and who were predominantly college bound and fairly active in extracurricular activities. Often groups with similar demographics are not perceived as at risk for pregnancy and early sexual intercourse, but the findings suggest otherwise. Many girls were sexually active, several had already experienced pregnancy, and some were at risk for intentional pregnancy. Knowledge regarding pregnancy prevention was modest. School-based and peer-focused programs are promising intervention strategies in response to identified attitudes and reported information sources related to pregnancy and pregnancy prevention.

  2. Childhood abuse is associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Borba, Christina P C; Rondon, Marta B; Sánchez, Sixto E; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with increased risks of adult psychiatric disorders and physical health conditions. Mounting evidence documents associations of childhood abuse with sleep disturbances in adulthood. However, to date, no study has evaluated associations of childhood abuse and sleep disturbances among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. To collect information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, history of childhood abuse, and complaints of sleep disturbances, face-to-face interviews were conducted with women in early pregnancy. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST-S) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-S), translated from English to Spanish, were used to assess stress-related sleep disturbance and sleep quality, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Women who experienced any childhood abuse had a 1.65-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.15-2.38) and 2.11-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality during early pregnancy (aOR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.35-3.30) as compared with women who reported no abuse. Women who reported both physical and sexual abuse during childhood were more than twice as likely to suffer from stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.44-3.53) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.45-4.09) in comparison to women who reported no childhood abuse. A history of childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. These findings, if replicated, should be used to inform the development of trauma-informed care for such sleep disturbances induced by childhood trauma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit

  4. The sociodemographic factors related with the adolescent pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seva Oner; Gulcin Yapici; Ahmet Oner Kurt; Tayyar Sasmaz; Resul Bugdayci

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The adolescent pregnancy is one of the most important problems in the21st century. The adolescent pregnancies pose more health risks to both mothers and babies when compared with the adult pregnancies.Of all the births in the world,11% are given by the adolescents.The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic factors concerning with the adolescent pregnancy.Methods:This study was conducted at18 primary health care centers inMersin, Turkey.The adolescent group was comprised of pregnant women younger than19 years, the adult group was comprised of pregnants aged between20-29 years.The questionnaire was conducted with face-to-face interviews.Results:Respondents included107 pregnant adolescents and 110 pregnant adults.The median age of adolescent group and adult group was18 and26 years, respectively.About61.7% of the pregnant adolescents and94.5% of the pregnant adults were officially married.In the adolescent group, the family frequency without social security was more than that in the adult group.In the adult group, the frequency of opposing the adolescent pregnancy for their families was more than that in the adolescent group.The adolescent pregnancy among sisters and friends of the adolescent pregnants was more frequent compared with that in the adult group.Conclusions:The family frequency without social security was more in the adolescent group.This situation is certain to cause more problems for the adolescents in benefiting from the health care services.We are absolutely think that efforts should be made so as to improve the society in terms of social and cultural aspects.

  5. Use of thyroid hormones in relation to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidén, Karin; Andersen, Jon Trærup; Torp-Pedersen, Arendse Lærke

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of exposure of pregnant women to levothyroxine and to assess changes in these rates before, during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING: Danish nationwide registers. POPULATION: All women having a live birth in Denmark between 1 Januar...

  6. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms a

  7. Food taboos and nutrition-related pregnancy concerns among Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevski, Vidanka; Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2016-10-01

    To discuss Ethiopian food taboos during pregnancy and their relation to maternal nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes. Recent waves of migration have seen large groups of Ethiopian refugees moving to countries around the globe. This is of concern as Ethiopian women are at risk of a number of medical and pregnancy complications. Health is further compromised by poor diet and adherence to cultural food beliefs and taboos. In refugee women, many of these factors correspond with significantly higher rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes. This is a discussion paper informed by a literature review. A search of the Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Academic Search Premier databases for the keywords Ethiopian, pregnancy, food and taboos was conducted in the research literature published from 1998-2015. This time is contingent with Ethiopian migration trends. Ethiopian migrant women are at risk of inadequate nutrition during pregnancy. Risks include cultural factors associated with food taboos as well as issues associated with low socioeconomic status. Consequently, Ethiopian women are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies such as anaemia which have been associated with a range of pregnancy complications. There are many serious consequences of poor diet during pregnancy; however, most of these can be avoided by greater awareness about the role of nutrition during pregnancy and by adopting a balanced diet. There is an urgent unmet need for nutrition education among Ethiopian women. Research indicates that Ethiopian women are receptive to nutritional advice during pregnancy and also that pregnant women are generally motivated to act in the baby's interest. These factors suggest that this high-risk group would be amenable to culturally appropriate nutrition education, which would provide much-needed meaningful support in pregnancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Recurrent pregnancy-related upper airway obstruction caused by intratracheal ectopic thyroid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, H; Jørgensen, K E; Oster-Jørgensen, E

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of recurrent pregnancy-related thyroid growth stimulation is reported. A 27-year-old euthyroid woman had pulmonary symptoms, thought to be asthma during her first pregnancy, that improved postpartum. Bronchodilatators had no effect and symptoms recurred from gestational week 22...... developed normally. We believe that this case illustrates the recurrent effect of pregnancy-related thyroid tissue stimulation by a combination of increasing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation and iodine deficiency in a borderline iodine-deficient region. This is the first report on symptomatic...

  9. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  10. Shared constitutional risks for maternal vascular-related pregnancy complications and future cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Berends (Anne); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.P.S. Sie (Mark); S.H. Benneheij (Sofie); R. Pal (Richard); R. Heydanus (Rogier); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMaternal predisposition to vascular and metabolic disease may underlie both vascular-related pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, as well as future maternal cardiovascular disease. We aimed to substantiate this hypothesis with biochemical and

  11. Semen quality of fertile US males in relation to their mothers' beef consumption during pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swan, S.H; Liu, F; Overstreet, J.W; Brazil, C; Skakkebaek, N.E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND To look at possible long-term risks from anabolic steroids and other xenobiotics in beef, we examined mens' semen quality in relation to their mother's self-reported beef consumption during pregnancy. METHODS...

  12. 29 CFR 1604.10 - Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.10 Employment policies relating to pregnancy..., or insurance program which is in effect on October 31, 1978, which does not treat women affected...

  13. Serious and life-threatening pregnancy-related infections: opportunities to reduce the global burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A Gravett

    Full Text Available Michael Gravett and colleagues review the burden of pregnancy-related infections, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and offer suggestions for a more effective intervention strategy.

  14. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is common among patients' first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Helander, Kristiina; Mattila, Kari J; Sumanen, Markku

    2013-09-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been shown to have a genetic predisposition. We studied whether Finnish women who had suffered from the disorder reported their first-degree relatives to have had liver dysfunction during their pregnancies. Questionnaires were sent in autumn 2010 to a total of 544 former intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy patients and 1235 controls, all having delivered during 1969-1988. The response rate was 66.2%. The incidence of intrahepatic cholestasis is 0.5-1.5% of pregnancies in Finland. In our survey, altogether 12.8% of mothers (odds ratio 9.2), 15.9% of sisters (odds ratio 5.3) and 10.3% of daughters (odds ratio 4.8) of women who had suffered from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy had had liver dysfunction during pregnancy. Our findings strengthen the earlier knowledge of the genetic component in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. We suggest that all pregnant women are asked about their family history regarding liver dysfunction during pregnancy. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Roberts, Craig S; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2011-02-15

    A large number of scientists from a wide range of medical and surgical disciplines have reported on the existence and characteristics of the clinical syndrome of pelvic girdle pain during or after pregnancy. This syndrome refers to a musculoskeletal type of persistent pain localised at the anterior and/or posterior aspect of the pelvic ring. The pain may radiate across the hip joint and the thigh bones. The symptoms may begin either during the first trimester of pregnancy, at labour or even during the postpartum period. The physiological processes characterising this clinical entity remain obscure. In this review, the definition and epidemiology, as well as a proposed diagnostic algorithm and treatment options, are presented. Ongoing research is desirable to establish clear management strategies that are based on the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the escalation of the syndrome's symptoms to a fraction of the population of pregnant women.

  16. Human chorionic somatommamotropin (HCS) and pregnancy. Its relation with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Villapun, J C; Cifuentes de Castro, I; Serrano Rios, M

    1976-01-01

    Plasma HCS levels have been measured in normal and pathological pregnant women. In the normal group HCS levels increased from 6--8 weeks till 33-34 weeks and then felt significantly. HCS pattern in prediabetic and chemical diabetic pregnant women was similar to the normal group. However HCS levels in chemical diabetics were significantly higher during the first two trimesters. HCS levels increased in twin pregnancy, diminished in cases of eclampsia, hypertension, fetal growth retardation, mole and blighted ovum, and disappeared after intrauterine death. Nothing could be deduced from the obese and Rh-isoimmunization groups. It is confirmed the value of HCS determination as an index of placental maturation. Also, insulin/HCS ratio may be of some aid in the study of carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy.

  17. [Relation Between Stress During Pregnancy and Spontaneous Preterm Birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Martínez, Roberth Alirio; Castillo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth occurs before 37 completed weeks, its causes are multifactorial and vary according to the gestational age, ethnicity and geographical context. Although several medical/social factors have been clearly identified, over 50% of cases are unknown or unclear; however, psychopathological components emerge as potentially important risk factors. To determine the relationship between the presence of stress during pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth. Through a study of cases and controls in a level III hospital, with a sample of 360 patients during the period from March to November of 2013, where sociodemographic characteristics were collected. In addition, they were applied scales social adjustment, coping strategies and social support. Logistic regression models were developed; psychological, biological and social. Based on the significant variables in each of these generated a final one. The final model was found that stress during pregnancy increases the odds of spontaneous preterm birth 1.91 times (adjusted OR=2.91; 95%CI, 1.67-5.08; Ppregnancy, no emotional support, rural residence, inadequate prenatal care and non-stable partner. The findings support the hypothesis that stress during pregnancy is associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis of pregnancy and pathological conditions in the genital system of small ruminants by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Al-Wataar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the possibility of using ultrasonography through abdominal probe in recording percentages of pregnancy, twins and genital pathological condition which affect the uterus for cases admitted to veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province as well as regulated visits to breeding projects of small ruminant and college of agriculture and forestry / Kirkuk university for the period from 01/10/2015 to 01/04/2016, which included 281 of ewes and does. The result of current study showed that that ratio of pregnancy was 75.9% in ewes and in does 47.6% while in case of twins in ewes 19.0% and in does 38.1%., while the genital pathological cases like endometritis and mucometritis (after birth ratio in ewes 2.5% and in does 9.5%, in cases of pyometra in ewes 1.3% and in does 0.0%, while cases of embryonic deaths ratio in ewes 1.3% and in does 4.8%. It was concluded from the current study that; the possibility of diagnosis the genital pathological cases which affect the uterus as well as the identification of the single and twin pregnancy with investigation of the viability of embryos in both ewes and does by using ultrasonography with abdominal probe.

  19. Etiology and prognosis of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain; design of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroese Mariëlle EAL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absence of knowledge of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPGP has prompted the start of a large cohort study in the Netherlands. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of PPGP, to identify risk factors involved in the onset and to determine the prognosis of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. Methods/design 7,526 pregnant women of the southeast of the Netherlands participated in a prospective cohort study. During a 2-year period, they were recruited by midwives and gynecologists at 14 weeks of pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire at baseline, at 30 weeks of pregnancy, at 2 weeks after delivery, at 6 months after delivery and at 1 year after delivery. The study uses extensive questionnaires with questions ranging from physical complaints, limitations in activities, restriction in participation, work situation, demographics, lifestyle, pregnancy-related factors and psychosocial factors. Discussion This large-scale prospective cohort study will provide reliable insights in incidence, prevalence and factors related to etiology and prognosis of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain.

  20. A prospective-longitudinal study on the association of anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy and pregnancy- and child-related fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Asselmann, Eva; Einsle, Franziska; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy and specific pregnancy- and child-related fears during pregnancy and after delivery. 306 expectant mothers were interviewed regarding anxiety (and depressive) disorders prior to pregnancy and pregnancy- and child-related fears (e.g. fear of labor pain, fear of infant injury) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V). Pregnancy- and child-related fears were particularly pronounced in women with multiple anxiety disorders and women with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy. Further analyses revealed associations between particular anxiety disorders and specific pregnancy- and child-related fears. Results remained stable when considering potential confounders such as maternal age, education, marital status, parity, prior abortion and preterm delivery or low birth weight. Our study suggests that especially women with multiple anxiety and/or comorbid depressive disorders may benefit from early targeted interventions to prevent an escalation of anxiety and fears over the peripartum period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pregnancy with Irreducible Utero-Vaginal Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pradip Kumar; Suri, Vanita; Sikka, Puja

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy with uterine prolapse is a relatively rare condition. Irreducible prolapse occurring during pregnancy is even rarer. There is still a need for obstetricians to be aware about the management of uterine prolapse which allows for an uneventful pregnancy, labour and delivery. Here we present a case of a woman who developed irreducible uterine prolapse during pregnancy and the issues surrounding its management. We had to abort her pregnancy to reduce her prolapse which could otherwise have been life threatening.

  2. [Pregnancy-related deaths. Genesis of the concept and methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlat, M; Guillaume, A

    2006-12-01

    Within the past 10 years, the outlook on the causes underlying maternal deaths has evolved, with the advent in the last "International classification of diseases" of the concepts of late maternal mortality and pregnancy-related mortality. Those concepts have led to an enlargement of the field, in terms of the range of causes as well as of the length of the time period at risk. Causes of death traditionally considered as "fortuitous" are now included in the count, given that the notion of pregnancy-related mortality covers all deaths occurring during pregnancy or at the latest one year after pregnancy termination, whatever the cause. Given this background, we critically review the definitions and classification systems of deaths of pregnant or post-partum women, and discuss the philosophy underlying these conceptual changes, and their consequences in terms of data collection and measurement issues.

  3. The prevalence of pregnancy-related acute renal failure in Asia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zynab; Malekmakan, Leila; Farshadi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a major complication during pregnancy and is associated with high mortality rate in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of pregnancy-related ARF in Asia. This study is a systematic review Google Scholar, PubMed, and Medline databases were searched for all papers in English on pregnancy related ARF (PR-ARF) in Asian countries that were published between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Of all the articles published in that period, 19 were selected - 17 were original articles and two were cases reports. We gathered information on the prevalence of PR-ARF, parity, duration of pregnancy when PR-ARF developed, etiology of PR-ARF, common clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings in PR-ARF.

  4. Fetal size in mid- and late pregnancy is related to infant alertness: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J; Schmidt, Henk G; Arends, Lidia R; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2009-03-01

    The vulnerability for behavioral problems is partly shaped in fetal life. Numerous studies have related indicators of intrauterine growth, for example, birth weight and body size, to behavioral development. We investigated whether fetal size in mid- and late pregnancy is related to infant irritability and alertness. In a population-based birth cohort of 4,255 singleton full-term infants ultrasound measurements of fetal head and abdominal circumference in mid- and late pregnancy were performed. Infant irritability and alertness scores were obtained by the Mother and Baby Scales at 3 months and z-standardized. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed curvilinear associations (inverted J-shape) of measures of fetal size in both mid- and late pregnancy with infant alertness. Fetal size characteristics were not associated with infant irritability. These results suggest that alterations of intrauterine growth affecting infant alertness are already detectable from mid-pregnancy onwards.

  5. Obesity-related complications in Danish single cephalic term pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nilas, Lisbeth; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2005-01-01

    extraction. Obese women had an increased risk of delivering macrosomic but also low birth weight children. No differences existed among the 3 weight groups with regard to neonatal morbidity estimated by Apgar score, umbilical cord pH, or admittance to a neonatal intensive care unit. Nulliparous women had......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between prepregnancy and obstetric body mass index (BMI) as well as fetal complications in a large, unselected cohort of Danish women with single cephalic pregnancies. METHODS: A cohort of 8,092 women from the Copenhagen First Trimester...

  6. [Maternal nutrition during pregnancy conditions the fetal pancreas development, hormonal status and diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome biomarkers at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Gesteiro, E; Espárrago Rodilla, M; Rodríguez Bernal, B; Bastida, S

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital period where several hyperplasic, hypertrophic processes together with metabolic adaptation and preparation for extra-uterine life take place. Present review accounts for central aspects of nutrition throughout gestation on the embryonic and fetal periods. It is centered in the major changes occurring in fetal pancreas, with special mention to the susceptibility of this main glucose homeostasis organ to support nutritional changes during maturation and development. Studies performed in animal models as human are commented considering the role of maternal nutrition on β-cell mass size, insulin and other pancreatic hormones production, and insulin sensitivity. Details of both the thrifty genotype and phenotype hypothesis are given, indicating that hypo/subnutrition causes metabolic adaptations that permit the future body to grow and develop itself in limited environmental and energetic conditions. The Barker hypothesis is considered suggesting that this metabolic hypothesis is a double-edged sword in the actual abundance World. Lastly the review, taking into account our own research and other papers, analyses less known aspects that relate maternal diet with insulin resistance/sensitivity markers at delivery. Particularly the role of the saturated fatty acid/carbohydrate and omega-6/omega-3 ratios in the frame of maternal diet is reviewed considering the quality of those diets under the Healthy Eating Index and the Adherence to Mediterranean Diet scores and the relationship with insulin resistance profile at birth. Present review ends indicating that nutritional habits should be strongly stated before gestation in order to assure a proper nutrition since the first moment of pregnancy. This will support an adequate fetal and pancreatic growth and development, and in turn, adequate glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and later in life, slowing down or preventing from degenerative diseases related with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

  7. Fetal Growth in Pregnancies Conceived after Gastric Bypass Surgery in Relation to Surgery-to-Conception Interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lone Nikoline; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev; Kirkegaard, Ida;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe early and late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to time from surgery to conception of pregnancy. METHODS: National cohort study on 387 Danish women, who had laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery prior to a singleton...... and early or late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery....

  8. Health Related Quality of Life before, during and after pregnancy in Norwegian women with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a known interaction between pregnancy and rheumatic disease. Women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are concerned about the potential impact of a pregnancy. Therefore, it is important to get more knowledge on how pregnancy affects these womens health related quality of life (HRQL).Purpose: To study changes in HRQL in Norwegian women with RA and JIA before, during and after pregnancy.Methods: A total 35 patients with RA and 27 patients...

  9. Pain in fibromyalgia and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassisi, G; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Casale, R; Cazzola, M; Boccassini, L; Atzeni, F; Stisi, S

    2014-06-06

    Pain is the hallmark symptom of fibromyalgia (FM) and other related syndromes, but quite different from that of other rheumatic diseases, which depends on the degree of damage or inflammation in peripheral tissues. Sufferers are often defined as patients with chronic pain without an underlying mechanistic cause, and these syndromes and their symptoms are most appropriately described as "central pain", "neuropathic pain", "nonnociceptive pain" or "central sensitivity syndromes". The pain is particular, regional or widespread, and mainly relates to the musculoskeletal system; hyperalgesia or allodynia are typical. Its origin is currently considered to be distorted pain or sensory processing, rather than a local or regional abnormality. FM is probably the most important and extensively described central pain syndrome, but the characteristics and features of FM-related pain are similar in other disorders of particular interest for rheumatologists, such as myofascial pain syndromes and temporo-mandibular joint disorders, and there is also an intriguing overlap between FM and benign joint hypermobility syndrome. This suggests that the distinctive aspects of pain in these idiopathic or functional conditions is caused by central nervous system hypersensitivity and abnormalities. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been suggested for the treatment of these conditions, but a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to reduce the abnormal cycle of pain amplification and the related maladaptive and self-limiting behaviours.

  10. Pain in fibromyalgia and related conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cassisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the hallmark symptom of fibromyalgia (FM and other related syndromes, but quite different from that of other rheumatic diseases, which depends on the degree of damage or inflammation in peripheral tissues. Sufferers are often defined as patients with chronic pain without an underlying mechanistic cause, and these syndromes and their symptoms are most appropriately described as “central pain”, “neuropathic pain”, “nonnociceptive pain” or “central sensitivity syndromes”. The pain is particular, regional or widespread, and mainly relates to the musculoskeletal system; hyperalgesia or allodynia are typical. Its origin is currently considered to be distorted pain or sensory processing, rather than a local or regional abnormality. FM is probably the most important and extensively described central pain syndrome, but the characteristics and features of FM-related pain are similar in other disorders of particular interest for rheumatologists, such as myofascial pain syndromes and temporo-mandibular joint disorders, and there is also an intriguing overlap between FM and benign joint hypermobility syndrome. This suggests that the distinctive aspects of pain in these idiopathic or functional conditions is caused by central nervous system hypersensitivity and abnormalities. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been suggested for the treatment of these conditions, but a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to reduce the abnormal cycle of pain amplification and the related maladaptive and self-limiting behaviours.

  11. Pregnancy-related behaviors among migrant farm workers--four states, 1989-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-04

    The U.S workforce includes an estimated 3-5 million migrant and seasonal farm workers; approximately 16% of migrant farm workers are women (R. Mines, U.S. Department of Labor, personal communication, 1997). Early enrollment in prenatal care and proper weight gain during pregnancy can reduce the risk for poor birth outcomes. To characterize pregnancy-related behaviors and outcomes among migrant farm workers, CDC analyzed daa for 1989-1993 on prenatal-care use, weight gain during pregnancy, and birth outcomes among migrant farm workers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in four states participating in CDC's Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS). This report presents the results of that analysis, which indicate that the goals of the national health objectives for the year 2000 for pregnant migrant women enrolled in WIC have not been met.

  12. Obesity-related complications in Danish single cephalic term pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nilas, Lisbeth; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between prepregnancy and obstetric body mass index (BMI) as well as fetal complications in a large, unselected cohort of Danish women with single cephalic pregnancies. METHODS: A cohort of 8,092 women from the Copenhagen First Trimester...... Study with a registered prepregnancy BMI and a single cephalic term delivery were stratified into 3 BMI groups: normal weight (BMI obese (BMI >/= 30 kg/m(2)). The effects of BMI and parity on the outcome were analyzed using multivariate logistic...... regression analyses. RESULTS: Overweight women had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.4 for diabetes, 1.9 for hypertension, 1.7 for preeclampsia, and 1.5 for cesarean delivery. The corresponding figures for obese women were 15.3, 4.8, 2.7, and 1.7, respectively. No relationship was found between BMI and vacuum...

  13. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... low blood pressure (also caused by blood loss) lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic ...

  14. Assisted reproductive technology and pregnancy-related hypertensive complications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, C; Tsioufis, C; Michalopoulou, H; Makris, T; Papademetriou, V; Stefanadis, C

    2013-03-01

    Hypertensive complications in pregnancy are the leading cause of maternal morbidity, at least in the developed countries. In recent years, infertility issues are managed with ever growing therapeutic options namely assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which improve the ratio of successful induction of pregnancy. It is still debated whether various ART modalities are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertensive complications, particularly with higher incidence of preeclampsia. The main source of controversy stems from the diversity of effect modifiers modulating the association between ART-oriented pregnancy and hypertensive disorders. Indeed, women undergoing an ART procedure are affected by diverse causes of infertility, are frequently characterized by different genetic patterns with respect to their artificially conceived embryo and experienced multiple gestations. In order to investigate whether ART modalities are associated with increased incidence of hypertensive complications in pregnancy, we reviewed all published studies carried out before the end of 2010 and identified in the PubMed database. Among the 47 studies finally selected and by acknowledging the potential of shortcomings related to the different study design and populations, the overall evidence suggests that ART-oriented pregnancies-especially the in-vitro fertilization techniques-are accompanied by increased risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as compared with non-ART pregnancies, even after adjustment for confounders. Multiple gestations, advanced age and underlying polycystic ovary syndrome resulted in constant confounders of the questioned association. Reducing multiple gestations by implementing single embryo techniques might be the therapeutic limiting step to lower the rate of hypertensive complications in assisted pregnancies.

  15. RISK FACTORS IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATION TO BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azordegan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available In 17 hospitals, 13123 new births were born during 1989 in Tehran. Some well-trained personnel observed the events, filling the required questionnaires, interviewing, and collecting necessary information. Among them 730 newborns was low birth weight (less than 2500 grams which was considered as cases. Immediately after each case was born, two normal newborn were randomly selected as controls. So at the end of data collection, a total of 1460 births were considered controls. In a case-control study the effect of some risk factors during pregnancy of mothers on birth weight and death rate of newborn during first 4 weeks of their life were fully investigated. Some of the findings are as follows: The past history of miscarriages will decrease the birth weight of the newborn and thereby will increase the death rate in the first 28 days of their life. In this respect the difference between case and control was highly significant. Other variables like past history of premature birth, chronic diseases, hemorrhage and severe vomiting showed the same results.

  16. Gait in pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: Amplitudes, timing, and coordination of horizontal trunk rotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Wen Hua; Meijer, Onno G.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Hu, Hai; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Van Royen, Barend J.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Walking is impaired in Pregnancy-related Pelvic girdle Pain (PPP). Walking velocity is reduced, and in postpartum PPP relative phase between horizontal pelvis and thorax rotations was found to be lower at higher velocities, and rotational amplitudes tended to be larger. While attempting to confirm t

  17. Risk of Cerebral Palsy and Childhood Epilepsy Related to Infections before or during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun S.; Pedersen, Lars H.; Miller, Jessica E.; Sun, Yuelian; Streja, Elani; Uldall, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Maternal infections during pregnancy have been associated with several neurological disorders in the offspring. However, given the lack of specificity for both the exposures and the outcomes, other factors related to infection such as impaired maternal immune function may be involved in the causal pathway. If impaired maternal immune function plays a role, we would expect infection before pregnancy to be associated with these neurological outcomes. Methods/Principal Findings The study population included all first-born singletons in Denmark between January 1 1982 and December 31 2004. We identified women who had hospital-recorded infections within the 5 year period before pregnancy, and women who had hospital-recorded infections during pregnancy. We grouped infections into either infections of the genitourinary system, or any other infections. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Maternal infection of the genitourinary system during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy (aHR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.34–1.98) and epilepsy (aHR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13–1.42) in the children, compared to children of women without infections during pregnancy. Among women without hospital-recorded infections during pregnancy, maternal infection before pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of epilepsy (aHR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.21–1.50 for infections of the genitourinary system, and HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03–1.22 for any other infections) and a slightly higher risk of cerebral palsy (aHR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.96–1.49 for infections of the genitourinary system, and HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06–1.43 for any other infections) in the children, compared to children of women without infections before (and during) pregnancy. Conclusions These findings indicate that the maternal immune system, maternal infections, or factors related to maternal immune function play a

  18. Pregnancy and Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Chauhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual obscurations are common during pregnancy. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological,pathological or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. While most of the described changes are transient in nature, others extend beyond delivery and may lead to permanent visual impairment. Also, pregnancy can affect vision through systemic disease that are either specific to the pregnancy itself or systemic diseases that occur more frequently in relation to pregnancy. Neuro-ophthalmological disorders should be kept in mind in pregnant women presenting with visual acuity or field loss. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the ocular changes in pregnancy in order to counsel and advice women who currently are, or are planning to become pregnant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 1-13

  19. Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody That Attenuates Antiphospholipid Syndrome-Related Pregnancy Complications and Thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Mineo

    Full Text Available In the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, patients produce antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL that promote thrombosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Current therapy with anticoagulation is only partially effective and associated with multiple complications. We previously discovered that aPL recognition of cell surface β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI initiates apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2-dependent signaling in endothelial cells and in placental trophoblasts that ultimately promotes thrombosis and fetal loss, respectively. Here we sought to identify a monoclonal antibody (mAb to β2-GPI that negates aPL-induced processes in cell culture and APS disease endpoints in mice. In a screen measuring endothelial NO synthase (eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells, we found that whereas aPL inhibit eNOS, the mAb 1N11 does not, and instead 1N11 prevents aPL action. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that 1N11 decreases pathogenic antibody binding to β2-GPI, and it blocks aPL-induced complex formation between β2-GPI and apoER2. 1N11 also prevents aPL antagonism of endothelial cell migration, and in mice it reverses the impairment in reendothelialization caused by aPL, which underlies the non-thrombotic vascular occlusion provoked by disease-causing antibodies. In addition, aPL inhibition of trophoblast proliferation and migration is negated by 1N11, and the more than 6-fold increase in fetal resorption caused by aPL in pregnant mice is prevented by 1N11. Furthermore, the promotion of thrombosis by aPL is negated by 1N11. Thus, 1N11 has been identified as an mAb that attenuates APS-related pregnancy complications and thrombosis in mice. 1N11 may provide an efficacious, mechanism-based therapy to combat the often devastating conditions suffered by APS patients.

  20. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Albert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity to traffic is a proxy for traffic-related exposures that takes into account within-city contrasts. Methods We investigated the association between residential proximity to traffic and various birth and pregnancy outcomes in 7,339 pregnant women and their children participating in a population-based cohort study. Residential proximity to traffic was defined as 1 distance-weighted traffic density in a 150 meter radius, and 2 proximity to a major road. We estimated associations of these exposures with birth weight, and with the risks of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. Additionally, we examined associations with pregnancy-induced hypertension, (preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Results There was considerable variation in distance-weighted traffic density. Almost fifteen percent of the participants lived within 50 m of a major road. Residential proximity to traffic was not associated with birth and pregnancy outcomes in the main analysis and in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Mothers exposed to residential traffic had no higher risk of adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy complications in this study. Future studies may be refined by taking both temporal and spatial variation in air pollution exposure into account.

  1. 11-Year Trends in Pregnancy-Related Health Indicators in Maine, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Harris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to understand health and demographic trends among mothers and infants in Maine relative to the goals of Healthy People 2020. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine yearly values of pregnancy-related variables. Means (for continuous variables and percentages (for categorical variables were calculated using the survey procedures in SAS. Linear trend analysis was applied with study year as the independent variable. The slope and significance of the trend were then calculated. Over the study period, new mothers in Maine became better educated but the fraction of households with incomes <$20,000/year remained stagnant. Maternal prepregnancy BMI increased. Average pregnancy weight gain decreased but the number of women whose pregnancy weight gain was within the recommended range was unchanged. The rates of smoking and alcohol consumption (before and during pregnancy increased. The Caesarean section rate rose and the fraction of infants born premature (<37 wks gestation or underweight (<2500 gms remained unchanged. The fraction of infants who were breast-fed increased. These results suggest that, despite some positive trends, Maine faces significant challenges in meeting Healthy People 2020 goals.

  2. Preeclampsia and Blood Pressure Trajectory during Pregnancy in Relation to Vitamin D Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Bärebring

    Full Text Available Every tenth pregnancy is affected by hypertension, one of the most common complications and leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The pathophysiology of the development of hypertension in pregnancy is unknown, but studies suggest an association with vitamin D status, measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational 25(OHD concentration and preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and blood pressure trajectory. This cohort study included 2000 women. Blood was collected at the first (T1 and third (T3 trimester (mean gestational weeks 10.8 and 33.4. Blood pressure at gestational weeks 10, 25, 32 and 37 as well as symptoms of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension were retrieved from medical records. Serum 25(OHD concentrations (LC-MS/MS in T1 was not significantly associated with preeclampsia. However, both 25(OHD in T3 and change in 25(OHD from T1 to T3 were significantly and negatively associated with preeclampsia. Women with a change in 25(OHD concentration of ≥30 nmol/L had an odds ratio of 0.22 (p = 0.002 for preeclampsia. T1 25(OHD was positively related to T1 systolic (β = 0.03, p = 0.022 and T1 diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02, p = 0.016, and to systolic (β = 0.02, p = 0.02 blood pressure trajectory during pregnancy, in adjusted analyses. There was no association between 25(OHD and pregnancy-induced hypertension in adjusted analysis. In conclusion, an increase in 25(OHD concentration during pregnancy of at least 30 nmol/L, regardless of vitamin D status in T1, was associated with a lower odds ratio for preeclampsia. Vitamin D status was significantly and positively associated with T1 blood pressure and gestational systolic blood pressure trajectory but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  3. Preeclampsia and Blood Pressure Trajectory during Pregnancy in Relation to Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Bullarbo, Maria; Glantz, Anna; Leu Agelii, Monica; Jagner, Åse; Ellis, Joy; Hulthén, Lena; Schoenmakers, Inez; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Every tenth pregnancy is affected by hypertension, one of the most common complications and leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The pathophysiology of the development of hypertension in pregnancy is unknown, but studies suggest an association with vitamin D status, measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational 25(OH)D concentration and preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and blood pressure trajectory. This cohort study included 2000 women. Blood was collected at the first (T1) and third (T3) trimester (mean gestational weeks 10.8 and 33.4). Blood pressure at gestational weeks 10, 25, 32 and 37 as well as symptoms of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension were retrieved from medical records. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations (LC-MS/MS) in T1 was not significantly associated with preeclampsia. However, both 25(OH)D in T3 and change in 25(OH)D from T1 to T3 were significantly and negatively associated with preeclampsia. Women with a change in 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 nmol/L had an odds ratio of 0.22 (p = 0.002) for preeclampsia. T1 25(OH)D was positively related to T1 systolic (β = 0.03, p = 0.022) and T1 diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02, p = 0.016), and to systolic (β = 0.02, p = 0.02) blood pressure trajectory during pregnancy, in adjusted analyses. There was no association between 25(OH)D and pregnancy-induced hypertension in adjusted analysis. In conclusion, an increase in 25(OH)D concentration during pregnancy of at least 30 nmol/L, regardless of vitamin D status in T1, was associated with a lower odds ratio for preeclampsia. Vitamin D status was significantly and positively associated with T1 blood pressure and gestational systolic blood pressure trajectory but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  4. Fears related to pregnancy and childbirth among primigravidae who requested caesarean versus vaginal delivery in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinnia, Nasrin; Faisal, Ibrahim; Hanafiah Juni, Muhamad; Herjar, Abdul Rahman; Moeini, Babak; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2015-05-01

    Pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears are common psychological concerns and the primary reasons for requesting caesarean section (CS). We aimed to examine the content of maternal fear and the associated demographic factors in a sample of Iranian primigravidae. A randomly selected sample of primigravidae (n = 342) was recruited in four health care centres in Iran. Data were collected using a 30-item questionnaire. Principal components factor analysis was applied to identify the main factors of pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears. All primigravidae reported some degree of fear, 48.2 % presented severe fear, and 62.6 % requested a CS because of childbirth-related fear. Most of the employed primigravidae with higher education level, higher family income, and unplanned pregnancy requested CS. The items constructed to measure maternal fear were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Six categories were identified, including 'process of labour and childbirth', 'life and well-being of the baby', 'competence and behaviour of maternity ward personnel', 'own capabilities and reactions', 'becoming a parent and family life after delivery' and 'general fear in pregnancy' that cumulatively explained 55.3 % of the variance. The most common factor was 'life and well-being of the baby'. Severe fear was found in 70.6 % of those who chose CS, while 10.9 % of those who chose vaginal delivery reported severe fear. The between-group differences for mean scores and levels of fear were statistically significant. Pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears were frequently experienced by all low-risk primigravidae. Better strategies to address women's psychological needs during pregnancy are necessary.

  5. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  6. Stress exposure and psychological stress responses are related to glucose concentrations during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Kang, Ji Seon; Vial, Yvan; Ehlert, Ulrike; Borghini, Ayala; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Jacobs, Ingo; Puder, Jardena J

    2016-09-01

    The role of stress in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has so far been neglected. We investigated the impact of stress exposure (pregnancy-related and pregnancy-unrelated major life events), psychological stress responses (perceived stress, subjective experience of stress, anxiety, depression, sleep), and physiological stress responses (salivary cortisol, plasma copeptin levels) on glucose concentrations during pregnancy. Cross-sectional study, including 203 pregnant women at the maternity department of a Swiss university hospital. All women underwent routine screening for GDM with a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test at 24-30 weeks of gestation. Pregnancy-related and pregnancy-unrelated major life events, perceived stress, general psychological distress, anxiety, depression, and amount of sleep were assessed by validated self-report questionnaires. Cortisol was measured using fasting and bedtime saliva samples, and copeptin using fasting plasma. All data were collected before communication of the screening test results. Significant positive associations were found between the number of pregnancy-related major life events and fasting glucose, while there was no association with pregnancy-unrelated major life events. More anxiety and depressive symptoms, a higher general level of distress, and a shorter duration of sleep were related to fasting glucose, although the latter two were no longer significant when age and BMI were controlled for. However, physiological stress responses were not associated with glucose concentrations. When testing for unique associations with fasting glucose, more general distress and shorter duration of sleep independently accounted for higher fasting glucose levels. Finally, when comparing women with and without GDM, we found that women who subsequently received the diagnosis of GDM reported more pregnancy-related life events. Some indicators of stress exposure and psychological stress responses were associated with

  7. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother ... later on. They have a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure and its complications. Risks ...

  8. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...... may be related to the lower maternal weight gain during pregnancy and the lower food consumption observed in FO-rats (p 0.1). The findings are compatible with the hypothesis that gestational age...

  9. Fetal volume measurements with three dimensional ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy, related to pregnancy outcome, a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Nicol AC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First trimester growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight and small for gestational age at birth. The differences between normal and abnormal growth in early pregnancy are small if the fetal size is measured by the crown-rump-length. Three-dimensional ultrasound volume measurements might give more information about fetal development than two-dimensional ultrasound measurements. Detection of the fetus with a small fetal volume might result in earlier detection of high risk pregnancies and a better selection of high risk pregnancies. Methods A prospective cohort study, performed at the Máxima Medical Centre, in Eindhoven-Veldhoven, the Netherlands. During the routine first trimester scan with nuchal translucency measurement 500 fetal volumes will be obtained. The gestational age is based on the first day of the last menstrual period in a regular menstrual cycle and by the crown-rump-length. The acquired datasets are collected and stored on a hard disk for offline processing and volume calculation. The investigator who performs the volume measurements is blinded for the results of the first trimester scan. The manual mode will be used to outline the Region Of Interest, the fetal head and rump, in all cross sections. The fetal volumes are calculated with a rotational step of 9°. First, the relation between fetal volume and gestational age, for a set of participants with normal pregnancies (training set, will be assessed. This model will then be used to determine expected values of fetal volume for a normal pregnancy, which will be referred to as expected normal values. Secondly, for a new set of participants with normal pregnancies and a set of participants with complicated pregnancies (together defined as validation set, the observed fetal volumes (FVobserved are compared with their expected normal values (FVexpected and expressed as a percentage of the

  10. Laxity measurements of the Sacroiliac joints in women with pregnancy-related pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Damen (Léonie)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe review of the origin, the diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy-related pelvic pain led to the conclusion that laxity of the S!Js may play a central role in the understanding of this syndrome. The department of Biomedical Physics and Technology and the department of Rehabilitation hav

  11. Triple pelvic ring fixation in patients with severe pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwienen, C.M. van; Bosch, E.W. van den; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Single-group prospective follow-up study. OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional outcome of internal fixation of the pelvic ring in patients with severe pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) in whom all other treatments failed. BACKGROUND DATA: More than half of all pregnant

  12. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors associated with developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Sollie, Krystyna M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F; Potijk, Marieke R; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between preexisting maternal and pregnancy-related factors and developmental delay in early childhood in moderately preterm-born children. METHODS: We measured development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 43-49 months in 834 moderately preterm-born

  13. Plasma choline and betaine and their relation to plasma homocysteine in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, Francien V; Holm, Pål I; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Dijs, Fey P; Ueland, Per M; Muskiet, Frits A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) decrease during pregnancy. This reduction has been investigated in relation to folate status, but no study has addressed the possible role of betaine and its precursor choline. Objective: We investigated the courses of plasma choline and

  14. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Jaddoe, V.W.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Hofman, A.; MacKenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.; Miedema, H.M.; Pierik, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity

  15. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. van den Hooven (Edith); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Y. de Kluizenaar (Yvonne); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); H.M. Miedema (Henk); F.H. Pierik (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residenti

  16. Triple pelvic ring fixation in patients with severe pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwienen, C.M. van; Bosch, E.W. van den; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Single-group prospective follow-up study. OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional outcome of internal fixation of the pelvic ring in patients with severe pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) in whom all other treatments failed. BACKGROUND DATA: More than half of all pregnant

  17. Misoprostol use under routine conditions for termination of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the misoprostol use in pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD, considering mode of delivery and induction-delivery interval. METHODS: Descriptive study including 171 pregnant women with IUFD, in the second or third trimester, submitted to labor induction with vaginal misoprostol and/or induction/augmentation with intravenous oxytocin, from 2005 to 2008, at a teaching-hospital of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde -SUS. RESULTS: Misoprostol alone (treatment A, misoprostol plus oxytocin (treatment B, and oxytocin alone (treatment C were administered in 9.3%, 19.9%, and 70.8% of the cases, respectively. One-third of pregnancies were less than 28 weeks, and 2.9% required a caesarean section. The percentage of vaginal delivery in treatments A and B combined (98.0% was similar to treatment C (96.7%. The mean induction-delivery interval was 15.4 hours. Comparing multiple groups, the mean induction-delivery interval was significantly shorter in treatment A (20.1 hours than in treatment B (33.3 hours, and was longer than in treatment C (9.7 hours. The majority (71% of cases required a single administration of misoprostol, and the total dosage was lower in treatment A (mean: 98.4 µg compared with treatment B (mean: 157.0 µg. CONCLUSION: Misoprostol effectively contributed to delivery of IUFD by vaginal route assisted under routine conditions of a public health service in Brazil, demonstrating its importance in cases resistant to usual induction methods, and its availability in Brazilian public health services is recommended.

  18. Misoprostol use under routine conditions for termination of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Cunha, Alfredo de Almeida; Oliveira, Sandra Regina dos Santos Muri; Nunes, Glaucimara Gonzaga; Alvarez, Felipe Silva; Villas Bôas, Eduardo Loyola

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the misoprostol use in pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), considering mode of delivery and induction-delivery interval. Descriptive study including 171 pregnant women with IUFD, in the second or third trimester, submitted to labor induction with vaginal misoprostol and/or induction/augmentation with intravenous oxytocin, from 2005 to 2008, at a teaching-hospital of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). Misoprostol alone (treatment A), misoprostol plus oxytocin (treatment B), and oxytocin alone (treatment C) were administered in 9.3%, 19.9%, and 70.8% of the cases, respectively. One-third of pregnancies were less than 28 weeks, and 2.9% required a caesarean section. The percentage of vaginal delivery in treatments A and B combined (98.0%) was similar to treatment C (96.7%). The mean induction-delivery interval was 15.4hours. Comparing multiple groups, the mean induction-delivery interval was significantly shorter in treatment A (20.1hours) than in treatment B (33.3hours), and was longer than in treatment C (9.7hours). The majority (71%) of cases required a single administration of misoprostol, and the total dosage was lower in treatment A (mean: 98.4μg) compared with treatment B (mean: 157.0μg). Misoprostol effectively contributed to delivery of IUFD by vaginal route assisted under routine conditions of a public health service in Brazil, demonstrating its importance in cases resistant to usual induction methods, and its availability in Brazilian public health services is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did......,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data......Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...

  20. Emergence of pregnancy-related listeriosis amongst ethnic minorities in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; Grant, K A; Little, C L; Kafatos, G; Gillespie, I A

    2010-07-08

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe food-borne disease that predominantly affects pregnant women, the unborn, newborns, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Following a large outbreak in the 1980s, specific food safety advice was provided to pregnant women and the immunocompromised in the United Kingdom. Following two coincident yet unconnected cases of pregnancy-related listeriosis in eastern European women in 2008, a review of the role of ethnicity in pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales was undertaken in 2009. Cases reported to the national listeriosis surveillance scheme were classified as 'ethnic', belonging to an ethnic minority, or 'non-ethnic' based on their name, and trends were examined. Between 2001 and 2008, 1,510 cases of listeriosis were reported in England and Wales and, of these, 12% were pregnancy-related cases. The proportion of pregnancy-related cases classified as ethnic increased significantly from 16.7% to 57.9% (chi-square test for trend p=0.002). The reported incidence among the ethnic population was higher than that among the non-ethnic population in 2006, 2007 and 2008 (Relative Risk: 2.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 5.29; 3.82, 1.82 to 8.03; 4.33, 1.74 to 10.77, respectively). This effect was also shown when analysing data from January to September 2009, using extrapolated live births as denominator. Increased immigration and/or economic migration in recent years appear to have altered the population at risk of pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales. These changes need to be taken into account in order to target risk communication strategies appropriately.

  1. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simony Lira Nascimento

    Full Text Available To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy.For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR, with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI, followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%.Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1% (p = 0.01. Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6% and third trimesters (13.4%. Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%. Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60, primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07, exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96, and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57. Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women.The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt

  2. [Treatment of arterial hypertension in pregnancy in relation to current guidelines of the Polish Society of Arterial Hypertension from 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak-Chicheł, Ludwina; Tykarski, Andrzej

    2012-10-01

    Arterial hypertension concerns 7-10% of pregnancies and leads to an increased risk of complications for both, the mother and the child. This rate will probably rise in the years to come due to the notable tendency among women to delay the decision to become pregnant - values of blood pressure and occurrence of arterial hypertension increase with age, as well as due to the growing problem of obesity resulting from inappropriate dietary habits and lack of regular everyday physical activity. Difficulties with management of that clinical condition are partly related with lack of unified and widely accepted guidelines. Different opinions in the subject of terminology and classification of pregnancy hypertension or indications for pharmacotherapy as well as choice of the optimal antihypertensive drug, emerge from objective causes such as combination of various pathogenetic factors typical for arterial hypertension itself and those connected with pregnancy elsewhere stressed priorities of therapy from the point of view of the health of the mother and of the fetus, as well as lack of randomized clinical trials due to obvious ethical purposes, but also from the fact that pregnancy hypertension is a focus of attention for different specialists - obstetricians, hypertensiologists and perinatologists. A good cooperation regarding experience and information among all of these specializations would be the most beneficial for pregnant women and their children. Lack of new modern antihypertensive agents, safe and effective in pregnancy while the older ones are being withdrawn from the market as their production is no longer cost-effective for pharmacological companies, has become an increasing problem in many countries, and Poland among them. The aim of the following publication was to present the statement on management of pregnancy hypertension from the current guidelines of the Polish Society of Arterial Hypertension 2011 to gynecologists and obstetricians, with a commentary

  3. Lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among Zambian women: district-level estimates from the 2010 census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, R.; Fossgard Sandøy, I.; Fylkesnes, K.; Janssen, F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine district differentials in the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females aged 15–49 in Zambia. We used data on household deaths collected in the 2010 census to estimate the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females in Zambia. Using all-ca

  4. Lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among Zambian women: district-level estimates from the 2010 census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, R.; Fossgard Sandøy, I.; Fylkesnes, K.; Janssen, F.

    The aim of this study was to examine district differentials in the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females aged 15–49 in Zambia. We used data on household deaths collected in the 2010 census to estimate the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females in Zambia. Using

  5. RADIOACTIVE IRON ABSORPTION IN CLINICAL CONDITIONS: NORMAL, PREGNANCY, ANEMIA, AND HEMOCHROMATOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, W M; Hahn, P F; Bale, W F; Pommerenke, W T; Whipple, G H

    1942-07-01

    Radio iron is a tool which makes iron absorption studies quite accurate in dogs and reasonably satisfactory in human beings. This method is vastly superior to others previously used. Normal human pregnancy without significant anemia may show active radio iron absorption-16 to 27 per cent of iron intake. The pregnant woman as a rule shows 2 to 10 times the normal absorption of radio iron. Diseased states in which iron stores are known to be very abundant-pernicious anemia, hemochromatosis, familial icterus, and Mediterranean anemia -show very little absorption, probably less than normal. This is in spite of a severe anemia in all conditions except hemochromatosis. Chronic infections in spite of anemia show no utilization of radio iron, whether it may be absorbed or not. Leukemia shows little utilization of radio iron in red cells in spite of absorption (autopsy), probably because of white cells choking the red marrow. Polycythemia shows very low values for iron absorption as do normal persons. Two pregnant women showed only normal iron absorption. We believe that reserve stores of iron in the body, rather than anemia, control iron absorption. This control is exerted upon the gastro-intestinal mucosa which can refuse or accept iron under various conditions.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping in Women with Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Şeyhmus; Alpayci, Mahmut; Karaman, Erbil; Çetin, Orkun; Özkan, Yasemin; İlter, Server; Şah, Volkan; Şahin, Hanım Güler

    2016-04-18

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy-related low back pain is a common condition during pregnancy. Kinesio tape is a drug-free elastic therapeutic tape used for treating various musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of lumbar Kinesio taping on pain intensity and disability in women with pregnancy-related low back pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 65 patients with pregnancy-related low back pain were randomly allocated into either Kinesio taping (n=33) or control (n=32) groups. The intervention group was treated with paracetamol plus Kinesio taping, while the control group received only paracetamol. Kinesio taping was applied in the lumbar flexion position, and four I-shaped bands were used. Two bands were attached horizontally, with space correction technique. The remaining 2 bands, 1 on each side of the lumbar spine, were placed vertically, with inhibition technique. Low back pain intensity was measured on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) was used for evaluation of disability. RESULTS Pain intensity and RMDQ scores improved significantly in both groups at 5 days compared with baseline. Considering the degree of treatment effect (the change from baseline to day 5), the Kinesio taping group was significantly superior than the control group in all outcome measures (for all, PKinesio taping can be used as a complementary treatment method to achieve effective control of pregnancy-related low back pain.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping in Women with Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Şeyhmus; Alpayci, Mahmut; Karaman, Erbil; Çetin, Orkun; Özkan, Yasemin; İlter, Server; Şah, Volkan; Şahin, Hanım Güler

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-related low back pain is a common condition during pregnancy. Kinesio tape is a drug-free elastic therapeutic tape used for treating various musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of lumbar Kinesio taping on pain intensity and disability in women with pregnancy-related low back pain. Material/Methods A total of 65 patients with pregnancy-related low back pain were randomly allocated into either Kinesio taping (n=33) or control (n=32) groups. The intervention group was treated with paracetamol plus Kinesio taping, while the control group received only paracetamol. Kinesio taping was applied in the lumbar flexion position, and four I-shaped bands were used. Two bands were attached horizontally, with space correction technique. The remaining 2 bands, 1 on each side of the lumbar spine, were placed vertically, with inhibition technique. Low back pain intensity was measured on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) was used for evaluation of disability. Results Pain intensity and RMDQ scores improved significantly in both groups at 5 days compared with baseline. Considering the degree of treatment effect (the change from baseline to day 5), the Kinesio taping group was significantly superior than the control group in all outcome measures (for all, PKinesio taping can be used as a complementary treatment method to achieve effective control of pregnancy-related low back pain. PMID:27088271

  8. The Relation between Self-Esteem, Sexual Activity, and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rachel B.; Frank, Deborah I.

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem and sexuality in 141 male and 172 female adolescents. Found no differences in self-esteem of males versus females. Sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem for either gender. Pregnant teenagers did not have different self-esteem levels from nonpregnant. Males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem…

  9. EVALUATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDING IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Lončar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity leads to the development of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 1/100 births. The most common place of ectopic implantation of the fertilized ovum is the oviduct (98% with predilection for the ampullar part of the Fallopian tube. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive importance of beta-hCG and progesterone concentration compared to ultrasonographic finding in the ectopic pregnancy diagnosis.We examined 24 patients with ectopic pregnancies which we divided according to the days of amenorrhea into two groups: the first group with the total of 28 patients from 16–42 days and another group of 8 patients with amenorrhea longer than 42 days. The control group was comprised of 20 patients with vital intrauterine pregnancy, gestational age of 42-52 days. Blood samples for quantitative determination of hormones were collected on three occasions after 48 hours in the forenoon time in the examined and control group of pregnant women. Ultrasonographic examinations of all pregnant women were carried out immediately after blood sampling, with the trans-vaginal approach using "make loop" option, and measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.Mean values for beta-hCG range from 698-1774 mlU/ml in the first group of pregnant women, and in the second group of 1896 mlU/ml to 4410 mlU/ml with a statistically significant difference compared to the values in the control group (p <0.001. The concentration of progesterone in the first group of women ranging from 41-70 nmol/l, and in the second group of 76-94 nmol/l which is also the statistically significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.002. We have shown that ultrasonographic finding with its parameters reliably predicts the values of biochemical parameters both in normal intrauterine pregnancy and in the case of ectopic pregnancy.Embryo viability and implantation place condition the values of

  10. Hemodialysis among pregnancy related acute kidney injury patients: A single center experience in North-Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A M Makusidi; Liman, H. M.; Yakubu, A.; Hassan, M; Isah, M. D.; Chijioke, A.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) patients that underwent hemodialysis (HD) between May 2007 and April 2015 were studied with specific reference to clinical features, laboratory values, duration of pregnancy at the diagnosis of acute kidney injury and outcome. It involved 38 patients aged between 15 and 30 years. The main clinical features were fever, edema and oliguria. The leading etiological factors included ante/postpartum hemorrhage, septic abortion, and toxemia of pregnancy....

  11. Effective treatment of severe pregnancy and lactation-related osteoporosis with teriparatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Aydin, Cevdet; Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy or lactation-related osteoporosis (PLO) is a very rare and debilitating condition which is usually diagnosed during the last trimester of the pregnancy or early postpartum period. Herein, we report a case with severe PLO and multiple vertebral compression fractures that were successfully treated with teriparatide. Twenty-three-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic two months after her first spontaneous vaginal delivery with the complaint of severe back pain. Bone mineral density was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and low T- and Z-scores were observed in lumbar vertebrae. In vertebral MRI, severe height loss was detected in thoracic (T) 5,7,10,11,12 vertebrae. After exclusion of the other possible causes of OP, she was diagnosed to have PLO and the lactation was stopped. She was treated with calcium 1000 mg/day, cholecalciferol 800 mg/day and teriparatide 20 µg/day. At the 12th and 18th month of therapy, BMD was increased by 8% and 27%, respectively, at the lumbar spine and pain was completely relieved in few months. There are pharmacological therapy modalities that can be used in PLO. Bisphosphonates are effective, but there are some concerns that they accumulate in bone and may expose fetus in subsequent pregnancies. Teriparatide is a strong candidate to be the optimal medical therapy in severe cases since it is effective and safe.

  12. Temporal characteristics related to leave from work and pregnancy among mothers with congenitally malformed offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurminen, M.; Holmberg, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    The possible impact of occupational factors on the furtherance of congenital defects have been under study at our department for the past 4 years. The topic has assumed a special interest because of the importance of the issue involved, namely the search for a possibility to prevent teratogenesis, and partly because the applicable methods are different from those of customary epidemiology. In connection with a register-based, case-referent study utilizing supplementary information, acquired via questioning, of conditions at the mothers' work places, we analysed various time-related events in their pregnancy. We found that the groups compared differed from each other with regard to the correct timing of the birth, despite the fact that the distribution of the times of stopping work for various reasons were alike. Among mothers who were granted sick leave from work the diagnosis of anencephaly became less common close to the estimated date of delivery, and conversely for the diagnosis of hydrocephaly. The findings of the present study may suggest that the time of assignment for a statutory maternity leave be considered. Methodological issues in study design are also briefly discussed.

  13. Clean air matters: an overview of traffic-related air pollution and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; Diniz, Carmen Simone; Ribeiro, Helena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health. PMID:28225911

  14. [Rape-related pregnancy in Brazil: the experience of women seeking legal abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina Leme; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Makuch, Maria Yolanda

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, abortion is permitted by law in cases of rape-related pregnancy. This study reports on various aspects in the experience of women that have been sexually assaulted: diagnosis of the pregnancy, seeking legal abortion, and hospitalization in a university hospital. This was a qualitative study that interviewed ten women 18 to 38 years of age, with at least eight years of schooling, one to five years after legal abortion. The women had been previously unaware of their right to a legal abortion, were ashamed about the sexual assault, kept it secret, and had not sought immediate care. The diagnosis of pregnancy provoked anxiety and the wish to undergo an abortion. Women treated through private health plans received either insufficient orientation or none at all. Respectful treatment by the healthcare staff proved relevant for the women to cope with the abortion. The study highlights the need to publicize the right to abortion in cases of rape-related pregnancy and the healthcare services that perform legal abortion, in addition to training healthcare and law enforcement teams to handle such cases.

  15. Maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy in sheep. Its relationship to maternal condition, gestation length, hepatic physiology and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, H J

    1996-04-01

    There is a paucity of information on the metabolic effects of undernutrition of the ewe carrying multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. In the present study the effects of induction of ketosis from 132 d gestation in ewes carrying twin fetuses were compared with a control group. The ewes were well fed up to 132 d. Ketotic ewes showed a loss of condition score from 3.7 (SE 0.11) at 130 d gestation to 3.0 (SE 0.15) 10 d later after clinical recovery, compared with control twin-pregnant ewes (P < 0.01). The weight loss during the same time period was from 70.6 (SE 2.7) kg at 130 d to 64.2 (SE 2.7) kg at 140.d gestation. As expected, both groups lost weight and condition score in the first 28 d of lactation. Induction of ketosis caused a significant shortening of the gestation period to 142.8 (SE 0.7) d compared with 150 (SE 0.4) d in normal twin-pregnant ewes (P < 0.001). Ewes with induced ketosis recovered clinically and showed a normal feed intake by 3.4 (SE 0.07) d; three required treatment. Induction of ketosis resulted in reduction of hepatic uptake of bromosulphthalein (P < 0.01) and its biliary excretion (P < 0.05), metabolic clearance rate (P < 0.001), fractional clearance (P < 0.001) and 15 and 30 min retention compared with control twin-pregnant ewes. Most values had returned to normal by the first week of lactation. It is thought that in human pregnancy similar changes in bromosulphthalein clearance may be related to reduced binding sites for bromosulphthalein in the liver caused by increased circulating oestrogens. Induction of ketosis resulted in a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.01), ketotic (P < 0.001) state compared with well-fed twin-pregnant ewes. These changes could be correlated with the severity of the clinical signs, together with a significant rise in plasma urea (P < 0.001) and NH3 (P < 0.05) concentrations. Again, the return of most of these values to normal by the first week of lactation lends support to the reversibility of hepatic lesions

  16. Life satisfaction and health related quality of life during pregnancy and puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    While previous studies have defined ranges for health related quality of life (HRQOL) in other populations, there has been little attention to pregnant women. This study was undertaken to describe the evolution of the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction during pregnancy and puerperium. Poster submitted to the 22nd International Conference Stress and Anxiety Research Society (STAR), Palma de Mallorca, July, 12-14, 2001.

  17. Conditioning and learning in relation to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, T A; Guy, W

    1985-12-01

    Of the two generally recognized processes through which learning occurs--imprinting and conditioning--only the latter with its two paradigms, classical and operant, has both practical and heuristic implications for disease. From the classical conditioning experiments of Pavlov's laboratory over 100 years ago to the later work in operant conditioning by Skinner and others in the past four decades has evolved much of the basis of modern learning theory and its applications to disease in the form of behavior therapy. Variants of behavior therapy have been employed in the treatment of wide variety of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Recent developments in the study of brain function and biochemistry have led to renewed interest in the conditioning paradigm and its value as tool in these areas of research.

  18. 孕早期妊娠相关焦虑影响因素分析%Influencing factors of pregnancy-related anxiety in first trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章景丽; 郝加虎; 陶芳标; 王红; 朱鹏; 许韶君; 苏普玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解孕妇孕早期妊娠相关焦虑发生情况,分析其影响因素.方法 收集安徽省20 308名孕妇一般人口统计学特征和孕前半年及孕早期环境暴露因素,采用自编评价孕妇孕早期心理卫生状况.结果 孕妇孕早期妊娠相关焦虑的发生率为23.2%(4 711/20 308),问卷总得分为(20.57±5.04)分,<25岁孕妇妊娠相关焦虑的发生率最高,为28.4%,高中学历孕妇发生率最高,为27.0%,农业户籍的发生率为24.9%,高于城市户籍;多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,妊娠相关焦虑的主要危险因素有孕前半年吸烟(OR=1.89,95% CI=1.35~2.65)、饮酒(OR=1.81,95% Cl=1.18~2.75),孕早期工作压力大(OR=2.26,95%CI=1.94~2.65),以及非意愿妊娠(OR=2.23,95% CI=2.08~2.60).结论 孕妇孕前半年及孕早期环境暴露因素会对孕妇心理造成不良影响,导致妊娠相关焦虑的发生.%Objective To explore the influencing factors of pregnancy-related anxiety in the first trimester of pregnancy.Methods We collected information on socio-demographic characteristics and environmental exposure among the pregnant women during 6 months of pre-pregnancy to the first trimester of pregnancy.The Pregnancy-related Anxiety Questionnaire was used to evaluate their mental health.Chi-square analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis were performed to analyze the effect of socio-demographic and environmental factors on pregnancy-related anxiety.Results The rate of pregnancy-related anxiety was 23.2% (4 711/20 308) and the average score of the questionnaire was 20.57 ±5.04.Of the pregnant women younger than 25 years,28.4% had pregnancy-related anxiety.The pregnant women with the education of high school had the highest rate(27.0% ).The pregnant women with rural residence had a higher rate(24.9% ) than those with ruban residence registered.The results of stepwise multinomial regression analyses showed that factors significantly associated with pregnancy-related

  19. The relationship between consecutive pregnancies in Thoroughbred mares. Does the location of one pregnancy affect the location of the next, is this affected by mare age and foal heat to conception interval or related to pregnancy success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Hinchliffe, J

    2009-04-15

    Delayed uterine involution is a major cause of early reproductive failure in mares. Involution is affected by mare age, and foaling to covering interval. Involution rates vary between the previously non-gravid horn (PNGH), which recovers the quicker, and the previously gravid horn (PGH). Location of a pregnancy and its likely success may, therefore, be affected by its location relative to the previous pregnancy. This study aimed to determine: (i) the location of concepti in consecutive pregnancies; (ii) whether this varies with mare age or foaling to conception interval; (iii) whether location in relation to the previous pregnancy affects success. 1383 Thoroughbred mares were monitored by ultrasonic scanning during oestrus and early pregnancy. Significantly (psuccess are greatest. The larger number of pregnancies locating in the PGH in older mares and those with shorter foaling to conception intervals may in part account for the higher conceptus mortality rates in such mares. Hence breeding older mares on alternate years and maximising foaling to conception interval may improve reproductive success. Alternatively termination of pregnancies located in the PGH followed by timely recovering may be justifiable as might ET in older mares covered close to foaling.

  20. Hemodialysis among pregnancy related acute kidney injury patients: A single center experience in North-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusidi, A M; Liman, H M; Yakubu, A; Hassan, M; Isah, M D; Chijioke, A

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) patients that underwent hemodialysis (HD) between May 2007 and April 2015 were studied with specific reference to clinical features, laboratory values, duration of pregnancy at the diagnosis of acute kidney injury and outcome. It involved 38 patients aged between 15 and 30 years. The main clinical features were fever, edema and oliguria. The leading etiological factors included ante/postpartum hemorrhage, septic abortion, and toxemia of pregnancy. The majority of cases occurred during the third trimester. PRAKI is a dreaded complication of pregnancy with high morbidity and mortality. HD improved patient survival in our study.

  1. Work-related maternal risk factors and the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia during pregnancy. The Generation R Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Jan Nugteren

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between physically demanding work and occupational exposure to chemicals and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy within a large birth cohort study, the Generation R Study. METHODS: Associations between occupational characteristics and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were studied in 4465 pregnant woman participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in the Netherlands (2002-2006. Mothers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response 77% of enrolment, were included if they conducted paid employment, had a spontaneously conceived singleton live born pregnancy, and did not suffer from pre-existing hypertension (n = 4465. Questions on physical demanding work were obtained from the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and concerned questions on manually handling loads of 25 kg or more, long periods of standing or walking, night shifts, and working hours. To assess occupational exposure to chemicals, job titles and task descriptions were linked to a job-exposure-matrix (JEM, an expert judgment on exposure to chemicals at the workplace. Information on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: We observed no consistent associations between any of the work related risk factors, such as long periods of standing or walking, heavy lifting, night shifts, and working hours, nor exposure to chemicals with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: This prospective birth cohort study suggests that there is no association of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy with physically demanding work or exposure to chemicals. However, the low prevalence of PIH and PE, combined with the low prevalence of occupational risk factors limit the power for inference and larger studies are needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  2. [The urinary excretion of pregnanediol during pregnancy determined by gas-liquid chromatography. II. Its relation with other parameters controling pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, M; Acien, P; Gómez-Capilla, J A; Campos-Bañales, M E; Comino, R

    1976-01-01

    The relation between the urinary pregnanediol determined by gas-liquid chromatography during pregnancy, with ultrasonic findings (biparietal diameter, thickness and echorrefringency of the placenta and the appreciated quantity of amniotic fluid), with biochemical parameters of control of pregnancy (beta-glucoronidase, total and thermostable alkaline phosphatase), with amnioscopic findings, and with several studied parameters of the amniotic fluid by amniocentesis, were studied. A good relation exists with the parameters which denote placentary insufficiency and fetal risk (irregularity in the homogeneity of the placenta, elevation of the total and thermostable alkaline phosphatase, positive amnioscopy) and also with those that are related with fetal maturity (biparietal diameter, shake test, organge cells, creatinine in amniotic fluid, etc.). These results indicate that the determination of urinary pregnanediol can be one of the tests controlling the normal and pathological pregnancies, being useful in the detection of fetal risk and the diagnosis of the intrauterine fetal maturity.

  3. Serum fructosamine concentrations in relation to metabolic changes during late pregnancy and early lactation in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Natalija; Stojević, Zvonko; Prvanović, Nikica

    2010-01-01

    The changes in blood serum fructosamine concentrations as indicators of glycaemia during a longer period of time were investigated in mares during late pregnancy and early lactation, as well as their relationship to the changes in the concentration of biochemical indicators of energetic status. The samples were taken from eleven mares on 60 +/- 10 and 20 +/- 10 days before foaling, and 20 +/- 10 and 60 +/- 10 days after foaling. Concentrations of serum fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides were higher during late pregnancy (from P < 0.05 to P < 0.0005), while the concentrations of beta- hydroxybutyrate increased significantly (P < 0.00001) during early lactation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of fructosamine and metabolic parameters was observed. The results indicate a relationship between energetic status and serum fructosamine in mares. Higher concentrations of fructosamine are related to the adaptation to late pregnancy. Therefore, the measurement of the serum fructosamine concentrations could serve as an indicator of energetic status of mares during pregnancy and lactation.

  4. The risk of pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism in women who are homozygous for factor V Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, S; Libourel, EJ; Hamulyak, K; van der Meer, J; Buller, HR

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in pregnancy and during the post-partum period, The absolute risk for pregnancy-related VTE in heterozygous women with the factor V Leiden mutation is approximately 2%, but studies on this risk for homozygous women show conflicting results. In a

  5. Relation of Family Conditions and School Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vlasta Cabanova

    2014-01-01

    Each family has its own specifications and different volume of cultural capital which more or less stimulates the child development. Very specific is the case of book ownership in the family. The paper analyzes material and cultural environment of present-day families in the north-western part of Slovak republic. The author presents the results of observation of some material conditions in Slovak families with primary school children and finds out their impact on the children's school success.

  6. Depression, pregnancy-related anxiety and parental-antenatal attachment in couples using preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C; Van Acker, F; Bonduelle, M; Van Berkel, K; Belva, F; Liebaers, I; Nekkebroeck, J

    2016-06-01

    Do preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) couples experience higher levels of stress during pregnancy and the perinatal period compared with couples who conceive spontaneously (SC) or with ICSI? PGD couples did not experience more psychological stress during pregnancy and beyond than ICSI or SC couples. Previous studies have shown that assisted reproduction technology (ART) couples are more prone to pregnancy-related anxieties than SC couples, but display depressed feelings to an equal or lesser extent. However, only one study has focused on a female PGD sample, which may be a more vulnerable group than other ART groups, due to the potentially complex hereditary background, adverse childhood experiences and losses. In that study, PGD women experienced a reduction in state anxiety, and maternal-antenatal attachment did not differ from normative data. Unfortunately, no data exist on pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and parental-antenatal attachment. Valuable information from both parents (e.g.: couples) is also lacking. For this longitudinal prospective study questionnaire, data from 185 women and 157 men (157 couples) were collected between February 2012 until April 2014. Data were analysed using multilevel analysis. The couples conceiving after PGD, ICSI or SC were followed from the first trimester of the pregnancy until the third month post-partum. A total of 60 PGD, 58 ICSI and 69 SC couples were initially recruited by various departments of Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel). At each trimester (T1: 12-14 weeks, T2: 20-22 weeks, T3: 30-32 weeks) of pregnancy, depression (EPDS), pregnancy-related anxieties (PRAQ) and parental-antenatal attachment (M/PAAS) were recorded. At T4 (3 months post-partum), depression (EPDS) was assessed again. In the first trimester (T1) broad socio-demographic data and at T4 perinatal health data of both mother and child were recorded. Differences between conception groups over time were analysed using multilevel

  7. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD;

    2007-01-01

    at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  8. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  9. Agreeableness and pregnancy: Relations with coping and psychiatric symptoms, a longitudinal study on Spanish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Laura; Carmona, Javier; Marín, Dolores

    2017-01-19

    Agreeableness is associated with good mental health during pregnancy. Although different studies have indicated that agreeableness is related to adaptive coping, this relation has scarcely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible differences between high and low agreeableness in relation to coping strategies and psychiatric symptoms in pregnant women. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study between October 2009 and January 2013. Pregnant women (n = 285) were assessed in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 122 of them were assessed during the third. Data were collected using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Symptom Check List 90-R, and the agreeableness subscale of the NEO-FFI. Using the SPSS 21 statistics package, binary logistic regression, two-way mixed analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses and a Sobel test were conducted. Higher levels of agreeableness were associated with positive reappraisal and problem-solving, and lower levels of agreeableness were associated with overt emotional expression and negative self-focused coping. Women with low agreeableness had poorer mental health, especially in the first trimester. These findings should be taken into account to improve women's experiences during pregnancy. Nevertheless, given the scarcity of data, additional studies are needed.

  10. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  11. Rheumatic diseases during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman YAVUZ

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy induces immunologic changes that may differentially impact rheumatic disorders. The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary by condition. The systemic rheumatic illnesses commonly complicating pregnancy are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), scleroderma.

  12. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to both pregnancy and thyroid disorders. Hyperthyroidism What causes hyperthyroidism in pregnancy? Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is usually caused ... is believed to be an autoimmune condition and causes mild hyperthyroidism that usually lasts 1 to 2 months. Many ...

  13. [Urolithiasis and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O

    2008-12-01

    Diagnosis of urolithiasis during pregnancy is a common condition not more frequent than in non pregnant women. Ultrasonography will be the main tool of diagnosis. If sonography fails, ionizing radiation will be used only if MRI is not available. One must take care of the mother and the foetus because preterm delivery is increased in case of lithiasis during pregnancy. Conservative treatment is favoured taking care of specific contraindications of medical therapy related to pregnancy. In case of complications, drainage of the urinary system by retrograde or antegrade approach will be considered. Endoscopic treatment is realized only in case of failure of drainage or in the post-partum with etiologic investigations.

  14. Evolved Mechanisms Versus Underlying Conditional Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorga Miguel López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The social contracts theory claims that, in social exchange circumstances, human reasoning is not necessarily led by logic, but by certain evolved mental mechanisms that are useful for catching offenders. An emblematic experiment carried out with the intention to prove this thesis is the first experiment described by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby in their paper of 2000. Lopez Astorga has questioned that experiment claiming that its results depend on an underlying conditional logical form not taken into account by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby. In this paper, I propose an explanation alternative to that of Lopez Astorga, which does not depend on logical forms and is based on the mental models theory. Thus, I conclude that this other alternative explanation is one more proof that the experiment in question does not demonstrate the fundamental thesis of the social contracts theory.

  15. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

  16. ULTRASTRUCTURAL RESEARCH OF THE ENDOMETRIUM RECEPTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF PRE-CONCEPTIONAL PREPARATION IN REFRACTORY PREGNANCY LOSS

    OpenAIRE

    I. O. Marinkin; D. L. Nepomnyashikh; V. M. Kuleshov; N. A. Ilizarova; T. O. Semchenko; S. V. Aidagulova

    2014-01-01

    Background. Refractory pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactoral pathology in women of reproductive age which treatment represents great difficulties. Great role in RPL pathogenesis is stipulated by chronic endometritis resulting from disturbances of implantation followed by gestational sac malfunction, which is not less significant than progesterone deficiency. Objective. The aim of research was to study the dynamics of ultrastructural changes of endometric epithelial cells in the condition...

  17. Degradation In Relation To Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putters, B.

    One of the parts of the natural attenuation capacity of the soil is its degradation ca- pacity. Usually, the degradation capacity is determined by monitoring contaminant concentrations in the field. However, it is desirable to estimate the degradation ca- pacity of a soil beforehand. For such an estimate, the factors which have the highest influence on the degradation process of a specific contaminant must be known. To find the soil parameters which dominate the degradation behaviour of contaminants in the subsurface, an approach is proposed. The approach consists of 3 steps 1. Derive expected patterns of behaviour under different environmental conditions from litera- ture review. 2. Collect data from published degradation experiments. 3. Explore the dataset by means of statistical techniques. The expected patterns of behaviour are used as guidelines for the exploration of the dataset. Three types of results are derived from dataset exploration: 1. The degree of influence of a variable on the degradation rate is found by application of the analysis- of-variance technique. 2. Factors, summarizing the variables under consideration, can be derived by application of principal components analysis. 3. Relationships can be quantified for the whole dataset or for subsets of the dataset by regression analysis. The approach has been applied to atrazine degradation experiments (see also abstract EGS02-A-01204 for poster presentation). The results will be used as an example and to illustrate problems and solutions during processing. This project is part of a Ph.D. study carried out in the framework of Delft Cluster during the period 1999-2003.

  18. Use of AI technician scores for body condition, uterine tone and uterine discharge in a model with disease and milk production parameters to predict pregnancy risk at first AI in holstein dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffler, S.H.; Vries, de M.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Zeeuw, de A.C.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Graaf, de F.M.; Brand, A.

    1999-01-01

    Technicians recorded body condition score (BCS) and several parameters related to estrus and/or metritis for 1694 first insemination cows on 23 farms. Additional variables for modeling the adjusted odds ratios (OR) for pregnancy were data on disease prior to or within 21 days of AI and test day milk

  19. Effectiveness of physical therapy for pregnancy-related low back and/or pelvic pain after delivery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Caroline Wanderley Souto; Alburquerque-Sendı N, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of physical therapy for the treatment of low back pain (LBP) and pelvic girdle pain (PGP) related to pregnancy after delivery. A systematic review of studies published since 1985 in the databases Medline, PEDro, SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library was made. Studies that focused on postpartum LBP or PGP, without being related to pregnancy or in other non-pregnant patients, were excluded, as were papers addressing LBP or PGP indicating radiculopathy, rheumatism, or any other serious disease or pathologic condition. In accordance with the exclusion criteria and duplicate articles, of the 105 articles retrieved only six were considered for quality assessment with the PEDro Scale. Among these six papers, two were follow-ups, such that only four trials were included in this review. All trials used exercise for motor control and stability of the lumbopelvic region, but with different intervention approaches. The study affording the best evidence used individual guidance and adjustments given by the physiotherapists. Nevertheless, this systematic review was inconclusive and showed that more randomized clinical trials, with good quality, are needed.

  20. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Bloch, Paul; Byskov, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    their public facility counterparts. Employees in public HFs more acknowledged availability of clinical officers, nurses and midwives than their private facility counterparts. More results are presented and discussed. CONCLUSION: The study shows conditions related to staffing levels, health infrastructure...... and essential supplies being among the key determinants or drivers of frontline HWs' motivation to deliver ANC services in both private and public HFs. Efforts of the government to meet the maternal health related Millennium Development Goals and targets for specific interventions need to address challenges......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC) system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs) in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp...

  1. Pregnancy-related venous thrombosis: comparison between spontaneous and ART conception in an Italian cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Michela; Dentali, Francesco; Colaizzo, Donatella; Tiscia, Giovanni Luca; Vergura, Patrizia; Petruccelli, Tiziana; Petruzzelli, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in an Italian cohort the incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Setting Thrombosis and Haemostasis Unit at I.R.C.C.S. ‘Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza’, S. Giovanni Rotondo. Participants A prospective cohort of 998 women advised to undergo ART was referred by local fertility clinics from April 2002 to July 2011. Follow-up information was obtained during the check-up and/or by phone interviews. In a cohort of women who consecutively gave birth (n=3339) after spontaneous conception in our Institution, information on the diagnoses of pregnancy-related venous thromboses was obtained by linkage to a patient administrative register. Primary and secondary outcome measures We calculated the incidence of VTE and superficial venous thrombosis in successful ART cycles and compared it with that of the general population conceiving spontaneously. Results Overall, 684 ART cycles were carried out by 234 women, who achieved a clinical pregnancy; in case of more than one successful cycle, only the first pregnancy was considered. Three vein thromboses (two VTE and one superficial vein thrombosis) were recorded. An antithrombotic prophylaxis with LMWH alone or combined with low-dose aspirin was prescribed in 23/234 (9.8%) women. In the reference cohort of 3339 women, a total of 11 vein thromboses were observed: six VTE and five SVT. The two-tailed Fisher exact test showed a trend towards statistical significance (p: 0.06, OR: 3.9, 95% CI 0.87 to 15.3). After the exclusion of superficial thromboses in both the groups, we found that the incidence of VTE in our population of women who had undergone ART was 2/234 pregnancies (8.5 ‰), whereas that in our reference population was 6/3339 (1.8 ‰) (p: 0.09). Conclusions Our data show a slightly higher incidence of vein thromboses in pregnancies after ART than in those after natural conception. PMID:26443651

  2. Pregnancy rates in cattle with cryopreserved sexed spermatozoa: effects of laser intensity, staining conditions and catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, J L; Seidel, G E

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of this research was to improve fertility of cattle inseminated with sexed spermatozoa by improving sperm sorting procedures. Six field trials were conducted in which 4,264 heifers were inseminated into the uterine body with cryopreserved sexed or unsexed control spermatozoa. Pregnancy or calving rates with doses of 2 x 10(6) sexed spermatozoa ranged from 32 to 51%; these averaged 69% of the pregnancy rates with 20 x 10(6) unsexed, control spermatozoa (range 53 to 79% of controls). Fertility of sexed spermatozoa was especially low on farms where control fertility was low. Accuracy of sexing ranged from 86 to 91%. Laser power of 150 mW for interrogating spermatozoa did not result in lower pregnancy rates (43%) than when power was decreased as much as possible for a particular sorting batch (50 to 130 mW) to still achieve sexing accuracy (38% pregnant). Addition of catalase to fluids containing spermatozoa was beneficial when thawed spermatozoa were incubated in vitro for 2 h but had no effect on pregnancy rates. There also was no effect on pregnancy rates between two concentrations of Hoechst 33342 for staining spermatozoa. Freezing 2 x 10(6) sexed spermatozoa at 20 x 10(6)/ml resulted in a slightly higher rate of pregnancy (P < 0.05) than at 10 x 10(6)/ml. The information obtained in these trials, along with other improvements, notably lowering pressure in the sorting system from 50 to 40 psi, has been used to improve procedures for sexing spermatozoa commercially.

  3. The Oportunidades conditional cash transfer program: effects on pregnancy and contraceptive use among young rural women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Weaver, Marcia R; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2013-12-01

    Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15-19) and young adult (20-24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted between matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33-36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance--but not exposure to Oportunidades--were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades.

  4. Intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy: related demographic and psychosocial factors and postpartum depressive symptoms among Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Corrie L; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Coonrod, Dean V

    2015-02-01

    Although research examining intimate partner violence (IPV) has expanded in recent years, there has been relatively little examination of the related demographic and psychosocial factors, as well as mental health outcomes, for IPV before and during pregnancy, especially in a Mexican American population. The current study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of IPV in a community sample of low-income, perinatal Mexican American women (n = 320). Results indicated that 13.1% of the women reported IPV before pregnancy and 11.3% reported IPV during pregnancy. For both IPV before and during pregnancy, women born in the United States were more likely to report IPV than foreign-born women. For IPV before pregnancy, women who were not in a serious romantic relationship or reported a history of childhood trauma were also more likely to report IPV. For IPV during pregnancy, women who reported higher general stress and lower social support were also more likely to report IPV. Finally, the current study provided strong evidence that a history of IPV predicted elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, above and beyond the impact of prenatal depressive symptoms. This study brings greater awareness to a complex and harmful situation in an understudied population. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between demographic and psychosocial risk for IPV before and during pregnancy, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms, as well as the implications for the development of future prevention and intervention programs.

  5. Weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age in relation to fetal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.

  6. [Correlation between serum levels of bile acids in pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and condition of their newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Artur; Janosz-Gałdyś, Iwona; Olejek, Anita; Bodzek, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine a relation between the level of total serum bile acids in pregnant women and the condition of their newborns on the basis of select parameters of acid-base balance in the cord blood. The study group consisted of 64 pregnant women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and 78 healthy pregnant women constituted the control group. Colorimetric enzymatic measurements of serum total bile acids were performed in both groups. In the mild cholestasis group, mean concentration of bile acids amounted to 20.6 +/- 1.0 micromol/l and was statistically significantly lower as compared to women with severe cholestasis (58.9 +/- 9.5 micromol/l). In the control group, mean concentration of bile acids was 4.1 +/- 0.3 micromol/l and was statistically significantly lower as compared to groups with cholestasis. Caesarean section was performed in 60.9% of women with cholestasis as compared to 19.2% of controls. Also, neonatal condition in the first minute of life was worse in the group with cholestasis as compared to the infants in the control group. The body weight of newborns of mothers with cholestasis was statistically significantly lower than in infants born to controls. Lowered neonatal pH (below 7.20) was noted in 2.6% of the newborns from the control group and was statistically significantly less frequent as compared to infants from the group with cholestasis. Periodic measurements of total bile acid concentrations in serum of pregnant women with cholestasis is of high value in establishing the diagnosis and determining severity of the disease in the mother as well as potential hazard for the fetus. Simultaneous monitoring of the changes total bile acids concentrations in the blood serum and the well-being allows to reduce the rates of neonatal distresses after birth and cesarean sections.

  7. The effectiveness of complementary manual therapies for pregnancy-related back and pelvic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen; Cramer, Holger; Sundberg, Tobias; Ward, Lesley; Adams, Jon; Moore, Craig; Sibbritt, David; Lauche, Romy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low back pain and pelvic girth pain are common in pregnancy and women commonly utilize complementary manual therapies such as massage, spinal manipulation, chiropractic, and osteopathy to manage their symptoms. Objective: The aim of this systematically review was to critically appraise and synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual therapies for managing pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain. Methods: Seven databases were searched from their inception until April 2015 for randomized controlled trials. Studies investigating the effectiveness of massage and chiropractic and osteopathic therapies were included. The study population was pregnant women of any age and at any time during the antenatal period. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias were conducted by 2 reviewers independently, using the Cochrane tool. Separate meta-analyses were conducted to compare manual therapies to different control interventions. Results: Out of 348 nonduplicate records, 11 articles reporting on 10 studies on a total of 1198 pregnant women were included in this meta-analysis. The therapeutic interventions predominantly involved massage and osteopathic manipulative therapy. Meta-analyses found positive effects for manual therapy on pain intensity when compared to usual care and relaxation but not when compared to sham interventions. Acceptability did not differ between manual therapy and usual care or sham interventions. Conclusions: There is currently limited evidence to support the use of complementary manual therapies as an option for managing low back and pelvic pain during pregnancy. Considering the lack of effect compared to sham interventions, further high-quality research is needed to determine causal effects, the influence of the therapist on the perceived effectiveness of treatments, and adequate dose–response of complementary manual therapies on low back and pelvic pain outcomes during

  8. The relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy on birth outcomes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Melissa F; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Addo, O Yaw; Hao, Wei; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine the role of multiple measures of prepregnancy nutritional status (weight, height, body composition) on birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm, birth weight, birth length, infant head circumference and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)); (2) assess relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during (gestational weight gain) pregnancy on birth outcomes. We used prospective data on maternal body size and composition collected from women who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of preconceptional micronutrient supplements (PRECONCEPT) on birth outcomes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n=1436). Anthropometric measurements were obtained before conception through delivery by trained health workers. The relationship between prepregnancy nutritional status indicators, gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth outcomes were examined using generalized linear models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Maternal prepregnancy weight (PPW) was the strongest anthropometric indicator predicting infant birth size. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PPW (5.4kg) was associated with a 283g (95%CI: 279-286) increase in birthweight. A similar and independent association was observed with birthweight for an increase of 1 SD in gestational weight gain (4kg) (250g; 95% CI: 245-255). Women with a PPW pregnancy were more likely to give birth to a SGA (OR 2.9: 95%CI 1.9-4.5, OR 3.3: 95%CI 2.2-5.1) or LBW infant (OR 3.1: 95%CI 1.5-6.2, OR 3.4: 95%CI 1.6-7.2), respectively. These findings indicate that clinical care and programs aimed at improving birth outcomes will have the greatest impact if they address maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy. Women with a PPW pregnancy along with routine obstetric care on gestational weight gain is critical to improve birth outcomes. NCT01665378 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01665378). Copyright © 2015

  9. Anthropometric changes during pregnancy of urban Indian women related to birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, S A; Sequeira, E; Thiuri, B; Mannetje, W; Jansen, A A

    1982-06-01

    Vegetarian and nonvegetarian women of Asian Indian origin living in Nairobi, Kenya, and attending the antenatal clinic at the Aga Khan Hospital were followed up from 26 weeks of pregnancy to term. The objective was to observe these pregnant women in relation to pregnancy performance and outcome. The mean gestational age for both groups was 39.0 weeks. There is a progressive increase in weight from the 26th week of pregnancy up to the time of delivery among both groups. 65.4% of the women gained between 90 and 150% of the expected value. Women who gained less than 90% of the expected value (34.6%) did not produce smaller babies. The mean birth weight of the newborns was 2,869 gms in the vegetarian group and 3,026 gms in the nonvegetarian group. There was no significant difference in the outcome of pregnancy between the 2 groups. Mean birth weight, mean length and mean head circumference of the babies in both the groups fell within the 10th and 25th percentiles of the Harvard standards. The mean chest circumference of the babies in the vegetarian group fell within the 25th and 50th percentiles, while that of the babies in the nonvegetarian group fell between 50th and 75th percentiles. The pattern of weight gain in the study population corresponds favorably with that observed among British women . Other anthropometric parameters studied were height, mid-upper arm circumference and 4 skinfold thickness. Changes in muscle mass and fat area were also calculated. Tables show quantitative data.

  10. Pregnancy rates and corpus luteum-related factors affecting pregnancy establishment in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L G B; Torres, C A A; Souza, E D; Monteiro, P L J; Arashiro, E K N; Camargo, L S A; Fernandes, C A C; Viana, J H M

    2009-10-15

    The objective was to investigate the influence of corpora lutea physical and functional characteristics on pregnancy rates in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET). Crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus) nonlactating cows and heifers (n=259) were treated with the following protocol: 2mg estradiol benzoate (EB) plus an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR 1.9g progesterone; Day 0); 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; Day 5); prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and CIDR withdrawal (Day 8); and 1mg EB (Day 9). Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sample collections were performed on Day 17. Of the 259 cattle initially treated, 197 (76.1%) were suitable recipients; they received a single, fresh, quality grade 1 or 2 in vivo-derived (n=90) or in vitro-produced (n=87) embryo on Day 17. Pregnancy rates (23 d after embryo transfer) were higher for in vivo-derived embryos than for in vitro-produced embryos (58.8% vs. 31.0%, respectively; Pcattle that became pregnant than that in nonpregnant cattle (5.2+/-5.0 vs. 3.8+/-2.4 ng/mL; P=0.02). Mean pixel values (71.8+/-1.3 vs. 71.2+/-1.1) and pixel heterogeneity (14.8+/-0.3 vs. 14.5+/-0.5) were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant recipients (P>0.10). No significant relationship was detected between pregnancy outcome and plasma P(4), corpus luteum area, or corpus luteum echotexture. Embryo type, however, affected the odds of pregnancy. In conclusion, corpus luteum-related traits were poor predictors of pregnancy in recipients. The type of embryo, however, was a major factor affecting pregnancy outcome.

  11. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  12. Risk of Vaginal Infections at Early Gestation in Patients with Diabetic Conditions during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Marschalek

    Full Text Available Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are reported to be at increased risk for infections of the genital tract. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV and Candida colonization at early gestation between pregnant women with and without diabetic conditions during pregnancy. We included data from 8, 486 singleton pregnancies that underwent an antenatal infection screen-and-treat programme at our department. All women with GDM or pre-existing diabetes were retrospectively assigned to the diabetic group (DIAB, whereas non-diabetic women served as controls (CON. Prevalence for BV and Candida colonization was 9% and 14% in the DIAB group, and 9% and 13% in the CON group, respectively (n.s.. No significant difference regarding stillbirth and preterm delivery (PTD, defined as a delivery earlier than 37 + 0 (37 weeks plus 0 days weeks of gestation was found. We could not find an increased risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens at early gestation in pregnant women with diabetes, compared to non-diabetic women. Large prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long-term risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens during the course of pregnancy in these women.

  13. Pregnancy-related listeriosis in France, 1984 to 2011, with a focus on 606 cases from 1999 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, D; Leclercq, A; Laurent, E; Lecuit, M; de Valk, H; Goulet, V

    2014-09-25

    This study describes trends in the incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis in France between 1984 and 2011, and presents the major characteristics of 606 cases reported between 1999 and 2011 to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance through the mandatory notification system. The incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis decreased by a factor of 12 from 1984 to 2011. This reduction was a result of progressive implementation of specific Listeria monocytogenes control measures in food production. A lower incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis was observed in regions with a lower prevalence of toxoplasmosis. Given that dietary recommendations in pregnancy target both toxoplasmosis and listeriosis prevention, we suppose that recommendations may have been delivered and followed more frequently in these regions. Cases reported between 1999 and 2011 (n=606) were classified as maternal infections with ongoing pregnancy (n=89, 15%), fetal loss (n=166, 27%), or live-born neonatal listeriosis (n=351, 58%). The majority of live-born neonatal listeriosis cases (n=216, 64%) were preterm births (22–36 weeks of gestation), of whom 14% (n=30) were extremely preterm births (22–27 weeks of gestation). Eighty per cent of mothers reported having eaten high risk food during pregnancy. A better awareness of dietary recommendations in pregnant women is therefore necessary.

  14. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome after Myoma Enucleation by Minilaparotomy under Microsurgical Conditions in Pronounced Uterus Myomatosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, K; Garcia-Rocha, G-J; Kundu, S; von Kaisenberg, C S; Hillemanns, P; Schippert, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Besides the typical complaints and symptoms, myomas can cause sterility, infertility and complications during pregnancy. Laparoscopic interventions reach their limits with regard to organ preservation and the simultaneous desire to have children in the removal of multiple and larger intramural myoma nodes. The aim of this study is to examine fertility status and pregnancy outcome after myoma removal by minilaparotomy (skin incision maximal 8 cm) in women with pronounced uterus myomatosus. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study makes use of the data from 160 patients with an average age of 34.6 years. Factors analysed include number, size and localisation of the myomas, complaints due to the myoma, pre- and postoperative gravidity, mode of delivery, and complications of birth. Results: Indications for organ-sparing myoma enucleation were the desire to have children (72.5 %), bleeding disorders (60 %) and pressure discomfort (36.5 %). On average 4.95 (SD ± 0.41), maximally 46 myomas were removed. The largest myoma had a diameter of 6.64 cm (SD ± 2.74). 82.5 % of the patients had transmural myomas, in 17.5 % the uterine cavity was inadvertently opened. On average the operating time was 163 minutes (SD ± 45.47), the blood loss 1.59 g/dL (SD ± 0.955). 60.3 % of the patients with the desire to have children became pregnant postoperatively. 75.3 % of the pregnancies were on average carried through to the 38th week (28.4 % vaginal deliveries, 71.6 % Caesarean sections). In the postoperative period there was one case of uterine rupture in the vicinity of a previous scar. Discussion: By means of the microsurgical "mini-laparotomy" even extensive myomatous uterine changes can, in the majority of cases, be operated in an organ-sparing manner with retention of the ability to conceive and to carry a pregnancy through to maturity of the infant. The risk for a postoperative uterine rupture in a subsequent pregnancy and

  15. Relationships Among Smoking, Drinking, Betel Quid Chewing and Pregnancy-Related Nausea and Vomiting in Taiwanese Aboriginal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Hao Chou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the associations among smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing and pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (N/V in Taiwanese aboriginal women. A total of 901 aboriginal women from 11 hospitals were recruited into this study. A structured questionnaire on demographic and obstetric information, smoking history, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing habits, and N/V by checklist was used to collect data. The findings of this study indicated that the prevalence of N/V, maternal smoking, drinking, and betel quid chewing were 75.6% (n = 682, 22.8% (n = 201, 31.9% (n = 287, and 34.7% (n = 313 respectively. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, body mass index and antiemetics use revealed significant relationships between smoking habits and N/V before confirmation of pregnancy and during pregnancy. In comparison with those who did not smoke, women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day before pregnancy were 1.65 times more likely to develop N/V; and women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day during pregnancy were 2.79 times more likely to develop N/V. Based on the findings of this study, smoking was associated, with a dose-response effect, with pregnancy-related N/V. Reducing the intake of cigarettes could decrease the risk of pregnancy-related N/V. Health care providers should help these women decrease their uncomfortable symptoms and improve their experiences of pregnancy and birth outcome during critical times.

  16. Certain Less Invasive Infertility Treatments Associated with Different Levels of Pregnancy-Related Anxiety in Pregnancies Conceived via In Vitro Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Eleanor Lowndes; Sloane, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research supports that in vitro fertilization causes anxiety and that anxiety can continue into the resulting pregnancy. Most women who have IVF will have a less invasive treatment for infertility prior to IVF; however, it is unclear if specific less invasive treatment cycles impact anxiety that is experienced in the pregnancy resulting from IVF. Methods: A prospective study was conducted for women who became pregnant via IVF, and data was collected about reported previous non-IVF treatment cycles as well as Pregnancy Related Anxiety Measure. Latent Class Analysis was conducted A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: 144 subjects participated and were highly educated, affluent, married, and primarily white. The LCA process yielded two groups that on average had similar levels on most items except for use of intra uterine insemination and/or ovarian stimulation. This information was used to generate four exhaustive and mutually exclusive groups: Stimulation Only (stim-only), Stimulation and Intra uterine Insemination (stim-IUI), Intra uterine Insemination only (IUI only), or No Treatment (No Tx). ANOVA found that those in the Stim Only group had statistically significantly higher PRAM scores than the Stim IUI (p=0.0036), the IUI only group (p=0.05), and the No Tx group (p=0.0013). Conclusion: Women who become pregnant via IVF and had a history of non-in vitro fertilization cycles that only involved ovarian stimulation experienced more pregnancy-specific anxiety in the pregnancy that results from in vitro fertilization.

  17. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  18. Pregnancy related acute kidney injury: A single center experience from the Kashmir Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, M Saleem; Shah, A Rashid; Wani, I A; Reshi, A Rashid; Banday, K A; Bhat, M Ashraf; Saldanha, C L

    2008-10-01

    All patients admitted with pregnancy related acute renal failure (PRAKI) from June 2005 to May 2007 were studied with respect to etiology, clinical features, and outcome of PRAKI. Of 569 cases of acute kidney injury (AKI), 40 (7.02%) cases were related to gestational problems; the age of the patients ranged from 15 to 45 years. Septic abortion was the most common cause of PRAKI, accounting for 20 (50%) cases of which 15 (75%) cases occurred in the first and five (25%) in the second trimester. Other causes were antepartum hemorrhage: six cases (15%), toxemia of pregnancy: six cases (15%), acute gastroenteritis: three cases (7.5%), postpartum hemorrhage: two cases (5%), acute pyelonephritis: two cases (5%), and postpartum, acute kidney injury: one case (2.5%). Dialysis was needed in 60% of the cases and mortality was observed in 20% of the cases. PRAKI continues to be a major concern in our society, causing a high maternal mortality. Septic abortion which has virtually disappeared from developed countries, continues to be a major cause of PRAKI in our society. Hence, there is a need to halt the practice of illegal abortions and improve antenatal care.

  19. Pregnancy related breast diseases in a developing African country: Initial Sonographic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike Temitayo; Obajimi, Gbolahan Oladele; Obajimi, Millicent Olubunmi

    2015-01-01

    Benign diseases are more common than malignant diseases in pregnant and lactating women. Fibroadenomas are the most commonly identified benign breast tumour in pregnant and lactating women. Pregnancy related breast cancer is defined as breast cancer that occurs during pregnancy or within 1 year of delivery. Its incidence is estimated at 1 in 3000 to 1 in 10 000 pregnancies. Several reproductive factors like age at menarche, age at menopause, age at full-term pregnancy, parity, age at any birth and spacing of pregnancies, breast feeding, characteristics of the menstrual cycle, infertility, spontaneous and induced abortions, characteristics of the menstrual cycle and infertility are some of the factors that have been incriminated as risk factors for breast cancer. We sought to describe the predominant breast pattern, sonographic array of pregnancy related breast diseases in women referred to the breast imaging unit in the department of Radiology at the University College Hospital, Ibadan south west Nigeria. Socio-demographic characteristics in these women were also evaluated. Archived images were reviewed and documented and data was analysed with SPSS version 17 and presented with descriptives. In this descriptive study, we retrospectively retrieved the sonomammographic records of 21 women (pregnant or lactating) referred to and imaged in the department of radiology, University college hospital Ibadan, between 2006 and 2013. Diagnostic breast sonograms performed by MO and ATS; Consultant radiologists with 7-10 years' experience utilized a 7-10 MHz transducer of the General electric GE Logiq P5 machine for the scans. Twenty-one women with ages between 22-42 years (Mean 31.4 ± 5.4 SD) pregnant or lactating were referred to the radiology department for sonomammographic evaluation. Majority of the women were in the 3rd decade. Referral was mainly (11) by family Physicians from the general outpatient clinic, 5 were self-referred, 2 from radiotherapy department, 2 from

  20. Pregnancy related biometric changes in the ovaries and uterus of the sahelian goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZ Jaji

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries and uteri of 40 apparently normal, sexually mature female Sahelian goats (30 pregnant and10 non - pregnant were obtained and measured, immediately after slaughter, at the Metropolitan abattoir, Maiduguri, Nigeria, over a period of one year. This was with the aim of documenting pregnancy related biometrical changes in them. The diameter and thickness of the right ovary showed extremely significant increase (p<0.001 during the 14-20 weeks of gestation. The dimensions of the uterine horns showed levels of significant increases (p<0.05 to 0.001 along the stages of gestation, those of the uterine body showed extremely significant increase (p<0.001 throughout gestation, while the cervical diameter and length respectively only showed significant and very significant increases during the 14-20 weeks of gestation. Conclusively, in the Sahelian goat, pregnancy does not seem have significant effect on the dimensions and weight of the left ovary to full term but causes extremely significant increases in the diameter and thickness of the right ovary during the 14-20 weeks of gestation. The diameter and thickness of the right ovary is extremely significantly more than those of the left at the 14-20 weeks of gestation. The gravid and non-gravid right ovaries are larger in dimensions and heavier in weight as compared to left ones, which confirming the fact of right ovary being more active than the left one. Pregnancy causes levels of significant increase in the dimensions of the uterine horns, consistent extremely significant increase in the dimensions of the uterine body, along the stages of gestations. It also causes levels of significant increase in the dimensions of the cervix during the 14-20 weeks s of gestation. The right and left uterine horns of the Sahelian goat show no significant difference in dimensions both in pregnant and non - pregnant states.

  1. Risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications or pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and heterozygosity for factor V Leiden or G20210 prothrombin mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Iris; Pegenaute, Carlota; González-López, Tomás José; Chillon, Carmen; Sarasquete, Maria Eugenia; Martin-Herrero, Francisco; Guerrero, Carmen; Cabrero, Mónica; Garcia Sanchez, Maria Helena; Pabon, Pedro; Lozano, Francisco Santiago; Gonzalez, Marcos; Alberca, Ignacio; González-Porras, José Ramón

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of pregnancy-related adverse events in asymptomatic relatives of probands for VTE and factor V Leiden or the G20210A variant. The antepartum management of this population ranges from antepartum anticoagulation therapy to clinical surveillance. To evaluate the risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and who are heterozygous carriers of either factor V Leiden or PT-G20210A mutation. One hundred and fifty-eight relatives, who had 415 pregnancies, were retrospectively evaluated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with and without thrombophilia. In the factor V Leiden group, 22 placenta-mediated pregnancy events of 152 pregnancies (14.4%) were reported, compared with 25 adverse events of 172 pregnancies in the G20210A prothrombin group (14.5%) and 13 adverse events of 91 pregnancies in the non-carrier group (14.2%). Carriers of factor V Leiden or G20210A prothrombin were not associated with a higher risk of pregnancy-adverse outcomes compared with non-carriers: OR 1.02 (95% CI, 0.40-2.25) and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.48-3.24), respectively. Four episodes of pregnancy-associated VTE of 415 pregnancies (0.96%) were recorded. Two episodes of VTE in the G20210A group, one in the factor V Leiden group, and one episode in the non-carrier group were noted. In VTE-asymptomatic relatives of probands with VTE, the presence of factor V Leiden or the G20210A prothrombin mutation in heterozygosis should not lead to a decision to instigate antepartum prophylaxis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Teenage pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-01-01

    .... Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development...

  3. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. ... pregnant with more than one baby, previous problem pregnancies, or being over age 35. They can affect ...

  4. Pregnancy-related low back pain and pelvic girdle pain approximately 14 months after pregnancy - pain status, self-rated health and family situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Cecilia; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2014-01-25

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) in pregnancy is distinct from pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP). However, women with combined PLBP and PGP report more serious consequences in terms of health and function. PGP has been estimated to affect about half of pregnant women, where 25% experience serious pain and 8% experience severe disability. To date there are relatively few studies regarding persistent PLBP/PGP postpartum of more than 3 months, thus the main objective was to identify the prevalence of persistent PLBP and PGP as well as the differences over time in regard to pain status, self-rated health (SRH) and family situation at 12 months postpartum. The study is a 12 month follow-up of a cohort of pregnant women developing PLBP and PGP during pregnancy, and who experienced persistent pain at 6 month follow-up after pregnancy. Women reporting PLBP/PGP (n = 639) during pregnancy were followed up with a second questionnaire at approximately six month after delivery. Women reporting recurrent or persistent LBP/PGP at the second questionnaire (n = 200) were sent a third questionnaire at 12 month postpartum. A total of 176 women responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-four women (19.3%) reported remission of LBP/PGP, whereas 65.3% (n = 115) and 15.3% (n = 27), reported recurrent LBP/PGP or continuous LBP/PGP, respectively. The time between base line and the 12 months follow-up was in actuality 14 months. Women with previous LBP before pregnancy had an increased odds ratio (OR) of reporting 'recurrent pain' (OR = 2.47) or 'continuous pain' (OR = 3.35) postpartum compared to women who reported 'no pain' at the follow-up. Women with 'continuous pain' reported statistically significant higher level of pain at all measure points (0, 6 and 12 months postpartum). Non-responders were found to report a statistically significant less positive scoring regarding relationship satisfaction compared to responders. The results from this study demonstrate that persistent PLBP/PGP is a

  5. Abortion, 1973: some recent world events in relation to pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    This selective report notes recent events relating to pregnancy termination in the U.S., France, England, Italy, East and West Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands. Due to the Supreme Court decision in January 1973, abortion is now legal in the U.S. Although abortions is illegal in France, an estimated 400,000-1,000,000 clandestine abortions occur each year. Although abortions are legal in Britain, the ease with which they can be obtained varies regionally. As of March 1973, contraceptives are part of Britain's National Health Service. In Italy, a bill to legalize abortion has been introduced in Parliament, though there is little likelihood of its passing. In East Germany, abortion can be granted for medical or social reasons, while in West Germany, the governmental policies are more conservative, resulting in an abundance of illegal abortions performed by physicians. There is a trend toward easier abortion laws in Norway and Sweden. Little is happening in the Netherlands as far as liberalizing the abortion laws. Rather liberal grounds for pregnancy termination exist in China (though emphasis is on contraception), India, Russia, and Eastern Europe (with the exception of Romania). Abortion is frowned upon in Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East resulting in a large number of illegal abortions. It is concluded that there is liberalized abortion in communist bloc countries, there is trend toward liberalizing abortion in a large group of western countries, and tradition and religion are responsible for conservative abortion laws in a third group of countries.

  6. Lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia in pregnancy is related to perinatal mortality: a cohort study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendland Eliana M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational diabetes related morbidity increases along the continuum of the glycemic spectrum. Perinatal mortality, as a complication of gestational diabetes, has been little investigated. In early studies, an association was found, but in more recent ones it has not been confirmed. The Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes, a cohort of untreated pregnant women enrolled in the early 1990's, offers a unique opportunity to investigate this question. Thus, our objective is to evaluate whether perinatal mortality increases in a continuum across the maternal glycemic spectrum. Methods We prospectively enrolled and followed 4401 pregnant women attending general prenatal care clinics in six Brazilian state capitals, without history of diabetes outside of pregnancy, through to birth, and their offspring through the early neonatal period. Women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent a standardized 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Obstetric care was maintained according to local protocols. We obtained antenatal, delivery and neonatal data from hospital records. Odds ratios (OR were estimated using logistic regression. Results We ascertained 97 perinatal deaths (67 fetal and 31 early neonatal. Odds of dying increased according to glucose levels, statistically significantly so only for women delivering at gestational age ≥34 weeks (p Conclusions In settings of limited detection and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus, women across a spectrum of lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia, experienced a continuous rise in perinatal death with increasing levels of glycemia after 34 weeks of pregnancy. Current GDM diagnostic criteria identified this increased risk of mortality.

  7. Factors Related to Pregnancy Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernigliaro, Dana; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV are a vulnerable population for multiple health concerns and have been vastly understudied in public health literature. This study analyzes factors related to pregnancy among 268 FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that 34 % of participants had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between pregnancy after HIV diagnosis and ART interruption (AOR 2.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.94), knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (AOR 2.12; 95 % CI 0.99, 4.55), serostatus disclosure to a sex partner (AOR 2.46; 95 % CI 1.31, 4.62), older age (AOR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.87, 0.95) and a more negative perception of their health provider (AOR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.93). Results indicate noteworthy associations between having been pregnant and the health provider experience and ART interruption, indicating a significant need for further research on this population to ensure both maternal and child health.

  8. Two pregnancies shortly after transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Maura; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Lanino, Edoardo; Morreale, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Marta; Giardino, Stefano; Micalizzi, Concetta; Balduzzi, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    POI is a relevant late complication after HSCT and occurring more frequently after MAC than after RIC regimens. Reports on the frequency of POI after RIC in a large pediatric and adolescent population are lacking. In this study, we describe a girl affected by CML diagnosed at the age of 15 yr and treated with oncarbide and interferon followed by imatinib and dasatinib. She had two pregnancies shortly after RIC performed according to the CML-SCT I-BFM protocol including TT, FLU, and MEL. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism occurred four months after HSCT; menstruations resumed regularly six months after HSCT. Eight and 20 months after HSCT, the patient became pregnant and then delivered, respectively, two babies at term by cesarean section. Both newborns had no neonatal complications. Donor chimerism at time of two pregnancies and five yr after transplantation demonstrated complete donor engraftment. These findings suggest that I-BFM CML-SCT protocol could be a promising treatment option for adolescents or young adults with CML eligible for HSCT.

  9. HIV-related stigma in pregnancy and early postpartum of mothers living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Allyson; Wagner, Anne C; Greene, Saara; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is associated with many psychological challenges; however, minimal research has explored how perceived HIV-related stigma intersects with psychosocial issues that mothers living with HIV may experience including depression, perceived stress and social isolation. The present study aims to describe the correlates and predictors of HIV-related stigma in a cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) from across Ontario, Canada during pregnancy and early postpartum. From March 2011 to December 2012, WLWH ≥ 18 years (n = 77) completed a study instrument measuring independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, depression symptoms, social isolation, social support and perceived racism in the third trimester and 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Multivariable linear regression was employed to explore the relationship between HIV-related stigma and multiple independent variables. HIV-related stigma generally increased from pregnancy to postpartum; however, there were no significant differences in HIV-related stigma across all study time points. In multivariable regression, depression symptoms and perceived racism were significant predictors of overall HIV-related stigma from pregnancy to postpartum. The present analysis contributes to our understanding of HIV-related stigma throughout the pregnancy-motherhood trajectory for WLWH including the interactional relationship between HIV-related stigma and other psychosocial variables, most notably, depression and racism.

  10. Physical activity and health-related quality of life during pregnancy: a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of physical activity before and during pregnancy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data from the cluster-randomised gestational diabetes mellitus primary prevention trial conducted in maternity clinics were utilised in a secondary analysis. The cases considered were pregnant women who reported engaging in at least 150 min of moderate-intensity leisure-time physical activity per week (active women) (N = 80), and the controls were women below these recommendations (less active) (N = 258). All participants had at least one risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus. Their HRQoL was evaluated via the validated generic instrument 15D, with HRQoL at the end of pregnancy examined in relation to changes in physical activity during pregnancy. Logistic regression models addressed age, parity, education, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. At the end of pregnancy, the expected HRQoL was higher (tobit regression coefficient 0.022, 95 % CI 0.003-0.042) among active women than less active women. Active women also had greater mobility (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.04-3.78), ability to handle their usual activities (OR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.29-3.81), and vitality (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.22-3.54) than did less active women. Active women reported higher-quality sleep (OR 2.11, 95 % CI 1.03-4.30) throughout pregnancy as compared to less active women. Meeting of the physical activity guidelines before pregnancy was associated with better overall HRQoL and components thereof related to physical activity.

  11. The Effect of Topical Rosa damascena (Rose) Oil on Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mahbobeh; Mohebitabar, Safieh; Bioos, Sodabeh; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Rahimi, Roja; Shahpiri, Zahra; Malekshahi, Farhad; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of topical rose oil in women with pregnancy-related low back pain. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with pregnancy-related low back pain. Patients were allocated to 3 parallel groups to receive topical rose oil (in the carrier of almond oil), placebo (carrier oil), or no intervention. All groups were followed for 4 weeks. All participants were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaires to assess the pain intensity and its impact on daily activities before and after the intervention. Significant decrease in pain intensity compared to carrier oil or no intervention was observed. The rose oil also improves the functional ability of these patients in contrast with no intervention, while its effect on function is not significant compared to carrier oil. Rose oil reduced pregnancy-related low back pain intensity without any significant adverse effect.

  12. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization). PMID:22978519

  13. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erim Daniel O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization.

  14. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachcar, P

    1990-01-01

    The number of adolescent pregnancies brought to term in France has continued to decline while the number of abortions remains stable. Adolescent pregnancies cannot be considered "accidents" either in their social or psychological aspects. Pregnant adolescents carrying to term tend to be more disadvantaged than those seeking abortions. Early pregnancy may be a response to difficult life conditions. Despite appearing to constitute an infraction of a social code, adolescent pregnancy may in fact represent an attempt at social integration through motherhood. Adolescents failing in school, with poor employment prospects and feeling family pressures may view pregnancy as a means of social recognition. But such factors by themselves do not explain pregnancy; the primordial role of psychological factors must be examined. For some adolescents, pregnancy may represent an attempt to understand their own sexual identity as the transformations of puberty unsettle their previous self-images. Or they may be failing to perceive or actively denying the possibility of pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancies may be the result of transgressions of prohibitions. The traditional prohibition of sexual activity has relaxed to the degree that it is being replaced by a new prohibition on adolescent pregnancy and a prescription to use contraception. But contraception deprives an adolescent in search of sexual identity of proof of fertility as well as of the image of spontaneity and naturalness. Use of contraception is in conflict with the questions, doubts, and anxieties of adolescence. For adolescents in a reactivated oedipal stage, heterosexuality is often at the service of incestuous fantasies involving the mother. Abortion and perhaps pregnancy itself may assume the character of a rite of passage into adulthood for some adolescents. The important thing for many is the ability to become pregnant, to be a mother like their own mother.

  15. Maternal weight gain in excess of pregnancy guidelines is related to daughters being overweight 40 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, L C; Ester, W A; Lumey, L H; Michels, K B; Wei, Y; Cohn, B A; Susser, E; Terry, M B

    2016-08-01

    Exceeding the Institute of Medicine guidelines for pregnancy weight gain increases childhood and adolescent obesity. However, it is unknown if these effects extend to midlife. We sought to determine if exceeding the Institute of Medicine guidelines for pregnancy weight gain increases risk of overweight/obesity in daughters 40 years later. This cohort study is based on adult offspring in the Child Health and Development Studies and the Collaborative Perinatal Project pregnancy cohorts originally enrolled in the 1960s. In 2005 through 2008, 1035 daughters in their 40s were recruited to the Early Determinants of Mammographic Density study. We classified maternal pregnancy weight gain as greater than vs less than or equal to the 2009 clinical guidelines. We used logistic regression to compare the odds ratios of daughters being overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25) at a mean age of 44 years between mothers who did not gain or gained more than pregnancy weight gain guidelines, accounting for maternal prepregnant BMI, and daughter body size at birth and childhood. We also examined potential family related confounding through a comparison of sisters using generalized estimating equations, clustered on sibling units and adjusted for maternal age and race. Mothers who exceeded guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy were more likely to have daughters who were overweight/obese in their 40s (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-5.7). This magnitude of association translates to a relative risk (RR) increase of 50% (RR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6). The association was of the same magnitude when examining only the siblings whose mother exceeded guidelines in 1 pregnancy and did not exceed the guidelines in the other pregnancy. The association was stronger with increasing maternal prepregnancy BMI (P trend 30). This pattern held irrespective of daughters' weight status at birth, at age 4 years, or at age 20 years. Our findings support that obesity prevention

  16. Use of Rapid Ascertainment Process for Institutional Deaths (RAPID) to identify pregnancy-related deaths in tertiary-care obstetric hospitals in three departments in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Andrew T; Hulland, Erin N; Grand'Pierre, Reynold; Nesi, Floris; Honoré, Patrice; Jean-Louis, Reginald; Handzel, Endang

    2017-05-16

    Accurate assessment of maternal deaths is difficult in countries lacking standardized data sources for their review. As a first step to investigate suspected maternal deaths, WHO suggests surveillance of "pregnancy-related deaths", defined as deaths of women while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of cause. Rapid Ascertainment Process for Institutional Deaths (RAPID), a surveillance tool, retrospectively identifies pregnancy-related deaths occurring in health facilities that may be missed by routine surveillance to assess gaps in reporting these deaths. We used RAPID to review pregnancy-related deaths in six tertiary obstetric care facilities in three departments in Haiti. We reviewed registers and medical dossiers of deaths among women of reproductive age occurring in 2014 and 2015 from all wards, along with any additional available dossiers of deaths not appearing in registers, to capture pregnancy status, suspected cause of death, and timing of death in relation to the pregnancy. We used capture-recapture analyses to estimate the true number of in-hospital pregnancy-related deaths in these facilities. Among 373 deaths of women of reproductive age, we found 111 pregnancy-related deaths, 25.2% more than were reported through routine surveillance, and 22.5% of which were misclassified as non-pregnancy-related. Hemorrhage (27.0%) and hypertensive disorders (18.0%) were the most common categories of suspected causes of death, and deaths after termination of pregnancy were statistically significantly more common than deaths during pregnancy or delivery. Data were missing at multiple levels: 210 deaths had an undetermined pregnancy status, 48.7% of pregnancy-related deaths lacked specific information about timing of death in relation to the pregnancy, and capture-recapture analyses in three hospitals suggested that approximately one-quarter of pregnancy-related deaths were not captured by RAPID or routine surveillance. Across six

  17. What Are the Treatments for Spina Bifida and Related Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spina bifida & related conditions? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Open Spina Bifida An infant with open spina bifida (myelomeningocele), in ...

  18. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) - III

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III (NESARC-III) is a nationally representative survey of 46,500 adult Americans that collected...

  19. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  20. ULTRASTRUCTURAL RESEARCH OF THE ENDOMETRIUM RECEPTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF PRE-CONCEPTIONAL PREPARATION IN REFRACTORY PREGNANCY LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Marinkin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Cyclic hormonotherapy in combination with complex metabolic therapy as a pre-conceptional preparation contributing to pregnancy illustrates much higher effectiveness of pathogenetically proved preconceptional hormonotherapy KEY WORDS: refractory pregnancy loss, endometrium receptivity, hormone therapy, ultrastructure.

  1. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Olsen, Sjurdur F;

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish...... associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future...

  2. Quantifying the fall in mortality associated with interventions related to hypertensive diseases of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Oona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we review the evidence of the effect of health interventions on mortality reduction from hypertensive diseases in pregnancy (HDP. We chose HDP because they represent a major cause of death in low income countries and evidence of effect on maternal mortality from randomised studies is available for some interventions. Methods We used four approaches to review the evidence of the effect of interventions to prevent or treat HDP on mortality reduction from HDP. We first reviewed the Cochrane Library to identify systematic reviews and individual trials of the efficacy of single interventions for the prevention or treatment of HDP. We then searched the literature for articles quantifying the impact of maternal health interventions on the reduction of maternal mortality at the population level and describe the approaches used by various authors for interventions related to HDP. Third, we examined levels of HDP-specific mortality over time or between regions in an attempt to quantify the actual or potential reduction in mortality from HDP in these regions or over time. Lastly, we compared case fatality rates in women with HDP-related severe acute maternal morbidity with those reported historically in high income countries before any effective treatment was available. Results The Cochrane review identified 5 effective interventions: routine calcium supplementation in pregnancy, antiplatelet agents during pregnancy in women at risk of pre-eclampsia, Magnesium sulphate (MgS04 for the treatment of eclampsia, MgS04 for the treatment of pre-eclampsia, and hypertensive drugs for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension in pregnancy. We found 10 studies quantifying the effect of maternal health interventions on reducing maternal mortality from HDP, but the heterogeneity in the methods make it difficult to draw uniform conclusions for effectiveness of interventions at various levels of the health system. Most authors

  3. Pruritus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Hagit; Melamed, Nir; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question Some of my pregnant patients complain about pruritus. Are there conditions in pregnancy that present with pruritus that might put the mother or fetus at risk? Answer Although most cases of pruritus can be attributed to itchy dry skin, there are conditions unique to pregnancy that involve pruritus as a leading symptom. These include pemphigoid gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. These conditions are associated with severe pruritus and some might be associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Clinical history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic clues when evaluating pruritus in pregnancy. PMID:24336540

  4. Adolescent men's attitudes and decision-making in relation to an unplanned pregnancy. Responses to an interactive video drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Maria; Cruise, Sharon; O'Halloran, Peter; Alderdice, Fiona; Hyde, Abbey

    2011-05-01

    This study confronts a gender bias in research on adolescent pregnancy by exploring adolescent men's decisions relating to a hypothetical unplanned pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with adolescent men (N = 360) aged between 14 and 18 years attending schools in the Republic of Ireland. The study, the first of its kind in Europe, extends the small body of evidence on adolescent men and pregnancy decision-making by developing and examining reactions to an interactive video drama used in a comparable study in Australia. In addition, we tested a more comprehensive range of sociological and psychological determinants of adolescent men's decisions regarding an unplanned pregnancy. Results showed that adolescent men were more likely to choose to keep the baby in preference to abortion or adoption. Adolescent men's choice to continue the pregnancy (keep or adopt) in preference to abortion was significantly associated with anticipated feelings of regret in relation to abortion, perceived positive attitudes of own mother to keeping the baby and a feeling that a part of them might want a baby. Religiosity was also shown to underlie adolescent men's views on the perceived consequences of an abortion in their lives.

  5. Hypertension in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ungar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories: chronic hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, pre-eclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and gestational hypertension. A relative paucity of investigative data, as well as the frequent difficulty in making an etiological diagnosis, may lead to problems in its management. This case report analyses current concepts regarding the hypertensive disorders of gestation, focusing on chronic hypertension. Chronic hypertension is defined as blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mmHg before pregnancy or before 20 weeks gestation. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal morbidity and remain a leading source of maternal mortality. A prompt diagnosis is needed also because hypertension may be an indicator of pre-eclampsia, a condition which can evolve into serious complications. Maintaining blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg is recommended, although treatment should be determined on an individual basis. Many anti-hypertensive agents appear to be safe for use during pregnancy: methildopa has been the most studied of the anti-hypertensive drugs and has the best safety record. Labetalol, idralazine and nifedipine also have been found to be safe; ACE-inhibitors are absolutely contraindicated, because they are associated with intrauterine growth retardation.

  6. Liver diseases in pregnancy: Diseases unique to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khulood T; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. This review summarizes liver diseases that are unique to pregnancy. We discuss clinical conditions that are seen only in pregnant women and involve the liver; from Hyperemesis Gravidarum that happens in 1 out of 200 pregnancies and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (0.5%-1.5% prevalence), to the more frequent condition of preeclampsia (10% prevalence) and its severe form; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count syndrome (12% of pregnancies with preeclampsia), to the rare entity of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (incidence of 1 per 7270 to 13000 deliveries). Although pathogeneses behind the development of these aliments are not fully understood, theories have been proposed. Some propose the special physiological changes that accompany pregnancy as a precipitant. Others suggest a constellation of factors including both the mother and her fetus that come together to trigger those unique conditions. Reaching a timely and accurate diagnosis of such conditions can be challenging. The timing of the condition in relation toward which trimester it starts at is a key. Accurate diagnosis can be made using specific clinical findings and blood tests. Some entities have well-defined criteria that help not only in making the diagnosis, but also in classifying the disease according to its severity. Management of these conditions range from simple medical remedies to measures such as immediate termination of the pregnancy. In specific conditions, it is prudent to have expert obstetric and medical specialists teaming up to help improve the outcomes. PMID:24282353

  7. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: An analysis of 165 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, E.; Puri, S.; Varma, V.; Madhyastha, P. R.; Bande, S.; Gurudev, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) contributes to 3–7% of overall acute kidney injury (AKI) cases in Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of PRAKI and risk factors associated with renal injury and maternal mortality. One hundred and sixty-five patients with PRAKI, seen at M. S. Ramaiah Medical College between 2005 and 2014, were included in this, observational study. AKI was analyzed in terms of maximal stage of renal injury attained as per Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Outcomes included requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT), maternal, and fetal mortality. Incidence of PRAKI was 1.56%, and the mean age of the study population was 25 years. Fifty percent of the patients were diagnosed with PRAKI during their first pregnancy. PRAKI was observed most commonly in the postpartum period (60%), followed by third trimester (32%); as per RIFLE criteria, failure was seen in 36% and injury in 34%. Thirty percent of cases required RRT. Sepsis (59%), pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia (56%) were the leading causes of PRAKI, while sepsis was the leading cause of maternal mortality. Maternal and fetal mortality were 20% and 22%, respectively. In univariate analysis, shock, hemorrhage requiring transfusion of >5 units packed red blood cells, oliguria, and “Loss” category of RIFLE were significantly associated with mortality. Majority of the patients (57%) required Intensive Care Unit care with a mean duration of admission at 7.3 days, and 75% was diagnosed with AKI at the time of admission. We report the lowest incidence of PRAKI in contemporary Indian literature. PRAKI was associated with high maternal and fetal mortality, with sepsis being the leading cause. No association was noted between mortality and initial stages of RIFLE criteria. PMID:28356662

  8. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: An analysis of 165 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PRAKI contributes to 3–7% of overall acute kidney injury (AKI cases in Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of PRAKI and risk factors associated with renal injury and maternal mortality. One hundred and sixty-five patients with PRAKI, seen at M. S. Ramaiah Medical College between 2005 and 2014, were included in this, observational study. AKI was analyzed in terms of maximal stage of renal injury attained as per Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE criteria. Outcomes included requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT, maternal, and fetal mortality. Incidence of PRAKI was 1.56%, and the mean age of the study population was 25 years. Fifty percent of the patients were diagnosed with PRAKI during their first pregnancy. PRAKI was observed most commonly in the postpartum period (60%, followed by third trimester (32%; as per RIFLE criteria, failure was seen in 36% and injury in 34%. Thirty percent of cases required RRT. Sepsis (59%, pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia (56% were the leading causes of PRAKI, while sepsis was the leading cause of maternal mortality. Maternal and fetal mortality were 20% and 22%, respectively. In univariate analysis, shock, hemorrhage requiring transfusion of >5 units packed red blood cells, oliguria, and “Loss” category of RIFLE were significantly associated with mortality. Majority of the patients (57% required Intensive Care Unit care with a mean duration of admission at 7.3 days, and 75% was diagnosed with AKI at the time of admission. We report the lowest incidence of PRAKI in contemporary Indian literature. PRAKI was associated with high maternal and fetal mortality, with sepsis being the leading cause. No association was noted between mortality and initial stages of RIFLE criteria.

  9. Situación psicosocial de las adolescentes y toxemias del embarazo Psychosocial conditions of adolescents with toxemia of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salvador-Moysén

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la situación psicosocial percibida durante la gestación por dos grupos de adolescentes; uno de ellos, conformado por mujeres con diagnóstico de enfermedad hipertensiva inducida por el embarazo y, el otro, constituido por mujeres cualificadas como "sanas". MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se eligió un diseño de casos y controles. De las adolescentes gestantes que acudieron para la resolución de su embarazo al Hospital General de la ciudad de Durango, Durango, en los periodos de julio de 1996 a febrero de 1997, y de septiembre de 1998 a enero de 1999, se seleccionaron 39 casos y 88 controles de acuerdo con criterios explícitos del estudio, a quienes se les aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado para la identificación de: estresores psicosociales, apoyo psicosocial, respuestas de enfrentamiento, intencionalidad, deseo y aceptación del embarazo, estado anímico y calidad de convivencia durante el mismo. Para el análisis de los datos, además de los procedimientos descriptivos, se estimó ji² y la razón de momios con intervalos de confianza a 95%. RESULTADOS: Las características sociodemográficas y ginecobstétricas de ambos grupos fueron similares; la percepción de fuentes de estrés fue mayor en el grupo de casos y la de fuentes de apoyo favoreció al grupo control, el estado anímico positivo y la convivencia satisfactoria durante el embarazo fueron referidos más frecuentemente con valores estadísticamente significativos, por las integrantes del grupo control. CONCLUSIONES: Se identificaron diferencias cualitativas en la percepción de los escenarios psicosociales por las mujeres participantes en el estudio, observándose una evaluación más favorable, estadísticamente significativa, por el grupo control.OBJECTIVE: To compare the perception of psychosocial conditions (during pregnancy between two groups of adolescents; one group was integrated by young women diagnosed with pregnancy induced-hypertension and the other

  10. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  11. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  12. Disruption of Responding Maintained by Conditioned Reinforcement: Alterations in Response-Conditioned-Reinforcer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieving, Gregory A.; Reilly, Mark P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2006-01-01

    An observing procedure was used to investigate the effects of alterations in response-conditioned-reinforcer relations on observing. Pigeons responded to produce schedule-correlated stimuli paired with the availability of food or extinction. The contingency between observing responses and conditioned reinforcement was altered in three experiments.…

  13. Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations with Mental Health and Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult…

  14. Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing in Relation to Infant Adoption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brent C.; Coyl, Diana D.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes trends and recent declines in adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and adoption relinquishment. Reviews research regarding adolescent pregnancy resolution decision-making. Discusses contextual factors, such as attitudes and socialization about abortion, parenting, and adoption, and the influence of parents and partners on likelihood of…

  15. Decreased ovarian reserve relates to pre-eclampsia in IVF/ICSI pregnancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldringh, G.H.; Frunt, M.H.A.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia affects 2-10% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. As compared with the general population, IVF pregnancies are associated with a 2.7-fold risk of pre-eclampsia. An advanced age and associated subfertility in the IVF group r

  16. High risk of pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism in women with multiple thrombophilic defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkeringa, Nienke; Leendert, Jan; Brouwer, P.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; van der Meer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which probably varies according to the presence of single or multiple thrombophilic defects. This retrospective family cohort study assessed the risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium, and the contribut

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. METH

  18. Pregnancy-related severe pelvic girdle pain caused by unilateral noninfectious sacroiliitis. A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahovic, D; Laktasic-Zerjavic, N; Tudor, K I; Mercep, I; Prutki, M; Anic, B

    2014-09-01

    Pelvic girdle pain during and after pregnancy is the clinical syndrome of persistent musculoskeletal pain localized in the posterior and/or anterior aspect of the pelvis originating from sacroiliac joints and/or pubic symphysis due to dynamic instability. We report the case of severe and disabling postpartum pelvic girdle pain caused by unilateral noninfectious sacroiliitis which resolved after 2 months by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and physical therapy. A short literature review is given on epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, therapy, and prognosis of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain.

  19. Low compliance with recommendations on folic acid use in relation to pregnancy: is there a need for fortification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2004-01-01

    on pregnant women in Denmark. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Subjects: From November 2000 to February 2002, 22 000 pregnant women were recruited for DNBC. Use of dietary supplements was recorded at enrolment. Compliance with the recommendation was related to an information campaign...... campaign events. However, even at the end of the period, only 22.3% of the women who had planned their pregnancy fully complied with the recommendation. No increase at all was seen in periconceptional folic acid use among women with unplanned pregnancies. Young age, low education and smoking were...

  20. Anorectal malformations and pregnancy-related disorders : a registry-based case-control study in 17 European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C. H. W.; van Rooij, I. A. L. M.; Bakker, M. K.; Marcelis, C. L. M.; Addor, M. C.; Barisic, I.; Beres, J.; Bianca, S.; Bianchi, F.; Calzolari, E.; Greenlees, R.; Lelong, N.; Latos-Bielenska, A.; Dias, C. M.; McDonnell, R.; Mullaney, C.; Nelen, V.; O'Mahony, M.; Queisser-Luft, A.; Rankin, J.; Zymak-Zakutnia, N.; de Blaauw, I.; Roeleveld, N.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify pregnancy-related risk factors for different manifestations of congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs). Design A population-based case-control study. Setting Seventeen EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries, 1980-2008. Population The study populati

  1. Anorectal malformations and pregnancy-related disorders: a registry-based case-control study in 17 European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.H.W.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Bakker, M.K.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Addor, M.C.; Barisic, I.; Beres, J.; Bianca, S.; Bianchi, F.; Calzolari, E.; Greenlees, R.; Lelong, N.; Latos-Bielenska, A.; Dias, C.M.; McDonnell, R.; Mullaney, C.; Nelen, V.; O'Mahony, M.; Queisser-Luft, A.; Rankin, J.; Zymak-Zakutnia, N.; Blaauw, I. de; Roeleveld, N.; Walle, H.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify pregnancy-related risk factors for different manifestations of congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs). DESIGN: A population-based case-control study. SETTING: Seventeen EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries, 1980-2008. POPULATION: The study popu

  2. Cardiovascular risk management after reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders : A Dutch multidisciplinary evidence-based guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Karst Y.; Bots, Michiel L.; De Groot, Christianne J M; Van Dunné, Frederique M.; Hammoud, Nurah M.; Hoek, Annemiek; Laven, Joop S E; Maas, Angela H E M; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Franx, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past decades evidence has accumulated that women with reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the future. Up to now there is no standardised follow-up of these women becausee guidelines on cardiovascular risk

  3. Genome-Wide Identification of Epigenetic Hotspots Potentially Related to Cardiovascular Risk in Adult Women after a Complicated Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Oudejans

    Full Text Available The physiological demands of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system can catapult women into a metabolic syndrome that predisposes to atherosclerosis in later life. We sought to identify the nature of the epigenomic changes associated with the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adult women following pre-eclampsia.We assessed the genome wide epigenetic profile by methyl-C sequencing of monozygotic parous twin sister pairs discordant for a severe variant of pre-eclampsia. In the adult twin sisters at risk for CVD as a consequence of a complicated pregnancy, a set of 12 differentially methylated regions with at least 50% difference in methylation percentage and the same directional change was found to be shared between the affected twin sisters and significantly different compared to their unaffected monozygous sisters.The current epigenetic marker set will permit targeted analysis of differentially methylated regions potentially related to CVD risk in large cohorts of adult women following complicated pregnancies.

  4. The effects of work-related maternal risk factors on time to pregnancy, preterm birth and birth weight: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Brand, T.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of maternal working conditions on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Methods 8880 women were enrolled in a large prospective birth cohort during early (76%), mid (21%) or late pregnancy (3%) (61% participation). Complete questionnaire information was available

  5. The effects of work-related maternal risk factors on time to pregnancy, preterm birth and birth weight: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Brand, T.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of maternal working conditions on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Methods 8880 women were enrolled in a large prospective birth cohort during early (76%), mid (21%) or late pregnancy (3%) (61% participation). Complete questionnaire information was available f

  6. Gait in patients with pregnancy-related pain in the pelvis: An emphasis on the coordination of transverse pelvic and thoracic rotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Wenhua; Meijer, Onno G.; Jutte, Paul C.; Uegaki, Kimi; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Sander de Wolf, G.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Wuisman, Paul I.J.M.; Kwakkel, Gert; De Vries, Johanna I.P.; Beek, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To quantify gait impairments in women with pregnancy-related pain in the pelvis which persisted post-partum. Design. Nine patients and nine healthy subjects were studied during treadmill walking at different velocities. Background. Walking problems in patients with pregnancy-related pain

  7. High-Risk Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications High-Risk Pregnancy: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A high-risk pregnancy refers to anything that puts the ...

  8. Neural Mobilization: Treating Nerve-Related Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Physical therapists often assess and treat patients whose pain and disability stem from impaired mobility of the peripheral nervous system. Neural mobilization is a movement-based therapy, applied manually or via exercise. The nerve is mobilized relative to adjacent structures, with the aim of reducing symptoms through mechanisms that may be mechanical or neurophysiologic. A new systematic review published in the September 2017 issue of JOSPT includes 40 studies of neural mobilization in various neuromusculoskeletal conditions. The available evidence suggests that neural mobilization can be considered when treating certain nerve-related musculoskeletal conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):616. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0509.

  9. An exploration of knowledge and attitudes related to pre-pregnancy care in women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M; Alderdice, F A; Harper, R; McCance, D R; Holmes, V A

    2010-12-01

    Pre-pregnancy care optimizes pregnancy outcome in women with pre-gestational diabetes, yet most women enter pregnancy unprepared. We sought to determine knowledge and attitudes of women with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes of childbearing age towards pre-pregnancy care. Twenty-four women (18 with Type 1 diabetes and six with Type 2 diabetes) aged 17-40 years took part in one of four focus group sessions: young nulliparous women with Type 1 diabetes (Group A), older nulliparous women with Type 1 diabetes (Group B), parous women with Type 1 diabetes (Group C) and women with Type 2 diabetes of mixed parity (Group D). Content analysis of transcribed focus groups revealed that, while women were well informed about the need to plan pregnancy, awareness of the rationale for planning was only evident in parous women or those who had actively sought pre-pregnancy advice. Within each group, there was uncertainty about what pre-pregnancy advice entailed. Despite many women reporting positive healthcare experiences, frequently cited barriers to discussing issues around family planning included unsupportive staff, busy clinics and perceived social stereotypes held by health professionals. Knowledge and attitudes reported in this study highlight the need for women with diabetes, regardless of age, marital status or type of diabetes, to receive guidance about planning pregnancy in a motivating, positive and supportive manner. The important patient viewpoints expressed in this study may help health professionals determine how best to encourage women to avail of pre-pregnancy care. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK.

  10. Awareness about a Life-Threatening Condition: Ectopic Pregnancy in a Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Alves Rocha Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess occurrence of severe maternal complications associated with ectopic pregnancy (EP. Method. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted, with prospective surveillance of potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC, maternal near miss (MNM, and maternal death (MD. EP complications, patient sociodemographic/obstetric characteristics, and conditions of severity management were assessed, estimating prevalence ratios with respective 95% CI. Factors independently associated with greater severity were identified using multiple regression analysis. Results. Of the 9.555 severe maternal morbidity patients, 312 women (3.3% had complications after EP: 286 (91.7% PLTC, 25 (8.0% MNM, and 1 (0.3% MD. Severe maternal outcome ratio (SMOR was 0.3/1000 LB among EP cases and 10.8/1000 LB among other causes. Complicated EP patients faced a higher risk of blood transfusion, laparotomy, and lower risk of ICU admission and prolonged hospitalization than women developing complications resulting from other causes. Substandard care was the most common in more severe maternal morbidity and EP cases (22.7% MNM and MD versus 15% PLTC, although not significant. Conclusion. Increased maternal morbidity due to EP raised awareness about the condition and its impact on female reproductive life. No important risk factors for greater severity were identified. Care providers should develop specific guidelines and interventions to prevent severe maternal morbidity.

  11. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Rasmussen, Morten A; Olsen, Sjurdur F;

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish...... National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996-2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish...

  12. Comment on the uncertainty relation with periodic boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Kennard-type uncertainty relation $\\Delta x\\Delta p >\\frac{\\hbar}{2}$ is formulated for a free particle with given momentum $ inside a box with periodic boundary conditions in the large box limit. Our construction of a free particle state is analogous to that of the Bloch wave in a periodic potential. A simple Robertson-type relation, which minimizes the effect of the box boundary and may be useful in some practical applications, is also presented.

  13. Is risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and parity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene

    Background Obesity among women may influence the risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) and contribute to poor quality of life. Parity, which constitutes a sudden natural increase in weight as well it affects long-term body mass index (BMI), may put strain on the musculoskeletal s...

  14. Pregnancy-related spontaneous coronary artery dissection: Two case reports and a comprehensive review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem S Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome, particularly seen in women during pregnancy or in the puerperium. It has a high acute phase mortality. The etiology is uncertain. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, hemodynamic stress and changes in the autoimmune status have been considered as possible etiological factors. A timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment is important for a successful outcome. There is no consensus of opinion for optimal treatment. Conservative management, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and percutaneous coronary intervention, all have been described in the literature as possible therapeutic options. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection should be considered as a differential in any young woman presenting with chest pain associated with pregnancy. We report two cases of pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection, both successfully managed, along with a comprehensive review of the previously published literature.

  15. Predicted vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake...... of vitamin D from dietary supplements. Offspring of women who took >10 µg/d in mid-pregnancy had a significantly increased risk for fractures compared with the reference level of zero intake (hazard ratios (HR) 1·31; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·62), but this was solely among girls (HR 1·48; 95 % CI 1·10, 2......In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data...

  16. Organic food consumption during pregnancy and its association with health-related characteristics: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Jansen, Eugene Hjm; van Dongen, Martien Cjm; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the associations of organic food consumption with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, hypertension and diabetes in pregnancy, and several blood biomarkers of pregnant women. Prospective cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited at midwives' practices and through channels related to consumption of food from organic origin. Pregnant women who filled in FFQ and donated a blood sample (n 1339). Participant groups were defined based on the share of consumed organic products; to discriminate between effects of food origin and food patterns, healthy diet indicators were considered in some statistical models. Consumption of organic food was associated with a more favourable pre-pregnancy BMI and lower prevalence of gestational diabetes. Compared with participants consuming no organic food (reference group), a marker of dairy products intake (pentadecanoic acid) and trans-fatty acids from natural origin (vaccenic and rumenic acids) were higher among participants consuming organic food (organic groups), whereas elaidic acid, a marker of the intake of trans-fatty acids found in industrially hydrogenated fats, was lower. Plasma levels of homocysteine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower in the organic groups than in the reference group. Differences in pentadecanoic acid, vaccenic acid and vitamin D retained statistical significance when correcting for indicators of the healthy diet pattern associated with the consumption of organic food. Consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with several health-related characteristics and blood biomarkers. Part of the observed associations is explained by food patterns accompanying the consumption of organic food.

  17. Pregnancy-related knowledge and information needs of women with epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Amanda; Sharpe, Louise; Lah, Suncica; Parratt, Kaitlyn

    2014-02-01

    For women with epilepsy (WWE), pregnancy is complicated by considerations such as the potential teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) versus the risks of having seizures during pregnancy. However, qualitative research suggests that many WWE remain uninformed about the risks associated with epilepsy and pregnancy and may, therefore, be making uninformed decisions about their families. The objectives of this review were to determine the level of patient knowledge, their informational needs, and whether these needs concerning pregnancy and childbirth issues are met among WWE. Electronic databases searched were PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Studies were included if they used quantitative methods to survey WWE aged 16years or older about their knowledge, access to information, or informational needs specifically regarding epilepsy and pregnancy. Twelve studies were identified and assessed for research standards using the Quality Index. Overall Quality Index score was only 7.1 out of 14, indicating significant design limitations of many included studies, including highly selective sampling methods and the use of unvalidated outcome measures. There was a paucity of studies investigating specific areas of women's knowledge and information needs. Overall, WWE reported adequate awareness, but limited knowledge, of key issues regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Across studies, many women reported not receiving information about these issues. Evidence suggested that many WWE wanted to receive more information - particularly about the risks of AEDs for their offspring - well in advance of choosing an AED or planning pregnancy. Women aged under 35years wanted the most information. Preconception counseling received by many WWE appears insufficient, risking uninformed decision-making about pregnancy. Further research is needed to investigate the barriers that WWE face in accessing, receiving, and retaining appropriate information.

  18. Oxytocin in pregnancy and the postpartum: relations to labor and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie ePrevost

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine variations in endogenous oxytocin levels in pregnancy and postpartum state. We also explored the associations between delivery variables and oxytocin levels. A final sample of 272 mothers in their first trimester of pregnancy were included for the study. Blood samples were drawn during the 1st trimester and 3rd trimester of pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic data were collected at each time point and medical files were consulted for delivery details. In most women, levels of circulating oxytocin increased from the 1st to 3rd trimester of pregnancy followed by a decrease in the postpartum period. Oxytocin levels varied considerably between individuals, ranging from 50 pg/mL to over 2000 pg/mL. Parity was the main predictor of oxytocin levels in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and of oxytocin level changes from the 1st to the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Oxytocin levels in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy predicted a self-reported negative labor experience and increased the chances of having an epidural. Intrapartum exogenous oxytocin was positively associated with levels of oxytocin during the postpartum period. Our exploratory results suggest that circulating oxytocin levels during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy may predict the type of labor a woman will experience. More importantly, the quantity of intrapartum exogenous oxytocin administered during labor predicted plasma oxytocin levels 2 months postpartum, suggesting a possible long-term effect of this routine intervention, the consequences of which are largely unknown.

  19. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2x2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent

  20. Effect of infertility treatment and pregnancy-related hormones on breast cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Anne; Matthews, Laura; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Hardy, Ashley; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer development involves a series of mutations in a heterogeneous group of proto-oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes that alter mammary cells to create a microenvironment permissive to tumorigenesis. Exposure to hormones during infertility treatment may have a mutagenic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells, high-risk breast lesions and early-stage breast cancers. Our goal was to understand the association between infertility treatment and normal and cancerous breast cell proliferation. MCF-10A normal mammary cells and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 [estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, well differentiated] and HCC 1937 (ER-negative, aggressive, BRCA1 mutation) were treated with the weak ER activator clomiphene citrate and hormones that are increased during infertility treatment. Direct effects of treatment on cell proliferation and colony growth were determined. While clomiphene citrate had no effect on MCF-10A cells or MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it decreased proliferation of HCC 1937 versus untreated cells (P= 0.003). Estrogen had no effect on either MCF-10A or HCC 1937 cells but, as expected, increased cell proliferation (20-100 nM; P≤0.002) and colony growth (10-30 nM; Pinfertility regimens on ER-positive breast cancer cells and validate the potential protective effect of pregnancy-related exposure to hCG.

  1. Pregnancy related issues in inflammatory bowel disease:Evidence base and patients' perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian P Selinger; Rupert WL Leong; Simon Lal

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects women of childbearing age and can influence fertility,pregnancy and decisions regarding breastfeeding.Women with IBD need to consider the possible course of disease during pregnancy,the benefits and risks associated with medications required for disease management during pregnancy and breastfeeding and the effects of mode of delivery on their disease.When indicated,aminosalicylates and thiopurines can be safely used during pregnancy.Infliximab and Adalimumab are considered probably safe during the first two trimesters.During the third trimester the placenta can be crossed and caution should be applied.Methotrexate is associated with severe teratogenicity due to its folate antagonism and is strictly contraindicated.Women with IBD tend to deliver earlier than healthy women,but can have a vaginal delivery in most cases.Caesarean sections are generally recommended for women with active perianal disease or after ileo-anal pouch surgery.While the impact of disease activity and medication has been addressed in several studies,there are minimal studies evaluating patients' perspective on these issues.Women's attitudes may influence their decision to have children and can positively or negatively influence the chance of conceiving,and their beliefs regarding therapies may impact on the course of their disease during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding.This review article outlines the impact of IBD and its treatment on pregnancy,and examines the available data on patients' views on this subject.

  2. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility and their psych......INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...... as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established...

  3. Adiposity and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and related health outcomes in European ethnic minorities of Asian and African origin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Karen Jenum

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD. Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective: To review ethnic differences in: 1 adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2 future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3 prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design: Literature review. Results: Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions: Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention.

  4. Chronic sleep loss during pregnancy as a determinant of stress: impact on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Banti, Susanna; Manconi, Mauro; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and insomnia frequently characterize sleep in pregnancy during all three trimesters. We aimed: (i) to review the clinical evidence of the association between conditions of sleep loss during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) to discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that may be involved. A systematic search of cross-sectional, longitudinal studies using Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO, and MeSH headings and key words for conditions of sleep loss such as 'insomnia', 'poor sleep quality', 'short sleep duration', and 'pregnancy outcome' was made for papers published between January 1, 1960 and July 2013. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria for sleep loss and pregnancy outcome: seven studies on prenatal depression, three on gestational diabetes, three on hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, six on length of labor/type of delivery, eight on preterm birth, and three on birth grow/birth weight. Two main results emerged: (i) conditions of chronic sleep loss are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) chronic sleep loss yields a stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and abnormal immune/inflammatory, reaction, which, in turn, influences pregnancy outcome negatively. Chronic sleep loss frequently characterizes sleep throughout the course of pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Common pathophysiological mechanisms emerged as being related to stress system activation. We propose that in accordance to the allostatic load hypothesis, chronic sleep loss during pregnancy may also be regarded as both a result of stress and a physiological stressor per se, leading to stress 'overload'. It may account for adverse pregnancy outcomes and somatic and mental disorders in pregnancy.

  5. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  6. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    through the use of focus groups. If patients deem necessary, we will develop new items based on the patients' input. We will examine whether it is valid to score all selected and developed items on the same scale as the original items from the PROMIS PF item bank. Our analyses will follow the methods used...... will be obtained from all participants. We aim to disseminate the results of the study through publication in international peer-reviewed journals and at international conferences....... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...

  7. Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity: effects of weaning-to-pregnancy interval and body condition changes in sows of different parities and crossbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, J G M; Soede, N M; Knol, E F; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2013-05-01

    Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity were studied in sows of different parities and crossbred lines in relation to: 1) weaning-to-pregnancy interval (WPI) and 2) sow body condition changes (in BW and backfat thickness) during lactation and gestation in sows with a short WPI (≤7d). At the Institute for Pig Genetics (IPG) research farm, individual piglet birth weights and sow body condition (BW and backfat thickness at farrowing and weaning) were measured for 949 TOPIGS20 and 889 TOPIGS40 sows with >4 total born piglets, inseminated between 2003 and 2011. In all analyses, mean piglet birth weight and birth weight SD and CV were corrected for total number born. Total number born was greater in sows with a WPI of 8 to 21 d (+1.2 piglets; n = 72) and >21 d (+0.7 piglets; n = 182), compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight was not affected by WPI. Birth weight SD (-23 g) and CV (-1.7%) were lower in sows with a WPI >21 d, compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight. Only in TOPIGS20 sows, more BW loss during lactation was related with greater subsequent birth weight SD (β = 0.83 g/kg, P piglet/kg BW increase for parity 2 (P piglet/kg BW increase (P piglet birth weight. To conclude, this study shows that litter uniformity is compromised by severe sow body condition loss during lactation and improved in sows with a prolonged WPI. These effects are likely related with (insufficient) restoration of follicle development.

  8. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  9. Risk of Cerebral Palsy and Childhood Epilepsy Related to Infections before or during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chunsen; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Miller, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    be involved in the causal pathway. If impaired maternal immune function plays a role, we would expect infection before pregnancy to be associated with these neurological outcomes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study population included all first-born singletons in Denmark between January 1 1982 and December...... to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Maternal infection of the genitourinary system during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy (aHR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.34-1.98) and epilepsy (aHR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in the children, compared...... to children of women without infections during pregnancy. Among women without hospital-recorded infections during pregnancy, maternal infection before pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of epilepsy (aHR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.21-1.50 for infections of the genitourinary system, and HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1...

  10. The Relations Between HSG Proven Tubal Occlusion, Stimulated Intrauterine Insemination and Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin Yıldırım, Gonca; Orta Korkut, Ahu; Köroğlu, Nadiye; Susan Türkgeldi, Lale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tubal factor infertility is one of the main causes of female infertility. Although its sensitivity is low, hysterosalpingography (HSG) is remains the first-line method for evaluating tubal patency. Aims: To compare pregnancy rates in patients with HSG proven proximal or distal unilateral tubal occlusion, and unexplained infertility undergoing both controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Study Design: Case control study. Methods: In total, 237 patients undergoing ovulation induction (OI) with gonadotropins and IUI were divided into two groups and evaluated. Study group consisted 59 patients with HSG proven unilateral tubal pathology, and 178 patients with unexplained infertility taken as control subjects. Cumulative pregnancy rate was the primary endpoint. Results: Cumulative pregnancy rates after three cycles of OI and IUI were 15.25% in study group and 20.79% in control group. Pregnancy rates between two groups were not statistically significant. Although, pregnancy rates in patients with proximal tubal occlusion (21.8%) were higher than in those with distal tubal occlusion (7.4%), the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study data shows that, regardless of the HCG proven occlusion area, COS and IUI might be a preferred treatment modality in patient with unilateral tubal occlusion. PMID:28251025

  11. Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes of pregnant women with urinary tract infections and related drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-01-01

    Maternal urinary tract infections in pregnancy showed an association with a higher rate of preterm birth in previous studies. The aim of this study was to check this relationship, and in addition to evaluate the efficacy of recent medical treatments. The population-based large control (without any defects) data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities was evaluated. Of 38,151 newborn infants, 2188 (5.7%) had mothers with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, and 90% of these maternal diseases were prospectively and medically recorded. The prevalence of pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios showed an association with urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections in pregnancy had a somewhat shorter gestational age (0.1 week) and a higher proportion of preterm births (10.4% vs 9.1%). These differences were correlated with the severity of urinary tract infections. However, the preterm-inducing effect of maternal urinary tract infections is preventable by some antimicrobial drugs such as ampicillin, cefalexin and cotrimoxazole. In conclusion, maternal urinary tract infections during pregnancy increase pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios, and in addition the rate of preterm birth; however, the latter is preventable by appropriate drug treatments.

  12. [Human social activity under conditions of relative social isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhvatilov, A Iu

    1992-01-01

    The differences in using a "social isolation" concept in the psychological literature are presented. The term of "relative social isolation" is clarified. A relationship between human adaptation to the relative social isolation environments and the development of his social qualities and social activities is presented. The "social context", dictating motivation attitudes of a man to the isolation situation, emotional experiences, self-appraisal of activity is of crucial importance for evaluating the real environments of relative social isolations. Social activity of a personality is studied as the relations of a man with the conditions of his activity. The results of studying the dynamics of the psychic state of a man during individual and group isolation are compared. It is concluded that social activity of man and his functional state are interrelated. The particular manifestations and direction of the changes in the social activity of the subject depend on the duration of isolation and are determined first of all by social significance and meaningful and balanced work for a person as well as by the amount and frequency of direct and mediated social contacts under specific conditions of relative social isolation.

  13. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    strikes. Two striking workers in the banana sector were killed in clashes with police in Bocas del Toro and hundreds were injured. The strike was...White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Fact Sheets : U.S.- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement,” April 19, 2011, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov...the-press-office/2011/ 04/19/fact- sheets -us-panama-trade-promotion-agreement. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

  14. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD

    2007-01-01

    )) from around week 20 (groups 1 and 2) or 6.3 g n-3 PUFA from week 33 (group 3). The control regimen was capsules with olive oil. Effect on timing of spontaneous delivery was examined by Cox regression, assuming elective delivery (occurring in 40%) as a censoring event. Analyses of effect of fish oil......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  15. Topical tretinoin 0.1% for pregnancy-related abdominal striae: an open-label, multicenter, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, O; Arias, I; García, E; Lopez-Padilla, S

    2001-01-01

    In an open-label, multicenter, prospective study, 20 women applied tretinoin (retinoic acid) cream 0.1% daily for 3 months to pregnancy-related stretch marks in the abdominal area. Efficacy was evaluated by analysis of one preselected target lesion, which was rated on a six-point scale (-1 = worse to 4 = cleared). At week 12, significant global improvement was noted from baseline in all stretch marks, and the target lesion decreased in length by 20% (P = .01). Erythema and scaling, the most common adverse events, occurred in 11 patients, decreased in severity after the first month of treatment, and were controlled with continued application of tretinoin and petroleum jelly ointment. In this small study, topical application of tretinoin significantly improved the clinical appearance of pregnancy-related stretch marks.

  16. Relational contexts in adjustment to pregnancy of HIV-positive women: relationships, social support and personal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Relational contexts are a central issue in most people's lives, and people usually rely on the support of others in everyday circumstances. Social support, as a relational context, could have a positive influence on personal adjustment, and is particularly relevant in the psychological well-being of HIV patients. Guided by the Convoy Model of social networks, in a sample of 31 HIV-positive pregnant women we try to assess the role of social support and social network in the adjustment to pregnancy. Profile analysis suggests a greater importance of social support provided by the partner and both parents, especially the support provided by the mother. At the same time, it seems to highlight the buffering hypothesis of social support, which could be understood as a protection factor in the adjustment of HIV-infected women' to pregnancy.

  17. Relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous condition in Murrah buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Ghosh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to investigate the relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous (PPA condition in Murrah buffalo. Materials and Methods: Jugular blood samples were collected from two different groups of Murrah buffaloes each group consisting of 20 animals. Group I was of PPA and Group II were of cyclic buffaloes. The animals selected were examined for confirmation for cyclic and acyclic condition (>120 days after calving by routine transrectal ultrasonography. Heard record was also used for cross confirmation. Results: The analysis of antioxidants in plasma and hemolysates revealed that the levels of vitamin E, β-carotene and reduced glutathione in plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD in hemolysate were significantly higher in cyclic animals than PPA animals. The levels of vitamin C, SOD and glutathione peroxidase in plasma did not show any significant difference among the two groups studied. The low antioxidant level in affected animals may predispose them toward PPA condition. Conclusion: Stress imposed by pregnancy and lactation affected the reproductive performance in PPA animals which might be inherently more susceptible to these stressors than those who were normal cyclic as all the animals were maintained under similar feeding and management practices.

  18. Intrauterine transmission and clinical outcome of 248 pregnancies with primary cytomegalovirus infection in relation to gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Gisela; Daiminger, Anja; Bäder, Ursula; Exler, Simone; Enders, Martin

    2011-11-01

    The risk of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in the fetus or newborn largely depends on time of primary maternal infection during pregnancy. Prospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in relation to gestational age at primary maternal CMV infection. In a total of 248 pregnancies with primary infection the onset of infection was determined by IgG seroconversion, IgG avidity and/or onset of clinical symptoms. Congenital infection was diagnosed by CMV detection in amniotic fluid, fetal tissue or urine of the neonate in the first 2 weeks of life. Clinical symptoms were retrieved from ultrasound and medical records. The intrauterine transmission rates following primary CMV infection in the pre- and periconceptional period were 16.7% (4/24) and 34.5% (10/29), respectively. For the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy transmission rates were 30.1% (25/83), 38.2% (29/76) and 72.2% (26/36), respectively. The rate of symptomatically infected fetuses or newborns at birth was 22.8% for any symptoms and 10.3% for severe manifestations. No symptoms were observed in infected newborns of mothers with primary infection in the preconceptional period and in the third trimester. The risk of intrauterine transmission following primary maternal infection in the third trimester is high, but the risk of neonatal disease is low. The highest risk of severe symptoms in the fetus and newborn exists around conception and in the first trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between mammographic density and pregnancies relative to age and BMI: a breast cancer case-only analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Carolin C; Emons, Julius; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Adler, Werner; Gass, Paul; Haeberle, Lothar; Heindl, Felix; Hein, Alexander; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Uder, Michael; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Pöhls, Uwe G

    2017-08-21

    Percentage mammographic density (PMD) is a major risk factor for breast cancer (BC). It is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) and age, which are themselves risk factors for breast cancer. This analysis investigated the association between the number of full-term pregnancies and PMD in different subgroups relative to age and BMI. Patients were identified in the breast cancer database of the University Breast Center for Franconia. A total of 2410 patients were identified, for whom information on parity, age, and BMI, and a mammogram from the time of first diagnosis were available for assessing PMD. Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the influence on PMD of the number of full-term pregnancies (FTPs), age, BMI, and interaction terms between them. As in previous studies, age, number of FTPs, and BMI were found to be associated with PMD in the expected direction. However, including the respective interaction terms improved the prediction of PMD even further. Specifically, the association between PMD and the number of FTPs differed in young patients under the age of 45 (mean decrease of 0.37 PMD units per pregnancy) from the association in older age groups (mean decrease between 2.29 and 2.39 PMD units). BMI did not alter the association between PMD and the number of FTPs. The effect of pregnancies on mammographic density does not appear to become apparent before the age of menopause. The mechanism that drives the effect of pregnancies on mammographic density appears to be counter-regulated by other influences on mammographic density in younger patients.

  20. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis and emerging Chlamydia-related bacteria in ectopic pregnancy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, S; Thuong, B C; Gyger, J; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C; Vasilevsky, S; Greub, G; Baud, D

    2015-09-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the seroprevalence and molecular evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Waddlia chondrophila in ectopic pregnancies (EP) and uneventful control pregnancies in 343 women from Vietnam. Whereas presence of C. trachomatis IgG was strongly associated with EP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5·41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·58-11·32], its DNA remained undetected in all tubal lesions. We confirmed an independent association between antibodies against Waddlia and previous miscarriage (aOR 1·87, 95% CI 1·02-3·42). Further investigations are needed to understand the clinical significance of Waddlia's high seroprevalence (25·9% in control pregnancies) in this urban population.

  1. Anemia and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Anemia Anemia and Pregnancy Your body goes through significant changes ... becoming anemic. back to top Is Pregnancy-Related Anemia Preventable? Good nutrition is the best way to ...

  2. Revealing the burden of maternal mortality: a probabilistic model for determining pregnancy-related causes of death from verbal autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Teklay

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial reductions in maternal mortality are called for in Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG-5, thus assuming that maternal mortality is measurable. A key difficulty is attributing causes of death for the many women who die unaided in developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA can elicit circumstances of death, but data need to be interpreted reliably and consistently to serve as global indicators. Recent developments in probabilistic modelling of VA interpretation are adapted and assessed here for the specific circumstances of pregnancy-related death. Methods A preliminary version of the InterVA-M probabilistic VA interpretation model was developed and refined with adult female VA data from several sources, and then assessed against 258 additional VA interviews from Burkina Faso. Likely causes of death produced by the model were compared with causes previously determined by local physicians. Distinction was made between free-text and closed-question data in the VA interviews, to assess the added value of free-text material on the model's output. Results Following rationalisation between the model and physician interpretations, cause-specific mortality fractions were broadly similar. Case-by-case agreement between the model and any of the reviewing physicians reached approximately 60%, rising to approximately 80% when cases with a discrepancy were reviewed by an additional physician. Cardiovascular disease and malaria showed the largest differences between the methods, and the attribution of infections related to pregnancy also varied. The model estimated 30% of deaths to be pregnancy-related, of which half were due to direct causes. Data derived from free-text made no appreciable difference. Conclusion InterVA-M represents a potentially valuable new tool for measuring maternal mortality in an efficient, consistent and standardised way. Further development, refinement and validation are planned. It could become a routine

  3. Isihlambezo: utilization patterns and potential health effects of pregnancy-related traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, C A; Veale, D J

    1997-04-01

    Isihlambezo is a herbal decoction used by many Zulu women in South Africa as a preventative health tonic during pregnancy. Though the practice is cited by ethnographers and medical practitioners, few studies have focused on specific elements of isihlambezo use and preparation. Moreover, though some evidence exists suggesting negative effects of its ingestion, the maternal-fetal health impact and toxicity of isihlambezo have not been adequately studied. We examined two aspects of this traditional antenatal health practice: (1) the potential impact of urbanization and access to Western clinic-based care on popularity and utilization patterns of isihlambezo, and (2) the potential maternal-fetal health effects of its use. Interviews were conducted among rural and urban women in clinic and non-clinic settings regarding socio-behavioral aspects of isihlambezo use. The pharmacology of certain plant ingredients of isihlambezo was investigated through laboratory assays, literature review, and interviews with traditional healers. There were significant differences by area of interview in nearly all aspects of isihlambezo use examined. Though isihlambezo was most popular among urbanites and clinic non-attenders, it was considered an important antenatal health care alternative by the majority of women surveyed. Mixing traditional and clinic-based antenatal care was also strongly advocated. Pharmacological analysis suggested the possibility of both therapeutic and harmful consequences of isihlambezo. It was suggested that the following factors might contribute the popularity of isihlambezo among urban women: high cost and inferior quality of clinic care, use of isihlambezo as a means of adapting to urbanization-related stress, and socio-cultural transition.

  4. Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, William M

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition with various aetiologies. Recent research has uncovered new mechanisms underlying the syndrome. Careful attention to management is essential in pregnant women to avoid serious complications. Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy may be due to relative reduction in secretion of AVP from the posterior pituitary (cranial DI), increase in breakdown of AVP by placental cystine aminopeptidase with vasopressinase activity, or resistance of the rental tubules to AVP (nephrogenic DI). PMID:27579058

  5. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2016-01-01

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease...

  6. Nutritional status and dietary intake among pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kaoru; Takemi, Yukari; Hayashi, Fumi; Hosokawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study examined nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women in Japan in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).Methods Participants included 141 Japanese women with singleton pregnancies, from the outpatient department of the S hospital, Gunma prefecture, Japan. Two-day food records, dietary assessment questionnaires, and clinical records were obtained at 20 weeks gestation. Nine patients were excluded from the study due to morning sickness. The remaining 132 participants were divided into 3 groups according to pre-pregnancy BMI: underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Nutritional status and dietary intake were analyzed in relation to BMI using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, employment status, and total energy intake.Results Women who were underweight before pregnancy were more frequently working full-time than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight women were also more frequently anemic (P=0.038, underweight 39.3%, normal weight 24.7%, overweight 0%) and had lower mean hemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.021, underweight 11.3 g/dL, normal weight 11.6 g/dL, overweight 12.1 g/dL) and hematocrit (Hct) levels (P=0.025, underweight 33.7%, normal weight 34.3%, overweight 36.0%). Their dietary intake of protein, iron, magnesium, and folic acid was lower than that of normal weight and overweight women. Their meals tended to include fewer meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes (underweight, mean of 4.7 servings per day; normal weight, 6.1 servings; overweight, 6.1 servings).Conclusion Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy had increased risk of anemia as well as reduced Hb and Hct levels. They had lower dietary intake of protein, iron and folic acid compared to women in the other BMI categories. Anemia and these nutrient deficiencies are known risk factors for low birth weight. Our findings suggest

  7. Pregnancy related lumbo-pelvic pain: a prevalence study in a tertiary institute in Pondicherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arunmozhimaran Vijayababu

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: PLPP is a disabling palpable clinical problem less recognised in India and most often dismissed as part of pregnancy. Sensitization of obstetrician and the orthopaedician to interact in a multidisciplinary approach would address the problem effectively. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1124-1129

  8. Gait coordination in pregnancy: Transverse pelvic and thoracic rotations and their relative phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Wenhua; Meijer, Onno G.; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Uegaki, Kimi; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Wuisman, Paul I.J.M.; De Vries, Johanna I.P.; Beek, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of pregnancy on the coordination of transverse pelvic and thoracic rotations during gait. Design. Gait of healthy pregnant women and nulligravidae was studied during treadmill walking at predetermined velocities ranging from 0.17 to 1.72 m/s. Background. Pelvis-thor

  9. Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD Symptoms in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. Methods: Nulliparous…

  10. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macr......, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy....

  11. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    complications and selenium values. In mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries serum selenium concentrations were 0.84 +/- 0.19 mumol/l (mean +/- SD), whereas in cord blood from full-term babies born adequate for gestational age and with no malformations serum selenium concentrations were 0...

  12. Methotrexate treatment in progressive tubal ectopic pregnancies and hCG-related clinicosurgical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askin Dogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the success of methotrexate treatment and β-hCG levels in progressive tubal ectopic pregnancies. We defined a retrospective cohort of 394 progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy patients treated with methotrexate. A single-dose methotrexate protocol using 50 mg/m2 was administered to patients with progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy. Surgery was performed in patients who exhibited signs of acute abdomen due to tubal rupture. Of 394 patients that received methotrexate treatment, 335 (84.6% responded to medical treatment, while the remaining 59 (15.36% underwent surgery due to treatment failure. β-hCG levels in the failure group were significantly higher as compared with the success group at Day 1, Day 4, and Day 7 (2116±3157 vs. 4178±3422, 2062±3551 vs. 4935±4103, and 1532±3007 vs. 3900±4783, respectively. The receiver operating characteristics curve for β-hCG levels at Day 1 was 0.738, with a cutoff value of 1418 mIU/mL, while sensitivity and specificity values reached the optimum for treatment success (83.1% and 59.4%, respectively. Medical treatment with methotrexate achieved an 85.02% success rate for the treatment of progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy, while success rates for medical treatment decreased significantly when initial β-hCG levels were >1418 mIU/mL.

  13. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto E Sanchez

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST] and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] during early pregnancy.This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated using logistic regression procedures.Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17 and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81. Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83, sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05, and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96. The corresponding aORs (95% CI for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61, 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03, and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81, respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67 and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97 during pregnancy.Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Islam, Suhayla; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV) with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST]) and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during early pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using logistic regression procedures. Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17) and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81). Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI) for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83), sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05), and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96). The corresponding aORs (95% CI) for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61), 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81), respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97) during pregnancy. Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  15. Pregnancy-related changes in the mouse oviduct and uterus revealed by differential binding of fluoresceinated lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M C; Wu, T C; Wan, Y J; Damjanov, I

    1983-01-01

    The binding of 20 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lectins to various portions of the pregnant and non-pregnant murine oviduct and uterus was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Five lectins (from Ricinus communis (RCA-I), Maclura pomifera (MPA), Triticum vulgare (wheat germ-WGA), Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), and Ulex europeus (UEA-I] reacted differentially with the epithelium of pregnant as compared with the non-pregnant uterus. The binding of RCA-I, MPA and WGA delineated pregnancy-related changes in the distal oviduct and colliculus tubaris. WGA recognized also pregnancy related changes in the proximal oviduct. The reactivity of the remaining 15 lectins did not distinguish the pregnant and non-pregnant oviduct and uterus, although some of them served to identify specific components of the mouse genital tract. Thus, Soybean lectin (SBA) reacted almost exclusively with the colliculus tubaris. UEA-I alone reacted exclusively with the epithelium of the non-pregnant uterus. RCA-II reacted preferentially with the epithelium of the oviduct and uterus as compared with its weak reactivity with the stroma. Two lectins (from Pisum sativum and Lens culinaris) reacted selectively with stromal cells of the uterus and oviduct. Present data indicate that the differential binding properties of these FITC-labeled lectins can be exploited to identify certain components of the mouse oviduct and uterus and to indicate changes in the cell surface and/or cytoplasm in these structures during pregnancy.

  16. Barriers and Facilitators for the Use of a Medical Mobile App to Prevent Work-Related Risks in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Adeline V; van Beukering, Monique Dm; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Mol, Ben Wj; van der Post, Joris Am; Kok, Marjolein

    2017-08-22

    The number of women participating in the labor market in Europe has increased over the last several decades. At the same time, there is growing evidence that certain conditions of employment during pregnancy may have a negative influence on pregnancy outcomes. In order to better inform pregnant women, we aim to develop an app to help assess the health risk as a result of personal and work-related factors and provide personal advice for these women and their health care providers. The aim of this study was to compose a thematic overview of the perceived facilitators and barriers according to pregnant women, medical professionals, and employers for the use of a mobile app in obstetrical care to prevent occupational-related pregnancy complications. Two multidisciplinary focus group meetings with in total 14 participants were conducted with pregnant women, occupational physicians, general practitioners, midwives, obstetricians, and representatives of trade unions and employer organizations. Transcripts were analyzed by qualitatively coding procedures and constant comparative methods. We identified 24 potential facilitators and 12 potential barriers for the use of the app in 4 categories: content of the app, the app as a mean to provide information, ease of use, and external factors. The 3 main facilitators identified were the need for a good interaction between the app and the user, apps were viewed as a more practical source of information, and the information should be understandable, according to the existing guidelines, and well-dosed. The 2 main barriers for use were extensive battery and memory use of the smartphone and sending frequent push notifications. The results of this study are important considerations in the developing process of a medical app implementing a guideline or evidence-based information in practice.

  17. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  18. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Baron

    Full Text Available Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011, consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE. Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI 7.0-15.4, being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7 and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0. Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5. Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  19. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases vary by condition. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) typically are modified by pregnancy. For example, RA symptoms often improve in pregnant ...

  20. Sleep-related eating disorder and its associated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of eating at the transition from night-time sleep to arousal. SRED patients describe eating in an out-of-control manner with preference for high-caloric foods and sometimes with inedible or toxic items. Level of consciousness during SRED episodes ranges from partial consciousness to dense unawareness typical of somnambulistic episodes. SRED is sometimes associated with psychotropic medication, in particular sedative hypnotics, and other sleep disorders, including parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. Night eating syndrome (NES) is another important condition in the disordered night-time eating spectrum showing hyperphagia episodes at full arousal from nocturnal sleep without accompanying amnesia. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. The two conditions often overlap and possibly share a common pathophysiology. Studies have suggested that central nervous system serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES, while the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective SRED treatment.

  1. Outcomes related to 4864 pregnancies with exposure to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Tookey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During pregnancy, LPV/r is a common anchor drug employed to treat the mother's HIV-1 infection in addition to reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC conducts a comprehensive population-based surveillance of HIV infection in pregnant women exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART in the UK and Ireland; in 2003–2012 over a third of pregnancies reported to the NSHPC involved exposure to LPV/r. Methods: We undertook a retrospective were descriptive analysis of individual NSHPC patient data, using pregnancy as the unit of observation. Clinical outcomes for pregnancies reported by June 2013, where women were exposed to LPV/r and due to deliver between January 2003 and December 2012, are described. Results: A total of 4864 LPV/r exposed pregnancies in 4118 women were identified. These resulted in 4702 deliveries with 4759 live and 46 stillborn infants. Seventy five percent of women were born in sub-Saharan Africa, 13% in the UK or Ireland. Median maternal age at conception was 30 years. Nine hundred and eighty (20% pregnancies were conceived while taking LPV/r, with a median duration of LPV/r exposure of 270 days. A total of 3884 (80% pregnancies initiated LPV/r after conception, with a median duration of LPV/r exposure of 107 days. Viral load (VL close to delivery was available for 4083/4702 (87% deliveries, with VL <50 c/mL in 73% and <1000 c/mL in 94% of women. VL by timing of LPV/r initiation is shown in Table 1. Sixty three percent of deliveries were by C-section, of which 62% were classified as elective and 38% as emergency. Among singleton liveborn infants, 13% were born prior to 37 weeks gestation (2.5% <32 weeks and 15% had birth weight <2500 g (2.3% <1500 g. HIV infection status was available for 4039 (89% singleton infants. For the periods 2003–2007 and 2008–2012, MTCT rates were 1.1% (95% CI 0.6–1.6 and 0.5% (95% CI 0.2–0.8 respectively

  2. Relative strengths of orthopyroxene and olivine at asthenospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoke, C. W., III; Raterron, P.; Girard, J.

    2014-12-01

    Orthopyroxene is the second most common mineral in the Earth's upper mantle. However, very little is known about its strength relative to olivine and clinopyroxene, both of which are well studied. Analyses of microstructures in peridotites containing orthopyroxene and olivine that were deformed at lithospheric conditions (relatively low temperatures and pressures) indicate that the orthopyroxene is stronger than surrounding olivine. In contrast, analyses of microstructures in asthenospheric peridotite xenoliths indicate that olivine and orthopyroxene have similar strengths. In order to better determine the pressure, temperature and strain rate sensitivity of the strength of orthopyroxene aggregates, we have performed an experimental study on stacked cylinders of orthopyroxene aggregates and olivine aggregates in the D-DIA. Cylinders of Bamble orthopyroxene (d~5-30 microns) or San Carlos olivine (d~25 microns) were hot-pressed in-situ at 1300oC for 1 hour prior to deformation. Although the assemblies and powders were dried at >100oC for >12 hours prior to installation in the apparatus, minor concentrations of water were observed (OPx ~ 500 H/106 Si; Ol ~ 200 H/106 Si). Multiple deformation steps were performed in each experiment over a range of strain rates (5x10-6 to 2x10-4/s) at a single temperature and pressure (T = 1000 - 1400oC and P = 2 - 5 GPa). At almost all conditions tested in these experiments, the orthopyroxene aggregates deformed at the same strain rate as the olivine cylinders, indicating both materials have the same stress exponent and very similar activation enthalpy. The microstructures observed in both the orthopyroxene and olivine cylinders are consistent with dislocation creep and lattice preferred orientations consistent with those observed in naturally deformed peridotites. These results indicate that at asthenospheric mantle conditions, the strengths of orthopyroxene and olivine in the dislocation creep field are very similar.

  3. Association between Environmental Dioxin-Related Toxicants Exposure and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjuan Pan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dioxin-related compounds are associated with teratogenic and mutagenic risks in laboratory animals, and result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there were inconsistent results in epidemiology studies. In view of this difference, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this association and to assess the heterogeneity among studies. Comprehensive literature searches were performed to search for relevant articles published in English up to 15 May 2012. In total, we identified 15 studies which included 9 cohort and 6 case control studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I 2 were used to evaluate heterogeneity. In either cohort studies (I2 =0.89, p<0.0001 or case control studies (I 2 =0.69, p=0.02, significant heterogeneity of risk estimates were observed. Subgroup analyses found no significant increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome with air dioxin-related compounds exposure (RR=0.99, 95% CI:0.85–1.16, no significant increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB with exposure to food dioxin-related compounds (RR=1.05, 95% CI:0.80–1.37, higher significant risks of low birth weight (LBW with exposure to food dioxin-related compounds (RR=1.55, 95% CI:1.24–1.94, and higher significant risks of birth defects with maternal solid contaminants dioxin exposure (OR=1.24, 95% CI:1.19–1.29. In conclusion, more evidences are needed to confirm the association between environmental dioxin-related compounds exposure and pregnancy outcome.

  4. Diabetes mellitus and drug abuse during pregnancy and the risk for orofacial clefts and related abnormalities 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; von Kostrisch, Lília Maria; Pimenta, Luiz André Freire; Negrato, Carlos Antônio; Franzolin, Solange Braga; Trindade, Alceu Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to assessed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and drug abuse in mothers of children with orofacial clefts (OFC). Methods: 325 women who had children (0-3y) with clefts were interviewed. Data regarding type of diabetes, use of legal/illegal drugs during pregnancy, waist girth and fasting blood sugar at the first prenatal consult were collected. Results: twenty seven percent of the women had DM, out of these, 89% had gestational DM, 5,5% type 1 DM and 5,5% type 2 DM. The prevalence of DM in mothers of children with OFC was 27%, it is significantly higher than the average Brazilian population which is 7.6% (p<0.01) (OR=4.5, 95%CI=3.5-5.8). Regarding drug abuse during pregnancy, 32% of the mothers used drugs and a significant positive correlation was observed between drug abuse and the occurrence of clefts and other craniofacial anomalies (p=0.028) (OR=2.87; 95%CI=1.1-7.4). Conclusions: DM and drug abuse during pregnancy increases the risk for OFC and related anomalies and early diagnosis of DM and prevention of drug abuse, especially in pregnant women, should be emphasized. PMID:27508899

  5. A comparison of different severities of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy relative to stress, social support, and maternal adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Jian, Shu-Yuan; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional and comparative research design with convenience sampling was used to recruit pregnant women from prenatal clinics in southern Taiwan between 2002 and 2003 to examine the differences in perceived stress, social support, and maternal psychosocial adaptation among women with different severities (mild or less than mild, moderate, and severe) of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. A total of 150 pregnant women participated in this study. One-way analysis of variance indicated that perceived stress was significantly different among the 3 groups. The least significant difference post-hoc test revealed that pregnant women with mild nausea and vomiting had significantly lower stress than did pregnant women with severe nausea and vomiting. The severity of nausea and vomiting was significantly associated with the Prenatal Self Evaluation Questionnaire subscales for "acceptance of pregnancy" and "fear of helplessness and loss of control in labor." Social support and maternal psychosocial adaptation were not significantly different among these three groups. The degree of perceived stress and maternal psychosocial adaptation may be related to the severity of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

  6. Urinary incontinence related to perineal muscle strength in the first trimester of pregnancy: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Gonzalez Riesco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS, urinary continence and quality of life related to urinary incontinence (UI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Method Cross-sectional study with a sample of 500 women who started prenatal care in a complementary healthcare facility in Guarulhos, state of São Paulo, from 2012 and 2013. Pelvic floor muscle strength was evaluated through perineometry. The pregnant women who presented UI answered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF. Results It was found that maternal age (OR=1.06; CI95% 1.02-1.11 and prior UI (OR=15.12; 95%CI 8.19-27.92 are the variables that, in tandem, best explain the occurrence of UI at the beginning of pregnancy. The mean score on the ICIQ-SF was 8.2 (SD=3.9, considered a moderate impact on quality of life. Conclusion Older pregnant women with prior UI are more likely to have UI in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  7. Comparison of gestational weight gain-related pregnancy outcomes in American primiparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to determine whether these tradeoffs also differ by parity among women in a contemporary American birth cohort. DESIGN: Data from 822 primiparous and 2055 multiparous American women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007), a national cohort study, were analyzed...... by multiple logistic regression analyses for women in 3 categories of prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Primiparous women gained more weight during pregnancy than did multiparous women (mean ± SD: 15.9 ± 6.9 compared with 13.5 ± 6.2 kg; P

  8. Profile of pregnancy in adolescence and related clinical-obstetric occurrences

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Veraci Oliveira Queiroz; Eysler Gonçalves Maia Brasil; Caroline Magalhães de Alcântara; Maria da Glória Oliveira Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to characterize the profile of adolescence pregnancy and its clinical and obstetric events. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, with quantitative approach, developed in a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, with one hundred adolescent mothers, through interviews and registers from the medical records, from February to May, 2011. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Science software, version 17.0. The majority lived with a partner who earned up to ...

  9. Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Lucy R Green

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline pla...

  10. [The role of oxidative stress in placental-related diseases of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J

    2016-10-01

    In normal pregnancies, the earliest stages of development take place in a low oxygen (O2) environment. This physiological hypoxia of the early gestational sac protects the developing fetus against the deleterious and teratogenic effects of O2free radicals. Oxidative stress is manifested at the maternal-fetal interface from early pregnancy onwards. In early pregnancy, a well-controlled oxidative stress plays a role in modulating placental development, functions and remodelling. Focal trophoblastic oxidative damage and progressive villous degeneration trigger the formation of the fetal membranes, which is an essential developmental step enabling vaginal delivery. Our data have demonstrated that the first trimester placenta in humans is histiotrophic and not haemochorial. The development and maintenance of a physiological O2 gradient between the uterine and fetal circulations is also essential for placental functions, such as transport and hormonal synthesis. Pathological oxidative stress arises when the production of reactive O2 species overwhelms the intrinsic anti-oxidant defences causing indiscriminate damage to biological molecules, leading to loss of function and cell death. We here review the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency of Occurrence of Pregnancy in Relation to Uterine Horn in Cattle in the Colombian Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González Tous

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of pregnancy in the right and left uterine horns of cattle in the Colombian tropics. Rectal palpation was performed in 1,534 cows to diagnose pregnancy and to indicate the pregnant horn (left or right. Additionally, 618 non-pregnant cows were examined to determine the presence of corpora lutea (CL or follicle (F, and to identify the ovary (right or left containing them. In pregnant cows, the percentages of right and left gestation were 63.1% (968/1534 and 36.9% (566/1534 (p ≤ 0.01, respectively, and in non-pregnant cows, 69 % of CL and 68% of F were found in the right ovary (p ≤ 0.01. Similarly, reproductive tracts of 300 pregnant cows were inspected, as well as those of 300 non-pregnant cows but with CL and F present. In pregnant tracts, the percentages of right and left gestation were 67.3% and 32.7% (p ≤ 0.01, respectively, and in non-pregnant cattle, 68% of CL and 65% of F were found in the right ovary (p ≤ 0.01. In conclusion, the highest percentage of pregnancies in cattle in the Colombian tropics is presented in the right horn; an increased presence of CL and F was also found in the right ovary.

  12. Outcome assessment of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury in Morocco: A national prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kabbali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of acute AKI in pregnancy and to emphasize on its management modalities in Moroccan hospitals. This is a national prospective study performed over six months from July 1 to December 31 2010 on AKI developing in pregnant patients, both preand post-partum period. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease were excluded from the study. Outcome was considered unfavorable when complete recovery of renal function was not achieved and/or maternal death occurred. Forty-four patients were included in this study. They were 29.6 ± 6 years old and mostly illiterate (70.6%. Most AKI occurred in the post-partum period, with 66% of the cases occurring in those who did not receive antenatal care. The main etiologies were pre-eclampsia (28 cases, hemorrhagic shock (six cases and septic events (five cases. We noted three cases of acute fatty liver, one case of obstructive kidney injury and one case of lupus nephritis. Hemodialysis was necessary in 17 (38.6% cases. The outcome was favorable in 29 patients. The maternal mortality rate was 11.4%. Two poor prognostic factors were identified: Age over 38 years and sepsis. AKI is a severe complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Its prevention necessitates the improvement of the sanitary infrastructure and the establishment of the obligatory antenatal care.

  13. Outcome assessment of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury in Morocco: A national prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbali, Nadia; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Harandou, Mustapha; Tagnaouti, Mounia; Bentata, Yassamine; Laouad, Inass; Ramdani, Benyounes; Bayahia, Rabia; Oualim, Zouhair; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of acute AKI in pregnancy and to emphasize on its management modalities in Moroccan hospitals. This is a national prospective study performed over six months from July 1 to December 31 2010 on AKI developing in pregnant patients, both preand post-partum period. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease were excluded from the study. Outcome was considered unfavorable when complete recovery of renal function was not achieved and/or maternal death occurred. Forty-four patients were included in this study. They were 29.6 ± 6 years old and mostly illiterate (70.6%). Most AKI occurred in the post-partum period, with 66% of the cases occurring in those who did not receive antenatal care. The main etiologies were pre-eclampsia (28 cases), hemorrhagic shock (six cases) and septic events (five cases). We noted three cases of acute fatty liver, one case of obstructive kidney injury and one case of lupus nephritis. Hemodialysis was necessary in 17 (38.6%) cases. The outcome was favorable in 29 patients. The maternal mortality rate was 11.4%. Two poor prognostic factors were identified: Age over 38 years and sepsis. AKI is a severe complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Its prevention necessitates the improvement of the sanitary infrastructure and the establishment of the obligatory antenatal care.

  14. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  15. The contribution of unimproved water and toilet facilities to pregnancy-related mortality in Afghanistan: analysis of the Afghan Mortality Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Giorgia; Monzon-Llamas, Laura; Benova, Lenka; Willey, Barbara; Campbell, Oona M R

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the effect of unimproved household water and toilet facilities on pregnancy-related mortality in Afghanistan. The data source was a population-based cross-sectional study, the Afghan Mortality Survey 2010. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out, comparing 69 pregnancy-related deaths (cases) and 15386 surviving women (non-cases) who had a live birth or stillbirth between 2007 and 2010. After adjusting for confounders, households with unimproved water access had 1.91 the odds of pregnancy-related mortality [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-3.30] compared to households with improved water access. We also found an association between unimproved toilet facilities and pregnancy-related mortality (OR = 2.25; 95% CI 0.71-7.19; P-value = 0.169), but it was not statistically significant. Unimproved household water access was an important risk factor for pregnancy-related mortality in Afghanistan. However, we were unable to discern whether unimproved water source is a marker of unhygienic environments or socio-economic position. There was weak evidence for the association between unimproved toilet facilities and pregnancy-related mortality; this association requires confirmation from larger studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Self-reported gingival conditions and self-care in the oral health of Danish women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jeppe-Jensen, Dorte; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to describe the self-assessment of gingival health conditions in pregnant women, their oral hygiene behaviour and dental visiting habits, and to analyse self-care practices of pregnant women in relation to perceived gingival problems. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: The study group comprised 1935 pregnant women living in two areas of Denmark consecutively recruited from August 1998 to March 1999. The survey data were based on telephone interviews. Questions in the interview concerned general health, lifestyles, socioeconomic conditions, gingival conditions......, oral hygiene and utilisation of dental health services. RESULTS: One-third of the study population perceived signs of gingival inflammation; 5% of the pregnant women assessed their gingiva as poor, while 95% reported good or "normal" gingival condition. Ninety six per cent brushed their teeth at least...

  17. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  18. IgG4-Related Disease: A Multispecialty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Usêda Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently recognized group of conditions, characterized by tumor-like swelling of involved organs, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, variable degrees of fibrosis, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. Currently IgG4-RD is recognized as a systemic condition that can affect several organs and tissues. Herein we report the case of a 34-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, and painful stiffness in his neck. He had a history of tumoral mass of the left maxillary region, right palpebral ptosis with protrusion of the eyeball, and chronic dry cough for about 6 years. Laboratory tests revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum IgG4 levels. Immunohistochemical staining of the maxillary biopsy was compatible with IgG4-RD. He had an excellent response to corticosteroid therapy. This case highlights that IgG4-RD should be included in the differential diagnosis with multisystem diseases.

  19. Junction conditions in General Relativity with spin sources

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, A; Willison, S; Giacomini, Alex; Troncoso, Ricardo; Willison, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The junction conditions for General Relativity in the presence of domain walls with intrinsic spin are derived in three and higher dimensions. A stress tensor and a spin current can be defined just by requiring the existence of a well defined volume element instead of an induced metric, so as to allow for generic torsion sources. In general, when the torsion is localized on the domain wall, it is necessary to relax the continuity of the tangential components of the vielbein. In fact it is found that the spin current is proportional to the jump in the vielbein and the stress-energy tensor is proportional to the jump in the spin connection. The consistency of the junction conditions implies a constraint between the direction of flow of energy and the orientation of the spin. As an application, we derive the circularly symmetric solutions for both the rotating string with tension and the spinning dust string in three dimensions. The rotating string with tension generates a rotating truncated cone outside and a f...

  20. Work-related maternal risk factors and the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension and Preeclampsia during pregnancy. The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Nugteren (Jaap); C.A. Snijder (Claudia); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To study the associations between physically demanding work and occupational exposure to chemicals and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy within a large birth cohort study, the Generation R Study. Methods: Associations between occupational characteristics and hypertensive

  1. Work-related maternal risk factors and the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension and Preeclampsia during pregnancy. The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Nugteren (Jaap); C.A. Snijder (Claudia); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To study the associations between physically demanding work and occupational exposure to chemicals and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy within a large birth cohort study, the Generation R Study. Methods: Associations between occupational characteristics and hypertensive

  2. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G

    2016-09-06

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy.

  3. Management of pregnancy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Aisha; Petri, Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoantibody-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, predominantly affecting young females. Pregnancy is increasingly common in the setting of SLE, as survival and quality of life of patients improve. Although live births can be achieved in the most cases, pregnancy in patients with SLE remains a high-risk condition. Maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity are considerably increased, compared with the general population. Aberrations in pregnancy-related maternal immune adaptations are likely contributors. Active maternal disease, renal involvement, specific autoantibody subsets and advanced organ damage are predictors of poor outcome. Therapeutic options are limited during pregnancy as maternal benefit has to be weighed against fetal risk. Prevention of preterm birth and refractory pregnancy loss, as well as management of established neonatal heart block remain unmet needs. Further research should address these important issues that affect young patients with SLE and their babies.

  4. Final results from the Betaseron (interferon β-1b) Pregnancy Registry: a prospective observational study of birth defects and pregnancy-related adverse events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P K; Sinclair, S M; Scheuerle, A E; Thorp, J M; Albano, J D; Rametta, M J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Women with multiple sclerosis are often diagnosed and treated during their reproductive years. Limited data are available on the safety of treatment during pregnancy. The Betaseron Pregnancy Registry prospectively monitored women exposed to interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b) during pregnancy to estimate the rates of birth defects, spontaneous abortions (SABs) and other negative outcomes in this population. Design From 2006 to 2011, this observational registry enrolled women exposed prior to conception or during pregnancy (but prior to or without abnormalities on prenatal screening). Follow-up continued from enrolment through the 4-month paediatric visit. Setting Patients in the USA who met these criteria were enrolled in the registry. Results The registry enrolled 99 pregnant women; 3 were lost to follow-up. The earliest exposure to IFNβ-1b occurred during the first trimester for 95 pregnancies and in the third trimester for 1 pregnancy. There were 99 birth outcomes (3 twins), including 86 (86.9%) live births, 11 (11.1%) SABs and 2 (2%) stillbirths. Birth defects were reported in five (5.1%) cases. Rates of birth defects and SAB were not significantly different from population comparators. No developmental concerns were identified at the 4-month paediatric visit. Conclusions The small sample size limits the ability to draw definitive conclusions; however, there was no pattern to suggest increased negative outcomes with IFNβ-1b. Clinical trials registration number NCT00317564. PMID:24821713

  5. Fat and vitamin intakes during pregnancy have stronger relations with a pro-inflammatory maternal microbiota than does carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Siddhartha; Godfrey, Keith M; McDonald, Daniel; Treuren, Will V; Bjørnholt, Jørgen V; Midtvedt, Tore; Moen, Birgitte; Rudi, Knut; Knight, Rob; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Peddada, Shyamal D; Eggesbø, Merete

    2016-10-19

    Although diet is known to have a major modulatory influence on gut microbiota, knowledge of the specific roles of particular vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients is limited. Modulation of the composition of the microbiota in pregnant women is especially important as maternal microbes are transferred during delivery and initiate the colonization process in the infant. We studied the associations between intake of specific dietary nutrients during pregnancy and gut microbiota composition. Utilizing the Norwegian NoMIC cohort, we examined the relations between intakes of 28 dietary macro- and micronutrients during pregnancy, derived from food frequency questionnaires administered to 60 women in the second trimester, and observed taxonomic differences in their gut microbiota four days after delivery (assessed through Illumina 16S rRNA amplicon analysis). Higher dietary intakes of fat-soluble vitamins, especially vitamin D, were associated with reduced microbial alpha diversity (p value vitamins, saturated and mono-unsaturated fat, and cholesterol intake, were associated with changes in phyla composition. Specifically, vitamin D, mono-unsaturated fat, cholesterol, and retinol were associated with relative increases in Proteobacteria, which is a phylum known to encompass multiple pathogens and to have pro-inflammatory properties. In contrast, saturated fat, vitamin E, and protein were associated with relative decreases in Proteobacteria. The results in this article indicate that fats and fat-soluble vitamins are among the most potent dietary modulators of gut microbiota in mothers. The shifts in microbiota due to diet need to be further studied alongside gut microbiota changes during pregnancy to better understand the impact on infant gut microbiota.

  6. Hypertension in pregnancy: An unresectable mediastinal pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazala, Sayf; Switzer, Noah; Bédard, Eric L R

    2016-02-01

    Hypertension is a relatively common occurrence during pregnancy, which usually has a benign course with an excellent prognosis. However, physicians caring for pregnant women should have a high index of suspicion for underlying medical conditions that could lead to a more perilous outcome. Herein, we present the case of a pregnant woman who was found to have uncontrollable hypertension late in her pregnancy, secondary to a mediastinal pheochromocytoma, which was deemed unresectable at the time of exploration after her delivery.

  7. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macr......, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy.......One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section...

  8. Lives Saved Tool supplement detection and treatment of syphilis in pregnancy to reduce syphilis related stillbirths and neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally syphilis is an important yet preventable cause of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives This review sought to estimate the effect of detection and treatment of active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU benzathine penicillin (or equivalent on syphilis-related stillbirths and neonatal mortality. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of multiple databases to identify relevant studies. Data were abstracted into standardised tables and the quality of evidence was assessed using adapted GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. Results Moderate quality evidence (3 studies supports a reduction in the incidence of clinical congenital syphilis of 97% (95% c.i 93 – 98% with detection and treatment of women with active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU penicillin. The results of meta-analyses suggest that treatment with penicillin is associated with an 82% reduction in stillbirth (95% c.i. 67 – 90% (8 studies, a 64% reduction in preterm delivery (95% c.i. 53 – 73% (7 studies and an 80% reduction in neonatal deaths (95% c.i. 68 – 87% (5 studies. Although these effect estimates were large and remarkably consistent across studies, few of the studies adjusted for potential confounding factors and thus the overall quality of the evidence was considered low. However, given these large observed effects and a clear biological mechanism for effectiveness the GRADE recommendation is strong. Conclusion Detection and appropriate, timely penicillin treatment is a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse syphilis-related pregnancy outcomes. More research is required to identify the most cost-effective strategies for achieving maximum coverage of screening for all pregnant women, and access to treatment if required.

  9. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DRR, DSV, Fontenay aux roses (France)

    1997-03-04

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions.

  10. A Rare Localization of Ectopic Pregnancy: Intramyometrial Pregnancy in Twin Pregnancy following IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Lahcen Boukhanni; Yassir Ait Benkaddour; Ahlam Bassir; Abdrahim Aboulfalah; Hamid Asmouki; Abderraouf Soummani

    2014-01-01

    Intramyometrial pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. It makes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. If misdiagnosed the intramyometrial pregnancy can cause a uterine rupture and become life-threatening condition. We report a case of intramyometrial pregnancy in twin pregnancy following IVF with spontaneous abortion of the first twin At 9 weeks of gestation. The 10 weeks scan showed a normal fetus which was described to be highly localized in the uterus but the diagnosis of intramy...

  11. Digital subtaction angiography (DSA) in renal-related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Jeong, Seong Wook; Bae, Kwang Soo; Chung, Moo Chan; Kim, Ki Jeong [Soon Chun Hyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) is a valuable diagnostic imaging method in many clinical fields, including renal-related conditions. Sixty four renal DSA examination were performed in 59 patients with renal-related diseases from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1985. Summary of These were as follows: 1. Intraarterial(IA)-DSA is performed in 6 cases, intravenous(IV)-DSA in 58 cases. In 58 Examinations of IV-DSA, diagnostic image quality is obtained in 51 cases (88%). 2. In investigations of a possible renovascular etiology of hypertension, IV-DSA is a simple, safe, sensitive and accurate method. On screening for evaluation of renovascular hypertension, RSP should be replaced with IV-DSA, because IV-DSA is more sensitive and accurate and can detect not only anatomic change of renal artery but also functional hemodynamic change. 3. IV-DSA is valuable in diseases with morphologic changes of vessels. In characterization of a known renal mass, and evaluation of hematuria, suspected aneurysm and renal trauma, IV-DSA is very useful diagnostic imaging modality. 4. In evaluation of potential renal donors, IV-DSA is an accurate and safe method with 82.4% of accuracy. IV-DSA also is useful in follow-up of allograft recipients. 5. In investigation of diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, IV-DSA is little helpful. 6. The advantages of DSA are well known, particularly post-procedure process using computer program is helpful for obtaining information's of hemodynamic change or time-suquence-curve of density etc. More technical improvement with this modality is required for improvement of the image quality and resolution. And more accumulation of clinical experience is required in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P<.0001), but fewer lymphocytes (P<.0001; P=.0014) than non-pregnant women. Both groups had fewer total T cells (P<.0001; P=.002) and CD8(+) T cells (P<.0001; P=.014) than non-pregnant women. HIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4(+) and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each P<.0001) than non-pregnant women. Lymphocyte subset percentages were not affected by pregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Profile of pregnancy in adolescence and related clinical-obstetric occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veraci Oliveira Queiroz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the profile of adolescence pregnancy and its clinical and obstetric events. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, with quantitative approach, developed in a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, with one hundred adolescent mothers, through interviews and registers from the medical records, from February to May, 2011. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Science software, version 17.0. The majority lived with a partner who earned up to one minimum wage, had low education and unpaid occupational activity. Most of them also reported early sexual activity, and were primiparas. All of them had complete prenatal care, with an average number of 5.91 consultations. The percentage of uncomplicated births of newborns was 48.9%, being prematurity the most frequent (56.3%. It is necessary to have more encouragement to young mothers attending postnatal consultation and family planning, and to have access and learning contraceptive matters, making prevention to early pregnancy more effective.

  15. Medication use in pregnancy in relation to the risk of isolated clubfoot in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werler, Martha M; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Kasser, James R; Mahan, Susan T; Meyer, Robert E; Anderka, Marlene; Druschel, Charlotte M; Mitchell, Allen A

    2014-07-01

    Clubfoot, a common major structural malformation, develops early in gestation. Epidemiologic studies have identified higher risks among boys, first-born children, and babies with a family history of clubfoot, but studies of risks associated with maternal exposures are lacking. We conducted the first large-scale, population-based, case-control study of clubfoot with detailed information on maternal medication use in pregnancy. Study subjects were ascertained from birth defect registries in Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina during 2007-2011. Cases were 646 mothers of children with clubfoot without other major structural malformations (i.e., isolated clubfoot); controls were mothers of 2,037 children born without major malformations. Mothers were interviewed within 12 months of delivery about medication use, including product, timing, and frequency. Odds ratios were estimated for exposure to 27 medications in pregnancy months 2-4 after adjustment for study site, infant sex, first-born status, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), and smoking. Odds ratios were less than 1.20 for 14 of the medications; of the remainder, most odds ratios were only slightly elevated (range, 1.21-1.66), with wide confidence intervals. The use of antiviral drugs was more common in clubfoot cases than in controls (odds ratio = 4.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.52, 11.73). Most of these results are new findings and require confirmation in other studies.

  16. Somatic Dysfunction in the Diagnosis of Uncommon Ectopic Pregnancies: Surgical Correlation and Comparison With Related Pathologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martingano, Daniel; Canepa, Hannah; Fararooy, Setareh; Rybitskiy, Dmitriy; Shahem, Sam; Martingano, Francis X; Aglialoro, George

    2017-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies occur when the implantation of a fertilized ovum occurs outside the endometrial cavity. Such pregnancies occur in approximately 1.5% to 2.0% of all pregnancies and cause 6% of maternal deaths. To evaluate osteopathic structural examination (OSE) findings in patients with ectopic pregnancies of uncommon locations and to establish the utility of these findings in the diagnosis of these ectopic pregnancies. In this prospective case series, a focused OSE was performed on each patient with an ectopic pregnancy at her initial presentation after the patient history but before other diagnostic or laboratory tests were performed and surgical treatment was initiated. Chapman reflex points (CRPs) were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. For comparison, patients who had otherwise normal first pregnancies, underwent elective postpartum bilateral tubal ligation, or had simple ovarian cysts were also included and received OSEs. Seven cases with ectopic pregnancies outside the fallopian tube were included. Two primary ovarian pregnancies and 1 heterotopic pregnancy (uterine and ovarian) had somatic dysfunction at the T10-T11 spinal levels and CRPs posterior for the ovary, 1 primary omental pregnancy with somatic dysfunction at the T9-T12 spinal levels and CRPs anterior and posterior for the ileum and jejunum, and 1 tubal pregnancy with somatic dysfunction at the T10-L1 spinal levels and CRPs anterior and posterior for the fallopian tube. Two cornual ectopic pregnancies were not associated with unique findings. These somatic dysfunctions and CRP findings appear to be distinct from those of comparison cases, including first pregnancies at any trimester, simple ovarian cysts, and elective bilateral tubal ligation. The OSE findings demonstrated in these cases aided in the final diagnosis and thus can potentially prove helpful in cases of ovarian, tubal, and omental pregnancies to provide clues to abnormal ectopic pregnancy locations where diagnostic imaging results

  17. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women.

  18. An analysis of pregnancy-related mortality in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Desai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-related (PR deaths are often a result of direct obstetric complications occurring at childbirth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To estimate the burden of and characterize risk factors for PR mortality, we evaluated deaths that occurred between 2003 and 2008 among women of childbearing age (15 to 49 years using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data in rural western Kenya. WHO ICD definition of PR mortality was used: "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death". In addition, symptoms and events at the time of death were examined using the WHO verbal autopsy methodology. Deaths were categorized as either (i directly PR: main cause of death was ascribed as obstetric, or (ii indirectly PR: main cause of death was non-obstetric. Of 3,223 deaths in women 15 to 49 years, 249 (7.7% were PR. One-third (34% of these were due to direct obstetric causes, predominantly postpartum hemorrhage, abortion complications and puerperal sepsis. Two-thirds were indirect; three-quarters were attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Significantly more women who died in lower socio-economic groups sought care from traditional birth attendants (p = 0.034, while less impoverished women were more likely to seek hospital care (p = 0.001. The PR mortality ratio over the six years was 740 (95% CI 651-838 per 100,000 live births, with no evidence of reduction over time (χ(2 linear trend = 1.07; p = 0.3. CONCLUSIONS: These data supplement current scanty information on the relationship between infectious diseases and poor maternal outcomes in Africa. They indicate low uptake of maternal health interventions in women dying during pregnancy and postpartum, suggesting improved access to and increased uptake of skilled obstetric care, as well as preventive measures against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis among all women of childbearing age may

  19. PROTEINURIA - A RISK FACTOR FOR PREGNANCY-RELATED RENAL-FUNCTION DECLINE IN PRIMARY GLOMERULAR-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEMMELDER, MH; DEZEEUW, D; FIDLER, [No Value; DEJONG, PE

    1995-01-01

    Pregnancy may be followed by a postpartum acceleration of renal function loss in patients with renal disease. We retrospectively analyzed the effects of pregnancy on progressive renal function decline, and the risk factors for an acceleration, in a group of 19 renal disease patients with 30 pregnanc

  20. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  1. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period of profound immunologic, endocr ine, metabolic and vascular changes which are tolerated by the body for a relatively short time. Almost all pregnant women (90% may develop both physiologic and pathologic changes in the skin, nails, and hair which should be recognized and appropriately m anaged 1 . Moreover, pregnancy modifies the course of a number of pre - existing dermatological conditions. AIMS: To find out the frequency and pattern of skin changes in pregnant women i.e. physiological skin changes, dermatoses modified by pregnancy and spec ific dermatoses of pregnancy . DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study . METHODS AND MATERIAL: A total of 300 pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted in wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at tertiary care centre between June 20 11 and November 2012 were studied. Patients not willing to give informed consent were only excluded. . Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done. RESULTS: In our study age distribution of pregnancy, was in range of 16 - 30 years. Most of the cases belonged to 2 nd and 3 rd trimester (93%. Pigmentary changes were the most common non specific pregnancy dermatosis, seen in almost all cases. Of these linea nigra (87% being the commonest. Overall 54 cases showed specific dermatos es of pregnancy. Of these the most common was prurigo of pregnancy (12% followed by pruritus of pregnancy (4%, PUPPP (2%. Among the other dermatological conditions, scabies (16% was the commonest. Fungal infections were seen in 14%, viral infections in 8% and bacterial infections in 5%. CONCLUSION: Majority of the dermatoses associated with pregnancy were observed in third trimester and among multigravidas. Pigmentary changes was the commonest physiological change observed. Prurigo of pregnancy was the commonest specific dermatosis of pregnancy. There were no cases of dermatoses modified during pregnancy

  2. Pregnancy-related systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical features, outcome and risk factors of disease flares--a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxia Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, outcome, and risk factors of disease flares in patients with pregnancy-related lupus (PRL. METHODS: Medical charts of 155 consecutive PRL inpatients were systematically reviewed, including demographic data, clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment, complications, and outcome. RESULTS: PRL cases were divided into active (a-PRL (n = 82, 53.0% and stable lupus (s-PRL (n = 73, 47.0%. Compared with nonpregnant active female systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, a-PRL including new-onset lupus (n-PRL and flare lupus (f-PRL (n = 41 respectively, had a higher incidence of renal and hematological involvement but less mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal involvement (p<0.05. The incidence of preeclampsia/eclampsia, fetal loss, and preterm birth were significantly higher in a-PRL than in s-PRL (p<0.05. Despite receiving a more vigorous glucocorticoid treatment, a-PRL mothers had a poorer prognosis (p<0.001. Five (6.1% of them died and 13 (15.9% developed severe irreversible organ failure, whereas none of these events was observed in the s-PRL group. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that a history of lupus flares and serological activity (hypocomplementemia and/or anti-dsDNA positivity at the time of conception were associated with lupus flares in PRL mothers. CONCLUSIONS: SLE patients with a flare history and serological activity at the time of conception were at an increased risk of disease flares during pregnancy and puerperium. a-PRL patients were more prone to renal and hematological involvement, pregnancy complications, and a poorer prognosis despite more vigorous glucocorticoid treatment.

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of Disclosure Patterns among Women with Sexual Violence-Related Pregnancies in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Monica Adhiambo

    2016-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has experienced nearly two decades of civil conflict in the Eastern regions of North and South Kivu. This conflict has been notorious for the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, leading in many cases to pregnancy after rape. The objectives of this analysis were: 1) to describe patterns of sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP) disclosure; 2) to consider why survivors chose to disclose to particular individuals; and 3) to examine the dialogue around SVRPs between women with SVRPs and their confidants. In South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, two sub-groups of sexual violence survivors completed qualitative interviews, those currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group, N = 38) and those who had terminated an SVRP (termination group, N = 17). The findings show that a majority of SVRPs were conceived when participants were held in sexual captivity for prolonged periods of time. The SVRPs were disclosed to friends, family members, other sexual violence survivors, community members, spouses, health care providers, or perpetrators. The confidants were most often chosen because they were perceived by the participants as being discreet, trusted, and supportive. The confidants often provided advice about continuing or terminating the SVRP. Trust and discretion are the most important factors determining to whom women with SVRPs disclose their pregnancies. The vital role of confidants in giving support after disclosure cannot be overlooked. Providing opportunities for survivors to safely disclose their SVRPs, including to health care providers, is a necessary first step in allowing them to access safe and comprehensive post-assault care and services. PMID:27741262

  4. Severe heparin osteoporosis in pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, H. T.; Liu, D T

    1984-01-01

    A case of severe osteoporosis following administration of low dose subcutaneous heparin in pregnancy is reported. Possible reasons for the condition are suggested which caution against the indiscriminate use of subcutaneous heparin in pregnancy.

  5. Obesity-related health status is a better predictor of pregnancy with fertility treatment than body mass index: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, N; Sharma, A M; Maxwell, C; Greenblatt, E M

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed whether an obesity-related health status instrument (Edmonton obesity scoring system - EOSS) or body mass index (BMI) better predicted pregnancy rates in overweight women undergoing fertility treatments. A prospective cohort study was conducted on patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) undergoing a fertility treatment cycle (ovulation induction, superovulation, or in vitro fertilization). Obesity-related health status including blood pressure, blood work, health history, and functional assessment were assessed. A total of 101 patients were included in the study with an average age of 36.3 ± 4.2 years and a mean BMI of 31.8 ± 5.2 kg m(-2) . EOSS was found to be statistically predictive of pregnancy rate/cycle (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.94; P = 0.03), whereas BMI was not (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05). A similar trend was seen for clinical pregnancy rate/cycle started. However, the association between clinical pregnancy rates and EOSS or BMI did not reach statistical significance (OR 0.53, P = 0.06 and OR 0.98, P = 0.62 respectively). Our results demonstrated that EOSS better predicted pregnancy rates after fertility treatments than BMI. In fact, for every EOSS stage increased by one unit, the odds of pregnancy were approximately halved. A multi-centre study powered for live birth is warranted to establish effective pre-fertility management of overweight women.

  6. Socioeconomic and work related determinants of pregnancy outcome in Southern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuntiseranee, Pitchaya; Olsen, Jørn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi;

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of socioeconomic status on pregnancy outcome in an urbanised area in a rapidly developing country. METHODS: A cohort of 1797 pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics at the two 700 bed hospitals in Hatyai city was recruited from September 1994...... to November 1995. The pregnant women were followed up from the 17th week of gestation until delivery. The socioeconomic indicators selected were family socioeconomic status, maternal education, maternal occupation, family income and work exposure characteristics based upon Karasek's job content questionnaires...... or preterm delivery in this study, which recruited mainly lower or middle class women. Karasek's psychological job demand was only weakly correlated with small for gestational age infant....

  7. Public health issues related to infection in pregnancy and cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schendel, Diana E.; Schuchat, Anne; Thorsen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neuromotor developmental disability of childhood, affecting as many as 8,000 to 12,000 children born in the U.S. each year (corresponding to a prevalence rate of between 2 and 3 per 1000 children). Recent improvements in neonatal care have not resulted in a decline...... in the overall prevalence of cerebral palsy and, in fact, greater numbers of very preterm/very low birth weight infants are surviving with cerebral palsy and other developmental problems. Infection in pregnancy may be an important cause of the disorder. In preterm infants, there appears to be about a 2-fold...... inflammation typically associated with infection also suggest that an inflammatory response may be an important independent etiologic factor. If a substantial proportion of cerebral palsy is attributable to acute amnionitis infection and/or neonatal sepsis, cerebral palsy should have decreased in the United...

  8. Socioeconomic and work related determinants of pregnancy outcome in Southern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuntiseranee, Pitchaya; Olsen, Jørn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    1999-01-01

    . Pregnancy outcomes were birth weight, low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm delivery. MAIN RESULTS: Mean birth weight correlated with socioeconomic status and income but after adjustment for parity, maternal age and height, weight at delivery day, baby sex, obstetrical complications...... to November 1995. The pregnant women were followed up from the 17th week of gestation until delivery. The socioeconomic indicators selected were family socioeconomic status, maternal education, maternal occupation, family income and work exposure characteristics based upon Karasek's job content questionnaires...... and antenatal care utilisation, only family income remained correlated with birth weight. No association with any socioeconomic status indicators was found when using dichotomous outcome (low birth weight, small for gestational age or preterm delivery). Only high psychological job demand was associated...

  9. Physical activity of relatively high intensity in mid-pregnancy predicts lower glucose tolerance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medek, Helga; Halldorsson, Thorhallur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) is recommended as part of therapy for patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Whether such recommendations are also justified for pregnant women is less well established. We investigated the association between PA and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. A non-selective sample of 217 pregnant women was recruited at a routine 20 week ultrasound examination. Participants answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) about frequency, intensity and duration of daily physical activity in the past 7 days and underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) between 24 and 28 weeks. A subset of 72 overweight/obese pregnant women wore a pedometer for 1 week with assessment of IPAQ score and pedometric correlations to this. Of the sample, 177 attended for OGTT; 51% were overweight or obese. The mean (SD) fasting glucose was 4.5 (0.4) mmol/L, and 12% had gestational diabetes mellitus. Only one-third engaged in vigorous PA. After adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, age and parity, those engaging in vigorous PA had significantly lower fasting glucose levels (by 0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.03-0.27) compared with those not vigorously active. This decrease was similar in both normal and overweight/obese women. There were fewer cases of gestational diabetes (p = 0.03) among the vigorously active women (3/56; 5%) than among those who were not active (19/121; 16%). No association with glucose tolerance was observed for physical activity of moderate intensity. Only vigorous physical activity appears beneficial with respect to maternal glucose tolerance, both among normal, overweight and obese women. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  11. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and effects on nutrient intake in the Mid-South: the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, Eszter; Carroll, Kecia N; Hare, Marion E; Ringwald-Smith, Karen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Yoo, Wonsuk; Tylavsky, Frances A

    2013-05-03

    Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m(2)). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3.

  12. Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; Breukelen, van Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we

  13. [Characteristics of working conditions at metallurgy-related plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2008-01-01

    Working conditions at more versus less advanced technology steel plants of the Volgograd Region are analyzed. The working conditions at the less advanced technology plants are referred to as a very high occupational risk. It is necessary to work out measures to lower the poor impact of microclimate, dust, noise, to improve illumination, and to regulate labor at steel plants.

  14. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Inclusion Relations for Absolute Summability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B E Rhoades; Ekrem Savaş

    2003-08-01

    We obtain a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for $| \\overline{N}, p_n|_k$ to imply $|\\overline{N}, q_n|_s$ for 1 < ≤ < ∞. Using this result we establish several inclusion theorems as well as conditions for the equivalence of $|\\overline{N}, p_n|_k$ and $|\\overline{N}, q_n|_s$.

  15. Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we

  16. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  17. Economic evaluation of conditional cash transfer scheme for postponement of first pregnancy in newly married couples in Satara district of Maharashtra (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha K Pratinidhi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 2007, Satara district is implementing a voluntary conditional cash transfer scheme named “Second Honeymoon Package” (SHP for postponement of first pregnancy. This study was undertaken to evaluate it's effectiveness in preventing pregnancies, utilizing the years for learning or betterment in jobs. Cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken from government's viewpoint and that from beneficiary's viewpoint. Objectives: To perform the economic evaluation of second honeymoon package programme from the perspective of beneficiaries and that of Government of Maharashtra during the defined time horizon. To determine the targets to be achieved so as to make the programme cost- effective. Materials and Methods: This was an evaluation study of a community based interventional programme. This study employed quasi-experimental study design. Economic evaluation was conducted from the perspective of Government of Maharashtra and that of beneficiaries'. Costs and consequences SHP were evaluated in comparison with those of routine family welfare programme. Sensitivity analysis was done using Treeage Pro® version 2009 software. Results: Cost for participation in programme was Rs. 965888/268 person years of productivity. Cost of not participating in the Second honeymoon programme but availing routine family planning services was Rs. 298902/133 person years gained. Rankings analysis showed that no strategies were clearly dominated by any other. Extended dominance report indicates no strategies were eliminated by extended dominance. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was Rs.4920/person year of productivity. Conclusions: The SHP is cost effective at high success and productivity rates. The success rate of postponement of first pregnancy was 51.4%. Postponement of pregnancy by 2 years provides 45% chances of productive utilization of time.

  18. [Cultural meanings and relations to the world in psychopathological disorders during pregnancy and the puerperium in the Cameroonian context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboua, C P; Mboua, N H Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period are significant moments that raise questions about women's relation to the world. Globally, the puerperium (the first 42 days after delivery) remains a time when several psychopathological disorders, related to the sexual sphere, may be manifested. This article considers some standard psychopathological knowledge that sheds light on this, while stressing the impact of culture on the woman's individuality and her psychosexual life experiences. It underlines the sensitizing role of psychological experience, affected by beliefs and various taboos, that can cause her to relive traumas from her psychosexual life experience; the women is often unaware of these experiences, but they make it possible to interpret and prevent disorders during the puerperium.

  19. An Approach to Differential Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a systemic, acquired, immune-mediated disorder characterized by episodes of venous, arterial, or microcirculation thrombosis and/or pregnancy abnormalities, associated with the persistent presence of autoantibodies, confirmed at least in two occasions 12 weeks apart, directed to molecular complexes consisting of phospholipids and proteins. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome should always be considered as a potential diagnosis especially for young patients presenting with a history of thrombotic events, in particular when they occur without any obvious external trigger or any inherited thrombophilic mutation (even if 2006 criteria do not exclude antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in patients with other inherited or acquired prothrombotic conditions, or for women with recurrent pregnancy losses or later fetal deaths. Many other disorders are able to mimic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, so a broad range of alternative diagnoses should be investigated and ruled out during clinical workup.

  20. An approach to differential diagnosis of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Giacomo; Silvestri, Elena; Squatrito, Danilo; Ciucciarelli, Lucia; Cameli, Anna Maria; Denas, Gentian; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Pengo, Vittorio; Emmi, Lorenzo; Prisco, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a systemic, acquired, immune-mediated disorder characterized by episodes of venous, arterial, or microcirculation thrombosis and/or pregnancy abnormalities, associated with the persistent presence of autoantibodies, confirmed at least in two occasions 12 weeks apart, directed to molecular complexes consisting of phospholipids and proteins. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome should always be considered as a potential diagnosis especially for young patients presenting with a history of thrombotic events, in particular when they occur without any obvious external trigger or any inherited thrombophilic mutation (even if 2006 criteria do not exclude antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in patients with other inherited or acquired prothrombotic conditions), or for women with recurrent pregnancy losses or later fetal deaths. Many other disorders are able to mimic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, so a broad range of alternative diagnoses should be investigated and ruled out during clinical workup.

  1. Pregnancy rates following timed embryo transfer with fresh or vitrified in vitro produced embryos in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Krininger, C E; Block, J; Thatcher, W W; Hanse, P J

    2002-07-01

    Timed embryo transfer (TET) using in vitro produced (IVP) embryos without estrus detection can be used to reduce adverse effects of heat stress on fertility. One limitation is the poor survival of IVP embryos after cryopreservation. Objectives of this study were to confirm beneficial effects of TET on pregnancy rate during heat stress as compared to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and to determine if cryopreservation by vitrification could improve survival of IVP embryos transferred to dairy cattle under heat stress conditions. For vitrified embryos (TET-V), a three-step pre-equilibration procedure was used to vitrify excellent and good quality Day 7 IVP Holstein blastocysts. For fresh IVP embryos (TET-F), Holstein oocytes were matured and fertilized; resultant embryos were cultured in modified KSOM for 7 days using the same method as for production of vitrified embryos. Excellent and good quality blastocysts on Day 7 were transported to the cooperating dairy in a portable incubator. Nonpregnant, lactating Holsteins (n = 155) were treated with GnRH (100 microg, i.m., Day 0), followed 7 days later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha, 25 mg, i.m.) and GnRH (100 microg) on Day 9. Cows in the TAI treatment (n = 68) were inseminated the next day (Day 10) with semen from a single bull that also was used to produce embryos. Cows in the other treatments (n = 33 for TET-F; n = 54 for TET-V) received an embryo on Day 17 (i.e. Day 7 after anticipated ovulation and Day 8 after second GnRH treatment). The proportion of cows that responded to synchronization based on plasma progesterone concentrations on Day 10 and Day 17 was 67.7%. Pregnancy rate for all cows on Day 45 was higher (P cows responding to synchronization, pregnancy rate was also higher (P cows producing more milk had lower (P cows producing less milk. In conclusion, ET of fresh IVP embryos can improve pregnancy rate under heat stress conditions, but pregnancy rate following transfer of vitrified embryos was no

  2. Factors Affecting Recruitment and Attrition in Randomised Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pregnancy-Related Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Close

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs investigating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM for pregnancy-related issues have encountered issues with recruitment and attrition. Little is known about the cause of these issues. Methods. Data was gathered from an antenatal CAM randomised controlled trial. During foetal anomaly appointments, women meeting inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the trial. Numbers of women invited and eligible were recorded. Reasons for noninterest were noted and analysed. Focus groups exploring trial experience of participants were also conducted. Findings. Of the 428 women invited to participate, 376 were eligible and just under a quarter participated. Reasons for nonparticipation included concerns about CAM and lack of interest in participation in research. Other factors negatively affecting recruitment included recruitment timing, competition for participants, limited support from staff, and inadequate trial promotion. Factors encouraging recruitment included being interested in research and seeking pain relief. Reasons for dropping out were time constraints, travel issues, work commitments, and pregnancy issues. Several women in the sham and usual care group dropped out due to dissatisfaction with treatment allocation. Conclusion. CAM researchers must explore problems encountered with recruitment and attrition so that evidence-based implementation strategies to address the issues can be developed.

  3. A case report of a pregnancy-related death caused by primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yingjian Sun,1 Manhua Cui,1 Wanan Zhu,2 Weiling Xu,2 Na Li2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China Abstract: Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS is a rare clinical event in the People's Republic of China. As APS is easily neglected or misdiagnosed, a delayed treatment can result. The patient reported here was a 32-year-old female who died by systemic venous thrombosis on day 11 after a cesarean section delivery. Luckily, the baby survived. A blood test demonstrated that the patient's platelets were decreased at 19 weeks of gestation. Anti-cardolipin antibody and antiß2GP1 (anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I antibody were positive at 36 weeks and 2 days of gestation. This patient was diagnosed with APS. Unfortunately, as physicians, we could not provide proper treatment as the patient's relatives were concerned that the proposed treatment would have negative effects on the infant's health. This clinical case strongly suggests that physicians need to appreciate that APS is a very serious condition, especially for pregnant women, and that proper treatment should be provided as early as possible to avoid a bad outcome, despite the fact that a cure for this disease is not currently available. Keywords: APS, thrombosis, Hughes syndrome

  4. A case report of a pregnancy-related death caused by primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjian; Cui, Manhua; Zhu, Wanan; Xu, Weiling; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a rare clinical event in the People's Republic of China. As APS is easily neglected or misdiagnosed, a delayed treatment can result. The patient reported here was a 32-year-old female who died by systemic venous thrombosis on day 11 after a cesarean section delivery. Luckily, the baby survived. A blood test demonstrated that the patient's platelets were decreased at 19 weeks of gestation. Anti-cardolipin antibody and antiβ2GP1 (anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibody) were positive at 36 weeks and 2 days of gestation. This patient was diagnosed with APS. Unfortunately, as physicians, we could not provide proper treatment as the patient's relatives were concerned that the proposed treatment would have negative effects on the infant's health. This clinical case strongly suggests that physicians need to appreciate that APS is a very serious condition, especially for pregnant women, and that proper treatment should be provided as early as possible to avoid a bad outcome, despite the fact that a cure for this disease is not currently available.

  5. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  6. Related factors and pregnancy outcomes of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy%妊娠期高血压疾病的相关因素与妊娠结局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波玲; 卢媛

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析妊娠高血压疾病的相关因素及其妊娠结局。方法采用回顾性调查法,通过病例对照分析,调查其相关因素及妊娠结局,最后进行单因素方差分析和Logistics多元回归分析。结果年龄、家庭收入、孕前体重指数、孕期不良环境暴露、孕期不良心理、孕期生活事件、孕期不良生活习惯等方面具有统计学差异(χ2值分别为6.13、11.20、26.19、12.23、13.16、6.35、8.47,均P<0.05),而文化程度、早孕反应、先兆流产、既往不良妊娠史无显著性差异(χ2值分别为3.06、2.56、0.03、1.13,均P>0.05)。家庭收入、孕前体重指数、孕期不良心理与妊娠期高血压疾病呈显著正相关(P<0.05),研究组中不良妊娠结局发生率显著高于对照组(χ2=94.911,P<0.001)。结论年龄、家庭收入、孕前体重指数、孕期生活事件、孕期不良环境暴露、孕期不良心理、孕期不良生活习惯会增加妊娠期高血压疾病的发生率,而妊娠期高血压疾病会增加不良妊娠结局风险。%Objective To analyze the related factors and pregnancy outcomes of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy . Methods Retrospective case-control study was applied to explore the related factors and pregnancy outcomes of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy . Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted .Results There were significant differences in age , family income, BMI, adverse environmental exposure , adverse psychology , life events and bad living habits during pregnancy between two groups (χ2 value was 6.13, 11.20, 26.19, 12.23, 13.16, 6.35 and 8.47, respectively, all P0.05).There was significantly positive correlation between hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and family income , BMI and adverse psychology (P<0.05).The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in study group was significantly higher than that in control

  7. 地中海贫血孕妇的妊娠状况及对妊娠结局的影响%Analysis on pregnancy condition of the pregnant women with thalassemia and the impact on pregnancy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pregnancy condition of the hospitalized pregnant women with thalassemia and the impact on pregnancy outcome. Methods; The data of 114 pregnant women who received systematical prenatal examination and gave birth in the hospital from May 2008 to May 2010 were collected, including 48 pregnant women in normal control group, 34 pregnant women in non - thalassemia group, and 32 pregnant women in thalassemia group. The pregnancy condition and the difference of pregnancy outcome of the pregnant women with thalassemia were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was significant difference in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and . Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) values between thalassemia group and normal control group, non - thalassemia group (P 0. 05) . Conclusion; The pregnant women should receive routine blood test, their MCV and MCH values can be used as indexes for clinical detection of pregnancy combined with thalassemia; for the pregnant women with thalassemia, the health nursing should be enhanced for full - term pregnant women, and the adverse effects in the course of fetal intrauterine growth and development should be avoided, prenatal examination should be strengthened among the pregnant women with or without thalassemia.%目的:探讨住院分娩的孕妇地中海贫血的妊娠发病情况,以及对妊娠结局的影响.方法:收集该院自2008年5月~2010年5月进行系统产前检查并住院分娩的孕妇资料共计114例,其中正常对照组孕妇48例,非地中海贫血组(非地贫组)34例,地中海贫血组(地贫组)32例,回顾性分析地中海妊娠孕妇的妊娠状况及妊娠结局的差异.结果:地贫组孕妇的红细胞平均体积(MCV)及红细胞平均血红蛋白含量(MCH)的值与正常对照组和非地贫组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);地贫组与非地贫组孕妇的异常妊娠发生率与正常对照组比较显著升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);地贫组和

  8. Magnesium in pregnancy blood pressure and pre-eclampsia - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Ragnar

    2014-04-01

    Magnesium is an important cation present in more than 300 enzymes in the body. This review evaluates the information on magnesium and pregnancy. In normal pregnancies Mg responsive genes are upregulated, suggesting Mg deficiency. Blood pressure increase is related to the urinary excretion of Mg. In pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia the Mg homeostasis is different from normal pregnancies. Supplementation with Mg has shown beneficial effects on high blood pressure and infant conditions in some studies. Although several studies show important relationships between Mg homeostasis and pregnancy, particularly those with pre-eclampsia, further studies are needed to assess the relationship and formulate requirements for intervention programmes.

  9. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Catherine; Geenes, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most common pregnancy-specific liver disease that typically presents in the third trimester. The clinical features are maternal pruritus in the absence of a rash and deranged liver function tests, including raised serum bile acids. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, including spontaneous preterm delivery, meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, and stillbirth. It is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has a lasting influence on both maternal and fetal health. We review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of this intriguing condition.

  10. "The Burden of Pregnancy"; heavier for the heaviest? The changes in Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessed by the 15D instrument during pregnancy and postpartum in different body mass index groups: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G; Kautiainen, Hannu; Roine, Risto P

    2017-03-01

    Only little information is available on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its changes during the course of a normal pregnancy. We studied changes in HRQoL in a pregnant population during pregnancy and until 1 year postpartum in different body mass index (BMI) groups. Seven hundred and fifty pregnant women attending the first ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate in a longitudinal, communal-based survey. The participants were divided into three groups according to their BMI; <25, 25-29.9, and ≥30 kg/m(2) . The women were asked to fill in questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric and socioeconomic status at baseline. HRQoL and EPDS were re-assessed at 30 weeks of gestation, and 6 weeks, 3 and 12 months postpartum. Of the invited 750 mothers, 325 (43%) returned the questionnaires and at least one follow-up questionnaire. At baseline, mean 15D scores decreased with increasing BMI but the difference was not statistically significant when adjusted for age, educational attainment, parity or EPDS-scores (0.929, 0.921 and 0.916, p = 0.16). During the course of pregnancy, the HRQoL of all women decreased but this decrease was significantly greater in the obese group (-0.088; 95% CI -0.110 to -0.065) than in the other groups [-0.054 (95% CI -0.062 to -0.045) and -0.051 (95% CI -0.068 to -0.033), p = 0.019]. Within 3 months postpartum the mean HRQoL recovered in all BMI groups to baseline levels, irrespective of the mode of delivery or pregnancy-related complications. The burden of pregnancy is heavier for the heaviest. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Role of family support and women's knowledge on pregnancy-related risks in adherence to maternal iron-folic acid supplementation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari; Khusun, Helda; Achadi, Endang L; Ocviyanti, Dwiana; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2016-10-01

    To examine whether women's knowledge of pregnancy-related risks and family support received during pregnancy are associated with adherence to maternal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation. Secondary data analysis of the 2002-03, 2007 and 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis of the association between factors associated with adherence (consuming ≥90 IFA tablets), including the women's knowledge and family support, was performed using multivariate logistic regression. National household survey. Women (n 19 133) who had given birth within 2 years prior to the interview date. Knowledge of pregnancy-related risks was associated with increased adherence to IFA supplementation (adjusted OR=1·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 2·0), as was full family (particularly husband's) support (adjusted OR=1·9; 95 % CI 1·6, 2·3). Adequate antenatal care (ANC) visits (i.e. four or more) was associated with increased adherence (adjusted OR=2·2; 95 % CI 2·0, 2·4). However, ANC providers missed opportunities to distribute tablets and information, as among women with adequate ANC visits, 15 % reported never having received/bought any IFA tablets and 30 % had no knowledge of pregnancy-related risks. A significant interaction was observed between family support and the women's educational level in predicting adherence. Family support significantly increased the adherence among women with knowledge of pregnancy-related risks and involving family members, particularly the husband and importantly for less-educated women, improved adherence to IFA supplementation. ANC visit opportunities must be optimized to provide women with sufficient numbers of IFA tablets along with health information (especially on pregnancy-related risks) and partner support counselling.

  12. Study of Continuance Rate and Related Causes of Discontinuance of Pregnancy Prevention Methods among Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fallahzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From maturity to menopause, women are worried about pregnancy. Abstinence from sex or use of pregnancy prevention methods are choices for them. As abstinence is impossible, the only remaining choice is use of pregnancy prevention methods. Effective control of pregnancy is really essential for the health of mother and infant and also control of unplanned increase in population. Regarding the importance of continuance rate of pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom &DMPA & the reasons for their disruption, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the continuance rate and reasons for discontinuance of pregnancy prevention methods in Yazd women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Six urban health care centers of Yazd were selected as study clusters and information of 15-49 year old women using the pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom& injection was collected via a questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by Coplan- Mayer statistic method and variance analysis test. Results: Pregnancy prevention methods were most prevalent in the 25-34 years old age group (57%. Mean duration of pregnancy prevention method usage was 27.98 months using Caplan-mayer method with a median of 24 months. 86.3% for 6 months, 72.8% for 12 months, 62.5% for 18 months, 47.9% for 24 months, 39.9% for 30 months and 37% for 37 months had used four certain methods of pregnancy prevention (OCP, IUD, Condom and Injection. The reasons of discontinuance were disease (15.6% for OCPS, bleeding (27% for IUD, unwanted pregnancy (21% for Condoms and also disease (75% for Injection method. Discussion: According to the results, not only education programs regarding family planning before starting each pregnancy prevention method to women is recommended, but a complete incentive consultation about these methods is essential. This educational & consultation programs should be implemented initially for women using OCP method.

  13. The use of medicinal herbs in gynecological and pregnancy-related disorders by Jordanian women: a review of folkloric practice vs. evidence-based pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akour, Amal; Kasabri, Violet; Afifi, Fatma U; Bulatova, Nailya

    2016-09-01

    Context National statistical reports in Jordan indicate a decrease in the total fertility rate along with a parallel increase in contraceptive use. The folkloric use of medicinal herbs in gynecological disorders has been growing in Jordan, despite of deficient reports on the evidence-based safety and efficacy of these practices. Objective The aim of this comprehensive article is to review medicinal plants with claimed ethnonpharmacological usage in various gynecological and pregnancy-related issues in Jordan, and to assess their evidence-based pharmacological studies as well as their phytochemistry. Methods The published literature was surveyed using Google Scholar entering the terms "ethnopharmacology AND Jordan AND infertility AND gynecology OR gestation". We included ethnopharmacological surveys in Jordan with available full-text. Results Twelve articles were reviewed. Plant species which are commonly used for female gynecological issues such as Artemisia monosperma Del. and A. herba-alba Asso. (Asteraceae) have been found to exert an antifertility effect. Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) had antifertility effects in male rats, but Nigella sativa oil L. (Ranunculaceae) and Cinnamon zeylanicum J. Presl (Lauraceae) were found to enhance it. Conclusion Using plants for gynecological disorders is a common practice in Jordan. Many of them, whether utilised for gynecological or non-gynecological conditions equally, were found to have detrimental effects on female or male fertility. Thus, couples planning pregnancy should be discouraged from the consumption of these herbs. Further local studies are warranted to confirm the appreciable beneficial pharmacological effects and safety of these plants.

  14. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Takano, Masashi; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa. We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38%) developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00), need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25), and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13) were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to investigate whether

  15. Nasal air conditioning in relation to acoustic rhinometry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Joerg; Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Wiesmiller, Kerstin M

    2009-01-01

    Changes of nasal dimensions can influence the air-conditioning capacity of the nose because of alterations of airflow patterns. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intranasal temperature and humidity values and nasal dimensions, assessed by means of acoustic rhinometry. Eighty healthy volunteers (40 men and 40 women; median age, 51 years; range, 20-84 years) were enrolled in the study. In total, 160 nasal cavities were examined. All volunteers underwent a standardized acoustic rhinometry. Additionally, intranasal air temperature and humidity measurements at defined intranasal detection sites within the anterior nasal segment were performed. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left side of the nose regarding air temperature, absolute humidity, and acoustic rhinometric values. A negative correlation was established between the rhinometric nasal volumes/minimal cross-sectional areas and air temperature and absolute humidity values at the three intranasal detection sites. According to our results, nasal volumes and cross- sectional areas relevantly influence nasal air conditioning. A healthy nasal cavity with smaller volumes and cross-sectional areas seems to present a more effective air-conditioning function than a too "wide" open nose because of changes in airflow patterns. This observation should be considered as a limitation for overly extensive nasal surgery especially of the turbinates.

  16. Drug use in pregnancy; a point to ponder!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Punam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a special physiological condition where drug treatment presents a special concern because the physiology of pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of medications used and certain medications can reach the fetus and cause harm. Total avoidance of pharmacological treatment in pregnancy is not possible and may be dangerous because some women enter pregnancy with medical conditions that require ongoing and episodic treatment (e.g. asthma, epilepsy, hypertension. Also during pregnancy new medical problems can develop and old ones can be exacerbated (e.g. migraine, headache requiring pharmacological therapy. The fact that certain drugs given during pregnancy may prove harmful to the unborn child is one of the classical problems in medical treatment. In 1960′s pregnant ladies who ingested thalidomide gave birth to children with phocomalia. Various other examples of teratogenic effects of drugs are known. It has been documented that congenital abnormalities caused by human teratogenic drugs account for less than 1% of total congenital abnormalities. Hence in 1979, Food and Drug Administration developed a system that determines the teratogenic risk of drugs by considering the quality of data from animal and human studies. FDA classifies various drugs used in pregnancy into five categories, categories A, B, C, D and X. Category A is considered the safest category and category X is absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy. This provides therapeutic guidance for the clinician. This article focuses on various aspects relating to drug use during pregnancy.

  17. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  18. Hypertension and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Teresa M; Moskovitz, Joshua B

    2012-11-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is increasing in prevalence and incidence and its treatment becoming more commonplace. Associated complications of pregnancy, including end-organ damage, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and postpartum eclampsia, are leading sources of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, requiring an emergency physician to become proficient with their identification and treatment. This article reviews hypertension in pregnancy as it relates to outcomes, with special emphasis on preeclampsia, eclampsia, and postpartum eclampsia.

  19. A Rare Localization of Ectopic Pregnancy: Intramyometrial Pregnancy in Twin Pregnancy following IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Boukhanni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramyometrial pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. It makes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. If misdiagnosed the intramyometrial pregnancy can cause a uterine rupture and become life-threatening condition. We report a case of intramyometrial pregnancy in twin pregnancy following IVF with spontaneous abortion of the first twin At 9 weeks of gestation. The 10 weeks scan showed a normal fetus which was described to be highly localized in the uterus but the diagnosis of intramyometrial pregnancy was not suspected. The patient was admitted at 14 weeks of gestation with pelvic pain, hemorrhage, and shock. She was operated and the diagnosis of ruptured intramyometrial pregnancy was done and managed conservatively. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties of intramyometrial pregnancy. We discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this exceptional form of ectopic pregnancy.

  20. Kidney disease in pregnancy: (Women's Health Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamlani, Geeta; Geraci, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    Kidney disease and pregnancy may exist in two general settings: acute kidney injury that develops during pregnancy, and chronic kidney disease that predates conception. In the first trimester of pregnancy, acute kidney injury is most often the result of hyperemesis gravidarum, ectopic pregnancy, or miscarriage. In the second and third trimesters, the common causes of acute kidney injury are severe preeclampsia, hemolysis-elevated liver enzymes-low platelets syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and thrombotic microangiopathies, which may pose diagnostic challenges to the clinician. Cortical necrosis and obstructive uropathy are other conditions that may lead to acute kidney injury in these trimesters. Early recognition of these disorders is essential to timely treatment that can improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. In women with preexisting kidney disease, pregnancy-related outcomes depend upon the degree of renal impairment, the amount of proteinuria, and the severity of hypertension. Neonatal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies among renal transplant patients are generally good if the mother has normal baseline allograft function. Common renally active drugs and immunosuppressant medications must be prescribed, with special considerations in pregnant patients.

  1. Bariatric surgery and pregnancy: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferrand Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy.

  2. Use of positive reinforcement conditioning to monitor pregnancy in an unanesthetized snow leopard (Uncia uncia) via transabdominal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Jacqueline M; Macfadden, Annabell J; Cosens, Lindsay M; Rosenstein, Diana S; Harrison, Tara M

    2008-01-01

    Closely monitoring snow leopard (Uncia uncia) fetal developments via transabdominal ultrasound, with minimal stress to the animal, was the goal of this project. The staff at Potter Park Zoo has used the principles of habituation, desensitization, and positive reinforcement to train a female snow leopard (U. uncia). Ultrasound examinations were preformed on an unanesthetized feline at 63 and 84 days. The animal remained calm and compliant throughout both procedures. Fetuses were observed and measured on both occasions. The absence of anesthesia eliminated components of psychologic and physiologic stress associated with sedation. This was the first recorded instance of transabdominal ultrasound being carried out on an unanesthetized snow leopard. It documents the feasibility of detecting pregnancy and monitoring fetal development via ultrasound. Zoo Biol 27:78-85, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Obstetric nephrology: lupus and lupus nephritis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Todd J; White, Wendy M; Moder, Kevin G; Smyth, Andrew; Garovic, Vesna D

    2012-12-01

    SLE is a multi-organ autoimmune disease that affects women of childbearing age. Renal involvement in the form of either active lupus nephritis (LN) at the time of conception, or a LN new onset or flare during pregnancy increases the risks of preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia, maternal mortality, fetal/neonatal demise, and intrauterine growth restriction. Consequently, current recommendations advise that the affected woman achieve a stable remission of her renal disease for at least 6 months before conception. Hormonal and immune system changes in pregnancy may affect disease activity and progression, and published evidence suggests that there is an increased risk for a LN flare during pregnancy. The major goal of immunosuppressive therapy in pregnancy is control of disease activity with medications that are relatively safe for a growing fetus. Therefore, the use of mycophenolate mofetil, due to increasing evidence supporting its teratogenicity, is contraindicated during pregnancy. Worsening proteinuria, which commonly occurs in proteinuric renal diseases toward the end of pregnancy, should be differentiated from a LN flare and/or pre-eclampsia, a pregnancy-specific condition clinically characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. These considerations present challenges that underscore the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach when caring for these patients, including a nephrologist, rheumatologist, and obstetrician who have experience with these pregnancy-related complications. This review discusses the pathogenesis, maternal and fetal risks, and management pertinent to SLE patients with new onset or a history of LN predating pregnancy.

  4. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy and Effects on Nutrient Intake in the Mid-South: The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2. Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001 from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3.

  5. Rift Valley Fever outbreaks in Mauritania and related environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Ndione, Jacques A; Diallo, Mawlouth; MacLeod, Dave A; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Morse, Andrew P

    2014-01-09

    Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk.

  6. Conformally invariant gauge conditions in electromagnetism and general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2000-06-01

    The construction of conformally invariant gauge conditions for Maxwell and Einstein theories on a manifold M is found to involve two basic ingredients. First, covariant derivatives of a linear gauge (e.g. Lorenz or de Donder), completely contracted with the tensor field representing the metric on the vector bundle of the theory. Second, the addition of a compensating term, obtained by covariant differentiation of a suitable tensor field built from the geometric data of the problem. The existence theorem for such a gauge in gravitational theory is here proved when the manifold M is endowed with a m-dimensional positive-definite metric g. An application to a generally covariant integral formulation of the Einstein equations is also outlined.

  7. Conditions for Change Related to Groupware in a Distributed Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Pors, Jens Kaaber

    2003-01-01

    Groupware is often used in distributed organizations to support communication and coordination. Managers direct resources and set up goals for the deployment of groupware. It is however difficult to foresee the effect of groupware and many cases report that groupware is either hardly used or does...... not produce the intended effects. We have analyzed the deployment and use of the web-based groupware application Lotus QuickPlaceTM in a large financial distributed organization that has just emerged as the result of a major merger. Based on interviews, survey, and http log-analysis, we have identified four...... general types of settings where the groupware has been used: Newly established organizational units, special interest groups, short term projects, and teams handling recurrent tasks. We characterize these settings and present the overall conditions that have proven to be critical to the deployment...

  8. Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Ndione, Jacques A.; Diallo, Mawlouth; MacLeod, Dave A.; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Morse, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk. PMID:24413703

  9. Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Caminade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk.

  10. The Lost Creek Fire: managing social relations under disaster conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bill; Kulig, Judith; Edge, Dana; Lightfoot, Nancy; Townshend, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines some of the social processes associated with disaster conditions. Utilising an asset-based perspective of community capacity, it focuses on four types of normative systems to interpret the ability of communities to manage disasters through market-, bureaucratic-, associative-, and communal-based norms. Drawing on experience of a wildfire in the Crowsnest Pass region of southwest Alberta, Canada, in 2003, the tensions and compatibilities among these normative systems are evaluated through interviews with 30 community leaders. The results confirm the contributions of all types of social capital to resiliency, the necessity for rapid use of place-based knowledge, and the importance of communication among all types and levels of agents. In addition, they point to the value of identifying and managing potential conflicts among the normative systems as a means to maximising their contributions. The integration of local networks and groups into the more general disaster response minimised the impacts on health and property.

  11. Clincial analysis about the relative factors of ectopic pregnancy occurrence%异位妊娠发病相关因素的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶凤霞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relative factors of ectopic pregnancy occurrence to provide scientitfic evidence for the procreation health care work. Methods 240 cases of ectopic pregnancy were diagnosed in our hospital from December 2005 to December 2008. The mean age was 26 years with a range of 18~42 years. The position, occurrence rate, relative factors, and treatment of ectopic pregnancy were analyzed. Results The rate of ectopic pregnancy in the ampullae of oviduct was marked higher than that in the other part of oviduct (P0.05). Condusion The increased ectopic pregnancy occurrence was obviously related with pelvic inflammatory disease, abortion, IUD, and pathological change'in oviduct. Pelvic inflammatory disease, abortion his-tory and ectopic pregnancy history were the important factors.%目的 通过对异位妊娠发病的相关因素进行分析探讨,为生育健康保健工作提供科学依据.方法 2005年12月~2008年12月来我院就诊,经过相关检查确诊为畀位妊娠患者240例.对其发病部位、发生率、发病的相关因素、治疗方法等进行临床分析.结果 壶腹部妊娠较其他部位输卵管妊娠比例明显增高,P0.05.结论 异位妊娠发病率的增加与盆腔炎、流产、IUD、输卵管病理改变有明显的相关性,盆腔炎、流产史及异位妊娠史是重要因素.

  12. 异位妊娠发生的相关因素及预防%Study on relative factors and prevention of ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秀媚

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨分析引发异位妊娠的相关因素及预防措施.方法 随机抽取2009年1月~2011年1月某院妇产科诊治的100例异位妊娠患者的临床资料,同时随机抽取同期100例正常妊娠者的临床资料,对引发异位妊娠的相关因素资料进行单因素分析与Logistic回归分析.结果 Logistic回归模型分析显示引发异位妊娠的主要因素有口服紧急避孕药史、IUD、妇科炎症史、腹部手术史和孕产次.结论 异位妊娠是由一种或多种因素综合作用的结果,与多种因素有关,应采取措施,防患于未然.%OBJECTIVE To study the related factors and prevention measures of ectopic pregnancy. METHODS A randomized selection for clinical materials of 100 cases of ectopic pregnancy patients in obstetrics and gynecology department from January 2010 to January 2011. At the same time, randomly selected the clinical materials of 100 cases of normal pregnancy. The related factors of causing ectopic pregnancy were analyzed by single factor analysis and Logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Logistic regression model analysis showed that causes of ectopic pregnancy were the oral history of emergency contraception, IUD, gynecological inflammation history, abdominal surgeries and production time with child. CONCLUSION Ectopic pregnancy is caused by one or more related factors, it should take measures to prevent it.

  13. American Academy of Asthma, Allergy & Immunology membership experience with venom immunotherapy in chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Christopher W; Hauswirth, David W; Rank, Matthew; Sher, Lawrence; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree

    2017-03-01

    Few data exist regarding the use of venom immunotherapy (VIT) in specific high-risk chronic medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. A Web-based survey was sent to American Academy of Asthma Allergy & Immunology members to explore their VIT experience in potential high-risk medical conditions and pregnancy, and in young children. Major problems were defined as "activation of underlying disease and/or VIT not well tolerated (systemic adverse events) and/or VIT discontinued for medical reasons." Results were expressed descriptively. A total of 697 of 5123 surveys (14%) were completed: 87% of the respondents were based in the United States, and 28% worked in an academic setting. Most respondents (71%) believed that pregnancy was a contraindication for starting VIT. Most were comfortable continuing VIT (51%) if the woman became pregnant after starting therapy. Of the allergists who treated children, many would give VIT down to age 5 years (42%) or younger, ages 1-4 years (35%). The following list is of the specific medical condition, the number of allergists who used VIT in patients with this condition, and the percentage who reported major problems: severe asthma, 212 (4.2%); hypertension, 287 (1.1%); coronary artery disease, 222 (3.6%); arrhythmias, 136 (3.4%); cerebrovascular disease, 104 (5.1%); cancer in remission, 166 (0%); cancer stable but still under treatment, 44 (7.2%); a history of bone marrow transplantation, 15 (4.9%); a history of solid organ transplantation, 29 (3.6%); human immunodeficiency virus, 53 (1.4%); acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 24 (6.2%); stable autoimmune disease, 164 (2.8%); mastocytosis, 66 (18.4%); elevated serum tryptase, 101 (10.8%); immunodeficiency 59 (2.5%). Many allergists were comfortable using VIT in young children and continuing but not starting pregnant women on VIT. VIT was commonly used in patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, cancer in remission, and stable autoimmune disease

  14. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remón-Ruiz, Pablo; Aliaga-Verdugo, Alberto; Guerrero-Vázquez, Raquel

    2017-02-01

    Pregnant women with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) have increased complications during gestation, including hypertensive disorders that are sometimes caused by pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare condition during pregnancy, and the main clinical manifestation is hypertension. If not properly treated, pheochromocytoma has high maternal and fetal mortality rates. Early recognition and adequate clinical management before delivery have led to better outcomes in the last few decades. Despite the association of NF-1 and pheochromocytoma, there are few clinical reports of these two conditions in pregnant patients. We present a rare case of pheochromocytoma diagnosed during pregnancy in a patient with NF-1, and we describe the treatment and the obstetric and fetal outcomes. We also review other medical conditions related to NF-1 that complicated this patient's pregnancy.

  16. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  17. 早期先兆流产的相关因素和妊娠结局分析﹡%Analysis of the relative factors and pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion in women with early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽萍; 周峰; 薛娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relative factors and pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion in women with early pregnancy .Methods Retrospective analysis was performed using clinical data from 92 pregnant women with early threatened abortion ( a study group ) and 92 normal pregnant women ( a normal group ) in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 .Both groups were compared for general condition , hormone levels and pregnancy outcome .Results There were no significant difference between the two groups as to age , gravidity and parity history , gestational weeks and body mass index (BMI) (P>0.05).The study group produced remarkably lower levels of serum progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) than the normal group (P0.05).The risk facts of early threatened abortion include exposure to chemical contami -nants, abortion history and negative emotions (P0.05).The study group repor-ted markedly higher incidences of abortion , preterm birth, premature rupture of membrane ( PROM) than the normal group (P0.05).Conclusion A low level of serum progesterone and β-hCG, exposure to chemical contami-nants, abortion history , and negative emotions are risk factors which may cause threatened abortion in women with early pregnancy .As early threatened abortion easily present poor pregnancy outcome , proper diagnosis and treatment should be taken at early stage .%目的:探讨孕妇发生早期先兆流产的相关因素和妊娠结局。方法回顾性分析2014年1月至2015年6月在我院检查并确诊的92例早期先兆流产孕妇(研究组)和同期检查的92例正常妊娠孕妇(正常组)的临床资料,并比较两组的临床资料、激素水平和妊娠结局。结果两组年龄、孕次、产次、检查孕周和体重指数的差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。研究组孕妇血清中孕酮和人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-hCG )水平明显低于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),雌二醇(E2)

  18. Diabetes mellitus and drug abuse during pregnancy and the risk for orofacial clefts and related abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; Kostrisch, Lília Maria von; Pimenta, Luiz André Freire; Negrato, Carlos Antônio; Franzolin, Solange Braga; Trindade, Alceu Sergio

    2016-08-08

    to assessed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and drug abuse in mothers of children with orofacial clefts (OFC). 325 women who had children (0-3y) with clefts were interviewed. Data regarding type of diabetes, use of legal/illegal drugs during pregnancy, waist girth and fasting blood sugar at the first prenatal consult were collected. twenty seven percent of the women had DM, out of these, 89% had gestational DM, 5,5% type 1 DM and 5,5% type 2 DM. The prevalence of DM in mothers of children with OFC was 27%, it is significantly higher than the average Brazilian population which is 7.6% (pabuso de drogas en madres de niños con malformaciones creaneofaciales (MCF). 325 mujeres que tuvieron hijos (0-3 años) con malformaciones fueron entrevistadas. Se obtuvieron datos referentes a: tipo de diabetes; uso de drogas lícitas o ilícitas durante el embarazo; circunferencia de la cintura; y, glucemia en ayunas en la primera consulta prenatal. el veintisiete por ciento de las mujeres tenían DM. Entre estas, el 89% tuvieron DM gestacional, el 5,5% DM tipo 1 y el 5,5% DM tipo 2. La prevalencia de DM en madres de hijos con MCF fue de 27%. Esto es significativamente más alto que el promedio de la población brasileña afectada por esa enfermedad, que es de 7,6% (pabuso de drogas durante el embarazo, el 32% de las madres había utilizado drogas y una correlación positiva significativa fue observada entre el abuso de drogas y la ocurrencia de hendiduras y otras malformaciones craneofaciales (p=0,028) (OR=2,87; 95%IC=1,1-7,4). la DM y el abuso de drogas durante el embarazo aumentan el riesgo de MCF y de anomalías relacionadas; se enfatiza la importancia del diagnóstico precoz de DM y la prevención del abuso de drogas, especialmente entre las mujeres embarazadas. avaliar a prevalência de diabetes mellitus (DM) e o uso de drogas em mães de crianças com fissuras orofaciais (FOF). 325 mulheres que tiveram filhos (0-3 anos) com fissuras foram entrevistadas. Os dados

  19. Associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bai (Guannan); I.J. Korfage (Ida); E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Mautner, E. (Eva); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early

  20. Peer education: The effects on knowledge of pregnancy related malaria and preventive practices in women of reproductive age in Edo State, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, P.F.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Al Atabbi, H.; Enato, E.F.O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among

  1. Peer education: The effects on knowledge of pregnancy related malaria and preventive practices in women of reproductive age in Edo State, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.F. Mens; P.F.D. Scheelbeek; H. Al Atabbi; E.F.O. Enato

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among

  2. The thickness and volume of LLETZ specimens can predict the relative risk of pregnancy-related morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalid, S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the individual physical characteristics of the extirpated transformation zone after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) might predict the relative risk of adverse obstetric outcome, specifically preterm labour (PTL).

  3. ENGAGEMENT OF DISTRUST UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF TRANSITIVE SOCIAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vasil'evna GLUSHKO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relationship of trust and distrust within a changing society. Distrust is a form of social relations dialectically related to trust and is actualized in today's society. The aim of the article is to identify opportunities for socio-philosophical «reversal» of trust and determine the status of distrust as a result of transitive social practices and a tool of research. It is shown that the situational dichotomy of «trust-distrust» is caused by doubt, suspicion, and lack of confidence. Society, being a priori certain that the social order can be broken, blocks in advance the possibility of such violations and creates «barriers» in the form of formal and institutional structures. Distrust is a blocker of the violation of trust when the trust is a part of the normative order. The more complex is the society’s structure, the more complex become barriers and boundaries of trust, «reversing» it into it in distrust. The article presents the typology of formalized and non-formalized barriers and boundaries of trust (distrust a priori. On the one hand, these forms and institutions have a protective function and strengthen the trust; on the other hand they outline the boundaries of trust and act as its opponents. 

  4. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  5. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a distinct condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal inherited autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians, affecting approximately one out of every 2,000 births. Survival of patients with cystic fibrosis has significantly improved due to advances in respiratory and nutritional care, and their current average life expectancy is 30-40 years. Development of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is a comorbidity that increases with age and may reach a prevalence up to 50% in adults. Its development is associated to impaired lung function and nutritional status, and early diagnosis and treatment are therefore essential to improve quality of life and performance status. Insulin therapy for diabetes and other early carbohydrate metabolism disorders may improve lung function and nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and peripheral artery disease: Two related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol Torón, Pilar Ángeles; Badía Farré, Teresa; Romaguera Lliso, Amparo; Roda Diestro, Jovita

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) at the Martorell primary care (PC) center. To analyze the differences in comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors between patients with PAD with and without MS. A cross-sectional, descriptive study on patients diagnosed with PAD according to computerized clinical records of the Martorell PC center. Variables collected included age, sex, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia (DLP), diabetes (DM), smoking, obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), erectile dysfunction (ED), renal failure (RF), and oligoalbuminuria. An analysis comparing patients with and without MS was performed. There were 131 patients diagnosed with PAD, 104 (79%) of whom were male. Sixty-three (48.1%) also had MS. Patients with both PAD and MS had, as compared to those with PAD only, a higher prevalence of HBP (87.3 vs. 60.3%, P: 0.001), DLP (77.8 vs. 60.3%, P: 0.03), DM (69.8 vs. 30.9%, P<.001), obesity (25.4 vs. 10.3%, P: 0.03), CVD (42.9 vs. 19.1%); P: 0.004), ED (81.3 vs. 54.3%, P: 0.02), and RF (40.3 vs. 17.9%, P: 0.006). Patients with both PAD and MS had a higher prevalence of HBP, DLP, DM, and obesity. They also had more cardiovascular events and were significantly associated with pathological conditions highly relevant for cardiovascular prognosis such as erectile dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preeclampsia Preeclampsia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... even if you’re feeling fine. What is preeclampsia? Preeclampsia is a condition that can happen after ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  9. Fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to surgery-to-conception interval: a Danish national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Nikoline Nørgaard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe early and late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to time from surgery to conception of pregnancy. METHODS: National cohort study on 387 Danish women, who had laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery prior to a singleton pregnancy in which first trimester screening was performed between January 2008 and June 2011. Data were derived from national registers (Danish National Registry of Patients and Danish National Birth Registry, Pregnancy Complications and Abortion-clinical quality database (PreCAb and the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. Main outcome measures were early and late fetal growth in relation to time from bariatric surgery to conception of the pregnancy. Early fetal growth was expressed as "Fetal Growth Index": the ratio between the estimated number of days from first trimester ultrasound to second trimester ultrasound biometries and the actual calender time elapsed in days. Late fetal growth was expressed as the observed versus expected birthweight according to gestational age (GA. RESULTS: The surgery-to-conception interval ranged from 3 to 1851 days with a mean value of 502 (SD, 351 days. The mean "fetal growth index" was 0.99 (SD, 0.02 days/day and thus significantly lower than in the background population (mean, 1.04 (SD, 0.09 days/day, p<0.0001. The proportion of infants being small for gestational age was 18.8% and the proportion of large for gestational age infants was 6.7%. The correlation coefficients between surgery-to-conception time and "fetal growth index" and birthweight according to GA were 0.01 (p = 0.8 and 0.04 (p = 0.4, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fetal growth index was lower than reported in the background population. No correlation was found between the surgery-to-conception interval and early or late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery.

  10. Clinical profile and outcome of acute kidney injury related to pregnancy in developing countries: A single-center study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj M Godara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the most challenging and serious complications of pregnancy. We present our experience on the clinical profile and outcome of 57 patients with pregnancy-related AKI, of a total of 580 patients with AKI seen during the study period. This is a prospective single-center study in a civil hospital conducted from January to December 2010. The most common age group of the study patients was 20-25 years; 43.8% of the patients had received antenatal care. AKI was observed in the puerperium (n = 34, early pregnancy (n = 10 and late pregnancy (n = 13. The cause of AKI included puerperal sepsis (63.1%, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH (33.33%, post-abortion (22.80%, ante-partum hemorrhage (APH (14% and post-partum hemorrhage (PPH (8%. Complete, partial and no renal recovery was observed in 52.64%, 21.05% and 26.31% of the patients, respectively. Low platelet count and plasma fibrinogen and high bilirubin, D-dimer and activated partial throm-boplastin time were observed more commonly in patients with partial recovery. Of the 57 patients, 50 received hemodialysis, three received peritoneal dialysis and seven patients were managed conserva-tively. A total of 13 patients developed cortical necrosis that was associated with sepsis in six, PPH and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in three patients each and APH in one. Nine patients died, and the cause of death was septicemia in four, pre-eclampsia in three and APH and PPH in one patient each. In our study, puerperal sepsis was the most common etiological factor for pregnancy-related AKI. Prolonged oliguria or anuria were bad prognostic factors for renal recovery. Sepsis, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulation and liver involvement were associated with increased mortality.

  11. Clinical profile and outcome of acute kidney injury related to pregnancy in developing countries: a single-center study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, Suraj M; Kute, Vivek B; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Gumber, Vandana M

    2014-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most challenging and serious complications of pregnancy. We present our experience on the clinical profile and outcome of 57 patients with pregnancy-related AKI, of a total of 580 patients with AKI seen during the study period. This is a prospective single-center study in a civil hospital conducted from January to December 2010. The most common age group of the study patients was 20-25 years; 43.8% of the patients had received antenatal care. AKI was observed in the puerperium (n = 34), early pregnancy (n = 10) and late pregnancy (n = 13). The cause of AKI included puerperal sepsis (63.1%), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (33.33%), post-abortion (22.80%), ante-partum hemorrhage (APH) (14%) and post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) (8%). Complete, partial and no renal recovery was observed in 52.64%, 21.05% and 26.31% of the patients, respectively. Low platelet count and plasma fibrinogen and high bilirubin, D-dimer and activated partial thromboplast in time were observed more commonly in patients with partial recovery. Of the 57 patients, 50 received hemodialysis, three received peritoneal dialysis and seven patients were managed conservatively. A total of 13 patients developed cortical necrosis that was associated with sepsis in six, PPH and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in three patients each and APH in one. Nine patients died, and the cause of death was septicemia in four, pre-eclampsia in three and APH and PPH in one patient each. In our study, puerperal sepsis was the most common etiological factor for pregnancy-related AKI. Prolonged oliguria or anuria were bad prognostic factors for renal recovery. Sepsis, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulation and liver involvement were associated with increased mortality.

  12. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  13. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: experience of the nephrology unit at the university hospital of fez, morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrayhani, Mohamed; El Youbi, Randa; Sqalli, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Acute kidney injury (PRAKI) continues to be common in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to study AKI characteristics in pregnancy and identify the factors related to the unfavorable evolution. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez, Morocco, from February 01, 2011 to January 31, 2012. All patients presenting PRAKI were included. Results. 37 cases of PRAKI were listed. Their ages varied from 20 to 41 years old, with an average of 29.03 ± 6.3 years and an average parity of 1.83. High blood pressure was the most common symptom (55.6%). Thirty-nine percent were oliguric. PRAKI occurred during the 3rd trimester in 66.6% of the cases and 25% of the cases in the postpartum. Hemodialysis was necessary in 16.2% of cases. The main causes were preeclampsia, hemorrhagic shocks, and functional, respectively, in 66.6%, 25%, and 8.3% of the cases. The outcome was favorable, with a complete renal function recovery for 28 patients. Poor prognosis was related to two factors: age over 38 years and advanced stage of AKI according to RIFLE classification. Conclusion. Prevention of PRAKI requires an improvement of the sanitary infrastructures with the implementation of an obligatory prenatal consultation.

  14. Risk of subsequent pregnancy in women with a history of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkayam, Uri

    2014-10-14

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a pregnancy-associated myocardial disease with marked left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Although this condition can lead to major complications, including severe heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and death, the majority of women with this condition demonstrate a complete or partial recovery. Many of these women desire to become pregnant again and are concerned regarding the safety of additional pregnancies. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information related to subsequent pregnancies in women with a history of PPCM in an attempt to reach conclusions regarding the risk of such pregnancies in this group of patients.

  15. Ventriculostomy related infection in intensive care unit:Diagnostic criteria and related conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio Castaño ´Avila; Amaia Quintano Rodero; Ana Tejero Mojena; Alberto Manzano Ramírez; Esther Corral Lozano; Javier Maynar Moliner; Fernando Fonseca San Miguel; Elena Us ´on García; Yolanda Poveda Hern ´andez; Sara Cabañes Daro-Franc ´es; Goiatz Balziskueta Fl ´orez; Noemi Legaristi Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of clinical signs, blood tests, microbiological cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to detect ventriculostomy related in-fections (VRI), and to describe related conditions. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out including all patients with external ventricular drain admitted to intensive care unit from January 2000 to December 2006. Diagnosis of VRI, mortality, demographic and clinical data, time and number of drains, microbiological and biochemical CSF results and blood test were recorded. Difference between infected and uninfected patients was statistically significant at P Results: The results revealed 136 drainages in 120 patients with 22 (18.33%) infected (15.39 infections per 1 000 days of drainage). This group was on overage older, had more severe systemic response syndrome and a significantly higher number of drains and longer duration of drain insertion. We found statistical differences in proteinorrachia, glycorrhachia, and glycorrachia/glycemia ratio during 8.5-day drain insertion (inter-quartile range 7–10.25). A total of 31 cultures were positive in patients without VRI and 47 were negative in patients with VRI. Furthermore, 35 patients died (2 belonging to the infected group). Significantly higher risk of VRI in intraventricular fibrinolysis and subarachnoid haemorrhage was observed. We made a multivariate regression model resulting in a prediction rule with 55.7%area under curve (95%CI 0.43–0.70). Conclusions: CSF routine cultures and biochemical studies are not recommended to diagnose VRI. Clinical signs, external ventricular drain manipulation and a drainage insertion over a week justify the routine measurement of proteinorraquia, glycorrhachia and the ratio of glycorrachia/glycemia.

  16. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Joëlle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-07-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  17. Maternal outcome of pregnancy in Mozambique with special reference to abortion-related morbidity and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In the capital city of one of the least developed countries, and using a hospital-based approach: The general aim was to characterise women who have undergone illegally and legally induced abortions, and to show the magnitude of both maternal mortality and abortion-related severe morbidity in adolescents and non-adolescents, in order to call the attention of decision-makers and health planners to this hazardous reality. Methods: In the Department of Gynaecology and Obst...

  18. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  19. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn.

  20. Low compliance with recommendations on folic acid use in relation to pregnancy: is there a need for fortification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2004-01-01

    Objective: As a means to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs), women planning pregnancy in Denmark are recommended to take a dietary supplement of 400 mug folic acid daily during the periconceptional period. We examined compliance with this recommendation in a national survey. Design: Cohort study...... that took place during the second half of 2001, and to lifestyle factors provided in a telephone interview by the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. Results: An increase was seen in the proportion of women complying with the recommendation in the study period and this coincided with the information...... campaign events. However, even at the end of the period, only 22.3% of the women who had planned their pregnancy fully complied with the recommendation. No increase at all was seen in periconceptional folic acid use among women with unplanned pregnancies. Young age, low education and smoking were...

  1. Adherence to medical treatment in relation to pregnancy, birth outcome & breastfeeding behavior among women with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    of non-adherence to maintenance medical treatment among women with CD prior to, during, and after pregnancy; to assess pregnancy outcomes among women with CD, taking medical treatment, smoking status, and disease activity into account; to assess breastfeeding rates and the impact of breastfeeding...... study CD women in medical treatment were not at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with untreated women with CD. In total, 87.6% of CD women were breastfeeding, and rates did not vary by medical treatment. Smoking and non-adherence seemed to predict relapse in CD during the postpartum......BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is common among women of fertile age, and it often requires maintenance medical treatment. Adherence to medical treatment among women with CD prior to, during, and after pregnancy has, however, never been examined. Although CD women have increased risk of adverse...

  2. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Amanda R; Cho, Leslie S

    2014-03-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy represent the second commonest cause of direct maternal death and complicate an estimated 5-10 % of pregnancies. Classification systems aim to separate hypertension similar to that seen outside pregnancy (chronic and gestational hypertension) from the potentially fatal pregnancy-specific conditions. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and eclampsia represent increasing severities of this disease spectrum. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' 2013 guidelines no longer require proteinuria as a diagnostic criterion, because of its variable appearance in the disease spectrum. The cause involves inadequate cytotrophoblastic invasion of the myometrium, resulting in placental hypoperfusion and diffuse maternal endothelial dysfunction. Changes in angiogenic and antiangiogentic peptide profiles precede the onset of clinical preeclampsia. Women with preeclampsia should be closely monitored and receive magnesium sulfate intravenously if severe features, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia occur. Definitive therapy is delivery of the fetus. Hypertension in pregnancy increases future maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders.

  3. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  4. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  5. Survey of the Definition of Fetal Viability and the Availability, Indications, and Decision Making Processes for Post-Viability Termination of Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormalities and Health Conditions in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Danna; Davies, Gregory; Armour, Christine M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the definition of fetal viability and the availability, indications, and decision making processes for post-viability termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities and health conditions in Canada. An online survey of members of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists, and the Canadian Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine who provide direct counselling to, or management of, prenatal patients in Canada (total sample size 815). Results of this study showed that the majority of respondents indicated that their centre will offer post-viability termination of pregnancy (98/123; 80 %). Sixty-seven percent (68/101) of respondents reported the definition of fetal viability to be 24 weeks' gestation. Most respondents reported that a collaborative decision making process was used to determine if post-viability termination of pregnancy would be offered (136/170; 80 %). For conditions presumed to be lethal/likely lethal, the majority of respondents would "sometimes" or "always" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy, whereas for conditions presumed to have a mild effect, the majority of respondents would "rarely" or "never" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy. Ninety percent (77/86) of respondents reported that perinatal hospice is offered as an alternative to termination of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that although post-viability termination is available in many provinces in Canada, variation in the definition of fetal viability and indications appear to exist. While these variations may lead to unequal access to post-viability termination of pregnancy across Canada, they might also represent the complexity of the decision making process and the importance of examining individual factors to ensure that the most appropriate decision is made in each case.

  6. Autism: transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    The incidence and prevalence of autism have increased during the past two decades. Despite comprehensive genetic studies the cause of autism remains unknown. This review emphasizes the potential importance of environmental factors in its causation. Alterations of cortical neuronal migration and cerebellar Purkinje cells have been observed in autism. Neuronal migration, via reelin regulation, requires triiodothyronine (T3) produced by deiodination of thyroxine (T4) by fetal brain deiodinases. Experimental animal models have shown that transient intrauterine deficits of thyroid hormones (as brief as 3 days) result in permanent alterations of cerebral cortical architecture reminiscent of those observed in brains of patients with autism. I postulate that early maternal hypothyroxinemia resulting in low T3 in the fetal brain during the period of neuronal cell migration (weeks 8-12 of pregnancy) may produce morphological brain changes leading to autism. Insufficient dietary iodine intake and a number of environmental antithyroid and goitrogenic agents can affect maternal thyroid function during pregnancy. The most common causes could include inhibition of deiodinases D2 or D3 from maternal ingestion of dietary flavonoids or from antithyroid environmental contaminants. Some plant isoflavonoids have profound effects on thyroid hormones and on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Genistein and daidzein from soy (Glycine max) inhibit thyroperoxidase that catalyzes iodination and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Other plants with hypothyroid effects include pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and fonio millet (Digitaria exilis); thiocyanate is found in Brassicae plants including cabbage, cauliflower, kale, rutabaga, and kohlrabi, as well as in tropical plants such as cassava, lima beans, linseed, bamboo shoots, and sweet potatoes. Tobacco smoke is also a source of thiocyanate. Environmental contaminants interfere with thyroid function including 60% of all herbicides, in particular 2

  7. Differential haemostatic risk factors for pregnancy-related deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergrem, Astrid; Dahm, Anders E A; Jacobsen, Anne Flem; Sandvik, Leiv; Sandset, Per Morten

    2012-12-01

    Limited data exist on thrombophilia and the risk of venous thrombosis (VT) during pregnancy and postpartum. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of haemostatic risk factors for pregnancy-related VT and their phenotypic expression in deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Total 313 cases with objectively verified first time VT and 353 controls were selected from a source population of 377,155 women with 613,232 pregnancies. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for pregnancy-related VT was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.8) for women with factor VIII >90th percentile. The aOR for VT for endogenous thrombin potential and D-dimer values >90th percentiles were 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-3.0) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.3), respectively. Factor IX >90th percentile or free protein S ≤the 5th percentile increased the risk for PE, and the aORs were 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.0) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.3-7.2), respectively. Women carrying the factor V Leiden (F5 rs6025) polymorphism, or who had reduced sensitivity to activated protein C (aPC) in the absence of F5 rs6025, had increased risk for DVT, with unadjusted ORs 7.7 (95% CI 4.7-12.7) and 3.5 (95% CI 2.2-5.4), respectively. Women with a history of pregnancy-related VT showed activation of coagulation and had elevated factor VIII. Furthermore, high levels of factor IX and low levels of free protein S were associated with increased risk for PE, whereas aPC resistance and F5 rs6025 were risk factors for DVT and not PE.

  8. Investigations of mammary and uterine blood flow in relation to milk yield, postpartum disease, and pregnancy result in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, H; Lietzau, M; Tichy, A; Herzog, K

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to determine the blood flow variables in the uterine arteries and the pudendoepigastric trunks, which supply the mammary gland, and relate these variables to the occurrence of uterine disease, milk yield, and pregnancy result. To achieve this, 119 multiparous German Holstein cows were examined using color Doppler sonography once during the dry period and on Days 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 66, 76, 86, and 96 postpartum (pp). Cows with retained fetal membranes or metritis had a higher blood flow volume and time-averaged maximum velocity and a lower pulsatility index in the uterine arteries on Days 7, 14 and 28 pp (P blood flow volume in the pudendoepigastric trunks on examination Days 7 to 96 pp with the exception of Day 76 (P perfusion. Increased uterine perfusion in cows with retained fetal membrane and metritis may be due to increased uterine size attributable to delayed involution. High mammary perfusion in high-yielding cows is due to an increased demand for nutrients and oxygen. Color Doppler sonography is a useful method for the investigation of the effect of uterine disease on uterine blood flow and of the effect of milk yield on mammary perfusion.

  9. Pre-pregnancy body mass index in relation to infant birth weight and offspring overweight/obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangbin Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI is related to infant birth weight (BW and offspring overweight/obesity. METHODS: Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. RESULTS: After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality. Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-1.87; low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71. Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95-2.23, high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84-2.18, macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42-1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39-4.37, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77-2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68-3.49, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight gain, as

  10. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Relation to Infant Birth Weight and Offspring Overweight/Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangbin; Han, Shuping; Zhu, Jingai; Sun, Xiaofan; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong

    2013-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is related to infant birth weight (BW) and offspring overweight/obesity. Methods Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs) were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. Results After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality). Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76–1.87); low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27–1.71). Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA) (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44–1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95–2.23), high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44–1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84–2.18), macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42–1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39–4.37), and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77–2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68–3.49), respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight

  11. Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in dairy products. The symptoms of lactose intolerance typically occur within 30 minutes to two hours after ingesting dairy products. Large doses of dairy may cause increased symptoms. Celiac Disease An adverse reaction to gluten is known as celiac disease or “celiac sprue.” ...

  12. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may check for other medical problems, including: Preeclampsia Hyperthyroidism Anemia A molar pregnancy can't continue as a normal viable pregnancy. To prevent complications, the molar tissue must be removed. Treatment usually consists of one or more of the ...

  13. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  14. Exercise, sports participation, and musculoskeletal disorders of pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne P; Fogelman, David J; Ackerman, Kathryn E

    2011-09-01

    The benefits of rigorous physical activity have long been proclaimed by the medical community. However, consensus regarding exercise duration and intensity in pregnancy has been more difficult to achieve. Conservative exercise guidelines for pregnant women were issued broadly in the 1980s due to limited evidence regarding safety. More recent evidence has failed to demonstrate ill effects of physical activity during pregnancy, as any effects on the mother and the fetus have thus far shown to be positive. The physical discomfort experienced by virtually all women during pregnancy, nearly 25% of whom experience at least temporarily disabling symptoms, is often a barrier to participation in an exercise program. An approach to developing an exercise program during pregnancy will be discussed in this article, as well as the potential benefits of such a program for the maternal-fetal unit, and common pregnancy-related musculoskeletal conditions, including a discussion of the anatomy, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment of such disorders.

  15. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.224 FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. (a) No FFP is available for the following amounts, even when related to services or benefit coverage which...

  16. Relative Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One Year after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Research Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 07-01-2010 to 30-1-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Relative Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One...Condition index, relative condition factor, bioindicator , oil spill 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One Year after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Joshua Courtney,1 Taylor Klinkmann,2 Amy Courtney,1 Joseph

  17. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 and Its Impact on Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978--which amends Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964--and its impact on educational institutions are discussed. The Act prohibits discrimination against women employees because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. It covers hiring, promotion, firing, and seniority rights as well as…

  18. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 and Its Impact on Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978--which amends Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964--and its impact on educational institutions are discussed. The Act prohibits discrimination against women employees because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. It covers hiring, promotion, firing, and seniority rights as well as…

  19. Maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy related to changes in newborn's cord blood lymphocyte subpopulations. The EDEN study cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baïz Nour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxicants can cross the placenta and expose the developing fetus to chemical contamination leading to possible adverse health effects, by potentially inducing alterations in immune competence. Our aim was to investigate the impacts of maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy on newborn's immune system. Methods Exposure to background particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was assessed in 370 women three months before and during pregnancy using monitoring stations. Personal exposure to four volatile organic compounds (VOCs was measured in a subsample of 56 non-smoking women with a diffusive air sampler during the second trimester of pregnancy. Cord blood was analyzed at birth by multi-parameter flow cytometry to determine lymphocyte subsets. Results Among other immunophenotypic changes in cord blood, decreases in the CD4+CD25+ T-cell percentage of 0.82% (p = 0.01, 0.71% (p = 0.04, 0.88% (p = 0.02, and 0.59% (p = 0.04 for a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 levels three months before and during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively, were observed after adjusting for confounders. A similar decrease in CD4+CD25+ T-cell percentage was observed in association with personal exposure to benzene. A similar trend was observed between NO2 exposure and CD4+CD25+ T-cell percentage; however the association was stronger between NO2 exposure and an increased percentage of CD8+ T-cells. Conclusions These data suggest that maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy may alter the immune competence in offspring thus increasing the child's risk of developing health conditions later in life, including asthma and allergies.

  20. Measurement of the Constructs of Health Belief Model related to Self-care during Pregnancy in Women Referred to South Tehran Health Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Soleiman Ekhtiari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Self-care activities during pregnancy can be effective in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Health Belief Model (HBM is one of the most applicable models in educational need assessment for planning and implementation of educational interventions. The purpose of this study was to measurement of the constructs of HBM related to self-care during pregnancy in women referred to South Tehran health network.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 270 pregnant women who referred to health centers of South Tehran Health Networks participated. Demographic, knowledge and attitude questionnaires based on constructs of HBM was used to measure the status of knowledge and attitude of women. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS18.Results: Results showed that 92.2% of women had the knowledge scores in good level. The scores of perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy and cues to action were in good level in almost of women but almost of women obtained weak point in perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and barriersConclusion: HBM can be used as an appropriate tool for assessment the status of pregnant women in the field of self-care behaviors during pregnancy and planning and implementation of educational interventions.

  1. Consumption of medicines in high-risk pregnancy: evaluation of determinants related to the use of prescription drugs and self-medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Dayse Araújo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of drugs during pregnancy still represents a challenge for medicine, since the majority of drugs cross the placental barrier with a potential to cause several congenital problems to the fetus, and most of them have not been clinically tested in pregnant patients. At the same time, the medicalization phenomenon, self-medication, and lack of patient information about the misuse of medicines are additional problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of medicine consumption in high-risk pregnancies and the determinants related to this consumption pattern. In order to do so, a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed with puerperal women who had a history of high-risk pregnancy. Statistically significant associations were found between self-medication and fewer prenatal visits, and cigarette use during pregnancy and a higher number of children. According to these data, the vulnerability of this population to the risks of drug use is evident, demonstrating a gap that requires urgent interventions in health-care education.

  2. Relationship between gum bleeding in first trimester of pregnancy and pregnancy-related anxiety%孕早期牙龈出血与妊娠相关焦虑症状关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧; 严双琴; 丁昌芝; 徐叶清; 潘维君; 苏普玉; 陶芳标

    2013-01-01

    Objeetive To examine the association between gum bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy and pregnancy-related anxiety.Methods Subjects were 5 084 pregnant women who had joined in the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study and delivered between October 2008 and October 2010.All participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on demographic characteristics,pregnancy history,diseases history,gum bleeding,and pregnancy-related anxiety.Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used in data analyses.Results Among the women,the self-reported rates of oral hemorrhage or the smell of blood in the morning,gum bleeding when eating hard food,and gum bleeding when brushing teeth were 19.2%,17.8%,and 52.2%,respectively.And the prevalences of mild gingivitis and moderate to severe gingivitis diagnosed by doctors were 24.4% and 8.9%.After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics,pregnancy history and disease history,the results of logistic regression showed that the women with oral hemorrhage or the smell of blood in the morning 1-2 times in a week had 1.33 of odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval[95% CI]:1.10-1.61) for pregnancy-related anxiety and those with the symptoms ≥ 3 times in a week had the OR of 1.83 (95 % CI:1.44-2.31).The women with gum bleeding when eating food 1-2 times in a week had the OR of 1.40 (95 % CI:1.17-1.67) for pregnancy-related anxiety and those with the symptoms ≤3 times in a week had the OR of 1.62 (95% CI:1.18-2.23),and the women with gum bleeding when brushing teeth ≥ 3 times in a week had an OR of 1.40 (95 % CI:1.20-1.64) for pregnancy-related anxiety.The gingival index was highly reversely associated with pregnancy-related anxiety (OR =1.37,95% CI:1.10-1.71).Conclusion Gum bleeding is a very common problem among pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and should be properly treated for the improvement of mental health of the pregnant women

  3. Clinical Analysis of Related Factors With Postterm Pregnancy%过期妊娠相关因素临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霜梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究探讨过期妊娠的相关因素及对孕妇和围生儿的影响,为临床过期妊娠人群筛查提供有效依据。方法随机抽取我院2012年7月~2014年7月收治的过期妊娠分娩孕妇60例(观察组)和同期我院正常足月分娩的孕妇60例(对照组)为研究对象。研究分析临床过期妊娠的相关因素。结果分析结果发现,造成孕妇过期妊娠的因素主要有经产妇、孕前体重指数高(超重和肥胖)、孕期体重增加过多、胎盘成熟度III级和男性胎儿,两组数据具有统计学意义(P<0.05);在分析中还发现剖宫产、巨大儿、胎儿窘迫和新生儿窒息的发生概率,观察组产妇发生概率高于对照组产妇,两组数据具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在孕产妇分娩的过程中,妊娠前体重指数高、妊娠期体重增加过多、男性胎儿和胎盘成熟度III级以及经产妇是过期妊娠的相关因素。其中剖宫产和软产道损伤以及产后出血对产妇造成的影响最为明显。针对过期妊娠的相关因素,及时采取有效的措施,能够有效避免过期妊娠的发生。%Objective To study the related factors of postterm pregnancy and efect in pregnant women and perinatal infant,provide efective basis for the clinical screening of postterm pregnancy.Methods Randomly selected 60 cases of postterm pregnancy women (observation group) and 60 cases of normal term delivery in our hospital during the same period of the pregnant women (control group) as the research object.Results Theanalysis results show that the factors, resulting in prolonged pregnancy pregnant women are mainly by maternal pre pregnancy body mass index,high(overweight and obesity),excessive weight gain during pregnancy,placental maturity and III level of male fetuses,two groups of data with statistical significance(P<0.05); in the analysis also found that cesarean section,great infant,fetal distress and neonatal

  4. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Results in real-world conditions and factors predictive of response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacq, Yannick; le Besco, Matthieu; Lecuyer, Anne-Isabelle; Gendrot, Chantal; Potin, Jérôme; Andres, Christian R; Aubourg, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy is commonly used in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of UDCA in real-world conditions and to search for factors predictive of response to treatment. This observational study included 98 consecutive patients suffering from pruritus during pregnancy associated with increased ALT levels or total bile acid (TBA) concentrations, without other causes of cholestasis. The entire ABCB4 gene coding sequence was analyzed by DNA sequencing. UDCA was prescribed until delivery in all patients (mean dose 14.0mg/kg/day; mean duration 30.4 days). Pruritus improved in 75/98 (76.5%) patients, and totally disappeared before delivery in 25/98 (25.5%). After 2-3 weeks of treatment, ALT levels decreased by more than 50% of base line in 67/86 (77.9%) patients and normalized in 34/86 (39.5%), and TBA concentrations decreased in 28/81 (34.6%). Only one patient stopped the treatment before delivery. On multivariate analysis, ALT >175IU/l before treatment was associated with improvement of pruritus (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.12-7.89, P=0.029) and with decreased ALT (OR 18.61, 95% CI 3.94-87.99, P=0.0002). ABCB4 gene mutation was not associated with response to treatment. This study supports the use of UDCA as first line therapy in ICP. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Madhuri Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Scar ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and has been increasingly diagnosed all over the world. This is a life-threatening form of abnormal implantation of embryo within the myometrium and fibrous tissues in a previous scar on the uterus, especially following caesarean section. With the increasing rate of caesarean section, there is a substantial increase in this condition with better understanding of this disease. The early and accurate diagnosis with timely management can prevent pregnancy complications such as haemorrhage, uterine rupture and can preserve fertility.

  6. Treating Psoriasis During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Rørbye, Christina; Skov, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a well-documented negative effect on the quality of life of affected patients. Psoriasis often occurs in the reproductive years, during which the issue of pregnancy needs to be addressed. The course of psoriasis during pregnancy is unpredictable......, and many patients face the challenge of needing treatment during pregnancy. In this review we provide an overview of the key considerations for managing psoriasis in pregnant women, covering the potential effects of active psoriasis and co-morbid conditions on the health of the mother and fetus, as well...

  7. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share with Women Dental Care in Pregnancy Why is dental care in pregnancy important? During pregnancy, you are more likely to have problems ... There are 2 major reasons women can have dental problems during pregnancy: Pregnancy gingivitis— During pregnancy, changes ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format Exercise During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is it safe to exercise during pregnancy? ...

  9. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy Atividade física, qualidade de vida e depressão durante a gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Tendais

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.Este estudo examina os padrões de atividade física antes da concepção até o segundo trimestre de gravidez e a relação entre o nível de atividade física, com base nas recomendações de atividade física, a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS e depressão ao longo da gravidez. Cinquenta e seis grávidas saudáveis reportaram nível de atividade física, QVRS e depressão às 10-15 e 19-24 semanas de gravidez, além de atividade física antes da concepção. Enquanto a atividade física vigorosa no lazer diminuiu depois da concepção, as atividades físicas moderadas no lazer e no trabalho mantiveram-se estáveis. A prevalência de atividade física recomendada foi de 39,3%, 12,5% e 14,3% antes, no primeiro e no segundo trimestres de gravidez, respectivamente

  10. Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and risk of breast cancer in daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have established that higher birthweight is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We explored whether maternal pregnancy weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which influence birthweight, are associated with risk of breast cancer in offspring. The Nurses' Mothers case-control study of breast cancer was nested in the Nurses' Health Study I and II cohorts. Mothers of 814 nurses with and 1,809 nurses without breast cancer completed questionnaires with information on pre-pregnancy height and weight, pregnancy weight gain, and other aspects of their pregnancies with the nurse daughters. We calculated odds ratios for breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 23 lb, and average pre-pregnancy BMI was 21 kg/m². Mothers' weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Compared to women whose mothers gained 20-29 lb, women whose mothers gained less than 10 lb had a relative risk of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-1.36), adjusting for the age of the nurses. Women whose mothers gained 40 or more pounds had a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.55-1.23). Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 30 or more had a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.74) compared to those with BMI less than 20. Additional adjustment for prenatal factors or for nurses' characteristics later in life had no effect on the results. The association between birthweight and breast cancer risk is likely due to factors independent of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy or pre-pregnancy BMI. Because BMIs and pregnancy weight gains were lower in this population than today, we cannot rule out associations for very high pre-pregnancy BMIs or pregnancy weight gains.

  11. Pregnancy and periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞLAM, Ebru; SARUHAN, Nesrin; Çanakçı, Cenk Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Some maternal immunological changes due to pregnancy increases susceptibility to infections. Periodontal disease, the main cause is plaque, is a common disease which is seen multifactorial and varying severity. There are many clinical criteria for diagnosis of periodontal disease. Correlation between pregnancy and periodontal inflammation is known for many years. Periodontal disease affects pregnant’s systemic condition and also has negative effects on fetus. Periodontal disease increases the...

  12. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementati

  13. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives : modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementati

  14. Functional study of one nucleotide mutation in pri-miR-125a coding region which related to recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Huo, Zheng-Hao; Liu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Ning; Yin, Kun-Lun; Qi, Lu; Ma, Xu; Xia, Hong-Fei

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs which modulate gene expression by binding to complementary segments present in the 3'UTR of the mRNAs of protein coding genes. MiRNAs play very important roles in maintaining normal human body physiology conditions, meanwhile, abnormal miRNA expressions have been found related to many human diseases spanning from psychiatric disorders to malignant cancers. Recently, emerging reports have indicated that disturbed miRNAs expression contributed to the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). In this study, we identified a new mutation site (+29A>G, position relative to pre-miR-125a) by scanning pri-miR-125a coding region in 389 Chinese Han RPL patients. This site was co-existed with two polymorphisms (rs12976445 and rs41275794) in patients heterogeneously and changed the predicted secondary structures of pri-miR-125a. Subsequent in vitro analysis indicated that the A>G mutation reduced mature miR-125a expression, and further led to less efficient inhibition of verified target genes. Functional analysis showed that mutant pri-mir-125a can enhance endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) invasive capacity and increase the sensitivity of ESCs cells to mifepristone. Moreover, we further analyzed the possible molecular mechanism by RIP-chip assay and found that mutant pri-mir-125a disturbed the expression of miR-125a targetome, the functions of which includes embryonic development, cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These data suggest that A>G mutation in pri-miR-125a coding region contributes to the genetic predisposition to RPL by disordering the production of miR-125a, which consequently meddled in gene regulatory network between mir-125a and mRNA.

  15. Pregnancy outcome in relation to treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus infection: a fever cohort and a case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of published reports on pregnancy outcome following scrub and murine typhus despite these infections being leading causes of undifferentiated fever in Asia. This study aimed to relate pregnancy outcome with treatment of typhus.Data were analyzed from: i pregnant women with a diagnosis of scrub and/or murine typhus from a fever cohort studies; ii case series of published studies in PubMed using the search terms "scrub typhus" (ST, "murine typhus" (MT, "Orientia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia typhi", "rickettsiae", "typhus", or "rickettsiosis"; and "pregnancy", until February 2014 and iii an unpublished case series. Fever clearance time (FCT and pregnancy outcome (miscarriage and delivery were compared to treatment. Poor neonatal outcome was a composite measure for pregnancies sustained to 28 weeks or more of gestation ending in stillbirth, preterm birth, or delivery of a growth restricted or low birth weight newborn.There were 26 women in the fever cohort. MT and ST were clinically indistinguishable apart from two ST patients with eschars. FCTs (median [range] hours were 25 [16-42] for azithromycin (n=5, 34 [20-53] for antimalarials (n=5 and 92 [6-260] for other antibiotics/supportive therapy (n=16. There were 36.4% (8/22 with a poor neonatal outcome. In 18 years, 97 pregnancies were collated, 82 with known outcomes, including two maternal deaths. Proportions of miscarriage 17.3% (14/81 and poor neonatal outcomes 41.8% (28/67 were high, increasing with longer FCTs (p=0.050, linear trend. Use of azithromycin was not significantly associated with improved neonatal outcomes (p=0.610.The published ST and MT world literature amounts to less than 100 pregnancies due to under recognition and under diagnosis. Evidence supporting the most commonly used treatment, azithromycin, is weak. Collaborative, prospective clinical trials in pregnant women are urgently required to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and

  16. Study for the anemia during pregnancy and its related influencing factors%妊娠期贫血及其相关危险因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金爱; 徐玉苑; 董晓梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠期贫血患病的影响因素,为孕期健康教育提供依据.方法 对孕妇进行血常规检测,以血红蛋白(HB)≤100 g/L者为贫血组,HB>100 g/L者为对照组进行病例对照研究.同时对两组孕妇进行问卷调查,对资料进行单因素分析和多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 妊娠期贫血与经济收入、初潮年龄、饮茶、流产史及生产巨大儿5个因素有关,孕妇发生贫血概率的预测模型为:Logit(P)=-2.282+0.544早孕呕吐+0.343流产史+2.039生产巨大儿-0.285经济收入+0.463饮茶习惯.结论 月经初潮年龄小、流产史、生产巨大儿、家庭经济收入低、饮茶习惯及早孕呕吐是妊娠期贫血发生的危险因素.%Objective To study the influencing factors of anemia during pregnancy, and to provide scientific base for health education for anemia during pregnancy.Method A comparative study was carried out by case-control study.Pregnancy women was divided into anemic group (hemoglobin≤100g/L) and control group (hemoglobin>100g/L).A Questionnaire was designed to investigate these two groups of pregnant women, The date was analyzed by individual-factor analysis and multi-factor logistic.Result The pregnant anemia was related with the following 5 factots: financial situation, age of menarche, tea-drinking habit, history of miscarriage and delivery of large child.With multi-factor logistic analysis, The prediction mode for anemia during pregnancy was Logit(P)=- 2.282 +0.544 vomit in trimester of pregnancy + 0.343 history of miscarriage + 2.039 delivery of large for date infant0.285, income +0.463 tea-drinking habit.Conclusion Family income, early age of menarche, history of miscarriage,habit of tea-drinking, vomit in trimester of pregnancy, and delivery of large infant constituted the risk factors of anemia during pregnancy.

  17. Analysis on related factors of early pregnancy loss in 618 cases%618例早期妊娠胚胎丢失相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亦心; 裴玉; 李耀龙; 吕丽华; 高章圈; 李国正; 田慧艳; 刘效群; 陈拽生; 崔巍; 赵慧芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the causes and the related factors of early pregnancy loss and to provide scientific basis for reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and birth defects. Methods The data of patients in 15 counties of Hebei, with early pregnancy loss after pre-pregnancy physical examination from July 2010 to March 2012, were analyzed. Results Among 618 cases with early pregnancy loss, 15.4% had history of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and 6. 1% were pregnant women ≥35 years. Among the individual adverse addiction and environmental factors, female passive smoking and male smoking ranked at the first place, and they occupied 15. 7% and 24. 8% , respectively. Overweight and obesity were common factors of males and females, and they occupied 10. 8% and 11. 8% , respectively. Conclusion It has important value for the prevention and reduction of adverse pregnancy outcomes again by exploring the causes, and it has great significance to study the suspicious factors of birth defects and taking intervention strategies.%目的 对早期妊娠胚胎丢失原因和相关因素进行调查,为降低不良妊娠和出生缺陷发生风险提供科学依据.方法 对2010年7月至2012年3月河北省15个县(市)孕前优生检测后妊娠随访中发现的早期胚胎丢失者病例进行分析.结果 在618例早期妊娠胚胎丢失者中,既往有不良妊娠史者占15.4%,女方年龄≥35岁者占6.1%;女性被动吸烟、男性吸烟在个人不良嗜好和不良环境因素中排在首位,分别占15.7%和24.8%;超重及肥胖是女、男双方排在前面的共同因素,分别占10.8%和11.8%.结论 分析不良妊娠结局发生的原因对于预防和减少其再次发生具有重要价值,对于研究出生缺陷可疑因素及制定相应的干预措施具有重要意义.

  18. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  19. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubyazi Godfrey M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Methods Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. Results In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment

  20. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  1. Effectiveness of a tailor-made intervention for pregnancy-related pelvic girdle and/or low back pain after delivery: Short-term results of a randomized clinical trial [ISRCTN08477490

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaanssen Janneke M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the moment, scientific evaluation of programs on treatment of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle and/or low back pain after delivery is hardly available with only one study with a positive result, suggesting uncertainty about the optimal approach. Investigators draw particular attention to biomedical factors but there is growing evidence that biopsychosocial factors appear to be even more important as a basis of an intervention program. Methods We studied the effectiveness of a tailor-made program with respect to biopsychosocial factors (intervention group in women with pregnancy-related pelvic girdle and/ or low back pain versus usual care based on a pain contingent basis (control group shortly after delivery in a randomized controlled trial. Women with severe complaints shortly after delivery were selected from a longitudinal prospective cohort study (n = 7526, aimed at pregnancy-related pelvic girdle and/or low back pain in the Netherlands. A concealed block randomization was performed after collecting baseline data. Researchers were blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes were evaluated within the domains of the biopsychosocial approach. Primary outcome concerned limitations in activities (RDQ. Follow-up measurements were performed 12 weeks after delivery. Results Since May 2001 until July 2003, 869 women out of the cohort made a request for treatment by a physiotherapist, 10 days after delivery. Because of a quick recovery in two weeks time, we included only 126 women three weeks after delivery. There was a statistically significant and clinically relevant difference in improvement on the primary outcome (RDQ between the two groups in favor of the experimental intervention. Conclusion The results favored the hypotheses. Women's worries about their condition were major targets in the experimental intervention. The prognosis after delivery, especially in de first weeks, turned out to be favorable.

  2. Memory in pregnancy and post-partum: Item specific and relational encoding processes in recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Saraulli, Daniele; Oriolo, Debora; Costanzi, Marco; Zanetti, Humberto; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that pregnant women would perform memory tasks by focusing more on item-specific processes and less on relational processing, compared to post-partum women (Mickes, Wixted, Shapiro & Scarff, ). The present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating the type of encoding employed in the study phase. Pregnant, post-partum and control women either rated the pleasantness of word meaning (which induced item-specific elaboration) or named the semantic category to which they belonged (which induced relational elaboration). Memory for the encoded words was later tested in free recall (which emphasizes relational processing) and in recognition (which emphasizes item-specific processing). In line with Mickes et al.'s () conclusions, pregnant women in the item-specific condition performed worse than post-partum women in the relational condition in free recall, but not in recognition. However, compared to the other two groups, pregnant women also exhibited lower recognition accuracy in the item-specific condition. Overall, these results confirm that pregnant women rely on relational encoding less than post-partum women, but additionally suggest that the former group might use item-specific processes less efficiently than post-partum and control women. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. STUDY OF FACTORS RELATED TO STRESS AMONG WOMEN UNDERGOING TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY (TOP IN A COLLECTIVIST CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is a country where people are dependent on each other for psychological support. Traditional Indian culture follows a collectivist pattern where the woman cares more about her family and society than herself. An unmarried woman who is pregnant poses a problem for both herself and her baby here, where traditional values are held high and pregnancy without marriage is almost always a taboo. AIMS To find the impact of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP on the anxiety and depression levels among pregnant women, correlation with period of gestation and the impact of perceived social support on anxiety and depression levels of these women. SETTING One hundred women who attended the outpatient department of ESICMC- PGIMSR, Bengaluru, India, requesting for Termination of Pregnancy, between August 2011 and December 2014 were studied. DESIGN A Prospective Observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, 1988 were measured both pre-TOP and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was measured post TOP in women fulfilling the Inclusion and Exclusion criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Averages and proportions were calculated for the study and appropriate statistical tests like Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient were done using MiniTab version 16. RESULTS 1 There is a reduction of depression and anxiety after Termination of pregnancy (p <0.05 more so among unmarried women with an unwanted pregnancy. 2 The higher the period of gestation, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety levels were observed (p value of <0.05. 3 The lower the social support scores, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety and depression (p value of <0.05. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for larger number of abortion care providers in India with increased contraception awareness and education regarding the need for Termination of Pregnancy in medical

  4. Report of a Case of Primary Abdominal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Beigi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy (EP is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the embryo implants outside the uterine endometrial cavity. Abdominal pregnancy is an atypical site wherein the product of conception lies totally outside the reproductive tract. Primary abdominal pregnancy is a very rare condition with a high mortality rate. Diagnosis is often late or misdiagnosed. The aim of introducing this case report is to present a new case of early primary abdominal pregnancy. Despite regular menstrual bleeding and contraception with IUD (intrauterine device, this pregnancy occurred in a 24-year old woman. Emergency laparotomy was performed because of abdominal pain, unstable condition and positive urine pregnancy test. It revealed more than 1500 ml of blood in the abdominal cavity. The uterus, both fallopian tubes and ovaries were completely intact. A 3X4 cm mass lateral to the left utersacral ligament was observed and resected. Since IUD strings could not be identified, endometrial currettage was performed and then the IUD was removed. Histological report of the mass and tissue of uterine cavity was placental villi and secretory endometrium, respectively, which according to Studdifords criteria is a new case of early primary abdominal pregnancy. To reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, early recognition of ectopic pregnancy is critical. According to review of the literature and the case report, a high index of suspicion is vital for the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy because the signs and symptoms of EP overlap with many surgical and gynecologic conditions. With early diagnosis of EP, we can suggest many therapeutic options and also retain fertility (if desired by patient, while minimizing disease and treatment-related morbidity.

  5. Midwives' personal experiences of pregnancy and childbirth: Exploring issues of autonomy and agency in relation to the use of professional knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This paper seeks to explore midwives' experiences of pregnancy and childbirth. It draws on interviews with nine midwives who completed their midwifery training prior to becoming mothers, to discuss how midwives use their professional knowledge to exercise agency (the choices made about their own care), and assume autonomy (the control and responsibility in relation to their own care), in pregnancy and childbirth. It illustrates that a reliance on professional knowledge may create opportunities for choice and increased autonomy in some situations, although the need for intervention during childbirth, for example, may challenge the degree of autonomy exercised by midwives and the choices available to them. As knowledgeable experts, midwives demonstrate a very different understanding of risk and safety in relation to their own experiences of childbirth. Professional knowledge may increase their anxieties which may not be addressed appropriately by caregivers due to their professional status. The use of knowledge in this way highlights potential conflict between their position as midwives and their experience as mothers, illustrating that midwives' ability to exercise agency and autonomy in relation to their pregnancy and childbirth experiences is potentially problematic.

  6. [Liver transplantation and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, A-C; Homer, L

    2010-11-01

    Management during their sexual life of patients with a liver transplantation is a more or less common situation depending centers. Based on literature review, a focus on management of recipient women was conducted, from contraception to pregnancy, describing the complications related to the status of transplant recipient, but also those that may be related to immunosuppressive agents. If fertility and access to contraception are only slightly modified by graft, complications related to graft or immunosuppressive drugs can affect the pregnancy. On the maternal side, hypertension and preeclampsia are more common, as well as renal dysfunction, iatrogenic diabetes and bacterial or viral infections, acute rejection and graft loss do not appear to be influenced by pregnancy. The fetus is also exposed to risks such as induced prematurity and IUGR. Pregnancy in recipients of hepatic grafts therefore requires joint follow-up by transplant specialist and perinatologist, which leads in most cases to successful outcome for mother and child.

  7. Health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Cornelius B; Wright, Davene R; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pediatric pain-related conditions on health care expenditures. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6- to 17-year-old children captured in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Health care expenditures of children with pain-related conditions were compared with those of children without pain-related conditions. Pain-related conditions were associated with incremental health care expenditures of $1339 (95% confidence interval [CI], $248-$2447) per capita. Extrapolated to the nation, pediatric pain-related conditions were associated with $11.8 billion (95% CI, $2.18-$21.5 billion) in total incremental health care expenditures. The incremental health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions were similar to those of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ($9.23 billion; 95% CI, $1.89-$18.1 billion), but more than those associated with asthma ($5.35 billion; 95% CI, $0-$12.3 billion) and obesity ($0.73 billion; 95% CI, $6.28-$8.81 billion). Health care expenditures for pediatric pain-related conditions exert a considerable economic burden on society. Efforts to prevent and treat pediatric pain-related conditions are urgently needed.

  8. 42 CFR 410.55 - Services related to kidney donations: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services related to kidney donations: Conditions. 410.55 Section 410.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Services § 410.55 Services related to kidney donations: Conditions. Medicare Part B pays for medical and...

  9. 42 CFR 447.257 - FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to institutional... Inpatient Hospital and Long-Term Care Facility Services Federal Financial Participation § 447.257 FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement. FFP is not available for a State's expenditures...

  10. 42 CFR 447.59 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 447.59 Section 447.59 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Financial Participation § 447.59 FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. No FFP in the...

  11. 42 CFR 447.520 - FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. 447.520 Section 447.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... § 447.520 FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. (a) No FFP is available...

  12. Systemic medications used in treatment of common dermatological conditions: Safety profile with respect to pregnancy, breast feeding and content in seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S M; Aljefri, K A; Waas, R; Hampton, P J

    2017-01-16

    Prescribing for pregnant or lactating patients and male patients wishing to father children can be a difficult area for dermatologists. There is a lack of review articles of commonly used systemic medications in dermatology with respect to their effects on developing embryogenesis and their potential transfer across the placenta, in breast milk and in seminal fluid. This paper aims to provide an up to date summary of evidence to better equip dermatologists to inform patients about the effects of systemic medications commonly used in dermatology to treat conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne, on current and future embryogenesis and fertility. We have provided detailed evidence about the safety profile for the use of systemic medication used in the treatment of common dermatological conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne with respect to pregnancy, breastfeeding and spermatogenesis. The following medications are completely contraindicated in pregnancy: retinoids, methotrexate, mycophenolate and fumaric acid esters, whilst ciclosporin and hydroxychloroquine are considered safer options. Azathioprine and biologics have been considered on a case by case scenario. There is an association with impaired neonatal immunity and a possible VACTERL association with biologics. There is insufficient evidence to recommend ustekinumab. Dapsone should also be considered on a case by case basis as it is associated with haemolysis and hyperbilirubinaemia in the neonate. The following medications are contraindicated in breastfeeding: retinoids, methotrexate, mycophenolate, fumaric acid esters and ciclosporin. There is conflicting information about the use of azathioprine. Dapsone use during breastfeeding is associated with haemolysis and hyperbilirubinaemia in the neonate. The use of hydroxychloroquine is felt to be safe. The data associated with the use of biologic agents is limited, specific guidance for each biological medication is detailed in

  13. Pregnancy-related health information-seeking behaviors among rural pregnant women in India: validating the Wilson model in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-09-01

    Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Our study can help inform policies and multi

  14. Relating different quantum generalizations of the conditional Rényi entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomamichel, Marco [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Hayashi, Masahito [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusaku, Nagoya, 464-860 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Recently a new quantum generalization of the Rényi divergence and the corresponding conditional Rényi entropies was proposed. Here, we report on a surprising relation between conditional Rényi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Rényi entropies based on the quantum relative Rényi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Rényi entropies of two different kinds. As a direct application, we prove a collection of inequalities that relate different conditional Rényi entropies and derive a new entropic uncertainty relation.

  15. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, little is known about physical activity patterns in pregnancy with prior estimates predominantly based on subjective assessment measures that are prone to error. Given the increasing obesity rates and the importance of physical activity in pregnancy, we evaluated the relationship and agreement between subjective and objective physical activity assessment tools to inform researchers and clinicians on optimal assessment of physical activity in pregnancy. Methods 48 pregnant women between 26-28 weeks gestation were recruited. The Yamax pedometer and Actigraph accelerometer were worn for 5-7 days under free living conditions and thereafter the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was completed. IPAQ and pedometer estimates of activity were compared to the more robust and accurate accelerometer data. Results Of 48 women recruited, 30 women completed the study (mean age: 33.6 ± 4.7 years; mean BMI: 31.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2 and 18 were excluded (failure to wear [n = 8] and incomplete data [n = 10]. The accelerometer and pedometer correlated significantly on estimation of daily steps (ρ = 0.69, p -1 day-1 were not significantly correlated and there was poor absolute agreement. Relative to the accelerometer, the IPAQ under predicted daily total METs (105.76 ± 259.13 min-1 day-1 and light METs (255.55 ± 128.41 min-1 day-1 and over predicted moderate METs (-112.25 ± 166.41 min-1 day-1. Conclusion Compared with the accelerometer, the pedometer appears to provide a reliable estimate of physical activity in pregnancy, whereas the subjective IPAQ measure performed less accurately in this setting. Future research measuring activity in pregnancy should optimally encompass objective measures of physical activity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12608000233325. Registered 7/5/2008.

  16. When Pregnancy Goes Past Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated with postterm pregnancy include the following: • Stillbirth • Macrosomia • Postmaturity syndrome • Meconium in the lungs of the ... fertilization and lasts until the end of pregnancy. Macrosomia: A condition in which a fetus is estimated ...

  17. Adolescent Pregnancy: A Challenge for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carolyn D.; Miller, Gary M.

    1980-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has medical, psychological, sociological and educational repercussions. The counselor's objective is to assist the adolescent in developing adaptive mechanisms for dealing with adolescence and pregnancy and to integrate the two conditions into a growth-producing situation. (Author)

  18. Birth Weight Corrected for Gestational Age is Related to the Incidence of Down’s Syndrome Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfrans, van J.M.; Bakker, P.S.M.; Rekers-Mombarg, L.T.M.; Weissenbruch, M.M.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three recent studies reported that early depletion of the primordial follicle pool is likely to be an independent risk factor for Down’s syndrome pregnancies. The size of the primordial follicle pool at birth is determined by oogenesis and by the rate of follicle atresia during the intra uterine per

  19. Traditional Chinese Pregnancy Restrictions, Health-Related Quality of Life and Perceived Stress among Pregnant Women in Macao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lau, RN, RM, IBCLC, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings provided cultural rationales of pregnancy restrictions within a Macao context that may assist health professionals to better understand women from different cultures. It is essential in the development of culturally appropriate healthcare to support women in making a healthy transition to motherhood.

  20. Processes and Factors Underlying Adolescent Males' Attitudes and Decision-Making in Relation to an Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John T.; Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined adolescent males' decision-making when confronted with a hypothetical unplanned pregnancy in a sexual partner. An innovative methodology, involving a computerized simulation game was utilized with 386 Australian males (mean age of 15 years). Data were gathered from responses made during the simulation, and questionnaires…

  1. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesilje B. Petersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  2. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  3. Cilioretinal obstruction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Suriano, M M; Martínez-Lajara, A

    2017-09-01

    To determine the number of patients diagnosed over a 5-year period with isolated occlusion of the cilioretinal artery (CRAO) whilst pregnant, as well as to describe the outcomes and ophthalmological sequelae of this condition in pregnant woman. A retrospective study of the medical records. From the 135 patients diagnosed with retinal arterial occlusion of all of our series, 20 (14.8%) had CRAO, and 2 (1.48%) of these were pregnant. Case 1: A 34 year-old pregnant woman with a centrocaecal scotoma and visual acuity of 20/20 in right eye. Fundus examination: A soft exudate in the papillomacular bundle with retinal oedema and embolism on a cilioretinal artery branch. The exudate and oedema disappeared after 5 weeks, and the scotoma was reduced. Case 2: A 30 year-old pregnant woman, with normal visual acuity in right eye, and a centrocaecal scotoma. Fundoscopy: An area of retinal interpapillomacular infarction due to cilioretinal artery occlusion. The fundus returned to normal in 4 weeks, with an improvement of the scotoma. The aetiology of CRAO is usually associated with carotid disease or other thromboembolic events related to hypercoagulable states and autoimmunity. Pregnancy is considered a hypercoagulable state, and it is not known if it is a risk factor for arterial embolism. Further studies are required to determine the correlation between pregnancy and CRAO. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  5. Rhinitis and pregnancy: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Azevedo Caparroz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: There is a controversy concerning the terminology and definition of rhinitis in pregnancy. Gestational rhinitis is a relatively common condition, which has drawn increasing interest in recent years due to a possible association with maternal obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and unfavorable fetal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge on gestacional rhinitis, and to assess its evidence. METHODS: Structured literature search. RESULTS: Gestational rhinitis and rhinitis "during pregnancy" are somewhat similar conditions regarding their physiopathology and treatment, but differ regarding definition and prognosis. Hormonal changes have a presumed etiological role, but knowledge about the physiopathology of gestational rhinitis is still lacking. Management of rhinitis during pregnancy focuses on the minimal intervention required for symptom relief. CONCLUSION: As it has a great impact on maternal quality of life, both the otorhinolaryngologist and the obstetrician must be careful concerning the early diagnosis and treatment of gestational rhinitis, considering the safety of treatment measures and drugs and their current level of evidence.

  6. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins in pregnancy in relation to maternal and fetal plasma levels at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Alison R; McNeill, Geraldine; Campbell, Doris M; Martindale, Sheelagh; Devereux, Graham; Seaton, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins is associated with maternal and cord plasma levels at delivery. Women were recruited in early pregnancy in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital and habitual diet during pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire mailed at 34 weeks gestation. Blood samples were taken at recruitment (n 1149) and maternal (n 1149) and cord blood samples (n 747) taken at delivery for analyses of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene. Maternal plasma levels of vitamin E and beta-carotene at delivery were significantly higher than levels in early pregnancy while levels of vitamins A and C were significantly lower. Positive correlations were observed for maternal levels of all the vitamins between early pregnancy and delivery. At delivery, maternal plasma concentrations of vitamins A, E and beta-carotene were significantly higher than cord levels, while maternal levels of vitamin C were significantly lower. There were significant correlations between maternal and cord plasma concentrations for beta-carotene and vitamin C but not for vitamins A or E. Maternal dietary intakes were positively correlated with maternal plasma levels of vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in early pregnancy, with maternal plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C at delivery and with cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C. The results from the present study show that, in this population, maternal diet influences cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C, but not vitamins A and E.

  8. Aortopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smok, Dorothy A

    2014-08-01

    Up to half of all aortic dissections and ruptures in women younger than 40 years are associated with pregnancy. In pregnancy, women with aortic disease such as arteritis and aortitis are at significant risk of aneurysmal formation and dissection with potential for catastrophic outcomes. Pregnancy places predisposed women at an increased risk of dissection due to physiological and hormonal changes that occur, particularly those with connective tissue disorders, genetic syndromes, congenital heart disease, and other heritable and acquired conditions involving the aorta. Thus, preconception counseling and preparation are advised to determine which patients may cautiously pursue pregnancy, to optimize medical management prior to conception (antihypertensive medications and anticoagulants in the setting of mechanical valves), to identify women in whom aortic root repair should occur prior to pregnancy, and lastly, those in whom pregnancy is contraindicated. Additionally, discussion of the heritable nature of many aortic conditions and associated syndromes is indicated. Preconception and genetic counseling, management by a multidisciplinary team, along with close echocardiographic surveillance and medical management, are recommended if precursors of dissection are identified.

  9. Medical problems in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Bhaskar; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of medical problems in pregnancy is increasing because of a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and developments in modern medicine. Maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from treatable medical conditions, such as venous thromboembolism, epilepsy and autoimmune disease, have not decreased in recent years. This is despite a marked decrease in overall maternal mortality. It is vital that all physicians acquire a basic knowledge and understanding of medical problems in pregnancy. This includes prepregnancy measures such as counselling and optimisation of medical therapy, as well as multidisciplinary management throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute and chronic illness is of clear benefit, and most drugs and many radiological investigations may be used in pregnancy.

  10. Clinical Investigations and Management of Refractive Changes in Pregnancy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Bernadine N; Aruotu, Nwakuso A; Uzodike, Ebele B; Njoku, Chimela G

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy also presents with ocular changes, just as it affects other non-reproductive systems of the female. It has been reported to be associated with development of new health conditions or can exacerbate pre- existing health conditions. This paper reviews the management of Mrs AA, a 41 year old pregnant woman (primigravida) with refractive changes from myopia in the first trimester, to hyperopia in the second and third trimesters of her pregnancy. A comprehensive ocular examination was performed including fundus photograph and Optical Coherent Tomography. The results revealed signs of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in both eyes which may have been due to various hormonal changes in pregnancy with resultant changes in refractive error. These ocular changes associated with pregnancy are, most often transient in nature, though occasionally permanent. This condition therefore requires clinical observation and monitoring until the resolution of the serous detachment is complete, and vision returned back to normal. Other ocular changes that are pregnancy related were reviewed.

  11. Pregnancy and mental health among women veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Skanderson, Melissa; Goulet, Joseph L; Brandt, Cynthia; Womack, Julie; Krebs, Erin; Desai, Rani; Justice, Amy; Yano, Elizabeth; Haskell, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) may experience significant stress during military service that can have lingering effects. Little is known about mental health problems or treatment among pregnant OEF/OIF women veterans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental health problems among veterans who received pregnancy-related care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system. Data from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) deployment roster of military discharges from October 1, 2001, through April 30, 2008, were used to assemble an administrative cohort of female OEF/OIF veterans enrolled in care at the VHA (n = 43,078). Pregnancy and mental health conditions were quantified according to ICD-9-CM codes and specifications. Mental healthcare use and prenatal care were assessed by analyzing VHA stop codes. During the study period, 2966 (7%) women received at least one episode of pregnancy-related care, and 32% of veterans with a pregnancy and 21% without a pregnancy received one or more mental health diagnoses (p schizophrenia as those without a pregnancy. Women OEF/OIF veterans commonly experience mental health problems after military service. The burden of mental health conditions is higher among women with an identified instance of pregnancy than among those without. Because women do not receive pregnancy care at the VHA, however, little is known about ongoing concomitant prenatal and mental healthcare or about pregnancy outcomes among these women veterans.

  12. Acute kidney injury in pregnancy-specific disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI has declined significantly over the last three decades in developing countries. However, it is still associated with significant fetomaternal mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis of P-AKI is based on the serum creatinine increase. The usual formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR are not validated in this population. The incidence of P-AKI with respect to total AKI cases has decreased in the last three decades from 25% in 1980s to 9% in 2000s at our centre. During the first trimester of gestation, AKI develops most often due to septic abortion or hyperemesis gravidarum. Septic abortion related AKI with respect to total AKI decreased from 9% to 5% in our study. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are keys to eliminate abortion associated AKI in early pregnancy. However, we have not seen AKI on account of hyperemesis gravidarum over a period of 33 years at our center. In the third trimester, the differential diagnosis of AKI in association with pregnancy specific conditions namely preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and thrombotic microangiopathies of pregnancy (P-TMA is more challenging, because these 3 conditions share several clinical features of thrombotic microangiopathy which makes the diagnosis very difficult on clinical grounds. It is imperative to distinguish these conditions to make appropriate therapeutic decisions. Typically, AFLP and HELLP syndrome improve after delivery of the fetus, whereas plasma exchange is the first-line treatment for pregnancy associated thrombotic microangioathies (P-TMA. We observed that preclampsia/eclampsia is the most common cause of AKI in late third trimester and postpartum periods followed by puerperal sepsis and postpartum hemorrhage. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathies (aHUS/TTP and AFLP are rare causes of AKI during pregnancy in developing countries.

  13. Analysis of Related Risk Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy%异位妊娠相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 游虹; 苑小倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过病例-对照研究回顾性分析造成异位妊娠的潜在危险因素。方法:将2009年7月-2013年7月在笔者所在中心明确诊断为异位妊娠的80例患者作为病例组,收集同期正常生产的300例产妇作为对照组。记录相关因素,采用Logistic回归分析筛选出造成异位妊娠的危险因素。结果:有慢性盆腔炎病史、不孕史、流产史、既往异位妊娠病史等是异位妊娠的危险因素。结论:异位妊娠高危因素的确定有助于早期对可改变的因素进行干预,降低异位妊娠的发生率。%Objective:To analyze the potential risk factors for ectopic pregnancy through the retrospective analysis of case-control study. Method:80 women who diagnosed as ectopic pregnancy in our center from July 2009 to July 2013 were selected as the case group.300 cases for normal production were collected in the same period as the control group.The related factors were recorded,the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy were screened by Logistic regression analysis.Result:The findings revealed that the following factors were associated with increased risk of ectopic pregnancy,including:the history of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease,infertility history,abortion history,past history of ectopic pregnancy.Conclusion:By identifying risk factors is helpful to the early intervention of the modifiable factors,can reduce the incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

  14. The parity-related protection against breast cancer is compromised by cigarette smoke during rat pregnancy: observations on tumorigenesis and immunological defenses of the neonate.

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    Steinetz, Bernard G; Gordon, Terry; Lasano, Salamia; Horton, Lori; Ng, Sheung Pui; Zelikoff, Judith T; Nadas, Arthur; Bosland, Maarten C

    2006-06-01

    Early pregnancy is a powerful negative risk factor for breast cancer (BCa) in women. Pregnancy also protects rats against induction of BCa by carcinogens such as N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), making the parous rat a useful model for studying this phenomenon. Smoking during early pregnancy may lead to an increased risk of BCa in later life, possibly attributable to carcinogens in cigarette smoke (CS), or to reversal of the parity-related protection against BCa. To investigate these possibilities, 50-day-old timed first-pregnancy rats were exposed to standardized mainstream CS (particle concentration = 50 mg/m3) or to filtered air (FA) 4 h/day, Day 2-20 of gestation. Age-matched virgin rats were similarly exposed to CS or FA. At age 100 days, the CS or FA-exposed, parous and virgin rats were injected s.c. with MNU (50 mg/kg body wt), or with MNU vehicle. Mammary tumors (MTs) first appeared in virgin rats 9 weeks post-MNU injection. While no MTs were detected in FA-exposed parous rats until 18 weeks post-MNU, MTs appeared in the CS-exposed parous rats as early as 10 wks (P < 0.02). As no MTs developed in CS-exposed rats not injected with MNU, CS did not act as a direct mammary carcinogen. Serum prolactin concentration on Day 19 of pregnancy in CS-exposed dams was reduced by 50% compared with FA-exposed dams (P < 0.005). CS exposure during a pregnancy may thus 'deprotect' rats, enhancing their vulnerability to MNU-induced BCa. Prenatal CS exposure had no detectable effect on the immune responses of the pups examined at 3, 8 or 19 weeks of age. However, prolactin concentration in stomach contents (milk) of 3-day-old pups suckled by CS-exposed dams was decreased when compared with that of FA-exposed dams (P < 0.032). As milk-borne prolactin modulates development of the central nervous and immune systems of neonatal rats, CS exposure of the dams could adversely affect later maturation of these systems by reducing milk prolactin.

  15. Pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince-Askan, Hilal; Dolhain, Radboud J E M

    2015-01-01

    Fertility is impaired in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is related to disease activity and the use of certain medication. During pregnancy, disease activity usually improves, but less than previously thought. Especially in women with high disease activity, the pregnancy outcome is also impaired. All of this underscores the importance of strict control of disease activity in RA patients who wish to conceive. Management of RA disease activity during pregnancy might be a challenge as the treatment options are limited. Evidence is accumulating that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers can be safely used during pregnancy, particularly during the first trimester and the beginning of the second trimester. Far less is known about the problems faced by male RA patients who wish to conceive, in terms of not only fertility and pregnancy outcome but also the safety of medication. In this paper, the fertility issues in patients with RA, the pregnancy-associated improvement of RA, the pregnancy outcomes, including the long-term effects on the offspring, and treatment options, including those during lactation and for male patients wishing to conceive, will be reviewed.

  16. Serum leptin levels in relation to circulating cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karádi István

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In this study, we determined circulating levels of C-reactive protein, several cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors along with those of leptin in healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women and preeclamptic patients, and investigated whether serum leptin levels were related to the clinical characteristics and measured laboratory parameters of the study participants. Methods Sixty preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Levels of leptin and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1 in maternal sera were assessed by ELISA. Serum levels of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-18, interferon (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 were determined by multiplex suspension array. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations were measured by an autoanalyzer. Serum total soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 and biologically active placental growth factor (PlGF levels were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For statistical analyses, non-parametric methods were applied. Results There were significant differences in most of the measured laboratory parameters among the three study groups except for serum IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 levels. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients and healthy pregnant women than in healthy non-pregnant women. Additionally, preeclamptic patients had significantly higher leptin levels as compared to healthy pregnant women. Serum leptin levels were independently associated with BMI in healthy non-pregnant women. In healthy pregnant women, both BMI and serum CRP concentrations showed significant positive linear

  17. Barriers to weight-related health behaviours: a qualitative comparison of the socioecological conditions between pregnant and post-partum low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Meredith; Uesugi, Keriann; Olson, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The association between socioecological factors and poor health outcomes for low-income women and their children has been the focus of disparities research for several decades. This research compares the socioecological conditions among low-income women from pregnancy to post-partum and highlights the factors that make weight management increasingly difficult after delivery. As part of the formative research for an online health intervention, group and individual interviews were conducted with low-income pregnant and post-partum women. Five pregnancy group interviews (n = 15 women), five post-partum group interviews (n = 23 women) and seven individual interviews with a total of 45 participants were conducted in Rochester, New York. All interviews were audio-recorded. The constant comparative method was used to code interview notes and identify emergent themes. Subjects faced many challenges that affected their attitudes, beliefs and their ability to maintain or improve healthy weight behaviours. These included unemployment, relationship issues, minimal social support, lack of education, limited health care access, pre-existing medical conditions and neighbourhood disadvantage. Compared with pregnant women, post-partum women faced additional difficulties, such as child illnesses and custody issues. The most striking differences between pregnancy and post-partum related to the family's medical problems and greater environmental constraints. Many factors detracted from women's capacity to engage in healthy weight behaviours post-partum, including challenges present prior to delivery, challenges present prior to delivery that worsen after delivery, and new challenges that begin after delivery. These additional post-partum challenges need to be considered in designing programmes, policies and interventions that promote healthy weight.

  18. State of the art: Reproduction and pregnancy in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østensen, Monika; Andreoli, Laura; Brucato, Antonio; Cetin, Irene; Chambers, Christina; Clowse, Megan E B; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Cutolo, Maurizio; Dolhain, Radboud; Fenstad, M H; Förger, Frauke; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Koksvik, Hege; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Tincani, Angela; Villiger, Peter M; Wallenius, Marianne; von Wolff, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Throughout the last decade, increasing awareness has been raised on issues related to reproduction in rheumatic diseases including basic research to clarify the important role of estrogens in the etiology and pathophysiology of immune/inflammatory diseases. Sub- or infertility is a heterogeneous condition that can be related to immunological mechanisms, to pregnancy loss, to disease burden, to therapy, and to choices in regard to family size. Progress in reproductive medicine has made it possible for more patients with rheumatic disease to have children. Active disease in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects their children's birth weight and may have long-term effects on their future health status. Pregnancy complications as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are still increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), however, biomarkers can monitor adverse events, and several new therapies may improve outcomes. Pregnancies in women with APS remain a challenge, and better therapies for the obstetric APS are needed. New prospective studies indicate improved outcomes for pregnancies in women with rare diseases like systemic sclerosis and vasculitis. TNF inhibitors hold promise for maintaining remission in rheumatological patients and may be continued at least in the first half of pregnancy. Pre-conceptional counseling and interdisciplinary management of pregnancies are essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Anna; Brent, Gregory A

    2011-10-01

    Examine recent studies on the assessment of thyroid status in pregnancy, approach to thyroid testing, the spectrum of hypothyroidism in pregnancy, and strategies for thyroid replacement in women with known hypothyroidism. Trimester-specific references range for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine in pregnancy must take into account iodine and thyroid autoantibody status, race, BMI, as well as other factors. Thyroid testing of only those pregnant women at increased risk for thyroid disease, case finding, will miss 30-80% of women with thyroid disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increasing number of adverse effects including infertility, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and breech presentation at birth. Many pregnant women with known hypothyroidism have an out-of-range TSH at the time of confirmed pregnancy. A variety of strategies are effective at keeping serum TSH normal during pregnancy including preconception increase in thyroxine, increase in thyroxine dose at the time pregnancy is confirmed, or making adjustments based on serum TSH monitoring. Evaluation of thyroid status in pregnancy requires an understanding of pregnancy-associated changes in thyroid function tests and how they vary by trimester. The spectrum of hypothyroidism in pregnancy includes isolated thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity, isolated hypothyroxinemia, subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. These patterns, in some situations, may be related to iodine status, selenium status, or underlying thyroid disease. There are a variety of approaches to management of thyroxine replacement in known hypothyroid women at the time of pregnancy that are all effective at maintaining a normal range during pregnancy.

  20. OS013. Reduction of preeclampsia related complications with with theNO-donor penterythriltetranitrat (petn) in risk pregnancies - Aprospective randomized double-blind placebo pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, T; Fitzgerald, J; Lehmann, T; Schneider, U; Kähler, C; Schleussner, E

    2012-07-01

    NO-donors reduce the impedance in uteroplacental vessels. Consequently Lees et al. pilot study demonstrated that transdermal nitroglycerin positively influences pregnancy outcome within a high-risk collective. Furthermore the NO-donor pentaerythriltetranitrate additionally expresses cell stabilizing effects in endothelial cells. Hypothesizing an effect on endothelial health and uterine perfusion in pregnancies presented with pathological uterine perfusion at 20weeks of gestation we performed a randomized, prospective, and placebo-controlled, double-blind study implemented with the aim to investigate whether the oral NO-donor Pentalong(®) (PETN) is suitable as a prophylactic drug in abnormal placentation. We included 111 pregnancies presenting with abnormal placental perfusion (bilateral notch or mean RI>0.7) between the 19th and 24thweek of gestation (w.o.g.). Further risk factors (high-risk group: history of HELLP/preeclampsia/IUGR/IUFD/placental abruption, type I diabetes mellitus, hypertension, thrombosis/thrombophilia) were identified in 78 study participants. Fifty-four women received PETN 57 received placebo. Doppler velocimetry measurements of uteroplacental and fetal vessels and fetal growth scans were monitored biweekly with primary endpoints being the occurrence of preeclampsia, IUGR and/or premature birth. Within the first week of intake, PETN improved uteroplacental perfusion significantly in comparison to placebo (mean PI 1.26±0.36 vs. 1.49±0.44; pPETN study group by reducing the frequency of IUGR (4 vs. 10), diagnosis of preeclampsia before 32 w.o.g. (3 vs. 7) and premature birth before 32 w.o.g. (1 vs. 6). Furthermore 4 fetal losses occurred in the study group all in the placebo group. NO-donors constitute an interesting option in the prophylaxis of adverse pregnancy outcome related to abnormal placentation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.