WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-trip activities field

  1. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  2. Pre-trip tourism information search by smartphones and use of alternative information channels: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaang-Iuan Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a comprehensive model of how smartphone users search for pre-trip tourism information. Important dimensions and relationships in tourism information search (TIS behavior were studied in 21 subjects. The data collection process included semi-structured in-depth interviewing data and field observation data. The analysis revealed 10 activities characteristic of TIS behavior: internal searches, mobile searches, saving information in the smartphones, preliminary collaborative TIS, barriers to TIS, bringing mobile search to an end, summarizing information, PC Internet search, advanced collaborative TIS, and searches via editorial communications. Such data collection was not performed in isolation. Further, 20 propositions have been developed for future testing. The results suggest that pre-trip TIS appears to consist in a diversity of search patterns with the usage of multiple information sources; in addition, it is no longer individual but collaborative behavior in the context of Web 2.0. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the research work are discussed, and directions for future work are suggested.

  3. Who Will Use Pre-Trip Traveler Information and How Will They Respond? Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is able to make the transportation system safer, smoother, and more sustainable. The research and practice of pre-trip traveler information (PTI, an indispensable component of ITS, is very limited in China. With data collected from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China, this empirical study revealed the socio-demographics of potential PTI users and feasible travel responses in daily trips under PTI. Young-and-middle-aged, influential, and motorized males were the most potential PTI users, while unemployed young females the least. Among the motorized potential users who habitually traveled by car, the high-income sub-group was least likely to shift travel modes under PTI. The younger white-collar or blue-collar had a lower propensity to shift to bicycle, but the younger blue-collar workers were more likely to shift to walking. The low income preferred to shift to bus rather than elevated light rail due to the difference of travel cost. The findings will facilitate our understanding of the market segments and effects of PTI, improve the system design and implementation strategy, and help address urban traffic and environmental issues throughout China.

  4. To use or not to use? An empirical study of pre-trip public transport information for business and leisure trips and comparison with car travel

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, S.; Lyons, G.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study provides more insight into the relative strength of various factors affecting the use and non-use of pre-trip Public Transport (PT) information for business and leisure trips. It also illuminates comparing car with public transport and its consequences for mode choice. The factors affecting PT information use most strongly are travel behaviour and sociodemographics, but travel attitudes, information factors, and social surrounding also play a role. Public transport use...

  5. 24 CFR 4100.3 - Field activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field activities. 4100.3 Section...) NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND CHANNELING OF FUNCTIONS § 4100.3 Field activities. The Corporation conducts its field activities from district and field offices around the country. District offices...

  6. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  7. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed...... is in general both a function of the overall shape of the regenerator and its morphology (packed particles, parallel plates etc.) as well as the magnetization of the material. Due to the pronounced temperature dependence of the magnetization near the Curie temperature, the demagnetization field is also...... temperature dependent. We propose a relatively straightforward method to correct sufficiently for the demagnetizing field in AMR models. We discuss how the demagnetizing field behaves in regenerators made of packed spheres under realistic operation conditions....

  8. Buildings, fields of activity, testing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Since 1969 the activities of the Materialpruefungsanstalt Stuttgart (MPA) have grown quickly as planned, especially in the field of reactor safety research, which made it necessary to increase the staff to approximately 165 members, to supplement the machines and equipment and to extend the fields of activities occasioning a further departmental reorganization. At present the MPA has the following departments: 1. Teaching (materials testing, materials science and strength of materials) 2. Materials and Welding Technology 3. Materials Science and General Materials Testing with Tribology 4. Design and Strength 5. Creep and Fatigue Testing 6. Central Facilities 7. Vessel and Component Testing. (orig./RW) [de

  9. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  10. Recent activities at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso E, H.; Dominguez A, B.; Lippmann, M.J.; Manon M., A.; Schroeder, R.C.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-12-01

    Some of the latest activities of interest to reservoir engineers at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field are described. Special emphasis is given to the wells drilled in 1978 for exploration purposes and to provide steam to the existing and future power plants. The present power output is 75 MW. Two additional 37.5 MW units are scheduled to go on line in March and May 1979, while the total generating capacity at Cerro Prieto will reach about 400 MW in 1985.

  11. Stress field reconstruction in an active mudslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Kernstocková, Markéta; Melichar, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    Meso-scale structures from gravitational slope deformation observed in landslides and deep-seated gravitational slope failures are very similar to those of endogenous ones. Therefore we applied palaeostress analysis of fault-slip data for reconstructing the stress field of an active mudslide in Pechgraben, Austria. This complex compound landslide has developed in clayey colluvium and shale and was activated after a certain period of dormancy in June 2013. During the active motion on June 12, 2013, 73 fault-slip traces at 9 locations were measured within the landslide body. The heterogeneous fault-slip data were processed in term of palaeostresses, the reconstructed palaeostress tensor being characterized by the orientations of the three principal stress axes and the stress ratio (which provides the shape of the stress ellipsoid). The results of the palaeostress analysis were compared to airborne laser scan digital terrain models that revealed dynamics and superficial displacements of the moving mass prior and after our survey. The results were generally in good agreement with the observed landslide displacement pattern and with the anticipated stress regime according to Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria and Anderson's theory. The compressional regime was mostly registered at the toe in areas, where a compressional stress field is expected during previous mass-movement stages, or at margins loaded by subsequent landslide bodies from above. On the other hand, extension regimes were identified at the head scarps of secondary slides, subsequently on bulged ridges at the toe and in the zone of horst-and-graben structures in the lower central part of the main landslide body, where the basal slip surface probably had locally convex character. Strike-slip regimes, as well as oblique normal or oblique reverse regimes were observed at the lateral margins of the landslide bodies. The directions of principal stresses could be used as markers of landslide movement directions

  12. Recent activities at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E. H.; Dominguez, A.B.; Lippmann, M.J.; Manon, M.A.; Schroeder, R.C.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the latest activities of interest to reservoir engineers at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Special emphasis is given to the wells drilled in 1978 for exploration purposes and to provide steam to the existing and future power plants. The present power output is 75MW. Two additional 37.5MW units are scheduled to go on line in March and May 1979, while the total generating capacity at Cerro Prieto will reach about 400MW in 1985. Additional information is available in a number of papers in References 1 and 2.

  13. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  14. Field Operations Program Activities Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. Francfort; D. V. O' Hara; L. A. Slezak

    1999-05-01

    The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

  15. Measurements of flux pumping activation of trapped field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States); Davey, Kent [Physics Department, 617 Science and Research Building I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Large grains of high temperature superconducting (HTS) material can be utilized as trapped field magnets (TFMs). Persistent currents are set up in the HTS when it is cooled in a magnetic field, or exposed to a magnetic field after cooling. TFMs have been improved over the past two decades by the efforts of a large number of worldwide research groups. However, applications using TFMs have lagged, in part due to the problem of high fields needed for activation. We describe herein experiments designed to observe the behaviour of TFM activation using repeated applications of low fields (called 'pumping'). Significant partial activation is obtained using a non-uniform pumping field (e.g., a small permanent magnet) which is higher in the centre of the HTS than at the periphery. Cooling in zero field followed by pumping with such a field results in trapping the full applied field, in comparison to half of the applied field being trapped by cooling in zero field followed by application of a uniform field. We find that for partial activation by cooling in a field and subsequent activation by pumping, the resulting fields are additive. We also conclude that for activation by fluxoid pumping, creep assists the process.

  16. Exercise haemodynamics: field activities versus laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini

    1997-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The present knowledge on changes in blood pressure during athletics is based virtually entirely on the results of stress testing, owing to the inability to measure blood pressures during sports activities. However, everyday physical activities, as well as sports activities, differ in many respects from stress testing, so that a direct comparison cannot be made. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of three different sports, track running, road cycling and weight lifting, on blood pressures recorded intra-arterially with the Oxford system and to compare the results with those obtained during traditional ergometry. METHODS: Blood pressure was recorded continuously in three groups of male athletes (22 joggers, 6 cyclists and 11 builders) by means of the intraarterial portablke Oxford method, through a catheter placed in the radial artery. RESULTS: During track running beat-by-beat analysis of the recordings showed a peculiar behaviour of the phasic pressure waves. Periodic oscillations of the pulse pressure, which varied in frequency in the range 4-28 cycles/min according to the velocity of running and heart rate, were observed nearly always. The frequency of the running-induced fluctuations in pulse pressure almost always equalled the difference between the heart rate and the stepping rate, suggesting that these oscillations were beats. The source of the stride-dependent wave was identified with the shaking of the aorta and the great vessels during the running. A weak correlation between the maximum blood pressure recorded during track running and the blood pressure recorded during treadmill or bicycle ergometry was found. Outdoor cycling caused a far higher increase in blood pressure than did bicycle ergometry, confirming that the response of the blood pressure to the laboratory test is not a good predictor of the changes in blood pressure which actually occur during outdoor activities. Weight lifting brought about noticeable elevations in blood pressure, to

  17. Chitinolytic bactery activity isolated from the mud fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuniek Herdyastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chitinolytic microorganism had been isolated from mud fields in Ketintang Surabaya area by using a minimal media containing 0.4% colloidal chitin. Activity assay is based on released N-acetyl-glucosamine which reacted with 3,5 dinitrosalicyclic acid. Mud fields produce 63 bacterial isolates with chitinase activity (TNH1 – TNH63 isolates. The highest activity was shown by TNH11 isolate with specific activity 1.27 U/mg. TNH11 isolates was Gram negative, rod-cocoid cell, has a colony of yellow, round shape, convex elevation, flat margin and the colony diameter 3–5 mm.

  18. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  19. Dynamics of Deformable Active Particles under External Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarama, Mitsusuke

    2017-10-01

    In most practical situations, active particles are affected by their environment, for example, by a chemical concentration gradient, light intensity, gravity, or confinement. In particular, the effect of an external flow field is important for particles swimming in a solvent fluid. For deformable active particles such as self-propelled liquid droplets and active vesicles, as well as microorganisms such as euglenas and neutrophils, a general description has been developed by focusing on shape deformation. In this review, we present our recent studies concerning the dynamics of a single active deformable particle under an external flow field. First, a set of model equations of active deformable particles including the effect of a general external flow is introduced. Then, the dynamics under two specific flow profiles is discussed: a linear shear flow, as the simplest example, and a swirl flow. In the latter case, the scattering dynamics of the active deformable particles by the swirl flow is also considered.

  20. Effect of a static magnetic field on activated sludge community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewicki, Adam; Dębowski, Marcin; Zieliński, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a static magnetic field (SMF) on the composition of activated sludge biocenosis. The experiment was carried out in two parallel bench scale Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs). Both SBRs were treated with dairy wastewater. The activated sludge in the first SBR was exposed to an SMF via the induction of a 0.6 T magnetic field generated by four magnetic liquid activators. The second reactor (control reactor) was operated at the same operational parameters but the activated sludge was not exposed to the SMF. The mean length of the bacterium Eikelboom Type 0092 was lower in the SMF-exposed reactor than in the control reactor. Different activated sludge morphologies in SBRs were reflected in the values of the sludge volume index and sludge biotic index calculated on the basis of the microfauna composition.

  1. Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir

    2015-07-06

    Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of

  2. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65 0 of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of ∼10 G to as high as ∼450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65 0 of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  3. Holocene eolian activity in the Minot dune field, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Been, J.; Mahan, S.A.; Burdett, J.; Skipp, G.; Rowland, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilized eolian sand is common over much of the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada, including a subhumid area of ??? 1500 km2 near Minot, North Dakota. Eolian landforms consist of sand sheets and northwest-trending parabolic dunes. Dunes and sand sheets in the Minot field are presently stabilized by a cover of prairie grasses or oak woodland. Stratigraphic studies and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of paleosols indicate at least two periods of eolian sand movement in the late Holocene. Pedologic data suggest that all of the dune field has experienced late Holocene dune activity, though not all parts of the dune field may have been active simultaneously. Similar immobile element (Ti, Zr, La, Ce) concentrations support the interpretation that eolian sands are derived from local glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. However, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial source sediments have high Ca concentrations from carbonate minerals, whereas dune sands are depleted in Ca. Because noneolian-derived soils in the area are calcareous, these data indicate that the Minot dune field may have had extended periods of activity in the Holocene, such that eolian abrasion removed soft carbonate minerals. The southwest-facing parts of some presently stabilized dunes were active during the 1930s drought, but were revegetated during the wetter years of the 1940s. These observations indicate that severe droughts accompanied by high temperatures are the most likely cause of Holocene eolian activity.

  4. Influence of magnetic field on activity of given anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y B; Duan, X J; Yan, J N; Du, Y Y; Sun, S Y

    2009-11-01

    Two modes of magnetic fields were applied in the Cr(6+) removal sludge reactors containing two predominated strains--Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus sp., respectively. The magnetic field mode I* of 0-4.5 or 0-14 mT between pieces was obtained by setting the magnetic pieces with the surface magnetic density of 0-6 or 0-20 mT into the reactor, and the magnetic field mode II* of 6, 20, or 40 mT on the return line was obtained by controlling the working distance of the permanent magnet outside the sludge return line. The effects of different magnetic fields on the activity of the given anaerobic sludge were studied by comparing with the control (absent of magnetic field). The results showed that the magnetic field of 0-4 mT improved the activity of given sludge most effectively, U(max) CH(4) (the peak methane-producing rate) and the methane producing volume per gCOD(Cr) reached 64.3 mlCH(4)/gVSS.d and 124 mlCH(4)/gCOD(Cr), which increased by 20.6 and 70.7%, respectively, compared with the control. And the magnetic field of 20 mT took second place. It could be concluded that the input of some magnetic field could improve the activity of anaerobic sludge by increasing the transformation efficiency of COD(Cr) matters to methane, and the total organic wastage did not increase.

  5. Statistical relationship of strong earthquakes with planetary geomagnetic field activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnikov, M. M.; Komarovski, N. I.; Kopytenko, Y. A.; Pushel, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Earlier studies reported a significant decrease in the geomagnetic field before strong earthquakes. Possible relationships between earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 (Soviet scale) and planetary terrestrial magnetic field activity as characterized by the K sub p index were investigated. A total of 100 cases of strong earthquakes on magnetically quiet days in 1965 to 1975 were studied. The K sub p indexes were studied for two days before and two days after the earthquakes. The dispersion curve shows a significant decrease one day before each event. The relationship of the planetary K sub p index with seismic activity indicates that the period of preparation for an earthquake and at the moment of the shock are reflected in the terrestrial magnetic field.

  6. Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...

  7. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 71; Issue 6. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A comparison between MgB2, NbSe2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductors. S D Kaushik V Braccini S Patnaik. Research Articles Volume 71 Issue 6 December 2008 pp 1335-1343 ...

  8. Effects of nutmeg consumption on the open field locomotor activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was a steady significant difference (p < 0.05) in the behaviours of line crossing and walling. There was no much significant changes (P<0.05) in the behaviours of hinding, grooming and defeacation between the Treatments and Control groups of animals. Keywords: Nutmeg, Wistar rats, Open field, Locomotor activities ...

  9. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    twisted field (current helicity) in the photosphere (Seehafer 1990; Pevtsov et al. 1995;. Bao & Zhang 1998). Bao & Zhang (1998) and Zhang & Bao (1999) computed the photospheric current helicity parameter h|| for 422 active regions, including most of the large ones observed in the period of 1988 1997 at Huairou Solar ...

  10. Magnetic field effects on brain monoamine oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borets, V.M.; Ostrovskiy, V.Yu.; Bankovskiy, A.A.; Dudinskaya, T.F.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the increasing use of magnetotherapy, studies were conducted on the effects of 35 mTesla magnetic fields on monoamine oxidase activity in the rat brain. Under in vitro conditions a constant magnetic field in the continuous mode was most effective in inhibiting deamination of dopamine following 1 min exposure, while in vivo studies with 8 min or 10 day exposures showed that inhibition was obtained only with a variable field in the continuous mode. However, inhibition of dopamine deamination was only evident within the first 24 h after exposure was terminated. In addition, in none of the cases was norepinephrine deamination inhibited. The effects of the magnetic fields were, therefore, transient and selective with the CNS as the target system. 9 references.

  11. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  12. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  13. Discussion on telluric field and seismic activity in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zlotnicki

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two stations were installed in the Southeastern Thessaly basin (Central Greece, recording the geomagnetic and telluric fields from 1993 to 1996. The aim was to detect long-term abnormal changes of the telluric field, which were possibly related to imbedding earthquakes. Between January 1993 and October 1996, 213 and185 (Neraida and Mavrolofos stations respectively abnormal changes of the telluric field were observed in association with the seismic activity. The duration of these changes varied from several minutes to 24 days and the maximum amplitude was 3.8 mV/m. Data recording detected 625 and 917 seismic events for Neraida and Mavrolofos station respectively. The percentage of the earthquakes associated with the telluric anomalies is 27% and 16% respectively for each station. Both percentages are considered to be very low. Telluric activity was followed by a burst of seismic activity in areas spreading to different directions from the stations. A correlation of the characteristics of the telluric field with the earthquake magnitude was attempted, but no reliable relationship was obtained.

  14. IAEA activities in the field of NPP life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Lyssakov, V.; Davies, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The IAEA has established programmes in the field of Nuclear Plant Lifetime in the Division of Nuclear Power and the Fuel Cycle (NEPF) and also in the Division of Nuclear Safety. In the Division of NEPF the International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants carries out its activities within the IAEA Project A2.03 ''Nuclear Power Plant Life Management''. Activities under this project have produced a wealth of information by organizing specialists meeting, preparing technical publications on related topics and arranging co-ordinated research programmes with good results. The most recent development is a database which has been developed and is being maintained. 4 figs

  15. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A comparison between MgB2, NbSe2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductors. S D KAUSHIK1, V BRACCINI2 and S PATNAIK1,∗. 1School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India. 2CNR-INFM LAMIA, C.so, Perrone 24, 16152, ...

  16. Adaptive wave field synthesis for broadband active sound field reproduction: signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Sound field reproduction is a physical approach to the reproduction of the natural spatial character of hearing. It is also useful in experimental acoustics and psychoacoustics. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. A real reflective reproduction space thus reduces the objective accuracy of WFS. Recently, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a combination of WFS and active compensation. AWFS is based on the minimization of reproduction errors and on the penalization of departure from the WFS solution. This paper focuses on signal processing for AWFS. A classical adaptive algorithm is modified for AWFS: filtered-reference least-mean-square. This modified algorithm and the classical equivalent leaky algorithm have similar convergence properties except that the WFS solution influences the adaptation rule of the modified algorithm. The paper also introduces signal processing for independent radiation mode control of AWFS on the basis of plant decoupling. Simulation results for AWFS are introduced for free-field and reflective spaces. The two algorithms effectively reproduce the sound field and compensate for the reproduction errors at the error sensors. The independent radiation mode control allows a more flexible tuning of the algorithm.

  17. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Zuhair A [Davis, CA; Woolman, Joseph N [Davis, CA; Petrovic, John J [Los Alamos, NM

    2003-09-02

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  18. Control of active liquid crystals with a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamat, Pau; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc

    2016-05-17

    Living cells sense the mechanical features of their environment and adapt to it by actively remodeling their peripheral network of filamentary proteins, known as cortical cytoskeleton. By mimicking this principle, we demonstrate an effective control strategy for a microtubule-based active nematic in contact with a hydrophobic thermotropic liquid crystal. By using well-established protocols for the orientation of liquid crystals with a uniform magnetic field, and through the mediation of anisotropic shear stresses, the active nematic reversibly self-assembles with aligned flows and textures that feature orientational order at the millimeter scale. The turbulent flow, characteristic of active nematics, is in this way regularized into a laminar flow with periodic velocity oscillations. Once patterned, the microtubule assembly reveals its intrinsic length and time scales, which we correlate with the activity of motor proteins, as predicted by existing theories of active nematics. The demonstrated commanding strategy should be compatible with other viable active biomaterials at interfaces, and we envision its use to probe the mechanics of the intracellular matrix.

  19. Photo-active float for field water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetharani, R; Balakrishna, R Geetha

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the antibacterial activity of a photoactive float fabricated with visible light active N-F-TiO2 for the disinfection of field water widely contaminated with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria like, Salmonella typhimurium (Gram negative), Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive), Bacillus species (Gram positive), and Pseudomonas species (Gram negative). The antibacterial activity can be attributed to the unique properties of the photocatalyst, which releases reactive oxygen species in aqueous solution, under the illumination of sunlight. N-F-TiO2 nanoparticles efficiently photocatalyse the destruction of all the bacteria present in the contaminated water, giving clean water. The inactivation of bacteria is confirmed by a standard plate count method, MDA, RNA and DNA analysis. The purity of water was further validated by SPC indicating nil counts of bacteria after two days of storing and testing. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET measurement, SEM, EDX, UV-Vis and PL analysis.

  20. Activated by Combined Magnrtic Field Gravitropic Reaction Reply on Nanodose of Biologicaly Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykina, Nadezhda; Bogatina, Nina

    The new science direction nanotechnologies initiated a big jump in the pharmacology and medicine. This leads to the big development of homeopathy. The most interest appeared while investigating of the reaction of biological object on the nano dose of iologically substances. The changing of concentration (in nmol/l) of biologically active material is also possible during weak energy action. For instance, weak combined magnetic field may change a little the concentration of ions that are oriented parallel to the external magnetic field and, by the analogy with said above, lead to the similar effects. Simple estimations give the value for the threshold to the magnetic field by two orders smaller than the geomagnetic field. By this investigation we wanted to understand whether the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field presents and whether the action of one of these factors may be replaced by other one. The effect of one of biologically active substances NPA (Naphtyl-Phtalame Acid) solution with the concentration 0.01 mol/l on the gravitropic reaction of cress roots was investigated. It was shown that its effect was the inhibition of cress roots gravitropic reaction. The same inhibition was achieved by the combined magnetic field action on the cress roots, germinated in water. The alternative component of the combined magnetic field coincided formally with the cyclotron frequency of NPA ions. So the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field was shown. The combined magnetic field using allows to decrease sufficiently the dose of biologically active substances. This fact can be of great importance in pharmacy and medicine.

  1. Highlights of IAEA activities in the field of radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.

    1994-01-01

    In IAEA's major programme of Nuclear Applications, the activities performed are divided into four areas: food and agriculture, industry and earth science, human health, and physical and chemical sciences. These activities involve co-operation with FAO, WHO, UNIDO and UNEP, and have close link with the technical assistance programme. About 60% of the technical assistance projects are implemented in the field of nuclear applications. The purpose of the nuclear application programme is to develop technologies useful for environmental protection and sustainable development, to support R and D programmes of developing countries, to develop new applications of nuclear techniques. Major activities in food and agriculture are the application of radiation and isotopes, controling insects, preserving food, soil fertility and crop production, and improving animal production and the use of radiation with biotechnology for plant mutation breeding aiming at environmentally friendly and sustainable food production. In the human health programme emphasis is given to nuclear medicine, cancer therapy and nutrition. Today, only 35% of all developing countries have radiotherapy facilities. Activities, therefore, focus on strengthening clinical radiotherapy in such countries. In the field of industry and earth science, flue gas cleaning by electron beams, pollution monitoring using nuclear analytical techniques, nucleonic control systems for industries, and water resource exploration are major projects assisting developing countries. As of 1994 the IAEA will launch 12 new and promising Model Projects for developing Member States which will be of benefit to their economies and raising of their standard of living. In this paper the highlights of the above mentioned IAEA activities are presented. (author)

  2. Computer Based Procedures for Field Workers - FY16 Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Computer-Based Procedure (CBP) research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. One area that could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety is in improving procedure use. A CBP provides the opportunity to incorporate context-driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, and just-in-time training. The presentation of information in CBPs can be much more flexible and tailored to the task, actual plant condition, and operation mode. The dynamic presentation of the procedure will guide the user down the path of relevant steps, thus minimizing time spent by the field worker to evaluate plant conditions and decisions related to the applicability of each step. This dynamic presentation of the procedure also minimizes the risk of conducting steps out of order and/or incorrectly assessed applicability of steps. This report provides a summary of the main research activities conducted in the Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers effort since 2012. The main focus of the report is on the research activities conducted in fiscal year 2016. The activities discussed are the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages – Enterprise Requirements initiative, the development of a design guidance for CBPs (which compiles all insights gained through the years of CBP research), the facilitation of vendor studies at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a pilot study for how to enhance the plant design modification work process, the collection of feedback from a field evaluation study at Plant Vogtle, and path forward to

  3. Computer Based Procedures for Field Workers - FY16 Research Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The Computer-Based Procedure (CBP) research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. One area that could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety is in improving procedure use. A CBP provides the opportunity to incorporate context-driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, and just-in-time training. The presentation of information in CBPs can be much more flexible and tailored to the task, actual plant condition, and operation mode. The dynamic presentation of the procedure will guide the user down the path of relevant steps, thus minimizing time spent by the field worker to evaluate plant conditions and decisions related to the applicability of each step. This dynamic presentation of the procedure also minimizes the risk of conducting steps out of order and/or incorrectly assessed applicability of steps. This report provides a summary of the main research activities conducted in the Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers effort since 2012. The main focus of the report is on the research activities conducted in fiscal year 2016. The activities discussed are the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements initiative, the development of a design guidance for CBPs (which compiles all insights gained through the years of CBP research), the facilitation of vendor studies at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a pilot study for how to enhance the plant design modification work process, the collection of feedback from a field evaluation study at Plant Vogtle, and path forward to

  4. Effect of physical activity and 217-Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on rat locomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasol Zeidabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays the widespread use of cell phones has increased concerns about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on human body. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of physical activity in moderating the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF emitted from cell phones on rat locomotor activity. Material and Methods: Male Albino-Wistar rats (no=70 were divided into seven groups: Short and Long- term physical activity; Control, ELF-EMF; Sham; Long-term physical activity+ELF-EMF; Short-term physical activity+ELF-EMF. Short and Long- term physical activity groups were forced to daily treadmill running (30 minutes for one week and one month, respectively. ELF-EMF group was exposed to ELF-EMF cell phone simulator for three hours during the period. Having placed in the ELF-EMF simulator device, the physical activity+ELF-EMF groups were transferred to treadmill. Locomotor activity were analyzed as distance, time and speed of movement in open field apparatus. Results: The results showed that the ELF-EMF from cell phones can significantly decrease the locomotor activity in the exposed rats. On the other hand, short and long-term physical activity significantly increased motor activity in the trained rats (P≤0.05. However, there was no significant difference between the combination groups (Physical activity+ELF-EMF and ELF group in locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results revealed that the physical activity could not prevent the decrease of locomotor activity caused by ELF-EMF from cell phone.

  5. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Massa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs, Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs. The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  6. AC Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Siochi, Emilie J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory materials have drawn interest for applications like intelligent medical devices, deployable space structures and morphing structures. Compared to other shape memory materials like shape memory alloys (SMAs) or shape memory ceramics (SMCs), shape memory polymers (SMPs) have high elastic deformation that is amenable to tailored of mechanical properties, have lower density, and are easily processed. However, SMPs have low recovery stress and long response times. A new shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive fillers to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. A new composition of shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. The elastic modulus of LaRC-SMPC is approximately 2.7 GPa at room temperature and 4.3 MPa above its glass transition temperature. Conductive FGSs-doped LaRC-SMPC exhibited higher conductivity compared to pristine LaRC SMP. Applying an electric field at between 0.1 Hz and 1 kHz induced faster heating to activate the LaRC-SMPC s shape memory effect relative to applying DC electric field or AC electric field at frequencies exceeding1 kHz.

  7. High Field Side MHD Activity During Local Helicity Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachicano, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Richner, N. J.

    2017-10-01

    MHD is an essential part of understanding the mechanism for local helicity injection (LHI) current drive. The new high field side (HFS) LHI system on the Pegasus ST permits new tests of recent NIMROD simulations. In that model, LHI current streams in the plasma edge undergo large-scale reconnection events, leading to current drive. This produces bursty n = 1 activity around 30 kHz on low field side (LFS) Mirnov coils, consistent with experiment. The simulations also feature coherent injector streams winding down the center column. Improvements to the core high-resolution poloidal Mirnov array with Cat7A Ethernet cabling and differentially driven signal processing eliminated EMI-driven switching noise, enabling detailed spectral analysis. Preliminary results from the recovered HFS poloidal Mirnov coils suggest n = 1 activity is present at the top of the vessel core, but does not persist down the centerstack. HFS LHI experiments can exhibit an operating regime where the high amplitude MHD is abruptly reduced by more than an order of magnitude on LFS Mirnov coils, leading to higher plasma current and improved particle confinement. This reduction is not observed on the HFS midplane magnetics. Instead, they show broadband turbulence-like magnetic features with near consistent amplitude in a frequency range of 90-200 kHz. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  8. IAEA activities in the field of research reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuculescu, C.; Boado Magan, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    IAEA activities in the field of research reactor safety are included in the programme of the Division of Nuclear Installations Safety. Following the objectives of the Division, the results of the IAEA missions and the recommendations from International Advisory Groups, the IAEA has conducted in recent years a certain number of activities aiming to enhance the safety of research reactors. The following activities will be presented: (a) the new Requirements for the Safety of Research Reactors, main features and differences with previous standards (SS-35-S1 and SS-35-S2) and the grading approach for implementation; (b) new documents being developed (safety guides, safety reports and TECDOC's); (c) activities related to the Incident Reporting System for Research Reactor (IRSRR); (d) the new features implemented for the INSARR missions; (e) the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors adopted by the Board of Governors on 8 March 2004, following the General Conference Resolution GC(45)/RES/10; and (f) the survey on the safety of research reactors published on the IAEA website on February 2003 and the results obtained. (author)

  9. Activation experiments at TFTR in deuterium-tritium neutron field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Kugel, H.W.; Ascione, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Samples of materials, of relevance to ITER and DEMO reactors, have been irradiated at TFTR in a mixed D-T and D-D neutron field over the past 3 years. The samples have been placed at various locations close to, and around, the TFTR vacuum vessel to obtain the impact of the variation of neutron energy spectrum on induced radioactivity. Intermediate measurements of decay gamma-ray activity of a number of radiated samples have contributed to an experimental database of saturation activities for aluminum, silicon, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, indium, silver, europium, terbium, hafnium, tungsten, rhenium, gold, 316 stainless steel, a vanadium-chromium-titanium alloy, a manganese-copper alloy, inconel 625, and inconel 718. New activity data for samples irradiated in TFTR irradiation-end 3 (external) are presented. Data for V-9Cr-5Ti alloy, inconel 718 alloy, and inconel 625 alloy are being reported for the first time. These measurements offer an invaluable opportunity for bench-marking of three-dimensional calculations of fusion neutron transport and activation for application to the design and regulatory licensing of large complex fusion reactors, such as ITER. (orig.) 7 refs.

  10. Field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao

    2006-06-01

    Field-independent individuals, compared with field-dependent individuals, have higher sports potential and advantages in sport-related settings. Little research, however, has been conducted on the association of field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity. The study examined this association for college students who participated in physical activities in and beyond physical education classes. The Group Embedded Figures Test distinguished 40 field-dependent from 40 field-independent participants. Activity logs during one semester showed that field-independent participants were significantly more physically active and their physical activity behaviors were more sport-related than those of field-dependent participants.

  11. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T.; Erickson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R ampersand D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref

  12. A militarily fielded thermal neutron activation sensor for landmine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, E.T.H. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River (Canada); McFee, J.E. [Defence R and D Canada-Suffield, Medicine Hat (Canada)], E-mail: john.mcfee@drdc-rddc.gc.ca; Ing, H.; Andrews, H.R.; Tennant, D.; Harper, E. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River (Canada); Faust, A.A. [Defence R and D Canada-Suffield, Medicine Hat (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    The Canadian Department of National Defence has developed a teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor system to detect anti-tank landmines on roads and tracks in peacekeeping operations. A key part of the system is a thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensor which is placed above a suspect location to within a 30 cm radius and confirms the presence of explosives via detection of the 10.835 MeV gamma ray associated with thermal neutron capture on {sup 14}N. The TNA uses a 100{mu}g{sup 252}Cf neutron source surrounded by four 7.62cmx7.62cm NaI(Tl) detectors. The system, consisting of the TNA sensor head, including source, detectors and shielding, the high-rate, fast pulse processing electronics and the data processing methodology are described. Results of experiments to characterize detection performance are also described. The experiments have shown that anti-tank mines buried 10 cm or less can be detected in roughly a minute or less, but deeper mines and mines significantly displaced horizontally take considerably longer time. Mines as deep as 30 cm can be detected for long count times (1000 s). Four TNA detectors are now in service with the Canadian Forces as part of the four multi-sensor systems, making it the first militarily fielded TNA sensor and the first militarily fielded confirmation sensor for landmines. The ability to function well in adverse climatic conditions has been demonstrated, both in trials and operations.

  13. Influence of honey bee, Apis mellifera, hives and field size on foraging activity of native bee species in pumpkin fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Hsu, Cynthia L; Nault, Brian A

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify bee species active in pumpkin fields in New York and to estimate their potential as pollinators by examining their foraging activity. In addition, we examined whether foraging activity was affected by either the addition of hives of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., or by field size. Thirty-five pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) fields ranging from 0.6 to 26.3 ha, 12 supplemented with A. mellifera hives and 23 not supplemented, were sampled during peak flowering over three successive weeks in 2008 and 2009. Flowers from 300 plants per field were visually sampled for bees on each sampling date. A. mellifera, Bombus impatiens Cresson, and Peponapis pruinosa (Say) accounted for 99% of all bee visits to flowers. A. mellifera and B. impatiens visited significantly more pistillate flowers than would be expected by chance, whereas P. pruinosa showed no preference for visiting pistillate flowers. There were significantly more A. mellifera visits per flower in fields supplemented with A. mellifera hives than in fields not supplemented, but there were significantly fewer P. pruinosa visits in supplemented fields. The number of B. impatiens visits was not affected by supplementation, but was affected by number of flowers per field. A. mellifera and P. pruinosa visits were not affected by field size, but B. impatiens visited fewer flowers as field size increased in fields that were not supplemented with A. mellifera hives. Declining A. mellifera populations may increase the relative importance of B. impatiens in pollinating pumpkins in New York.

  14. Field-Testing of an Active Laser Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V.; Khiznyak, A.; Woll, D.; Liu, S.

    Comprehensive space surveillance demands a more accurate technique in tracking multi-dimensional state vector (3D coordinate, velocity, vibration, etc.) of the space objects. RF radiometric techniques typically can not provide the needed accuracy, while passive optical (and laser) tracking systems can provide distance to the object and its angular position, but not a direct reading of velocity, the parameter of primary importance for space object tracking and characterization. Addressing this problem with active optical tracking techniques is challenging because of the great distances involved, the high velocity of the satellites, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. We have proposed a phase conjugation based laser tracking concept, and accomplished the first version of design and engineering of a prototype for an Active Laser Tracking System (ALTS). In its current state the ALTS is capable to demonstrate the very basics operational principles of the proposed active tracking technique. We then performed a number of experiments to prove operational capabilities of this prototype both at MetroLaser's lab environment and at Edwards AFB Test Range. In its current architecture the ALTS is comprised of two laser cavities, Master and Slave that are coupled through a Phase Conjugate Mirror (PCM) formed in a non-linear medium (NLM) set at Master laser cavity. By pumping NLM and forming PCM, Master laser establishes the cavities coupling mode and injects the photons in the slave cavity. It is essential that the specific features of the PCM not only serve to couple ALTS cavities, but also serves to compensate optical aberrations of the ALTS (gain media and optical elements of the laser resonator). Due to its ability to compensate optical aberrations, phase conjugate resonators are capable of sustaining oscillation with a remote target as an output coupler. The entire system comprises of several modules, including a laser, emitting/receiving telescope, gimbal

  15. Computation of induced electric field for the sacral nerve activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Hattori, Junya; Laakso, Ilkka; Takagi, Airi; Shimada, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The induced electric field/current in the sacral nerve by stimulation devices for the treatment of bladder overactivity is investigated. Implanted and transcutaneous electrode configurations are considered. The electric field induced in the sacral nerve by the implanted electrode is largely affected by its surrounding tissues, which is attributable to the variation in the input impedance of the electrode. In contrast, the electric field induced by the transcutaneous electrode is affected by the tissue conductivity and anatomical composition of the body. In addition, the electric field induced in the subcutaneous fat in close proximity of the electrode is comparable with the estimated threshold electric field for pain. These computational findings explain the clinically observed weakness and side effect of each configuration. For the transcutaneous stimulator, we suggest that the electrode contact area be increased to reduce the induced electric field in the subcutaneous fat. (paper)

  16. Notes on activities in the field of population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    The Committee for International Coordination of National Research (CICRED), formed by the UN in 1971, commissioned a number of national monographs on "Past, Present and Future Trends of Population" for African countries. A report on the UN programs of demographic training in Africa pinpoints governments, universities, and the UN as sponsors and centers for demographic training and education. The UN's program, in cooperation with African governments, the Economic Commission for Africa, the Conference of African Statisticians, and the Conference of African Planners, established statistical training centers at middle, intermediate, and high levels of competence in demographic statistics. Demographic teaching in UN sponsored demographic units in African universities provides for teaching and research programs. The Cairo Demographic Center has carried out a number of research projects which have helped in understanding demographic trends in the area it serves. It has established a program for team research, selecting different demographic topics for different years, and awarding fellowships for trainees. The Regional Institute for Population Studies in Ghana, the Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques in the Republic of Cameroon, and the Cairo Demographic Center follow the same model with training in: substantive and technical demography; and ancillary subjects such as mathematics, statistics, sampling, survey and research methodology, sociology, economic development planning, genetics, and physiology of reproduction. The centers plan to provide field experiences to students by jointly sponsoring ad hoc demographic surveys in the host countries. Coordinators among different UN agencies meet annually to coordinate training activities. A survey of women from the Republic of Cameroon showed that women desire population growth; their ideal family size is 6; they desire family planning information; they want sex education taught in post primary institutions

  17. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    meters such as high transition temperature, high upper critical field, low anisotropy and the ability to sustain high current ... critical field Hc2(0) ~ 60 T [4] holds promise, especially in conjunction with liquid cryogen-free close cycle ... Care was taken in selecting the correct magnitude of probe current so that it followed Ohmic ...

  18. Active Feedback Control of Unstable Wells at the Brage Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Dalsmo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present new results on stabilization of horizontal wells with gas lift. The stabilization is achieved by a novel dynamic feedback control solution using the production choke at the wellhead. The primary input to the dynamic feedback controller is a measurement of the downhole pressure. The field results to be presented are from the Brage field operated by Norsk Hydro in the North sea. Production at Brage began in 1993 and the field went off plateau in 1998. As the production has decreased, the problems related to unstable production from some of the wells have escalated steadily. The results from the extensive field tests on the Brage wells arc very promising. The tests have confirmed the stabilization feature of the control solution. The pressure and flow variations have been dramatically reduced, and it is possible to produce the wells at a lower downhole pressure leading to increased production.

  19. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in active regions also shows the butterfly pattern through the solar cycle. And, less than 30% of the active regions do not follow the general trend (Zhang & Bao 1998). The longitudinal distribution of current helicity parameter h|| of active regions in both the hemispheres in the last decade was presented by Zhang & Bao ...

  20. An active pixels spectrometers for neutronic fields metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taforeau, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental metrology is responsible for the sustainability of the measurement systems and handles to supply the reference standards. Concerning the metrology of ionizing radiations and, in particular the neutron metrology, detectors standards are used to characterize reference fields, in terms of energy and fluence. The dosimeters or particle detectors are calibrated on these reference fields. This thesis presents the development of a neutron spectrometer neutron candidate to the status of primary standard for the characterization of neutron fields in the range from 5 to 20 MeV. The spectrometer uses the recoil proton telescope as detection principle; the CMOS technology, through three sensor positions, is taking advantage to realize the tracking of protons. A Si(Li) detector handles the measure of the residual proton energy. The device simulations, realized under MCNPX, allow to estimate its performances and to validate the neutron energy reconstruction. An essential step of characterization of the telescope elements and in particular of CMOS sensors is also proposed to guarantee the validity of posterior experimental measurements. The tests realized as well in mono-energy fields as in radionuclide source show the very good performances of the system. The quantification of uncertainties indicates an energy estimation with 1.5 % accuracy and a resolution of less than 6 %. The fluence measurement is performed with an uncertainty about 4 to 6%. (author)

  1. Contact-free handling using actively controlled electrostatic levitating fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woo, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    In general electric field forces have the distinctive property of being able to mediate forces to virtually any material in a fully non-invasive and contact-free fashion. Based on this property, electrostatic levitation holds great promise for the semiconductor, solar panel, and flat-panel display

  2. Differential neural activation for camouflage detection task in Field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... pertinent to examine the activation patterns in the brain of. FDs as compared to FIs during a search task involving camouflaged objects. We hypothesized that cognitive styles influence camouflage detection, with variance amidst FI and. FD individuals for detection ability, brain activation pattern being the ...

  3. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kneafsey, Timothy; Borglin, Sharon; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Doughty, Christine; Reagan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition's (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  4. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  5. Short presentation on some researches activities about near field earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, John

    2002-01-01

    The major hazard posed by earthquakes is often thought to be due to moderate to large magnitude events. However, there have been many cases where earthquakes of moderate and even small magnitude have caused very significant destruction when they have coincided with population centres. Even though the area of intense ground shaking caused by such events is generally small, the epicentral motions can be severe enough to cause damage even in well-engineered structures. Two issues are addressed here, the first being the identification of the minimum earthquake magnitude likely to cause damage to engineered structures and the limits of the near-field for small-to-moderate magnitude earthquakes. The second issue addressed is whether features of near-field ground motions such as directivity, which can significantly enhance the destructive potential, occur in small-to-moderate magnitude events. The accelerograms from the 1986 San Salvador (El Salvador) earthquake indicate that it may be non conservative to assume that near-field directivity effects only need to be considered for earthquakes of moment magnitude M 6.5 and greater. (author)

  6. Progress in the field of physiologically active lanosterol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetova, I. G.; Tkhaper, R. K.; Kamernitskii, Alexey V.

    1992-08-01

    This review correlates the studies (up to 1991) on the isolation, structural determination, biological activity, and synthesis of physiologically active polyoxidised lanosterol derivatives of vegetable (inotodiol, ganoderic acids) and animal (seychellogenin) origin. The cytotoxic, cardiovascular, and other forms of activity of compounds of this type are of considerable interest in relation to their medical use. It is noted that the functionalised side chain (in an open form or containing lactones, lactols, etc.) is generally responsible for the activity exhibited by lanosterol derivatives. Two basic approaches to the derivation of these structures are defined: either by complete reconstruction of the side chain of lanosterol (degradation and rebuilding with oxygen-containing residues) or by progressive functionalisation of the Δ24-side chain of lanosterol. The synthesis of the known anticancer compound "inotodiol", seychellogenins, ganoderic acids, and other compounds are described. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  7. Active Shielding in Measurements of DC Near Biomagnetic Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowak, Hannes

    2001-01-01

    .... An effective SQUID based active shielding system has been developed and installed at the magnetically shielded rooms in the Biomagnetic Center of the University Jena to reduce external low frequency disturbances...

  8. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  9. Wave field synthesis, adaptive wave field synthesis and ambisonics using decentralized transformed control: Potential applications to sound field reproduction and active noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2005-09-01

    Sound field reproduction finds applications in listening to prerecorded music or in synthesizing virtual acoustics. The objective is to recreate a sound field in a listening environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. Classical WFS, therefore, does not perform well in a real reproduction space such as room. Previous work has suggested that it is physically possible to reproduce a progressive wave field in-room situation using active control approaches. In this paper, a formulation of adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) introduces practical possibilities for an adaptive sound field reproduction combining WFS and active control (with WFS departure penalization) with a limited number of error sensors. AWFS includes WFS and closed-loop ``Ambisonics'' as limiting cases. This leads to the modification of the multichannel filtered-reference least-mean-square (FXLMS) and the filtered-error LMS (FELMS) adaptive algorithms for AWFS. Decentralization of AWFS for sound field reproduction is introduced on the basis of sources' and sensors' radiation modes. Such decoupling may lead to decentralized control of source strength distributions and may reduce computational burden of the FXLMS and the FELMS algorithms used for AWFS. [Work funded by NSERC, NATEQ, Université de Sherbrooke and VRQ.] Ultrasound/Bioresponse to

  10. Miller Creek Demonstration Forest ecology activities - a teachers supplement to the field guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Schustrom; Reed Kuennen; Raymond C. Shearer

    1998-01-01

    Miller Creek, on the Flathead National Forest in northwestern Montana, is a demonstration forest, showing up to 30 years of forest change. This teachers supplement to the educational field guide (Miller Creek Demonstration Forest - a forest born of fire: a field guide; Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-7, 1998) outlines eight field and classroom activities that teach students a...

  11. Preschool Teaching Staff's Opinions on the Importance of Preschool Curricular Fields of Activities, Art Genres and Visual Arts Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Tomaž; Cagran, Branka; Mulej, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    This article presents preschool teachers' and assistant teachers' opinions on the importance of selected fields of educational work in kindergartens. The article first highlights the importance of activities expressing artistic creativity within modern curriculums. Then, it presents an empirical study that examines the preschool teachers' and…

  12. Popularization activities for young children of the scientific activity in the field of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Le Gueut, Marie-Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Research projects now rely on various pillars which include of course high level science and equipments, and also communication, outreach and educational activities. This paper focuses on education for young children and present activities that aim at helping them (and their parents!) to grasp some of the complex underlying scientific issues in the field of environment. More generally it helps children to get familiarized with science and scientists, with the hope of enhancing scientific culture and promoting careers in this field. The activities which are part of the popularization effort of the NEW Interreg IV RainGain project (www.raingain.eu) : - Experiments led in classrooms of kinder garden to design and test a disdrometer made of a plate and flour or oil to observe the diversity of rain drop sizes. It simply consists in putting a bit (roughly 1 mm depth) of flour or oil in a plate. The features of the devices based either flour or oil were first studied inside with artificial drops. Then it was tested outside under actual rain. - The writing of scientific book with and for children aged 8-9 years with the help of the editor of the collection. The process leading to the final book is splat in three main successive steps: (i) A 1.5 h interactive session with the researcher and a class of 8-9 year children. They are simply given the general topic of the book few hours before and ask all the questions they have on it and get some answers; (ii) The researcher writes a book in which all the questions raised by children are answered (at least partially). The scientific elements should be inserted in a lively story with few characters. The story should be more than a simple dialogue; a genuine fiction should take place and come first so that children do not even notice they are understanding and learning; (iii) Once children have read the book, there is a second session to get some feedback and possibly edit the manuscript (altering a character, adding some

  13. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  14. Control strategies for active noise barriers using near-field error sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    In this paper active noise control strategies for noise barriers are presented which are based on the use of sensors near the noise barrier. Virtual error signals are derived from these near-field sensor signals such that reductions of the far-field sound pressure are obtained with the active

  15. CEC activities in the field of LMFBR safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.; Finzi, S.; Klersy, R.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the ECC is to reach a common LMFBR Safety strategy in Europe. To this end the Commission promotes collaboration between the different fast reactor projects in the Community through working groups and collaborative arrangements and contributes with a research activity executed in its Joint Research Centre Ispra. A short description is given of the activity in the working groups and of the Ispra programme on LMFBR Safety. This programme covers: LMFBR thermohydraulics, fuel coolant interactions, dynamic structure loading and response, safety related material properties and whole core accident code development

  16. Future of international cooperative activity for graduate school education in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Further improvement of graduate school education in nuclear field is one of the important issues in universities in nuclear field. The COE-INES program has performed international cooperative activities for graduate school education with foreign universities in nuclear field. There are a lot of possibilities in international cooperation with foreign universities for graduate school education. The use of Internet can be a strong tool for the activities. (author)

  17. Complexity of Doppler motion field of active regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bumba, Václav; Klvaňa, Miroslav; Garcia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 4 (2007), s. 153-166 [Fizika nebesnych tel. Naučnyj, 11.09.2005-18.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : active region Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Ten year's activity in the field of neutron scattering workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2003-01-01

    'Neutron scattering' is in the frame of the 'Utilization of Research Reactor's of the FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) project, which held the workshops from FY 1992. This report is a summary of the results and activities of neutron scattering workshops and sub-workshops since the start in FY 1992. (author)

  19. ICRU activity in the field of phantoms in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; White, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRU Report on 'Phantoms and Computational Models in Radiation Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection' is presented. The Report contains a major section on human anatomy, from fetus to adult with the variations due to ethnic origin. Tolerance levels for the phantoms (composition, dimensions) are proposed and quality assurance programs are outlined. The report contains extensive appendices: human anatomical data and full specification of over 80 phantoms and computational models. ICRU Report 46 on 'Photon, electron, proton and neutron interaction data for body tissues' is closely related to the field of phantoms. It is a logical continuation on ICRU Report 44 (1989) on 'Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements' and contains the interaction data for more than 100 tissues, from fetal to adult, including some diseased tissues. (author)

  20. Mechanoreceptor afferent activity compared with receptor field dimensions and pressure changes in feline urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J W; Armour, J A

    1992-11-01

    The relationship between vesical mechanoreceptor field dimensions and afferent nerve activity recorded in pelvic plexus nerve filaments was examined in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Orthogonal receptor field dimensions were monitored with piezoelectric ultrasonic crystals. Reflexly generated bladder contractile activity made measurements difficult, therefore data were collected from cats subjected to actual sacral rhizotomy. Afferent activity was episodic and was initiated at different pressure and receptor field dimension thresholds. Maximum afferent activity did not correlate with maximum volume or pressure. Furthermore, activity was not linearly related to intravesical pressure, receptor field dimensions, or calculated wall tension. Pressure-length hysteresis of the receptor fields occurred. The responses of identified afferent units and their associated receptor field dimensions to brief contractions elicited by the ganglion stimulant 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (2.5-20 micrograms i.a.), studied under constant volume or constant pressure conditions, are compatible with bladder mechanoreceptors behaving as tension receptors. Because activity generated by bladder mechanoreceptors did not correlate in a simple fashion with intravesical pressure or receptor field dimensions, it is concluded that such receptors are influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the bladder wall. Furthermore, as a result of the heterogeneity of the bladder wall, receptor field tension appears to offer a more precise relationship with the activity of bladder wall mechanoreceptors than does intravesical pressure.

  1. Active gas adsorption-promoted evaporation of tungsten and niobium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Mikhajlovskij, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    Field-ion methods and pulsed mass-spectrometeric analysis are used to study field evaporation of tungsten and niobium affected by nitrogen and hydrogen. Active gas-promoted evaporation is found to take place at field intensities high enough for the field ionization of active gases. The evaporating field intensity is established to increase from 1.45x10 8 to 5.5x10 8 V/cm while passing from continuous to pulsed conditions of evaporation, this testifies to the change of the mechanism of the promoted evaporation. Under the effect of active gases, the evaporation rate essentially depends on the surface state. It is shown that in the microcrystals irradiated with 1-3 kV helium ions, the dependence of the evaporation rate of Nb in hydrogen on the field intensity gets monotonous. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the recombination model of a promoted evaporation [ru

  2. ICRU activity in the field of phantoms in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRU Report on 'Phantoms and Computational Models in Radiation Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection' is presented. Different types of phantoms may be defined. They may be broadly categorized according to their primary function: dosimetry, calibration and imaging. Within each functional category, there are 3 types or designs of phantoms: body phantoms (anthropomorphic), standard phantoms and reference phantoms (used in the definition and specification of certain radiation quantities). In radiological imaging, anthropomorphic body phantoms are used for measuring the absorbed dose distribution resulting from imaging procedures. Standard phantoms have simple reproducible geometry and are used for comparing measurements under standard conditions of exposure. Imaging phantoms are useful for evaluating a given imaging system; they contain different types of test pieces. The report contains a major section on human anatomy, from fetus to adult with the variations due to ethnic origin. Tolerance levels for the phantoms (composition, dimensions) are proposed and quality assurance programs are outlined. The report contains extensive appendices; human anatomical data and full specification of over 80 phantoms and computational models. ICRU Report 46 on 'Photon, electron, proton and neutron interaction data for body tissues' is closely related to the field of phantoms. It is a logical continuation on ICRU Report 44 (1989) on 'Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements' and contains the interaction data for more than 100 tissues, from fetal to adult, including some diseased tissues

  3. Developments in the field of active magnetic bearings at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    The studies carried out by EDF concerning the evaluation of the active magnetic bearing technology for their possible application to rotating machinery in electrical plants, and especially the 900 MW ''CP2'' turbogenerators which appear to have very little damping and vibrate noticeably during transients. Using a 4 tons test bench, the good quality of simulation applied to both permanent and transient conditions have been verified. Then, using a 10 tons test bench, the dimensioning concerns of the CP2 application were more precisely evaluated. It has been especially demonstrated that the accessible levels of force and damping were compatible with the application constraints. In a final 30 tons project, some innovative technological components have been used and the benefits from an optimization of the design of the magnetic parameters were determined. Specifications for a full-scale implementation have been therefore defined to enable the manufacturer to make a commercial offer. After a disappointing analysis of the offer, CP2 computations and studies were stopped but subsidiary studies were conducted: estimation of the damage risk under alternative bending of the CP2 rotors during their lifetime, prospective analysis of other possible applications of active magnetic bearings in power plants, development of a new vibratory test method through electromagnetic excitation. 5 figs., 6 refs

  4. Magnetographic observations of magnetic fields in quiet and active regions of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsap, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of measurement of the solar longitudinal magnetic field carried out on the double magnetograph of the Crimea astrophysical observatory in the FeI 5250 A and 5233 A lines are presented. The registration of magnetic field is performed with the high resolution of 1x1''. It is found that in the most cases the measured magnetic field intensity outside active areas does not exceed 20-25 Hauss. In rare cases magnetic fields with the intensity greater than 500 Hauss are observed. The magnetic field intensity in the flocculas is greater in average than in nondisturbed areas

  5. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  6. ILO activities in the field of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnagoda, C.

    1992-01-01

    Control of chemical risks has become a matter of increasing concern for the occupational safety and health activities of the ILO. Its chemical safety programme focuses attention on a series of comprehensive measures to promote national level action for effective control of chemical risks aimed at the protection of workers and consequently of the general public. The supply and use of information based on risk assessment for exposure control and the application of practical improvement measures through improved risk management and training continue to receive increasing importance. The important and direct role of employers and workers in the assessment of risks and planning and implementation of workplace improvements is an identified need. Risk assessment is a component of the chemical safety programme of the ILO that places significant emphasis on: the setting of international standards that lay down basic principles in chemical risk assessment and control; national level action to promote coherent policies and programmes on safety in the use of chemicals and prevention of industrial disasters (major hazard control); technical advisory services through the development of guides and training programmes that focus on workplace participatory approaches; collection and dissemination of practical information; and technical co-operation assistance to developing countries

  7. On a forecast of geomagnetic activity according to magnetic fields on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponyavin, D.I.; Pudovkin, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for tracking the current layer orientation in the solar corona and solar wind high-velocity flux sources is suggested according to the observation of large-scale magnetic fields at the Sun. Ionospheric magnetic fields in potential approximation are extrapolated to the Sun atmosphere high layers - in the region of probable formation of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. The chart of isocline-lines of field vector even inclination to the surface of R=1.8R sun radius sphere is plotted according to the calculated magnetic field. Daily plotting of such charts allows to continuosly track the large-scale structure and evolution of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. Th comparison of isoclinic charts with geomagnetic activity for October 1982 has shown the principal possibility to use this technique for the purposes of geomagnetic activity forecasting

  8. Asymmetric active nano-particles for directive near-field radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Thorsen, Rasmus O.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the potential of cylindrical active coated nano-particles with certain geometrical asymmetries for the creation of directive near-field radiation. The particles are excited by a near-by magnetic line source, and their performance characteristics are reported in terms...... of radiated power, near-field and power flow distributions as well as the far-field directivity....

  9. Scaling Behavior of Structure Functions of the Longitudinal Magnetic Field in Active Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Wang, H.; Spirock, T. J.; Goode, P. R.

    2002-05-01

    In the framework of a refined Kolmogorov's hypotheses, the scaling behavior of the BZ--component of the photospheric magnetic field is analyzed and compared with flaring activity in solar active regions. We used SOHO/MDI, Huairou (China) and Big Bear measurements of the Bz-component in the photosphere for nine active regions. We show that there is no universal behavior in the scaling of the Bz-structure functions for different active regions. Scaling for a given active region is caused by intermittency in the field, ǎrepsilon(B)(ěc x), of magnetic energy dissipation. When intermittency is weak, the Bz-field behaves as a passive scalar in the turbulent flow and the energy dissipation is largely determined by the dissipation of kinetic energy in active regions with low flare productivity. However, when the field ǎrepsilon(B)(ěc x) is highly intermittent, the structure functions behave as transverse structure functions of a fully developed turbulent vector field and the scaling of the energy dissipation is mostly determined by the dissipation of the magnetic energy (active regions with strong flaring productivity). We found that the spectrum of dissipation of the Bz component is strongly related to the level of flare productivity of a solar active region. When the flare productivity is high, the corresponding spectrum is less steep. We also found that during the evolution of an NOAA AR 9393 the Bz dissipation spectrum becomes less steep as the active region's flare activity increases. We suggest that the relation between scaling exponents and flare productivity of an active region enables us to monitor and forecast flare activity using only measurements of the Bz component of the photospheric magnetic field. This work was supported in part by the Ukrainian Ministry of Science and Education, NSF-ATM (0076602 and 0086999) and NASA (9682 and 9738) grants. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

  10. Effects of the Ride Environment on Passenger Activities : A Field Study on Intercity Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A three-part field study of passenger activities (e.g. reading, writing, talking, sleeping) was conducted on intercity Amtrak trains in the northeastern United States to determine the relationships between the ride environment, subjective passenger c...

  11. The effects of the ride environment on passenger activities : a field study on intercity trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A three-part field study of passenger activities (e.g. reading, writing, talking, sleeping) was conducted on intercity Amtrak trains in the northeastern United States to determine the relationships between the ride environment, subjective passenger c...

  12. Child-Robot Interaction in the Wild : Field Testing Activities of the ALIZ-E Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, J. de; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Wigdor, N.; Bierman, B.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which CRI activities developed by the ALIZ-E project were tested with the project's primary user group: children with diabetes. This field study resulted in new insights in the modalities and roles a robot aimed at CRI in a healthcare setting might utilise, while in

  13. Commission of the European Communities - Activities in the field of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1977-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is performing activities in the field of fast reactor on two lines: a) activities aiming to prepare the commercialization of fast reactors by coordination and collaboration between national programmes. b) the execution of an own programme in the Joint Research Centre at Ispra (Italy) and Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) in the field of FBR safety and research on Pu-bearing fuel

  14. MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECT ON YEAST Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACTIVITY AT GRAPE MUST FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of yeast cultures using magnetic fields enables us to gain a better understanding of the magnetic fields’ action on enzyme activity and the fluctuation of macro- and micro-element concentrations within yeast cultures. For this purpose, the two following groups of yeast were studied: laboratory yeast cultures isolated from regional grape must and commercial yeast cultures that are commonly used in the wine industry. Both yeast groups were biochemically tested with and without magnetic field treatment exposure. We used the following parameters of magnetic field frequency: 160 Hz with an intensity of 5 mT and an exposure time of 30 minutes. Based on our laboratory tests, the yeast cultures that were not exposed to magnetic field treatment had a high correlation between the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and cocarboxylase. The groups of yeast that underwent magnetic field treatment had a high correlation between the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase and phosphatase. Study of the morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast followed by magnetic field treatment illustrated that between 30 and 70% of the magnetic field treated yeast died. The surviving yeast cultures in the grape must (confirmed by Gram staining revealed increased enzymatic activity and a high correlation between levels of potassium and calcium, as well as between levels of potassium and magnesium.

  15. Activation of the TRPV1 Thermoreceptor Induced by Modulated or Unmodulated 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Field Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigrok, Hermanus J; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Hurtier, Annabelle; Poque, Emmanuelle; de Gannes, Florence Poulletier; Ruffié, Gilles; Bonnaudin, Fabrice; Lagroye, Isabelle; Sojic, Neso; Arbault, Stéphane; Lévêque, Philippe; Veyret, Bernard; Percherancier, Yann

    2018-01-01

    The existence of effects of radiofrequency field exposure at environmental levels on living tissues and organisms remains controversial, in particular regarding potential "nonthermal" effects produced in the absence of temperature elevation. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1, one of the most studied thermosensitive channels, can be activated by the heat produced by radiofrequency fields and by some specific nonthermal interaction with the fields. We have recently shown that TRPV1 activation can be assessed in real-time on live cells using the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique. Taking advantage of this innovative assay, we monitored TRPV1 thermal and chemical modes of activation under radiofrequency exposure at 1800 MHz using different signals (CW, GSM, UMTS, LTE, Wi-Fi and WiMAX) at specific absorption rates between 8 and 32 W/kg. We showed that, as expected, TRPV1 channels were activated by the heat produced by radiofrequency field exposure of transiently-transfected HEK293T cells, but found no evidence of TRPV1 activation in the absence of temperature elevation under radiofrequency field exposure. There was no evidence either that, at fixed temperature, radiofrequency exposure altered the maximal efficacy of the agonist Capsaicin to activate TRPV1.

  16. Activity of an enzyme immobilized on superparamagnetic particles in a rotational magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuki, Toru; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Nagaoka, Yutaka [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Tadamasa [Shimadzu GLC Ltd., Phenomenex Support Centre, Tokyo 110-0016 (Japan); Morimoto, Hisao; Usami, Ron [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru, E-mail: maekawa@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    We immobilize {alpha}-amylase extracted from Bacillus Iicheniformis on the surfaces of superparamagnetic particles and investigate the effect of a rotational magnetic field on the enzyme's activity. We find that the activity of the enzyme molecules immobilized on superparamagnetic particles increases in the rotational magnetic field and reaches maximum at a certain frequency. We clarify the effect of the cluster structures formed by the superparamagnetic particles on the activity. Enzyme reactions are enhanced even in a tiny volume of solution using the present method, which is very important for the development of efficient micro reactors and micro total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS).

  17. Magnetic and electric field variations during geomagnetically active days over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafatoğlu Eyigüler, Emine Ceren; Kaymaz, Zerefşan

    2017-11-01

    Currents in the magnetosphere flow into the ionosphere during geomagnetic disturbances and are detected at the ground magnetic stations as Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs). In this paper, magnetic and electric field characteristics of the GICs at midlatitudes were studied using electric field and magnetic field observations in Turkey during the geomagnetically active intervals. A magnetotelluric station consisting of an electrometer and a magnetometer were set up in Bozcaada, Çanakkale (37.5°N, 106°E). Several cases that showed large electric and magnetic field fluctuations during geomagnetic disturbances were selected and the effects of geomagnetic activity were studied using the time derivatives of horizontal component of the magnetic field and the deviations in the magnetic and electric field components from the quiet background. In magnetic field data, quiet day Sq variations were removed using cubic spline fits. Similarly, the magnitude of the deviations in the electric field were determined by subtracting the background electric field determined by using cubic spline. Corresponding to the strong geomagnetic activity identified using Kp and Dst indices, high frequency, strong fluctuations in the magnetic field, its derivatives, and electric field were observed. These fluctuations in horizontal magnetic and electric field were compared with those seen during a magnetically quiet day. The close association between the fluctuations of the time derivatives of the horizontal magnetic field and electric field components were demonstrated. Two types of variations in the electric and magnetic fields corresponding to the different phases of the geomagnetic activity were identified: those corresponding to the initial phase including the sudden commencement and those to the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. The fluctuations in both magnetic field and electric field corresponding to the sudden commencement and the initial phase indicate the effects of

  18. Response of Cultured Neuronal Network Activity After High-Intensity Power Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Saito

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity and low frequency (1–100 kHz time-varying electromagnetic fields stimulate the human body through excitation of the nervous system. In power frequency range (50/60 Hz, a frequency-dependent threshold of the external electric field-induced neuronal modulation in cultured neuronal networks was used as one of the biological indicator in international guidelines; however, the threshold of the magnetic field-induced neuronal modulation has not been elucidated. In this study, we exposed rat brain-derived neuronal networks to a high-intensity power frequency magnetic field (hPF-MF, and evaluated the modulation of synchronized bursting activity using a multi-electrode array (MEA-based extracellular recording technique. As a result of short-term hPF-MF exposure (50–400 mT root-mean-square (rms, 50 Hz, sinusoidal wave, 6 s, the synchronized bursting activity was increased in the 400 mT-exposed group. On the other hand, no change was observed in the 50–200 mT-exposed groups. In order to clarify the mechanisms of the 400 mT hPF-MF exposure-induced neuronal response, we evaluated it after blocking inhibitory synapses using bicuculline methiodide (BMI; subsequently, increase in bursting activity was observed with BMI application, and the response of 400 mT hPF-MF exposure disappeared. Therefore, it was suggested that the response of hPF-MF exposure was involved in the inhibitory input. Next, we screened the inhibitory pacemaker-like neuronal activity which showed autonomous 4–10 Hz firing with CNQX and D-AP5 application, and it was confirmed that the activity was reduced after 400 mT hPF-MF exposure. Comparison of these experimental results with estimated values of the induced electric field (E-field in the culture medium revealed that the change in synchronized bursting activity occurred over 0.3 V/m, which was equivalent to the findings of a previous study that used the external electric fields. In addition, the results suggested that

  19. Active research fields in anesthesia: a document co-citation analysis of the anesthetic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Milan P; Kaufmann, Mark; Kindler, Christoph H

    2008-05-01

    The expansion of science has resulted in an increased information flow and in an exponentially growing number of connections between knowledge in different research fields. In this study, we used methods of scientometric analysis to obtain a conceptual network that forms the structure of active scientific research fields in anesthesia. We extracted from the Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information) all original articles (n = 3275) including their references (n = 79,972) that appeared in 2003 in all 23 journals listed in the Institute for Scientific Information Journal Citation Reports under the subject heading "Anesthesiology." After identification of highly cited references (> or = 5), pairs of co-cited references were created and grouped into uniformly structured clusters of documents using a single linkage and variable level clustering method. In addition, for each such cluster of documents, we identified corresponding front papers published in 2003, each of which co-cited at least two documents of the cluster core. Active anesthetic research fields were then named by examining the titles of the documents in both the established clusters and in their corresponding front papers. These research fields were sorted according to the proportion of recent documents in their cluster core (immediacy index) and were further analyzed. Forty-six current anesthetic research fields were identified. The research field named "ProSeal laryngeal mask airway" showed the highest immediacy index (100%) whereas the research fields "Experimental models of neuropathic pain" and "Volatile anesthetic-induced cardioprotection" exhibited the highest level of co-citation strength (level 9). The research field with the largest cluster core, containing 12 homogeneous papers, was "Postoperative nausea and vomiting." The journal Anesthesia & Analgesia published most front papers while Anesthesiology published most of the fundamental documents used as references in the front papers

  20. Parallel activation of field CA2 and dentate gyrus by synaptically elicited perforant path volleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Renata; Gessi, Tiziana

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies showed that dorsal psalterium (PSD) volleys to the entorhinal cortex (ENT) activated in layer II perforant path neurons projecting to the dentate gyrus. The discharge of layer II neurons was followed by the sequential activation of the dentate gyrus (DG), field CA3, field CA1. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether in this experimental model field, CA2, a largely ignored sector, is activated either directly by perforant path volleys and/or indirectly by recurrent hippocampal projections. Field potentials evoked by single-shock PSD stimulation were recorded in anesthetized guinea pigs from ENT, DG, fields CA2, CA1, and CA3. Current source-density (CSD) analysis was used to localize the input/s to field CA2. The results showed the presence in field CA2 of an early population spike superimposed on a slow wave (early response) and of a late and smaller population spike, superimposed on a slow wave (late response). CSD analysis during the early CA2 response showed a current sink in stratum lacunosum-moleculare, followed by a sink moving from stratum radiatum to stratum pyramidale, suggesting that this response represented the activation and discharge of CA2 pyramidal neurons, mediated by perforant path fibers to this field. CSD analysis during the late response showed a current sink in middle stratum radiatum of CA2 followed by a sink moving from inner stratum radiatum to stratum pyramidale, suggesting that this response was mediated by Schaffer collaterals from field CA3. No early population spike was evoked in CA3. However, an early current sink of small magnitude was evoked in stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA3, suggesting the presence of synaptic currents mediated by perforant path fibers to this field. The results provide novel information about the perforant path system, by showing that dorsal psalterium volleys to the entorhinal cortex activate perforant path neurons that evoke the parallel discharge of granule cells and CA2

  1. The influence of the magnetic field on the performance of an active magnetic regenerator (AMR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the time variation of the magnetic field, termed the magnetic field profile, on the performance of a magnetocaloric refrigeration device using the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) cycle is studied for a number of process parameters for both a parallel plate and packed bed...... regenerator using a numerical model. The cooling curve of the AMR is shown to be almost linear far from the Curie temperature of the magnetocaloric material. It is shown that a magnetic field profile that is 10% of the cycle time out of sync with the flow profile leads to a drop in both the maximum...

  2. Applications of brain blood flow imaging in behavioral neurophysiology: cortical field activation hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The 133 xenon intracarotid method for rCBF measurements has been a very useful method for functional mapping and functional dissection of the cerebral cortex in humans. With this method it has been shown that different types of cortical information treatment activate different cortical areas and furthermore that sensory and motor functions of the cerebral cortex could be dissected into anatomical and informational subcomponents by behavioral manipulations. The brain organizes its own activity. One of the principles of organization was that the brain could recruit in advance cortical fields that were expected to participate in a certain type of information operation. During brain work in awake human beings the cerebral cortex was activated in fields that, projected on the cerebral surface, most often had a size greater than 3 CM 2 . Such activated fields appeared no matter which type of information processing was going on in the brain: during planning and execution of voluntary movements, during preparation for sensory information processing, and during sensory information processing, as well as during cognitive brain work and retrieval of specific memories. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cortical field activation was the physiological manifestation of normal brain work in awake humans

  3. Applications of brain blood flow imaging in behavioral neurophysiology: cortical field activation hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 133/xenon intracarotid method for rCBF measurements has been a very useful method for functional mapping and functional dissection of the cerebral cortex in humans. With this method it has been shown that different types of cortical information treatment activate different cortical areas and furthermore that sensory and motor functions of the cerebral cortex could be dissected into anatomical and informational subcomponents by behavioral manipulations. The brain organizes its own activity. One of the principles of organization was that the brain could recruit in advance cortical fields that were expected to participate in a certain type of information operation. During brain work in awake human beings the cerebral cortex was activated in fields that, projected on the cerebral surface, most often had a size greater than 3 CM/sup 2/. Such activated fields appeared no matter which type of information processing was going on in the brain: during planning and execution of voluntary movements, during preparation for sensory information processing, and during sensory information processing, as well as during cognitive brain work and retrieval of specific memories. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cortical field activation was the physiological manifestation of normal brain work in awake humans.

  4. Erosion and deposition in a field/forest system estimated using cesium-137 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, R.; McIntyre, S.; Lance, C.

    1988-01-01

    Soil erosion and deposition were estimated using Cs-137 activity within a 7.25-ha field/forest system in the southeastern coastal plain. Sol eroded from the field was deposited both in the riparian forest ecosystem and in downslope areas of the field. Total activity, depth to peak activity, and depth to zero activity increased downslope from field to stream. Erosion and deposition rates, estimated by changes in activity per unit area from a reference undisturbed forest site, showed that about twice as much total deposition had taken place as total erosion. Excess deposition was attributed to deposition from the upstream portions of the watershed. Erosion and deposition rates estimated with this method were about 63 and 256 Mg/ha/yr, respectively. Erosion and deposition rates estimated by two different calculation techniques were nearly identical. These rates were considerably higher than rates estimated in an earlier study. The rates may be overestimated because the differential rates of Cs-137 movement on clay particles were not considered. The riparian ecosystem acted as a very efficient sediment trap. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Hidden State Conditional Random Field for Abnormal Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of elderly people has increased worldwide, there has been a surge of research into assistive technologies to provide them with better care by recognizing their normal and abnormal activities. However, existing abnormal activity recognition (AAR algorithms rarely consider sub-activity relations when recognizing abnormal activities. This paper presents an application of the Hidden State Conditional Random Field (HCRF method to detect and assess abnormal activities that often occur in elderly persons’ homes. Based on HCRF, this paper designs two AAR algorithms, and validates them by comparing them with a feature vector distance based algorithm in two experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms favorably outperform the competitor, especially when abnormal activities have same sensor type and sensor number as normal activities.

  6. Masseter Muscle Activity in Track and Field Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukaga, Hideyuki; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Narimatsu, Keishiro; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi; Funato, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Teeth clenching has been shown to improve remote muscle activity (by augmentation of the Hoffmann reflex), and joint fixation (by decreased reciprocal inhibition) in the entire body. Clenching could help maintain balance, improve systemic function, and enhance safety. Teeth clenching from a sports dentistry viewpoint was thought to be important and challenging. Therefore, it is quite important to investigate mastication muscles' activity and function during sports events for clarifying a physiological role of the mastication muscle itself and involvement of mastication muscle function in whole body movement. Running is a basic motion of a lot of sports; however, a mastication muscles activity during this motion was not clarified. Throwing and jumping operation were in a same situation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence or absence of masseter muscle activity during track and field events. In total, 28 track and field athletes took part in the study. The Multichannel Telemetry system was used to monitor muscle activity, and the electromyograms obtained were synchronized with digital video imaging. The masseter muscle activity threshold was set 15% of maximum voluntary clenching. As results, with few exceptions, masseter muscle activity were observed during all analyzed phases of the 5 activities, and that phases in which most participants showed masseter muscle activity were characterized by initial acceleration, such as in the short sprint, from the commencement of throwing to release in both the javelin throw and shot put, and at the take-off and landing phases in both jumps.

  7. Research activities in the fields of radiochemistry and neutron activation analysis using the LENA nuclear plant in Pavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, L.; Genova, N.; DiCasa, M.; Carmella-Crespi, V.

    1978-01-01

    In the past two years the activity of the Radiochemistry Laboratory and CNR Centre of Radiochemistry and Activation Analysis was mainly devoted to studies of nuclear activation analysis applied to different fields using the LENA reactor. Three NBS vegetable reference standards, Orchard Leaves, Tomato Leaves and Pine Needles, were analyzed for their halogen content. Halogen determination in foodstuff, vegetables and organic tissues gives valuable information on metabolic, nutritional, pollution and epidemiological fields. A detailed study on macro- and micro-elements content in Sardinian coal and its ashes was performed, in order to assess the possibility of using it as a fuel in electric power generating plants. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, Si, Mn, Mg, Na, V, CI, Ce, Yb, Th, Cr, Hf, Cs, Se, Rb, Fe, Co, Ta, Eu, K, La and Sb. A multielement trace analysis of rock samples was developed in cooperation with scientists from other Universities; the determination of R.E., U, Th, Zr, Cs, Ba, Ni, Sc, Ta, Hf, Sr, and Cr by instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out in connection with orogenetic studies of African Rocks. In the archaeological field ancient artefacts recently discovered during a digging campaign at Monza's Cathedral (Italy) were analyzed with the aim to trace their origin and compare their composition with similar samples whose dating is certain. As a contribute to the international program of certifying NBS reference standard materials, chromium in the Brewer's Yeast, recently proposed as a new SRM, was determined by both instrumental and destructive neutron activation analysis. In the study of the role and behaviour of trace elements in human physiology, vanadium was investigated in human blood, as a trace element of increasing interest in connection with its origin from pollutants. Nuclear activation analysis was also applied to marine organism samples under a contract for oceanographic research

  8. Measurements and simulation of induced activity at the CERN-EU high- energy reference field facility

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, M; Mitaroff, W A; Roesler, S

    2003-01-01

    Samples of aluminum, copper, stainless steel, iron, boron nitride, carbon composite and water were irradiated by the stray radiation field produced by interactions of high-energy hadrons in a copper target. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. Results of the simulation are in reasonable agreement with the measured activities. 7 Refs.

  9. Performance of active feedforward control systems in non-ideal, synthesized diffuse sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic performance of passive or active panel structures is usually tested in sound transmission loss facilities. A reverberant sending room, equipped with one or a number of independent sound sources, is used to generate a diffuse sound field excitation which acts as a disturbance source on the structure under investigation. The spatial correlation and coherence of such a synthesized non-ideal diffuse-sound-field excitation, however, might deviate significantly from the ideal case. This has consequences for the operation of an active feedforward control system which heavily relies on the acquisition of coherent disturbance source information. This work, therefore, evaluates the spatial correlation and coherence of ideal and non-ideal diffuse sound fields and considers the implications on the performance of a feedforward control system. The system under consideration is an aircraft-typical double panel system, equipped with an active sidewall panel (lining), which is realized in a transmission loss facility. Experimental results for different numbers of sound sources in the reverberation room are compared to simulation results of a comparable generic double panel system excited by an ideal diffuse sound field. It is shown that the number of statistically independent noise sources acting on the primary structure of the double panel system depends not only on the type of diffuse sound field but also on the sample lengths of the processed signals. The experimental results show that the number of reference sensors required for a defined control performance exhibits an inverse relationship to control filter length.

  10. Gender-related response in open-field activity following developmental nicotine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roland D; Chen, Wei-Jung A

    2004-08-01

    Smoking during pregnancy may lead to low birthweight and behavioral alterations in the offspring. In this study, the effects of developmental nicotine exposure on the somatic growth of the offspring and the behavioral performance in the open-field test were examined. Sprague-Dawley female rats were implanted with nicotine (35 mg for 21-day time release; NIC 35) or placebo pellets on gestational day (GD) 8 (postblastocyst implantation). A normal control group with no pellet implant was also included. There was a significantly higher maternal weight gain in the placebo group possibly due to a larger litter size. However, there were no significant differences in body weights among all three treatment groups for male and female offspring. The amount of activity, measured by the total number of crossings in the open-field test, indicated a gender difference in baseline level and pattern of ambulatory activity, with less activity (lower number of crossings) in male offspring and an increase in the activity of the female offspring as a function of testing day. The increase in the ambulatory activity of the female offspring was observed in the placebo and normal, but not the NIC 35 group suggesting that developmental nicotine exposure interferes with open-field activity, and this behavioral alteration is gender related. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Service design: pre-trip planning for international visitors attending the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, OA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available design strategies. However, bid and subsequent planning documents for the event have focused on macro issues relating to the envisaged public transport systems. Designing passenger transport services for the event requires a good understanding...

  12. A novel application of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for improving glutathione (GSH) antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ying; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Jones, Gregory

    2014-10-15

    Glutathione (GSH) was treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) processing to investigate its effect on antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of GSH was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical inhibition. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables, which were concentration, electric field intensity and pulse frequency was used to establish the regression equation of second-order response surface. Optimal conditions were as follows: GSH concentration 8.86mg/mL, electric field intensity 9.74kV/cm and pulse frequency 2549.08Hz. The DPPH radical inhibition increased from 81.83% to 97.40%. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyse the change of structure and functional groups of GSH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of sleep deprivation on event-related fields and alpha activity during rhythmic force production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of sleep deprivation (SD) on event-related fields and the distribution of power over the scalp of MEG imaged brain activity was studied during acoustically paced rhythmic force production. At the behavioral level, SD resulted in a reduction of the lag (negative asynchrony) between

  14. Combining fluidized activated carbon with weak alternating electric fields for disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Sharabati, J.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Yntema, D.R.; Mayer, M.J.J.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fluidized bed electrodes as a new device for disinfection. In the fluidized bed electrodes system, granular activated carbon particles were suspended, and an alternating radio frequency electric field was applied over the suspended bed. Proof-of-principle studies with the

  15. Activities of the OECD-NEA in the field of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The OECD-NEA is performing the following activities in the field of fast reactors: Held ad hoc meetings of senior experts on safety, development and economics of LMFBR type reactors; publishing a Nuclear Safety Research Index (the index is now expanded to cover fast reactors) and distribution; collect test computer programmes, as well as neutron data

  16. Active room compensation for sound reinforcement using sound field separation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuchel, Franz Maria; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2018-01-01

    with the three sound separation techniques. Resonances in the entire room are reduced, although the microphone array and secondary sources are confined to a small region close to the reflecting wall. Unlike previous control methods based on the creation of a plane wave sound field, the investigated method works......This work investigates how the sound field created by a sound reinforcement system can be controlled at low frequencies. An indoor control method is proposed which actively absorbs the sound incident on a reflecting boundary using an array of secondary sources. The sound field is separated...... into incident and reflected components by a microphone array close to the secondary sources, enabling the minimization of reflected components by means of optimal signals for the secondary sources. The method is purely feed-forward and assumes constant room conditions. Three different sound field separation...

  17. Problems and solutions in the field of improving control and supervision activities in the construction sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikareva, Varvara; Mostovaya, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of control and supervision activities in high-rise construction is an important goal of the state. In the paper, the author considered the initiatives of the state in terms of improving the control activity. He shows the main approaches that will be applied by the state. The application of information and communication technologies in control activities is described in detail. It was noted that the quality of the regulation of various procedures remains a serious issue. At the same time, modern innovations in the field of control should take into account the increasing volumes of data and information about various economic processes.

  18. Spontaneous membrane formation and self-encapsulation of active rods in an inhomogeneous motility field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jens; Löwen, Hartmut; Janssen, Liesbeth M. C.

    2018-02-01

    We study the collective dynamics of self-propelled rods in an inhomogeneous motility field. At the interface between two regions of constant but different motility, a smectic rod layer is spontaneously created through aligning interactions between the active rods, reminiscent of an artificial, semipermeable membrane. This "active membrane" engulfes rods which are locally trapped in low-motility regions and thereby further enhances the trapping efficiency by self-organization, an effect which we call "self-encapsulation." Our results are gained by computer simulations of self-propelled rod models confined on a two-dimensional planar or spherical surface with a stepwise constant motility field, but the phenomenon should be observable in any geometry with sufficiently large spatial inhomogeneity. We also discuss possibilities to verify our predictions of active-membrane formation in experiments of self-propelled colloidal rods and vibrated granular matter.

  19. Static magnetic field changes the activity of venom phospholipase of Vipera Lebetina snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibova, L.S.; Avetisyan, T.O.; Ajrapetyan, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the static magnetic field (SMF) on the phospholipid activity of the class-A snake venom is studied. The Vipera Lebetina snake venom was subjected during 10 days to 30 minute impact of the CMF daily. It is established that increase in the phospholipase A 1 and A 2 approximately by 21 and 32 % correspondingly and in the phosphodiesterase C - by 33 % was observed. The decrease in the total protein level of the snake venom by 31.6 ± 2.2 % was noted thereby. It may be assumed that the described phospholipase and phosphoesterase changes may lead to essential shifts in the total metabolic activity of cells and organism as a whole. The activity index of these ferments may serve as an indicator of changes in the environmental magnetic field [ru

  20. Copper sulphate reduces the metabolic activity of Gammarus fossarum in laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidlin, Lara, E-mail: lara.schmidlin@unibas.ch; Fumetti, Stefanie von; Nagel, Peter

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Copper-contaminated food significantly reduces the ETS activity of G. fossarum. • The ETS and feeding activity of G. fossarum were significantly higher in the lab. • A combination of test chamber experiments in the laboratory and field is optimal. - Abstract: The specialised fauna of freshwater springs is affected by contamination of the water with xenobiotics from human activities in the surrounding landscape. We assessed the effects of exposure to toxins in laboratory and field experiments by using copper sulphate as a model substance and Gammarus fossarum Koch, 1836, as the model organism. This amphipod is a common representative of the European spring fauna and copper is a widespread contaminant, mainly from agricultural practice. The experiments were conducted in test chambers placed in flow channels and directly in a spring. The gammarids were fed with conditioned beech leaf discs, which had been exposed to a 0.8 mg Cu/L solution for 96 h. The feeding activity of the amphipods was quantified on the level of the organism; and the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) assay was conducted in order to determine changes on the cellular level in the test organisms. The results show that the feeding activity, when the leaf discs were contaminated with copper, was not significantly different from the control. The ETS activity of the gammarids, which had been feeding on the copper contaminated leaf discs was however significantly reduced. The results followed the same pattern for gammarids from both the laboratory and the spring. By conducting the experiments not only in a laboratory but also directly in a spring in the field, we took a crucial step towards a more realistic approach when examining environmental pollutants on an organism. Our findings demonstrate the importance of conducting experiments out in the field, in natural conditions, as well as in the laboratory.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVE SCREENING SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC FIELD OF HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES OF DIFFERENT DESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines with different design allowing and development of recommendations for the design of active screening systems by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Methodology. Analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing is made on the basis of Maxwell's equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. Determination of the number, configuration, spatial arrangement and the compensation coil currents is formulated in the form of multiobjective optimization problem that is solved by multi-agent multiswarm stochastic optimization based on Pareto optimal solutions. Results of active screening system for the synthesis of various types of transmission lines with different numbers of windings controlled. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of the flux density of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of power lines with different types and based on findings developed recommendations for the design of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number and spatial arrangement of compensating windings of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing for the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field. Results of active screening system synthesis of the magnetic field of industrial frequency generated by single-circuit 110 kV high voltage power lines with the supports have 330 - 1T «triangle» rotating magnetic field with full polarization in a residential five-storey building, located near the power lines. The system contains three compensating coil and reduces

  2. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Thibodeaux, David N.; Zhao, Hanzhi T.; Yu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574312

  3. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A; Kim, Sharon H; Kozberg, Mariel G; Thibodeaux, David N; Zhao, Hanzhi T; Yu, Hang; Hillman, Elizabeth M C

    2016-10-05

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Study of microparticles' anomalous diffusion in active bath using speckle light fields (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pince, Ercag; Sabareesh, Sabareesh K. P.; Volpe, Giorgio; Gigan, Sylvain; Volpe, Giovanni S.

    2015-08-01

    Particles undergoing a stochastic motion within a disordered medium is a ubiquitous physical and biological phenomenon. Examples can be given from organelles as molecular machines of cells performing physical tasks in a populated cytoplasm to human mobility in patchy environment at larger scales. Our recent results showed that it is possible to use the disordered landscape generated by speckle light fields to perform advanced manipulation tasks at the microscale. Here, we use speckle light fields to study the anomalous diffusion of micron size silica particles (5 μm) in the presence of active microswimmers. The microswimmers we used in the experiments are motile bacteria, Escherichia coli (E.coli). They constitute an active background constantly agitating passive silica particles within complex optical potentials. The speckle fields are generated by mode mixing inside a multimode optical fiber where a small amount of incident laser power (maximum power = 12 μW/μm2) is needed to obtain an effective random landscape pattern for the purpose of optical manipulation. We experimentally show how complex potentials contribute to the anomalous diffusion of silica particles undergoing collisions with swimming bacteria. We observed an enhanced diffusion of particles interacting with the active bath of E.coli inside speckle light fields: this effect can be tuned and controlled by varying the intensity and the statistical properties of the speckle pattern. Potentially, these results could be of interest for many technological applications, such as the manipulation of microparticles inside optically disordered media of biological interests.

  5. Analysis of active and passive magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) of the ITER NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccella, M. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S., Piazza Prinetti 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy)], E-mail: roccella@ltcalcoli.it; Lucca, F.; Roccella, R. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S., Piazza Prinetti 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy); Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G. [Associazione EURATOM sulla Fusione - ENEA Frascati (Italy); Portone, A.; Tanga, A. [ITER EFDA (Italy); Formisano, A.; Martone, R. [CREATE Napoli (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    In ITER two heating (HNBI) and one diagnostic neutral beam injectors (DNBI) are foreseen. Inside these components there are very stringent limits on the magnetic field (the flux density must be below some G along the ion path and below 20 G in the neutralizing regions). To achieve these performances in an environment with high stray field due to the plasma and the poloidal field coils (PFC), both passive and active shielding systems have been foreseen. The present design of the magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) is made of seven active coils and of a box surrounding the NBI region, consisting of ferromagnetic plates. The electromagnetic analyses of the effectiveness of these shields have been performed by a 3D FEM model using ANSYS code for the HNBI. The ANSYS models of the ferromagnetic box and of the active coils are fully parametric, thus any size change of the ferromagnetic box and coils (linear dimension or thickness) preserving the overall box shape could be easily reproduced by simply changing some parameter in the model.

  6. Analysis of active and passive magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) of the ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Lucca, F.; Roccella, R.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.; Portone, A.; Tanga, A.; Formisano, A.; Martone, R.

    2007-01-01

    In ITER two heating (HNBI) and one diagnostic neutral beam injectors (DNBI) are foreseen. Inside these components there are very stringent limits on the magnetic field (the flux density must be below some G along the ion path and below 20 G in the neutralizing regions). To achieve these performances in an environment with high stray field due to the plasma and the poloidal field coils (PFC), both passive and active shielding systems have been foreseen. The present design of the magnetic field reduction systems (MFRS) is made of seven active coils and of a box surrounding the NBI region, consisting of ferromagnetic plates. The electromagnetic analyses of the effectiveness of these shields have been performed by a 3D FEM model using ANSYS code for the HNBI. The ANSYS models of the ferromagnetic box and of the active coils are fully parametric, thus any size change of the ferromagnetic box and coils (linear dimension or thickness) preserving the overall box shape could be easily reproduced by simply changing some parameter in the model

  7. Activation of perforant path neurons to field CA1 by hippocampal projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Renata; Gessi, Tiziana

    2003-01-01

    Previous evidence showed that single-shock stimulation of dorsal hippocampal commissure (PSD) fibers to the entorhinal cortex led to sequential activation of perforant path neurons to the dentate gyrus, dentate granule cells, pyramidal neurons of hippocampal fields CA3 and CA1, and, through reentrant hippocampal impulses, neurons of deep and superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether perforant path neurons to CA1 are activated by the PSD input and/or by the reentrant hippocampal impulses in this model. Field potentials evoked by single-shock (0.1-Hz) or repetitive (1-4 Hz) PSD stimulation were recorded in anesthetized guinea pigs from the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, fields CA1 and CA3, and subiculum. A current source-density analysis of the evoked potentials was used to localize the input to field CA1 and dentate gyrus. After either single-shock or repetitive PSD stimulation, an early current sink was found in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, but no sink was present in CA1. With low-frequency PSD stimulation, a late (approximately 40-ms) surface positive wave occurred in field CA1 alone. During this wave, a current sink was found in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, but no sink was present in the dentate gyrus. The late wave had threshold and magnitude related to the building up of the response evoked by reentrant hippocampal impulses in layer III of the entorhinal cortex and was abolished by selective interruption of the perforant path to CA1. The results show that the commissural input to the entorhinal cortex activates perforant path neurons to the dentate gyrus, but not those to field CA1 which are recruited by repetitive hippocampal impulses. These findings show different frequency-dependent patterns of loop operation that might be related to different behaviors.

  8. Frontal eye field sends delay activity related to movement, memory, and vision to the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M A; Wurtz, R H

    2001-04-01

    Many neurons within prefrontal cortex exhibit a tonic discharge between visual stimulation and motor response. This delay activity may contribute to movement, memory, and vision. We studied delay activity sent from the frontal eye field (FEF) in prefrontal cortex to the superior colliculus (SC). We evaluated whether this efferent delay activity was related to movement, memory, or vision, to establish its possible functions. Using antidromic stimulation, we identified 66 FEF neurons projecting to the SC and we recorded from them while monkeys performed a Go/Nogo task. Early in every trial, a monkey was instructed as to whether it would have to make a saccade (Go) or not (Nogo) to a target location, which permitted identification of delay activity related to movement. In half of the trials (memory trials), the target disappeared, which permitted identification of delay activity related to memory. In the remaining trials (visual trials), the target remained visible, which permitted identification of delay activity related to vision. We found that 77% (51/66) of the FEF output neurons had delay activity. In 53% (27/51) of these neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions. The modulation preceded saccades made into only part of the visual field, indicating that the modulation was movement-related. In some neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent where to move in general. In other neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions only in memory trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of working memory, or only in visual trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of visual attention. In 47% (24/51) of FEF output neurons, delay activity was unaffected by Go/Nogo instructions, which indicated that the activity was related to the visual stimulus. In some of these neurons, delay activity occurred in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent a

  9. Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Shelton, Nicola; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-04-11

    The modern classroom is an inherently sedentary environment. Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) using interactive whiteboards to explore virtual scenes are a potential method of converting sedentary class-time into physically active teaching. This pilot aimed to assess the effects of a developed VFT on physical activity and learning in primary-school children. Participants (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a) a 30-minute physically active London 2012 Olympics-themed VFT, or b) a 30-minute sedentary version of the same VFT. Activity was measured using GT1M Actigraphs, content recall was assessed with a quiz and user evaluations were gained from teacher and pupil questionnaires. Pupils in the active VFT displayed significantly less sedentary time (p < 0.001), and significantly more light (p < 0.001), moderate (p = 0.01) and vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001) than sedentary VFT pupils. No differences in content recall were found between intervention groups: suggesting that adding physical activity into classroom teaching may not compromise attainment. High acceptability was found in teachers and active VFT students rated their session significantly higher than sedentary pupils (p < 0.002). This one-day pilot provides early evidence of the ability of VFTs to convert sedentary academic time into active time. Longitudinal research is needed to assess prolonged effects of active VFTs in reducing sedentary time.

  10. Alterations in adenylate kinase activity in human PBMCs after in vitro exposure to electromagnetic field: comparison between extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) and therapeutic application of a musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonietta; Battisti, Emilio; Vannoni, Daniela; Aceto, Emilia; Galassi, Gianmichele; Giglioni, Stefania; Tommassini, Valentina; Giordano, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic fields on enzymes involved in purine metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cells were obtained from 20 volunteers. We tested both low-energy, extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic fields and the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields (TAMMEFs); the latter is characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and wave shapes. Adenylate kinase activity was increased after ELF field exposure but decreased slightly after TAMMEF exposure. Neither of the two electromagnetic field affected the activities of the purine metabolism enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and adenosine kinase. We concluded that ELF fields may influence cellular electrical charge stability; stimulation of adenylate kinase activity could restore the cell to a state of equilibrium. In contrast, TAMMEF fields may be useful for maintaining and regulating the cellular electrical charge.

  11. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Gerrits, Anja J; Garner, Allen L; Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neculaes, V Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  12. Activity Profile and Between-Match Variation in Elite Male Field Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Caroline D; Edwards, Phillip L

    2017-03-01

    Sunderland, CD and Edwards, PL. Activity profile and between-match variation in elite male field hockey. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 758-764, 2017-This study aimed to (a) provide a position-specific activity profile for elite male hockey players, (b) determine if the activity profile was altered by the introduction of the "self-pass" rule, and (c) provide information relating to match-to-match variability in elite male field hockey. The activity of 28 elite male field hockey players was analyzed over 2 seasons totaling 395 player-match analyses using Global Positioning Satellite technology. Total distance, high-speed running (>15.5 km·h), sprinting (>20 km·h), and mean speed were recorded. Players were categorized into 4 positions: fullback (FB), halfback (HB), midfield (M), and forward (F). Data were analyzed using a 2-way analysis of variance (season, position) and between-match coefficients of variation (CV). The time played differs with position (FB: 65.5 ± 5.3, HB: 49.5 ± 11.5, M: 45.9 ± 7.1, F: 39.5 ± 5.4 minutes; p hockey and its associated variability and demonstrates that each position is unique, and therefore, training and recovery should be position specific.

  13. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Eells

    Full Text Available Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%, genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/- mice and wild-type (+/+ mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  14. Active noise control in a pure tone diffuse sound field using virtual sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, D J; Ghan, J; Cazzolato, B S; Zander, A C

    2009-06-01

    Local active noise control systems generate a zone of quiet at the physical error sensor using one or more secondary sources to cancel acoustic pressure and its spatial derivatives at the sensor location. The resulting zone of quiet is generally limited in size and as such, placement of the error sensor at the location of desired attenuation is required, which is often inconvenient. Virtual acoustic sensors overcome this by projecting the zone of quiet away from the physical sensor to a remote location. The work described here investigates the effectiveness of using virtual sensors in a pure tone diffuse sound field. Stochastically optimal virtual microphones and virtual energy density sensors are developed for use in diffuse sound fields. Analytical expressions for the controlled sound field generated with a number of control strategies are presented. These expressions allow the optimal control performance to be predicted. Results of numerical simulations and experimental measurements made in a reverberation chamber are also presented and compared.

  15. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  16. Ionospheric quasi-static electric field anomalies during seismic activity in August–September 1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gousheva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes new results, analyses and information for the plate tectonic situation in the processing of INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite data about anomalies of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere over activated earthquake source regions at different latitudes. The earthquake catalogue is made on the basis of information from the United State Geological Survey (USGS website. The disturbances in ionospheric quasi-static electric fields are recorded by IESP-1 instrument aboard the INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and they are compared with significant seismic events from the period 14 August–20 September 1981 in magnetically very quiet, quiet and medium quiet days. The main tectonic characteristics of the seismically activated territories are also taken in account. The main goal of the above research work is to enlarge the research of possible connections between anomalous vertical electric field penetrations into the ionosphere and the earthquake manifestations, also to propose tectonic arguments for the observed phenomena. The studies are represented in four main blocks: (i previous studies of similar problems, (ii selection of satellite, seismic and plate tectonic data, (iii data processing with new specialized software and observations of the quasi-static electric field and (iiii summary, comparison of new with previous results in our studies and conclusion. We establish the high informativity of the vertical component Ez of the quasi-static electric field in the upper ionosphere according observations by INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 that are placed above considerably activated earthquake sources. This component shows an increase of about 2–10 mV/m above sources, situated on mobile structures of the plates. The paper discusses the observed effects. It is represented also a statistical study of ionospheric effects 5–15 days before and 5–15 days after the earthquakes with magnitude M 4.8–7.9.

  17. Comparative Study of Earthquake Clustering in Relation to Hydraulic Activities at Geothermal Fields in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garzón, P.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Kwiatek, G.; Bohnhoff, M.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate earthquake clustering properties from three geothermal reservoirs to clarify how earthquake patterns respond to hydraulic activities. We process ≈ 9 years from four datasets corresponding to the Geysers (both the entire field and a local subset), Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields, California. For each, the completeness magnitude, b-value and fractal dimension are calculated and used to identify seismicity clusters using the nearest-neighbor approach of Zaliapin and Ben-Zion [2013a, 2013b]. Estimations of temporal evolution of different clustering properties in relation to hydraulic parameters point to different responses of earthquake dynamics to hydraulic operations in each case study. The clustering at the Geysers at local scale and Salton Sea are most and least affected by hydraulic activities, respectively. The response of the earthquake clustering from different datasets to the hydraulic activities may reflect the regional seismo-tectonic complexity as well as the dimension of the geothermal activities performed (e.g. number of active wells and superposition of injection + production activities).Two clustering properties significantly respond to hydraulic changes across all datasets: the background rates and the proportion of clusters consisting of a single event. Background rates are larger at the Geysers and Coso during high injection-production periods, while the opposite holds for the Salton Sea. This possibly reflects the different physical mechanisms controlling seismicity at each geothermal field. Additionally, a lower proportion of singles is found during time periods with higher injection-production rates. This may reflect decreasing effective stress in areas subjected to higher pore pressure and larger earthquake triggering by stress transfer.

  18. Progress on Reconstructing the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field above Active region at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canou, A.; Amari, T.

    2013-03-01

    he low solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field which is created in the Sun's interior by a dynamo process and which then emerges into the atmosphere. This magnetic field plays an important role in most structures and phenomena observed at various wavelengths such as prominences, small and large scale eruptive events, and continuous heating of the plasma. It is therefore important to understand its three-dimensional properties in order to elaborate efficient theoretical models. Unfortunately, the magnetic field is difficult to measure locally in the hot and tenuous corona. But this can be done at the level of the cooler and denser photosphere, and several instruments with high resolution vector magnetographs are currently available (e.g. THEMIS/MTR, SOLIS/VSM, HINODE/SOT/SP or SDO/HMI) or will be available on future programmed missions (e.g. Solar Orbiter, ATST and EST). This has lead solar physicists to develop an approach which consists in reconstructing the coronal magnetic field from boundary data given on the photosphere. We will present our recent progress and results to solve this problem at the active region scale or the larger one such as the full disk or synoptic one, for which the large amount of data as well as their sparsity on the solar disk, require to develop particular strategies. We will also show how this can be helpful to characterize the many aspects of active regions during their static or pre-eruptive evolution phases.

  19. SPIRou input catalogue: activity, rotation and magnetic field of cool dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, C.; Hébrard, E. M.; Morin, J.; Malo, L.; Fouqué, P.; Torres-Rivas, A.; Martioli, E.; Delfosse, X.; Artigau, E.; Doyon, R.

    2017-12-01

    Based on optical high-resolution spectra obtained with CFHT/ESPaDOnS, we present new measurements of activity and magnetic field proxies of 442 low-mass K5-M7 dwarfs. The objects were analysed as potential targets to search for planetary-mass companions with the new spectropolarimeter and high-precision velocimeter, SPIRou. We have analysed their high-resolution spectra in an homogeneous way: circular polarization, chromospheric features and Zeeman broadening of the FeH infrared line. The complex relationship between these activity indicators is analysed; while no strong connection is found between the large-scale and small-scale magnetic fields, the latter relates with the non-thermal flux originating in the chromosphere. We then examine the relationship between various activity diagnostics and the optical radial-velocity (RV) jitter available in the literature, especially for planet host stars. We use this to derive for all stars an activity merit function (higher for quieter stars) with the goal of identifying the most favourable stars, where the RV jitter is low enough for planet searches. We find that the main contributors to the RV jitter are the large-scale magnetic field and the chromospheric non-thermal emission. In addition, three stars (GJ 1289, GJ 793 and GJ 251) have been followed along their rotation using the spectropolarimetric mode, and we derive their magnetic topology. These very slow rotators are good representatives of future SPIRou targets. They are compared to other stars, where the magnetic topology is also known. The poloidal component of the magnetic field is predominent in all three stars.

  20. Strong geomagnetic activity forecast by neural networks under dominant southern orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, F.; Bochníček, Josef; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2014), s. 589-598 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608; GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * interplanetary magnetic field * artificial neural network * ejection of coronal mass * X-ray flares Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  1. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites (“virtual electrodes”) in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  2. Field tests and evaluations of the IAEA Active-Well Coincidence Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Rinard, P.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates field tests of the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) at Winfrith and Dounreay, United Kingdom. The applicability of the AWCC for assaying the uranium content of a wide variety of materials was demonstrated and calibration curves were generated. The AWCC was used in three modes (fast, thermal, and passive) while assaying powders, pellets, cartridges, plates, assorted residues, and materials-testing-reactor fuel assemblies

  3. Operation of activated-fullerene-coated field emitters in technical vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumareva, T. A.; Sominskii, G. G.

    2013-07-01

    The operation of tungsten tip field emitters coated by activated fullerenes in technical vacuum is studied. Ways of emitter training to provide the self-reproducibility of the coatings and their long service life under intense ion bombardment in wide ranges of pressures, from 2 × 10-8 to (5-7) × 10-7 Torr, and emission currents, from (1.5-2.0) to (10-20) μA, are developed.

  4. Identifying correlates and determinants of physical activity in youth: How can we advance the field?

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, Andrew J.; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.; Dollman, James; Taylor, Wendell C.; Stanley, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary provides a critical discussion of current research investigating the correlates and determinants of physical activity in young people, with specific focus on conceptual, theoretical and methodological issues. We draw on current child and adolescent literature and our own collective expertise to illustrate our discussion. We conclude with recommendations that will strengthen future research and help to advance the field. The work of Andrew J Atkin was supported by the Cent...

  5. Moral, welfare and recreation : a financial management guide for the field activity comptroller.

    OpenAIRE

    Wenn, Patrick R.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The focus of the thesis is to identify the functions and responsibilities of the Navy field activity comptroller, and to develop a comprehensive financial management guide of the Morale, Welfare and Recreation program. Specifically, the thesis examines the role of the comptroller in the distribution, management and budgeting of MWR funds, determines MWR comptroller requirements and offers useful-and practical recommendations to effect...

  6. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatment on Enhancing Activity and Conformation of α-Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei-ling; Fang, Ting; Du, Mu-ying; Zhang, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    To explore an efficient, safe, and speedy application of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology for enzymatic modification, effects of PEF treatment on the enzymatic activity, property and kinetic parameters of α-amylase were investigated. Conformational transitions were also studied with the aid of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra. The maximum enzymatic activity of α-amylase was obtained under 15 kV/cm electric field intensity and 100 mL/min flow velocity PEF treatment, in which the enzymatic activity increased by 22.13 ± 1.14% compared with control. The activation effect could last for 18 h at 4 °C. PEF treatment could widen the range of optimum temperature for α-amylase, however, it barely exerted any effect on the optimum pH. On the other hand, α-amylase treated by PEF showed an increase of Vmax, t1/2 and ΔG, whereas a decrease of Km and k were observed. Furthermore, it can be observed from fluorescence and CD spectra that PEF treatment had increased the number of amino acid residues, especially that of tryptophan, on α-amylase surface with enhanced α-helices by 34.76% and decreased random coil by 12.04% on α-amylase when compared with that of untreated. These changes in structure had positive effect on enhancing α-amylase activity and property.

  7. Shape memory polymer nanocomposites for application of multiple-field active disassembly: experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, John; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Wang, Shiren; Tate, Derrick

    2013-11-19

    Active disassembly (AD) uses innovative materials that can perform a designed disassembly action by the application of an external field. AD provides improvements over current disassembly processes by limiting machine or manual labor and enabling batch processing for end-of-life products. With improved disassembly operations, more reuse of components and purer recycling streams may be seen. One problem with AD, however, has been with the single-field actuation because of the probability of accidental disassembly. This presentation will discuss the application of shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposites in a new AD process. This novel AD process requires multiple-field actuation of the SMP nanocomposite fastener. In the analysis of this AD process, thermal and magnetic field tests were performed on the SMP nanocomposite. From these tests, finite-element analysis was performed to model and simulate the multiple-field AD process. The results of the simulations provide performance variables for the AD process and show a better performance time for the SMP nanocomposite fastener than for a comparable SMP fastener.

  8. In vitro activity of tylvalosin against Spanish field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavío, M M; Poveda, C; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Poveda, J B

    2014-11-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is involved in the porcine enzootic pneumonia and respiratory disease complex; therefore, the search for new treatment options that contribute to the control of this organism is relevant. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations of tylvalosin and 19 other antimicrobial agents against 20 Spanish field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae were determined using the broth microdilution method, with the type strain (J) as a control strain. Tylvalosin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.016 and 0.06 µg/ml, respectively, and was the second-most effective of the assayed antibiotics, after valnemulin. Tiamulin, tylosin and lincomycin were also among the antibiotics with the lowest MIC50 and MIC90 values against the 20 field isolates (0.06-0.25 µg/ml). However, resistance to tylosin and spiramycin, which like tylvalosin, are 16-membered macrolides, was observed. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin ranged from 0.125 to 1 µg/ml; the corresponding values ranged from 2 to 4 µg/ml for oxytetracyline, which was the most active tetracycline. Furthermore, tylvalosin and valnemulin exhibited the highest bactericidal activities. In conclusion, the macrolide tylvalosin and the pleuromutilin valnemulin exhibited the highest in vitro antimicrobial activities against M. hyopneumoniae field isolates in comparison with the other tested antibiotics. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  10. Reviewing Special Education Teacher Preparation Field Experience Placements, Activities, and Research: Do We Know the Difference Maker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.; deBettencourt, Laurie U.

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on what constitutes an ideal special education field experience, and it is not clear which components or activities within a field experience impact a teacher's growth to the greatest extent. Reviewing past research will assist in categorizing the components typically included in field experiences and may assist in…

  11. Tertiary-treatment of oil-field brine in a biosorption system with granulated activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmacija, B.; Tamas, Z.; Karlovic, E.; Miskovic, D. [Institute of Chemistry, Novisad (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    This work describes the possibility of application of a biosorption system with granulated activated carbon (GAG) for the tertiary treatment of oil-field brine. In addition to the dissolved and dispersed oil, the oil-field brine contained about 29 g/l of mineral matter, mainly NaCl. The investigation was carried out on two columns, each containing 300 g of GAG. To form the biofilm on GAC use was made of the microorganisms from the setup for the purification of refinery wastewaters by activated sludge procedure. The wastewater flow-rate through the columns was 40, 70, 95 and 130 l/d. It was found that the activated carbon in the columns was capable of removing 2.6 times more organic matter than was its adsorption capacity, and its adsorption power was not thus exhausted. The results indicate that the microorganisms present in the biofilm on activated carbon oxidize the adsorbed pollutants and thus regenerate the carbon surface. The procedure employed was very efficient - the organic matter content in the effluent did not exceed 2.5 mg/l (BOD5). (UK)

  12. Emergence of spatially heterogeneous burst suppression in a neural field model of electrocortical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eBojak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG is a well described phenomenon that occurs during deep anaesthesia, as well as in a variety of congenital and acquired brain insults. Classically it is thought of as spatially synchronous, quasi-periodic bursts of high amplitude EEG separated by low amplitude activity. However, its characterisation as a ``global brain state'' has been challenged by recent results obtained with intracranial electrocortigraphy. Not only does it appear that burst suppression activity is highly asynchronous across cortex, but also that it may occur in isolated regions of circumscribed spatial extent. Here we outline a realistic neural field model for burst suppression by adding a slow process of synaptic resource depletion and recovery, which is able to reproduce qualitatively the empirically observed features during general anaesthesia at the whole cortex level. Simulations reveal heterogeneous bursting over the model cortex and complex spatiotemporal dynamics during simulated anaesthetic action, and provide forward predictions of neuroimaging signals for subsequent empirical comparisons and more detailed characterisation.Because burst suppression corresponds to a dynamical end-point of brain activity, theoretically accounting for its spatiotemporal emergence will vitally contribute to efforts aimed at clarifying whether a common physiological trajectory is induced by the actions of general anaesthetic agents. We have taken a first step in this direction by showing that a neural field model can qualitatively match recent experimental data that indicate spatial differentiation of burst suppression activity across cortex.

  13. Contribution of Field Strength Gradients to the Net Vertical Current of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.

    2017-12-01

    We examined the contribution of field strength gradients for the degree of net vertical current (NVC) neutralization in active regions (ARs). We used photospheric vector magnetic field observations of AR 11158 obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO and Hinode. The vertical component of the electric current is decomposed into twist and shear terms. The NVC exhibits systematic evolution owing to the presence of the sheared polarity inversion line between rotating and shearing magnetic regions. We found that the sign of shear current distribution is opposite in dominant pixels (60%–65%) to that of twist current distribution, and its time profile bears no systematic trend. This result indicates that the gradient of magnetic field strength contributes to an opposite signed, though smaller in magnitude, current to that contributed by the magnetic field direction in the vertical component of the current. Consequently, the net value of the shear current is negative in both polarity regions, which when added to the net twist current reduces the direct current value in the north (B z > 0) polarity, resulting in a higher degree of NVC neutralization. We conjecture that the observed opposite signs of shear and twist currents are an indication, according to Parker, that the direct volume currents of flux tubes are canceled by their return currents, which are contributed by field strength gradients. Furthermore, with the increase of spatial resolution, we found higher values of twist, shear current distributions. However, the resolution effect is more useful in resolving the field strength gradients, and therefore suggests more contribution from shear current for the degree of NVC neutralization.

  14. Thermal Field Indicator for Identifying Active Faults and its Instability From Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, P.; Ma, S.

    2007-12-01

    The relationship between the thermal filed and strain field during deformation of faults is the physical basis to clarify whether satellite infrared information and the ground temperature field can be used to study fault activity. This study attempts to discuss these problems by experiments in the laboratory. The two-direction servo-control system was used to load on the samples with compressional and extensional en echelon faults. An infrared thermal image system and a contact-type thermometer recorded synchronously variations of the bright temperature field of infrared radiation and temperature field during deformation of the rock specimens. A digital CCD camera and a soft ware based on the digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) was utilized to capture images and to analyze them, yielding processes of displacement and strain fields. The experimental result shows as follows: 1 The temperature is highest at the jog area of the compressional en echelon faults, whereas that is lowest at the extensional en echelon faults prior to failure of the jog area. The record by DSCM displays that the mean strain of the jog area is largest for the compressional en echelon faults, while that is smallest for the extensional en echelon faults. These mean that the temperature field has clear responses to the opposite stress states at the jog areas of two kinds of en echelon faults, providing an indicator for determining whether the fault segment has slid. 2 The en echelon faults experience two deformation stages from stress building up and fault propagating at the jog area to unstable sliding along the fault. Correspondingly the mechanism of heating-up is turned from strain heating into frictional heating. Three kinds of phenomena have been observed at the jog area and its vicinity during the stage of transformation. They are temperature drop, fast fluctuation of temperature, and pulses of temperature rising, respectively. Mechanism of these phenomena is discussed. 3 These

  15. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kangjoo [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kangjoo@kunsan.ac.kr; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eungyu [Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Dong-Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO{sub 4} concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO{sub 4}, supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO{sub 3} at shallow depths and by SO{sub 4} reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area.

  16. Fast Geodesic Active Fields for Image Registration Based on Splitting and Augmented Lagrangian Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient numerical scheme for the recently introduced geodesic active fields (GAF) framework for geometric image registration. This framework considers the registration task as a weighted minimal surface problem. Hence, the data-term and the regularization-term are combined through multiplication in a single, parametrization invariant and geometric cost functional. The multiplicative coupling provides an intrinsic, spatially varying and data-dependent tuning of the regularization strength, and the parametrization invariance allows working with images of nonflat geometry, generally defined on any smoothly parametrizable manifold. The resulting energy-minimizing flow, however, has poor numerical properties. Here, we provide an efficient numerical scheme that uses a splitting approach; data and regularity terms are optimized over two distinct deformation fields that are constrained to be equal via an augmented Lagrangian approach. Our approach is more flexible than standard Gaussian regularization, since one can interpolate freely between isotropic Gaussian and anisotropic TV-like smoothing. In this paper, we compare the geodesic active fields method with the popular Demons method and three more recent state-of-the-art algorithms: NL-optical flow, MRF image registration, and landmark-enhanced large displacement optical flow. Thus, we can show the advantages of the proposed FastGAF method. It compares favorably against Demons, both in terms of registration speed and quality. Over the range of example applications, it also consistently produces results not far from more dedicated state-of-the-art methods, illustrating the flexibility of the proposed framework.

  17. Solar polar magnetic field dependency of geomagnetic activity semiannual variation indicated in the Aa index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Suyeon; Yi, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain the well-known semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity, maxima at equinoxes and minima at solstices. This study examined whether the seasonal variation of equinoctial geomagnetic activity is different in periods of opposite solar magnetic polarity in order to understand the contribution of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the Sun-Earth connection. Solar magnetic polarity is parallel to the Earth's polarity in solar minimum years of odd/even cycles but antiparallel in solar minimum years of even/odd cycles. The daily mean of the aa, Aa indices during each solar minimum was compared for periods when the solar magnetic polarity remained in opposite dipole conditions. The Aa index values were used for each of the three years surrounding the solar minimum years of the 14 solar cycles recorded since 1856. The Aa index reflects seasonal variation in geomagnetic activity, which is greater at the equinoxes than at the solstices. The Aa index reveals solar magnetic polarity dependency in which the geomagnetic activity is stronger in the antiparallel solar magnetic polarity condition than in the parallel one. The periodicity in semiannual variation of the Aa index is stronger in the antiparallel solar polar magnetic field period than in the parallel period. Additionally, we suggest the favorable IMF condition of the semiannual variation in geomagnetic activity. The orientation of IMF toward the Sun in spring and away from the Sun in fall mainly contributes to the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity in both antiparallel and parallel solar minimum years.

  18. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Gamma radiation fields from activity deposited on road and soil surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1993-12-01

    Radioactive material deposited in the environment after an accidental release would cause exposure of the population living in the affected areas. The radiation field will depend on many factors such as radionuclide composition, surface contamination density, removal of activity by weathering and migration, and protective measures like decontamination, ploughing and covering by asphalt. Methods are described for calculation of air kerma rate from deposited activity on road and soil surfaces, both from the initially deposited activity and from activity distributed in the upper layer of soil as well as from activity covered by asphalt or soil. Air kerma rates are calculated for different source geometries and the results are fitted to a power-exponential function of photon energy, depth distributions in soil and horizontal dimensions. Based on this function calculations of air kerma rate can easily be made on a personal computer or programmable pocket calculator for specific radionuclide compositions and different horizontal and vertical distributions of the deposited activity. The calculations are compared to results from other methods like the Monte Carlo method and good agreement is found between the results. (au) (7 tabs., 12 ills., 8 refs.)

  20. Research in the fields of radiochemistry and activation analysis using the LENA TRIGA nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxia, V.; Meloni, S.; Stella, R.; Brandone, A.

    1972-01-01

    In the past two years most of the research effort at the Radiochemistry Laboratory and National Research Council Centre for Radiochemistry and Activation Analysis has been devoted to research and development of activation analysis using the TRIGA Mark II LENA reactor of the University of Pavia. Pile neutrons have been used both in steady state and pulse mode, in the determination of oxygen in non ferrous materials. Neutron activation has been applied to the determination of some atmospheric particulate pollutants. Another field, in which activation analysis has been applied, is forensic research. Methods have been developed for the determination of antimony, barium and copper in gunpowder residues. By using inorganic materials such as molybdenum dibromide, zinc ferrocyanide and cadmium metal in granular form it was possible to set up simple chemical procedures in the activation analysis of trace amounts of noble metals in metallic matrices (high purity nickel and copper), geochemical materials (rocks and meteorites) and biological materials (orchard leaves). Neutron activation analysis was also used to investigate on the extraction of the platinum group metals from iodide and thiocyanate solutions at low concentrations

  1. Efficacy of Static Magnetic Field for Locomotor Activity of Experimental Osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of applying a static magnetic field (SMF for increasing bone mineral density (BMD, we assessed the degree of osteopenia by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, the metabolism measuring system, and histological examination of bone tissue in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model. Thirty-six female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160–180 g were divided into three groups. The rats in the OVX-M group were exposed to SMF for 12 weeks after ovariectomy. The ovariectomized rats in the OVX-D group were not exposed to SMF as a control. The rats in the normal group received neither ovariectomy nor exposure to SMF. Twelve-week exposure to SMF in the OVX-M group inhibited the reduction in BMD that was observed in the OVX-D group. Moreover, in the OVX rats, before exposure to SMF, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After exposure of OVX rats to SMF, the pattern of locomotor activity became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, as was observed in the normal group. In the OVX-M group, the continuity of the trabecular bone was maintained more favorably and bone mass was higher than the respective parameters in the OVX-D group. These results demonstrate that exposure to SMF increased the level of locomotor activity in OVX rats, thereby increasing BMD.

  2. FP-4 and FP-5 Euratom research activities in the field of plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Goethem, G. van

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the European Union (EU) Euratom research conducted through shared cost and concerted actions in the field of plant life management. After a general introduction on the organisation of the research framework programmes the achievements of the 4th framework programme (FP-4/1994-1998) and the activities under the 5th framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) in the field of plant life management are presented and discussed in detail. Besides technological safety requirements, socio-economic aspects are becoming increasingly important due to the level of public and political acceptance and to the economic pressure of deregulated electricity markets. It is shown that research conducted in the Euratom framework may contribute to meet these requirements, thereby maintaining nuclear power as a competitive and sustainable option for the energy policy of the European Union. (author)

  3. Field studies of safety security rescue technologies through training and response activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robin R.; Stover, Sam

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the field-oriented philosophy of the Institute for Safety Security Rescue Technology (iSSRT) and summarizes the activities and lessons learned during calendar year 2005 of its two centers: the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue and the NSF Safety Security Rescue industry/university cooperative research center. In 2005, iSSRT participated in four responses (La Conchita, CA, Mudslides, Hurricane Dennis, Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Wilma) and conducted three field experiments (NJTF-1, Camp Hurricane, Richmond, MO). The lessons learned covered mobility, operator control units, wireless communications, and general reliability. The work has collectively identified six emerging issues for future work. Based on these studies, a 10-hour, 1 continuing education unit credit course on rescue robotics has been created and is available. Rescue robots and sensors are available for loan upon request.

  4. Eccentrically-Layered Active Coated Nano-Particles for Directive Near- and Far-Field Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Ø. Thorsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows how the eccentricity in active nano-particles may lead to very interesting and rather directive near- and far-field radiation patterns. The nano-particle is of a three-layer type and consists of a silica core, a free-space middle layer and an outer silver shell and is excited by a magnetic line source. The constant frequency gain model is included in the silica core, and the eccentricity is introduced through appropriate displacements of the core. It is shown that the eccentricity in a nano-particle, which was initially designed to excite a strong dipole mode, causes a progressively larger excitation of several other (including higher order modes, this being more so the larger the core displacement. Specifically, eccentric nano-particles are identified with comparable simultaneous excitations of dipole and quadrupole modes, with associated large values of the radiated power and, even more notably, enhanced and directive near- and far-field radiation patterns. The main beam of these patterns is shown to be effectively tailored (enhanced, reshaped and steered by the direction and amount of the core displacement. The eccentric nano-particles can be additionally gain optimized to boost their near-field response and the radiated power, while retaining the directivity of the gain unoptimized eccentric cases. Owing to their very directive nearand far-field patterns, the proposed eccentric, active three-layer nano-particles may provide alternative strategies towards the design of directive nano-antennas relative to several of the existing solutions.

  5. HER Catalytic Activity of Electrodeposited Ni-P Nanowires under the Influence of Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Bin Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloy electrodes both in plane and nanowire morphologies were fabricated by electrodeposition in sulfamate bath. With the increasing concentration of phosphorous acid in the electrolyte, the P content in the deposition increased accordingly. In the meantime, the grain refined and even became amorphous in microstructure as the P content was raised. For the nanowire electrode, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM measurement showed that its coercivity was anisotropic and decreased with P-content. In addition, the easy axis for magnetization of the electrode was parallel to the axial direction of nanowire. The electrocatalytic activity measurement of the electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte showed that the nanowire electrode had higher activity than the plane one, and the alloying of P in Ni electrode raised its hydrogen evolution reaction (HER performance. The enhanced performance of nanowire electrode was attributed to the smaller and more uniform hydrogen bubbles generated in HER reaction. Finally, the applied magnetic field (3.2 T improved significantly the HER activity of Ni but not Ni-P electrode. By using nanowire morphology and applying magnetic field, the current density at −0.75 V HER stability test of the Ni electrode increased fourfold more than its plane counterpart.

  6. Field Test Results from a 10 kW Wind Turbine with Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Bychkova, Veronika; Taylor, Keith; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control devices including synthetic jets and dynamic vortex generators were tested on a 10 kW wind turbine at RPI. Previous work has shown that load oscillations caused by dynamic stall could be modified through the use of active flow control by injecting momentum into the flow field near the leading edge of a dynamically pitching model. In this study, this work has been extended to its logical conclusion, field-testing active flow control on a real wind turbine. The blades in the current study have a 0.28m chord and 3.05m span, no twist or taper, and were retrofitted with six synthetic jets on one blade and ten dynamic vortex generators on a second blade. The third blade of this turbine was not modified, in order to serve as a control. Strain gauges were installed on each blade to measure blades' deflection. A simple closed loop control was demonstrated and preliminary results indicate reduced vibrational amplitude. Future testing will be conducted on a larger scale, 600kW machine at NREL, incorporating information collected during this study.

  7. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a basal state (at 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  8. Nucleus reuniens thalami modulates activity in hippocampal field CA1 through excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman-Van der Weel, M J; Lopes da Silva, F H; Witter, M P

    1997-07-15

    The nucleus reuniens thalami (RE) originates dense projections to CA1, forming asymmetrical synapses on spines (50%) and dendrites (50%). The hypothesis that RE input modulates transmission in CA1 through excitation of both pyramidal cells and interneurons was tested using electrophysiological methods in the anesthetized rat. The RE-CA1 afferents were selectively stimulated at their origin; evoked field potentials and unit activity were recorded in CA1. RE-evoked depth profiles showed a prominent negative deflection in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and a positive one in the stratum radiatum. The lacunosum-moleculare sink-radiatum source configuration is compatible with RE-elicited depolarization of apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. Despite a consistent and robust paired pulse facilitation of RE-evoked field potentials, population spikes in the stratum pyramidale were not detected at any tested condition. This indicates the inability of RE-CA1 input to discharge pyramidal cells. However, stimulation of RE-elicited spiking of extracellularly recorded units in strata oriens/alveus and distal radiatum, indicative of the activation of local interneurons. Thus, RE seems to modulate transmission in CA1 through a (subthreshold) depolarization of pyramidal cells and a suprathreshold excitation of putative inhibitory oriens/alveus and radiatum interneurons. RE-evoked monosynaptic or disynaptic field potentials were associated with stimulation of rostral or caudal RE, respectively. Anatomically, a projection from caudal to rostral RE was demonstrated that can account for the disynaptic RE-CA1 input. Because caudal RE receives input from the hippocampus via the subiculum, we propose the existence of a closed RE-hippocampal circuit that allows RE to modulate the activity in CA1, depending on hippocampal output.

  9. Cathodoluminescence-activated nanoimaging: noninvasive near-field optical microscopy in an electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G; Hetherington, Craig L; Wang, Zhe; Precht, Jake T; Kaz, David M; Schlom, Darrell G; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-05-13

    We demonstrate a new nanoimaging platform in which optical excitations generated by a low-energy electron beam in an ultrathin scintillator are used as a noninvasive, near-field optical scanning probe of an underlying sample. We obtain optical images of Al nanostructures with 46 nm resolution and validate the noninvasiveness of this approach by imaging a conjugated polymer film otherwise incompatible with electron microscopy due to electron-induced damage. The high resolution, speed, and noninvasiveness of this "cathodoluminescence-activated" platform also show promise for super-resolution bioimaging.

  10. SIZE AND FIELD OF ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON WEB SITES FUNCTIONALITY FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarca Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet became an important part of the company’s informational system. In order to take advantage on the Internet’s interactive nature, a lot of companies have created their own websites. Companies use the website for numerous applications: to promote themselves, online shopping, and communication with targeted clients. This study reveals the fact that the company’s size and field of activity have influence on website’s functionality and interactivity. Small companies use the website to successfully compete corporations which do not have yet necessary stimulants to fully exploit the internet capacities.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticle imaging by random and maximum length sequences of inhomogeneous activation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Daniel; Eichardt, Roland; Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Supriyanto, Eko; Haueisen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles require a precise knowledge of their biodistribution. From multi-channel magnetorelaxometry measurements, this distribution can be determined by means of inverse methods. It was recently shown that the combination of sequential inhomogeneous excitation fields in these measurements is favorable regarding the reconstruction accuracy when compared to homogeneous activation . In this paper, approaches for the determination of activation sequences for these measurements are investigated. Therefor, consecutive activation of single coils, random activation patterns and families of m-sequences are examined in computer simulations involving a sample measurement setup and compared with respect to the relative condition number of the system matrix. We obtain that the values of this condition number decrease with larger number of measurement samples for all approaches. Random sequences and m-sequences reveal similar results with a significant reduction of the required number of samples. We conclude that the application of pseudo-random sequences for sequential activation in the magnetorelaxometry imaging of magnetic nanoparticles considerably reduces the number of required sequences while preserving the relevant measurement information.

  12. Comparison of two methods of voice activity detection in field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ren, Keni; Li, Haibo; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the performance of 2 methods of voice activity detection (neck-attached accelerometer vs. binaural recordings) in field studies in environments where voice activity normally occurs. A group of 11 healthy adults wore recording equipment during their lunch break. We used binary classification to analyze the results from the 2 methods. The output was compared to a gold standard, obtained through listening tests, and the probability for sensitivity (Ps) and false positive (Pf) was rated. The binary classifiers were set for consistent sensitivity of 99%; thus, the lower false positive rate would indicate the method with the better performance. The neck-attached accelerometer (Pf = 0.5%) performed significantly (p voice assessments in environments where people are speaking in close proximity to each other and where the signal-to-noise ratio is moderate to low.

  13. Competition of energy between active transport and vesicle fusion at the origin of intracellular gradient fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcé, Pierre

    2018-02-07

    It has been reported that the ionic patterns of hyphal growth can be explained by a weakening of the active transport at the tip at the expense of other biosynthesis processes, from which results energy transport from the proximal cells to the apical ones (Potapova et al. 1988). We present here a theory to support this hypothesis, whose extent is much more general than the initial frame where it has been formulated. It can be summarized in two basics mechanisms, one coupling active transport of the plasma membrane, electric potential and vesicle fusion, the other coupling the Ca 2+ -ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum and vesicle fusion. For some values of parameters introduced in the theory, the uniform state of the cell becomes unstable, at the origin of intracellular gradient fields. Theoretical ionic patterns are spontaneously produced, which can be satisfactorily compared to several observed in and around tip-growing cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of DC active filter for high magnetic field stable power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Liu Xiaoning

    2008-01-01

    The DC active filter (DAF), with very low current ripple, of the stable power supply system of high magnetic field device is developed by using the PWM and parallel active power filter technique. Due to the PWM control technique, the required DAF current can be obtained and the current ripple can be compensated by means of monitoring the load voltage, and the current ripple becomes very low by adjusting the load voltage. The simulation and analysis show that this system can respond to the reference quickly and is effective in suppressing the harmonics, especially the low-order harmonics. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is proved on the equipment built in the laboratory. (authors)

  15. Sinusoidal 50-Hz magnetic fields depress rat pineal NAT activity and serum melatonin. Role of duration and intensity of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmaoui, B; Touitou, Y

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the exposure to a 50-Hz sinusoidal magnetic field could influence serum melatonin concentration and pineal enzymes activities in rats. The effects of both duration and intensity of exposure were also looked at. Two groups of Wistar male rats were exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields of either 1, 10 or 100 microT. The first group was exposed for 12 hours and the second for 30 days (18 hours per day). During this time the animals were kept under a standard 12:12 light: dark cycle with a temperature of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 45 to 50%. Control (Sham-exposed) animals were kept in a similar environment but without exposure to a magnetic field. The animals were sacrificed under red dim light. Serum melatonin concentration and pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activities were studied. Long-term exposure to a magnetic field (10 and 100 microT) significantly depressed the nocturne peak of serum melatonin concentration and pineal NAT activity whereas no effect was observed on HIOMT activity. Short-term exposure depressed both pineal NAT activity and nocturnal serum melatonin concentration but only with the highest intensity used (100 microT). Our results suggest that sinusoidal magnetic fields alter the production of melatonin through an inhibition of pineal NAT activity. Both duration and intensity of exposure play an important role in this effect. This work shows that, 1) sinusoidal magnetic field depresses NAT activity as static magnetic field does whereas HIOMT activity remains unaltered whatever the type of experiment and the intensity used, 2) the effect observed is related to both the duration of exposure and the intensity of magnetic fields, 3) the sensitivity threshold to magnetic fields vary with the duration of exposure which strongly suggests a cumulative effect of sinusoidal magnetic fields on pineal function.

  16. [The influence of variable and constant magnetic fields on biota and biological activity of ordinary chernozem soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2007-01-01

    In model experiments on influence variable magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) an induction of 1500 and of 6000 mkTl and the constant magnetic field an induction of 6000 mkTl and of 15000 mkTl during 5 days of exposure on biological properties of chernozem ordinary is shown, that the soil microflora is more sensitive to magnetic fields, than enzymes activity. Bacteria are more sensitive, than microscopic mushrooms. Dehydrogenase it is steady against influence of all variants. Constant magnetic field by the induction of 15000 mkTl rendered practically identical authentic overwhelming influence on catalase and saccharase activity - on 51 and 47% accordingly.

  17. Neural mass modeling of power-line magnetic fields effects on brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, J; Thomas, A W; Legros, A

    2013-01-01

    Neural mass models are an appropriate framework to study brain activity, combining a high degree of biological realism while being mathematically tractable. These models have been used, with a certain success, to simulate brain electric (electroencephalography, EEG) and metabolic (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) activity. However, concrete applications of neural mass models have remained limited to date. Motivated by experimental results obtained in humans, we propose in this paper a neural mass model designed to study the interaction between power-line magnetic fields (MFs) (60 Hz in North America) and brain activity. The model includes pyramidal cells; dendrite-projecting, slow GABAergic neurons; soma-projecting, fast GABAergic neurons; and glutamatergic interneurons. A simple phenomenological model of interaction between the induced electric field and neuron membranes is also considered, along with a model of post-synaptic calcium concentration and associated changes in synaptic weights Simulated EEG signals are produced in a simple protocol, both in the absence and presence of a 60 Hz MF. These results are discussed based on results obtained previously in humans. Notably, results highlight that (1) EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) power can be modulated by weak membrane depolarizations induced by the exposure; (2) the level of input noise has a significant impact on EEG power modulation; and (3) the threshold value in MF flux density resulting in a significant effect on the EEG depends on the type of neuronal populations modulated by the MF exposure. Results obtained from the model shed new light on the effects of power-line MFs on brain activity, and will provide guidance in future human experiments. This may represent a valuable contribution to international regulation agencies setting guidelines on MF values to which the general public and workers can be exposed.

  18. Modeling and analysis of secondary sources coupling for active sound field reduction in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Allahyar; Taylor, C. James

    2017-10-01

    This article addresses the coupling of acoustic secondary sources in a confined space in a sound field reduction framework. By considering the coupling of sources in a rectangular enclosure, the set of coupled equations governing its acoustical behavior are solved. The model obtained in this way is used to analyze the behavior of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) active sound field control (ASC) systems, where the coupling of sources cannot be neglected. In particular, the article develops the analytical results to analyze the effect of coupling of an array of secondary sources on the sound pressure levels inside an enclosure, when an array of microphones is used to capture the acoustic characteristics of the enclosure. The results are supported by extensive numerical simulations showing how coupling of loudspeakers through acoustic modes of the enclosure will change the strength and hence the driving voltage signal applied to the secondary loudspeakers. The practical significance of this model is to provide a better insight on the performance of the sound reproduction/reduction systems in confined spaces when an array of loudspeakers and microphones are placed in a fraction of wavelength of the excitation signal to reduce/reproduce the sound field. This is of particular importance because the interaction of different sources affects their radiation impedance depending on the electromechanical properties of the loudspeakers.

  19. Reduction of protease activity in milk by continuous flow high-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martín, O

    2003-03-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) is a non-thermal food processing technology that is currently being investigated to inactivate microorganisms and certain enzymes, involving a limited increase of food temperature. Promising results have been obtained on the inactivation of microbial enzymes in milk when suspended in simulated milk ultrafiltrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous HIPEF equipment on inactivating a protease from Bacillus subtilis inoculated in milk. Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 866 micros of squared wave pulses at field strengths from 19.7 to 35.5 kV/cm, using a treatment chamber that consisted of eight colinear chambers connected in series. Moreover, the effects of different parameters such as pulse width (4 and 7 micros), pulse repetition rates (67, 89, and 111 Hz), and milk composition (skim and whole milk) were tested. Protease activity decreased with increased treatment time or field strength and pulse repetition rate. Regarding pulse width, no differences were observed between 4 and 7 micros pulses when total treatment time was considered. On the other hand, it was observed that milk composition affected the results since higher inactivation levels were reached in skim than in whole milk. The maximum inactivation (81%) was attained in skim milk after an 866-micros treatment at 35.5 kV/cm and 111 Hz.

  20. The mix of laws involved in the activity of the companies in the aerospace field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life of companies, including the aerospace companies, depends on the business cycle. The paper presents the trends of law in ascending and descending period of the business cycle. A point of the paper is the separation of military and civil law in aerospace, public and private law, national and corporate security systems. Also the laws to be apply in relation with public authorities, private organizations, citizens are approched. In the paper are included some keys for interpretation such as the hierarchy of social values. In modern times, the humans life, rights and property must be the main protected values. The paper shows the methods to be accepted for the analyse/analysis of law in aerospace field: logical analysis, hystorical method, comparative method, social research, experimental method. In the aerospace field each of them has some particularities. The classification of laws depending of economic impact in the aerospace field is an other section. There are presented implications on cost, income, receipts, payments, duration of the activities, other restrictions.

  1. Influence of the Ambient Electric Field on Measurements of the Actively Controlled Spacecraft Potential by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Giles, B. L.; Jeszenszky, H.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Space missions with sophisticated plasma instrumentation such as Magnetospheric Multiscale, which employs four satellites to explore near-Earth space benefit from a low electric potential of the spacecraft, to improve the plasma measurements and therefore carry instruments to actively control the potential by means of ion beams. Without control, the potential varies in anticorrelation with plasma density and temperature to maintain an equilibrium between the plasma current and the one of photoelectrons produced at the surface and overcoming the potential barrier. A drawback of the controlled, almost constant potential is the difficulty to use it as convenient estimator for plasma density. This paper identifies a correlation between the spacecraft potential and the ambient electric field, both measured by double probes mounted at the end of wire booms, as the main responsible for artifacts in the potential data besides the known effect of the variable photoelectron production due to changing illumination of the surface. It is shown that the effect of density variations is too weak to explain the observed correlation with the electric field and that a correction of the artifacts can be achieved to enable the reconstruction of the uncontrolled potential and plasma density in turn. Two possible mechanisms are discussed: the asymmetry of the current-voltage characteristic determining the probe to plasma potential and the fact that a large equipotential structure embedded in an electric field results in asymmetries of both the emission and spatial distribution of photoelectrons, which results in an increase of the spacecraft potential.

  2. REFORM OF REGULATORY POLICY IN THE FIELD OF SUPERVISION OF AUDIT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kantsir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reforming the regulatory system and supervision of audit activity in Ukraine is a basic condition for Ukraine’s accession to the European Community, and the introduction of international standards in the field of audit and supervision of audit activity and quality assurance of audit services should be correlated with the standards of European and world audit practice. The dominant factor in the effective functioning of independent control is the choice of a model of supervision of the mechanism for its implementation; effectiveness of the system of monitoring the quality of audit services; effectiveness of legal and regulatory framework of audit activity. The regulation of audit activity is to coordinate direct and indirect actions aimed at the subject of audit activity with the purpose of ensuring the quality of audit services and minimizing the level of audit risk. The purpose of the research is: analysis of the basic models of regulation of audit activity aimed at improving the legal regulation of economic relations in general and subjects of audit activity in particular. Determination of expediency of implementation of public oversight as monitoring of the process of implementation of audit activity in the context of granting the right to conduct audit activities to individuals, implementation of standards of professional ethics and quality control of audit services, permanence of education and imposing sanctions for non-compliance by auditors with the requirements of the current legislation. Method (methodology. In the process of research, general scientific and special methods of scientific knowledge are used: abstract-logical (in the disclosure of theoretical and methodological foundations of public oversight; synthesis and system analysis (substantiation of the essential characteristics of the system of public oversight; system analysis and theoretical generalization (definition of institutional prerequisites for the introduction of

  3. Equinoctial Activity Over Titan Dune Fields Revealed by Cassini/vims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, S.; Le Mouelic, S.; Barnes, J. W.; Hirtzig, M.; Rannou, P.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Bow, J.; Vixie, G.; Cornet, T.; Bourgeois, O.; Narteau, C.; Courrech Du Pont, S.; Le Gall, A.; Reffet, E.; Griffith, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Baines, K. H.; Nicholson, P. D.; Coustenis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, is the only satellite in the solar system with a dense atmosphere. The close and continuous observations of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft, in orbit around Saturn since July 2004, bring us evidences that Titan troposphere and low stratosphere experience an exotic, but complete meteorological cycle similar to the Earth hydrological cycle, with hydrocarbons evaporation, condensation in clouds, and rainfall. Cassini monitoring campaigns also demonstrate that Titan's cloud coverage and climate vary with latitude. Titan's tropics, with globally weak meteorological activity and widespread dune fields, seem to be slightly more arid than the poles, where extensive and numerous liquid reservoirs and sustained cloud activity have been discovered. Only a few tropo-spheric clouds have been observed at Titan's tropics during the southern summer. As equinox was approaching (in August 2009), they occurred more frequently and appeared to grow in strength and size. We present here the observation of intense brightening at Titan's tropics, very close to the equinox. These detections were conducted with the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini. We will discuss the VIMS images of the three individual events detected so far, observed during the Titan's flybys T56 (22 May 2009), T65 (13 January 2010) and T70 (21 June 2010). T56, T65 and T70 observations show an intense and transient brighten-ing of large regions very close to the equator, right over the extensive dune fields of Senkyo, Belet and Shangri-La. They all appear spectrally and morphologically different from all transient surface features or atmospheric phenomena previously reported. Indeed, these events share in particular a strong brightening at wavelengths greater than 2 μm (especially at 5 μm), making them spectrally distinct from the small tropical clouds observed before the equinox and the large storms observed near the equator in September and October

  4. Electric field in the magnetotail depending on the geomagnetic activity level and intensity Esub(y) in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M.I.; Osipov, V.V.; Shukhtina, M.A.; Zajtseva, S.A.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok. Dal'nevostochnyh Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1982-01-01

    The value of the large-scale electric field in the near magnetotail on AE-index variations delay in relation to interplanetary electric field variations is estimated. It is obtained that the electric field value in a tail increases with magnetic activity level. The solar wind electric field under strong magnetic disturbance penetrates into the magnetosphere practically without weakening and is essentially weakened in magneto-quit conditions. Calculated values of the electric field magnitude in the magnetotail (0.01-1mBm) are in agreement with those obtained earlier [ru

  5. Soil structure and microbial activity dynamics in 20-month field-incubated organic-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Soil structure formation is essential to all soil ecosystem functions and services. This study aims to quantify changes in soil structure and microbial activity during and after field incubation and examine the effect of carbon, organic amendment and clay on aggregate characteristics. Five soils...... dominated by illites, one kaolinitic soil and one smectitic soil were sieved to 2 mm, and each soil was divided into two parts and one part amended with ground rape shoots (7.5 t ha−1) as an organic amendment. Samples were incubated in the field for 20 months with periodic sampling to measure water......-dispersible clay (WDC) and fluorescein diacetate activity (FDA). After incubation, WDC and FDA were measured on air-dried 1–2-mm aggregates. Tensile strength was measured on four aggregate classes (1–2, 1–4, 4–8 and 8–16 mm) and results used to assess soil friability and workability. Intact cores were also sampled...

  6. NEUTRON FIELD MEASUREMENT OF P(35)+Be SOURCE USING THE MULTI-FOIL ACTIVATION METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Milan; Bem, Pavel; Majerle, Mitja; Novak, Jan; Simeckova, Eva; Stursa, Jan

    2017-12-05

    Neutron field from the p+Be interaction was investigated at the NPI CAS for a proton beam energy of 35 MeV and thick beryllium target. Broad neutron spectra at close source-to-sample distances were determined using the multi-foil activation technique. Two large sets of dosimetry foils containing the Ni, Co, Au, In, Ti, Al, Y, Lu, Nb and Fe were irradiated at a distance of 74 mm at direct neutron beam axis and at a distance of 34 mm from beam axis. Supporting Monte-Carlo MCNPX calculations of the irradiation system were performed as well. From measured reaction rates, the neutron energy spectra at both positions were reconstructed employing the modified version of the SAND-II unfolding code and activation cross-section data from the EAF-2010 library. At the position of irradiated samples, the total fast neutron flux reaches the value up to 1010 cm-2 s-1, and the neutron field is utilizable for radiation hardness study and integral benchmark experiments within the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Costa, H.; Cosic, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of mobile phone electromagnetic field emissions on the human electroencephalograph (EEG). EEG recordings from ten awake subjects were taken during exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from a mobile phone positioned behind the head. Two experimental trials were conducted. In the first trial, RF exposures were generated by a GSM mobile phone with the speaker disabled and configured to transmit at full-radiated power. During the second trial, exposures were generated by a non-modified GSM mobile phone in active standby mode. For each trial, subjects were exposed in five minute intervals to a randomized, interrupted sequence of five active and five sham exposures. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The average EEG band power in active exposure recordings was compared to corresponding sham recordings. Statistical tests indicated significant difference in the full-power mode trial within the EEG alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-32 Hz) bands. A subsequent statistical analysis of median spectral power in discrete EEG rhythms revealed significant differences in 7 of the 32 distinct frequencies overall. In conclusion, the results of this study lend support to EEG effects from mobile phones activated in talk-mode. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  8. Inspection of surveillance equipment and activities at DOE Field Office, Richland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The purpose of this inspection was to review surveillance activities by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Field Office, Richland (RL) and contractor employees at the RL Hanford site for efficiency and economy and compliance with laws and regulations. The scope included surveillance activities, procedures, training, types of surveillance equipment, and management controls over the equipment and activities. We also looked at Departmental policies and procedures regarding the equipment and activities. Allegations of illegal surveillance that came to our attention during the course of this inspection were referred to the Department of Justice. As part of our review, inspectors were on-site at RL from February 11, 1991, through March 1, 1991. Follow-up trips to RL were also made in April, May, and June 1991. We also conducted interviews at Albuquerque, Savannah River, and Germantown of former RL employees and RL contractors who were on travel. Officials from DOE's Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office of Security Affairs, and Office of Safeguards and Security (S S) were also interviewed regarding the Department's purchase and possession of wiretapping and eavesdropping devices. We obtained 75 signed sworn statements from 55 individuals during the course of the inspection. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Engaging High School Students in Investigative STEM Activities Based on Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J.; Sheriff, M. M.; Washington, D. S.; Putnam, A. E.; Strand, P.; Radue, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The lead author, an Environmental Science teacher at Gary Comer High School (GCHS), a public charter on the South Side of Chicago, accompanied two students over the course of two summers to conduct field research in remote mountain ranges of interior Asia. The expeditions were funded by the National Science Foundation and orchestrated collaboratively with PI Putnam with the purposes of bringing along high school students and teachers (1) to introduce students from urban areas to practical Earth Science and (2) to bolster the Environmental Science curriculum at GCHS by providing real world events to relate to classroom learning. During the first field trip, a student from GCHS and the lead author traveled to western Mongolia to participate in collecting samples for cosmogenic-nuclide dating of glacial landforms. The student performed all parts of sample collection and used the data to create a poster analyzing the rate of recession of the Potanin Glacier. She went on to present her findings at the AGU Fall Meeting 2016. At GCHS, she assisted the teacher in lessons about climate change. Next year she will be attending the University of Vermont to pursue a major in a STEM field. The second student traveled to the Tibetan Plateau in China and also participated fully in sampling activities. She plans on presenting her project on creating 3D models of sample boulders at the AGU Meeting in 2017. She will present her findings to the rest of the student body at GCHS, assist with pertinent Environmental Science lessons for Freshmen, and explain her experience at the Gary Comer Middle School. The lead author faced several restrictions in the classroom due to standardized testing requirements, leading to more focus on testing skills rather than investigative learning. Next year the focus will switch from ACT to SAT standards, allowing more freedom to pursue investigative lessons. The success of adding information on the field experience will be assessed at the end of the 2017

  10. Impaired microbial activity caused by metal pollution: A field study in a deactivated uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sara Cristina; Pereira, Ruth; Marques, Sérgio Miguel; Castro, Bruno Branco; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    European frameworks for the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of contaminated sites integrate information from three lines of evidence: chemical, ecotoxicological, and ecological. Regarding the last one, field observations at the contaminated sites are compared to reference site(s) and the differences recorded are analysed at the light of a cause-effect relationship, taking into account the site-specific contamination. Thus, included in the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an deactivated uranium mining area, a battery of soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenases, urease, arysulphatase, cellulase, acid phosphate) and potential nitrification were assessed in seven sampling sites (A-D-E-F-G-H-I) at different distances from the mine pit. These parameters have been considered good indicators of impacts on soil microbial communities and, subsequently, on soil functions. Soil enzyme activities were impaired in the most contaminated site (A, near the mine pit), for which a higher degree of risk was determined in the tier 1 of ERA. Three other sites within the mining area (F, G, and D) were discriminated on the basis of their low microbial activity, using uni- and multivariate approaches, and validating what had been previously found with chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence. We observed considerable among-site heterogeneity in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, combined with seasonal differences in enzyme activities. Still, the correlation between microbial parameters and soil general physical and chemical parameters was weak. In opposition, significant and negative correlations were found between soil enzyme activities and several metallic elements (Al, Be, Cu, U). These findings suggest a clear correlation between compromised soil function (nutrient recycling) and metal contamination. Such information reinforces the evidence of risks for some sites within the mining area and is an important contribution for the

  11. Compilation and analysis of hydrogeological pressure responses to field activities in Olkiluoto during 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaittinen, T.; Pentti, E.

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater flow characteristics provide essential input for the construction and safety assessment of a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. On the Olkiluoto site flow connections have been studied in deep drillholes by means of long-term pumping tests, various interference tests, and by interpreting the measured hydraulic heads. This report focuses on the assessment of measured hydraulic heads during 2006-2009. Hydraulic heads have been measured both in open and in packed-off drillholes since 1991. The interpretation of the hydraulic connections is based on observed changes in hydraulic head distribution caused by certain investigation activities on the site. Field activities may increase the head, e.g. drilling, or more typically decrease the head, e.g. flush pumping after drilling, difference flow logging with pumping, and both temporary and currently stable inflows into underground facilities caused by the construction of ONKALO. Processing of the head observations has been developed by determining section-specific corrections for natural fluctuation of the groundwater. The objective of the corrections is to remove natural fluctuation of the groundwater table and sea level, tidal effect, and atmospheric pressure to improve detection of changes in hydraulic head caused by field activities. Time series of observations are compared to schedules of field activities and values for responses are calculated. In addition to temporary responses head drawdown at the end of 2009 is estimated. Analysed responses are mainly related to pumpings from open drillholes and to construction of the access tunnel and the shafts through the hydrogeological HZ19 system until June 2008. Since July 2008 the strongest responses are caused by excavation of the access tunnel and pre-grouting of the shafts through the hydrogeological HZ20 system. Based on the head observations in packed-off drillholes, sub-horizontal hydraulic zones form a layered system at the ONKALO area

  12. Athletes’ Selected Micro-Activities on Turf Fields: Utilizing Extant Videography for Quantification of Events During Soccer, American Football, and Field Hockey Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been recently raised about the potential exposures of athletes to chemicals when playing on synthetic turf fields. Previous research has shown that micro-activities (i.e., hand-to mouth and skin-to-surface contacts) are important factors in people’s exposures to che...

  13. Variation in diel activity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a soybean field and coal mine remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, J.E.; McCravy, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    Diel activities of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a coal mine remnant and surrounding soybean field were studied in west-central Illinois from June through October 2002. A total of 1,402 carabids, representing 29 species and 17 genera, were collected using pitfall traps. Poecilus chalcites (Say) demonstrated roughly equal diurnal and nocturnal activity in June, but greater diurnal activity thereafter. Pterostichus permundus (Say), Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte), Amara obesa (Say), and Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir showed significant nocturnal activity. Associations between habitat and diel activity were found for three species: P. chalcites associated with the remnant and edge habitats showed greater diurnal activity than those associated with the soybean field; C. seximpressus was most active diurnally in the remnant, and Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) showed the greatest nocturnal activity in the remnant and edge habitats. We found significant temporal and habitat-related variation in diel activity among carabid species inhabiting agricultural areas in west-central Illinois.

  14. Monitoring of lightning activity based on simultaneous measurement of electric field and electric field-change in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, K.; Ohya, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.

    2017-12-01

    Main objective of this study is nowcast of thunderstorm activity that causes extreme weather, such as torrential rain, based on lightning observation. Lightning observation has been focused on as an effective way for nowcast of thunderstorm activity. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection, which generates thunderstorm. We have constructed sensor network for lightning observation in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, since 2013. In this network, VLF sensors (frequency range is 1 - 40 kHz) to measure electric field radiated from lightning discharges are distributed about 100 km apart. Additionally, slow antenna and electric field mill are also installed to detect electric field-change by lightning discharge. In this study, evaluations of not only spatial distribution but also scale distribution of lightning activity have been examined based on simultaneous measurement of electric field and electric field-change. As a scale of lightning discharge, charge moment change is derived. Preceding observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. Estimation of scale for each lightning discharge would makes it possible to evaluate not only existence but also strength of atmospheric convection in thunderstorm area quantitatively. Based on lighting observation in the Tokyo metropolitan area, we start to construct new sensor network for real-time monitoring of lightning activity from this year. VLF sensors, slow antenna and electric field mill are mounted on real-time weather observation system named POTEKA developed by Meisei Electric Co., Ltd. and will be distributed in Metro Manila, Philippines under the 5-year project (SATREPS). At the presentation, observation in the Tokyo metropolitan area are summarized as a prototype for lightning observation that will be carried out in Metro Manila, Philippines.

  15. An MHD Simulation of Solar Active Region 11158 Driven with a Time-dependent Electric Field Determined from HMI Vector Magnetic Field Measurement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Feng, Xueshang; Xiong, Ming; Jiang, Chaowei

    2018-03-01

    For realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of the solar active region (AR), two types of capabilities are required. The first is the capability to calculate the bottom-boundary electric field vector, with which the observed magnetic field can be reconstructed through the induction equation. The second is a proper boundary treatment to limit the size of the sub-Alfvénic simulation region. We developed (1) a practical inversion method to yield the solar-surface electric field vector from the temporal evolution of the three components of magnetic field data maps, and (2) a characteristic-based free boundary treatment for the top and side sub-Alfvénic boundary surfaces. We simulate the temporal evolution of AR 11158 over 16 hr for testing, using Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic Magnetic Imager vector magnetic field observation data and our time-dependent three-dimensional MHD simulation with these two features. Despite several assumptions in calculating the electric field and compromises for mitigating computational difficulties at the very low beta regime, several features of the AR were reasonably retrieved, such as twisting field structures, energy accumulation comparable to an X-class flare, and sudden changes at the time of the X-flare. The present MHD model can be a first step toward more realistic modeling of AR in the future.

  16. The Relation Between Magnetic Fields and X-ray Emission for Solar Microflares and Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the result of a comparison between magnetic field parameters and the intensity of X-ray emission for solar microflares with Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) classes from A0.02 to B5.1. For our study, we used the monochromatic MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH), the Full-disk EUV Telescope (FET), and the Solar PHotometer in X-rays (SphinX) instruments onboard the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon CORONAS- Photon spacecraft because of their high sensitivity in soft X-rays. The peak flare flux (PFF) for solar microflares was found to depend on the strength of the magnetic field and on the total unsigned magnetic flux as a power-law function. In the spectral range 2.8 - 36.6 Å, which shows very little increase related to microflares, the power-law index of the relation between the X-ray flux and magnetic flux for active regions is 1.48 ±0.86, which is close to the value obtained previously by Pevtsov et al. ( Astrophys. J. 598, 1387, 2003) for different types of solar and stellar objects. In the spectral range 1 - 8 Å, the power-law indices for PFF(B) and PFF(Φ) for microflares are 3.87 ±2.16 and 3 ±1.6, respectively. We also make suggestions on the heating mechanisms in active regions and microflares under the assumption of loops with constant pressure and heating using the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling laws.

  17. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  18. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  19. Phreatic activity on Dominica (Lesser Antilles) - constraints from field investigations and experimental volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Rott, S.; Dingwell, D. B.; Gilg, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dominica has one of the highest concentrations of potentially active volcanoes worldwide. In addition to this activity, abundant geothermal manifestations are observed at the surface, especially in the southern part of the Island. The Boiling Lake - Valley of Desolation area is one of the most vigorous ones, hosting hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles, and steam vents. Intense alteration and many, predominantly phreatic explosive features, of varying scales characterize the whole area. The most prominent manifestation of such a phreatic eruption is the Boiling Lake, a high temperature volcanic crater lake and popular tourist attraction. Thus phreatic activity is one of the main volcanic hazards on the Island, to date largely unpredictable in time and magnitude. The conditions causing these eruptions, as well as their trigger mechanisms and magnitude need to be better understood. Field mapping, together with the determination of in situ physical (density, humidity, permeability) and mechanical (strength, stiffness) properties yield the characterization of 3 main active areas with high probabilities for phreatic events. Rapid decompression experiments on samples from these areas gave insights into the fragmentation and ejection behavior. These experiments were flanked by chemical analyses and laboratory characterization (porosity, granulometry). The results show that hydrothermal alteration likely plays a crucial role in determining the probability of explosive events. High temperature acidic fluids, which lead to an intense alteration of the host rock's mineralogy, change the rock properties favoring the formation of a low permeability layer above the vent and increasing the likelihood of the site experiencing a steam-blast eruption. The contribution of these results to constraining the conditions for and the dynamics involved in phreatic eruptions provides valuable input to hazard assessment of these frequently visited sites on Dominica and similar hydrothermally

  20. Fur-bearers in the field : study examines cumulative effects of activity at Chinchaga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-08-01

    The challenges facing the oil and gas industry regarding cumulative environmental impacts were discussed. This issue has become important to the oil and gas industry, particularly as communities, governments, environmental groups and investors seek better understanding of the long-term consequences of development and how its effects can be mitigated. Long-term studies and baseline data are important. For the last 8 winters, Ernst Environmental Services (EES) has conducted wildlife monitoring at Chinchaga, which straddles the border between north-Western Alberta and northeastern British Columbia (BC). The area has been described as one of the last boreal wilderness areas in the province. It also has a very rich oil field. There are now more than 140 wells, and this boom has brought along much associated infrastructure, including pipelines, winter roads and a gas plant on the BC side. Each winter, as activity increases, EES uses snow-tracking, photo documentation, remote-camera monitoring and scat collection to capture data about the effects of drilling activities. Scat is collected for stress-level analysis. Although initial studies indicate that wolverines have not been displaced by oil and gas activity, new data has shown that wolverines have returned to territories where oil and gas activity has stopped. Data continues to support the idea that activity does not displace moose, marten, lynx or fisher populations. Using this data, the EES has made several recommendations about wildlife and industry interactions, including no use of recreational vehicles; no harassment of wildlife; the restriction of engine retarder brakes in specified areas; and no idling of vehicles. Additionally, well sites should not be located in old-growth areas, all activities should stop by March 15, and workers should be educated about the consequences of their actions. Controversies concerning the EES's methods were presented. It was suggested that the inefficacy of the procedure was

  1. Activation of Signaling Cascades by Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Kapri-Pardes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Results from recent studies suggest that extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF interfere with intracellular signaling pathways related to proliferative control. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, central signaling components that regulate essentially all stimulated cellular processes, include the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 that are extremely sensitive to extracellular cues. Anti-phospho-ERK antibodies serve as a readout for ERK1/2 activation and are able to detect minute changes in ERK stimulation. The objective of this study was to explore whether activation of ERK1/2 and other signaling cascades can be used as a readout for responses of a variety of cell types, both transformed and non-transformed, to ELF-MF. Methods: We applied ELF-MF at various field strengths and time periods to eight different cell types with an exposure system housed in a tissue culture incubator and followed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt by western blotting. Results: We found that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is increased in response to ELF-MF. However, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is likely too low to induce ELF-MF-dependent proliferation or oncogenic transformation. The p38 MAPK was very slightly phosphorylated, but JNK or Akt were not. The effect on ERK1/2 was detected for exposures to ELF-MF strengths as low as 0.15 µT and was maximal at ∼10 µT. We also show that ERK1/2 phosphorylation is blocked by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, indicating that the response to ELF-MF may be exerted via NADP oxidase similar to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to microwave radiation. Conclusions: Our results further indicate that cells are responsive to ELF-MF at field strengths much lower than previously suspected and that the effect may be mediated by NADP oxidase. However, the small increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation is probably insufficient to affect proliferation and oncogenic

  2. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The field measurements of the activity-weighted size distributions of radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.; Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the importance of particle size in the calculations of dose deposited in the respiratory tract by radon progeny, the determination of the size distribution of radon decay products in indoor air had increased in interest in recent years. A system for the measurement of the activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products at environmental levels has been developed. The system (ASC-GSA) utilizes a combination of six multiple wire screens (Graded Screen Array) sampler detector units operated in parallel. The cut off points of the samplers and the data deconvolution procedure allow to obtain the activity fractions of radon progeny in the size range 0.5-500 mn. The computer control of sampling, alpha counting and data storage permits the operation of the system on the semi-continuous basis. The primary application of the ASC-GSA system has been to collect data of activity-weighted size distributions of radon progeny in real house environments. The results of field measurements in several houses with elevated radon levels are presented

  4. Preschool Teaching Staff’s Opinions on the Importance of Preschool Curricular Fields of Activities, Art Genres and Visual Arts Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Zupančič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preschool teachers’ and assistant teachers’ opinions on the importance of selected fields of educational work in kindergartens. The article first highlights the importance of activities expressing artistic creativity within modern curriculums. Then, it presents an empirical study that examines the preschool teachers’ and assistant teachers’ opinions on the importance of the educational fields, art genres, and visual arts fields. In research hypotheses, we presumed that preschool teachers find individual educational fields, individual art genres, and individual visual arts activities to be of different importance; consequently, education in kindergarten does not achieve the requisite holism. The study is based on the descriptive and causal-non-experimental method. We have determined that the greatest importance is attributed to movement and language, followed by nature, society, art and mathematics. Within art genres, the greatest importance is attributed to visual arts and music and the least to audio-visual activities. Within visual arts, drawing and painting are considered to be the most important and sculpting the least. These findings can support future studies and deliberation on the possible effects on practice in terms of requisitely holistically planned preschool education.

  5. Variability-selected active galactic nuclei from supernova search in the Chandra deep field south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevese, D.; Boutsia, K.; Vagnetti, F.; Cappellaro, E.; Puccetti, S.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Variability is a property shared by virtually all active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and was adopted as a criterion for their selection using data from multi epoch surveys. Low Luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) are contaminated by the light of their host galaxies, and cannot therefore be detected by the usual colour techniques. For this reason, their evolution in cosmic time is poorly known. Consistency with the evolution derived from X-ray detected samples has not been clearly established so far, also because the low luminosity population consists of a mixture of different object types. LLAGNs can be detected by the nuclear optical variability of extended objects. Aims: Several variability surveys have been, or are being, conducted for the detection of supernovae (SNe). We propose to re-analyse these SNe data using a variability criterion optimised for AGN detection, to select a new AGN sample and study its properties. Methods: We analysed images acquired with the wide field imager at the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope, in the framework of the STRESS supernova survey. We selected the AXAF field centred on the Chandra Deep Field South where, besides the deep X-ray survey, various optical data exist, originating in the EIS and COMBO-17 photometric surveys and the spectroscopic database of GOODS. Results: We obtained a catalogue of 132 variable AGN candidates. Several of the candidates are X-ray sources. We compare our results with an HST variability study of X-ray and IR detected AGNs, finding consistent results. The relatively high fraction of confirmed AGNs in our sample (60%) allowed us to extract a list of reliable AGN candidates for spectroscopic follow-up observations. Table [see full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Field dose radiation determination by active learning with Gaussian Process for autonomous robot guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Naiff, Danilo de; Silveira, Paulo R.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes an approach for determination of radiation dose pro le in a radiation-susceptible environment, aiming to guide an autonomous robot in acting on those environments, reducing the human exposure to dangerous amount of dose. The approach consists of an active learning method based on information entropy reduction, using log-normally warped Gaussian Process (GP) as surrogate model, resulting in non-linear online regression with sequential measurements. Experiments with simulated radiation dose fields of varying complexity were made, and results showed that the approach was effective in reconstruct the eld with high accuracy, through relatively few measurements. The technique was also shown some robustness in presence measurement noise, present in real measurements, by assuming Gaussian noise. (author)

  7. Characterisation of organic field-effect transistors using metal phthalocyanines as active layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korodi, Iulia G.; Lehmann, Daniel; Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Tippo, Tossapol [Faculty of Engineering and College of Data Storage Technology and Applications, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Ladkrabang Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Hietschold, Michael [Solid Surface Analysis Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) as active layers is compared. Current/voltage measurements were first performed in vacuum and later under ambient conditions. The highest hole mobility {mu}{sub vac} = (1.5 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/Vs was obtained for the CuPc OFETs. The mobility remained constant within the error bar after exposing the OFETs to atmosphere ({mu}{sub atm} = (1.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/Vs). For the TiOPc transistors a hole mobility of {mu}{sub vac} = (7.2 {+-} 4.0) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs was found in vacuum. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Field dose radiation determination by active learning with Gaussian Process for autonomous robot guiding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Naiff, Danilo de; Silveira, Paulo R.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: danilonai1992@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: paulo@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This article proposes an approach for determination of radiation dose pro le in a radiation-susceptible environment, aiming to guide an autonomous robot in acting on those environments, reducing the human exposure to dangerous amount of dose. The approach consists of an active learning method based on information entropy reduction, using log-normally warped Gaussian Process (GP) as surrogate model, resulting in non-linear online regression with sequential measurements. Experiments with simulated radiation dose fields of varying complexity were made, and results showed that the approach was effective in reconstruct the eld with high accuracy, through relatively few measurements. The technique was also shown some robustness in presence measurement noise, present in real measurements, by assuming Gaussian noise. (author)

  9. EVALUATION OF AN ENTERPRISE - CENTRAL OBJECT FOR ROMANIAN SPECIALISTS FROM VARIOUS FIELDS OF ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An enterprise evaluation is a central object for Romanian specialists from various fields of activity, not only needed in privatization of commercial companies, but also in the process of transition to market economy. Thus, the problem of knowing the most accurate value a company is placed when a securities issue takes place, o sale of assets or when the reorganization process is triggered legal liquidation of an enterprise; in these situations it is necessary to establish the value of the firm not only in terms of the value of fixed assets and but also depending on the future capacity of the enterprise to generate profit. The case study refers to the evaluation of the Gorj Hotel in Targu Jiu, where the financial situations were relevant and underpinned by the correct evaluation of the SC Gorjul SA patrimony.

  10. On the active manipulation of fields and applications: I. The quasistatic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrei, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Following the ideas proposed by Guevara-Vasquez et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103; Opt. Express 17 14800-5) on active exterior cloaking, we present here a systematic integral equation method to generate suitable quasistatic fields for cloaking, illusions and energy focusing (with given accuracy) in multiple regions of interest. In the quasistatic regime, the central issue is to design appropriate source functions for the Laplace equation so that the resulting solution will satisfy the required properties. We show the existence and non-uniqueness of solutions to the problem and study the physically relevant unique L2-minimal energy solution. We also provide some numerical evidence on the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  11. Incorporating conditional random fields and active learning to improve sentiment identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Xie, Yusheng; Yang, Yi; Sun, Aaron; Liu, Hengchang; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-10-01

    Many machine learning, statistical, and computational linguistic methods have been developed to identify sentiment of sentences in documents, yielding promising results. However, most of state-of-the-art methods focus on individual sentences and ignore the impact of context on the meaning of a sentence. In this paper, we propose a method based on conditional random fields to incorporate sentence structure and context information in addition to syntactic information for improving sentiment identification. We also investigate how human interaction affects the accuracy of sentiment labeling using limited training data. We propose and evaluate two different active learning strategies for labeling sentiment data. Our experiments with the proposed approach demonstrate a 5%-15% improvement in accuracy on Amazon customer reviews compared to existing supervised learning and rule-based methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active feedback stabilization of the flute instability in a mirror machine using field-aligned coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshitz, A.; Be'ery, I.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.; Fruchtman, A.

    2012-01-01

    A plasma confined in linear mirror machines is unstable even at low β, mainly because of the flute instability. One possible way to stabilize the plasma is to use active feedback to correct the plasma shape in real time. The theoretically investigated apparatus consists of feedback coils aligned with the magnetic field, immersed in a cold plasma around the hot core. When the current through the feedback coils changes, the plasma moves to conserve the magnetic flux via compressional Alfvén waves. An analytical model is used to find a robust feedback algorithm with zero residual currents. It is shown that due to the plasma's rotation, maximal stability is obtained with a large phase angle between the perturbations' modes and the feedback integral-like term. Finally, a two-dimensional MHD simulation implementing the above algorithm in fact shows stabilization of the plasma with zero residual currents. (paper)

  13. S. cerevisiae fermentation activity after moderate pulsed electric field pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Jessy R; Turk, Mohammad F; Nonus, Maurice; Lebovka, Nikolai I; El Zakhem, Henri; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    The batch fermentation process, inoculated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treated wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actiflore F33), was studied. PEF treatment was applied to the aqueous yeast suspensions ([Y] = 0.012 g/L) at the electric field strengths of E = 100 and 6000 V/cm using the same treatment protocol (number of pulses n = 1000, pulse duration ti = 100 μs, and pulse repetition time Δt = 100 ms). Electrical conductivity was increasing during and after the PEF treatment, which reflected cell electroporation. Then, fermentation was run for 150 h in an incubator (30 °C) with synchronic agitation. Electro-stimulation was revealing itself by the improvement of fermentation characteristics, and thus increased yeast metabolism. At the end of the lag phase (t = 40 h), fructose consumption in samples with electrically activated inoculum exceeded that of the control samples by ≈ 2.33 times for E = 100 V/cm and by ≈ 3.98 for E = 6000 V/cm. At the end of the log phase (120 h of fermentation), ≈ 30% mass reduction was reached in samples with PEF-treated inocula (E = 6000 V/cm), whereas the same mass reduction of the control sample required approximately 20 extra hours of fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy boundary measurements on localization of active neural source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization.

  15. Using Wide-Field Meteor Cameras to Actively Engage Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D. M.; Scales, J. N.

    2012-08-01

    Astronomy has always afforded teachers an excellent topic to develop students' interest in science. New technology allows the opportunity to inexpensively outfit local school districts with sensitive, wide-field video cameras that can detect and track brighter meteors and other objects. While the data-collection and analysis process can be mostly automated by software, there is substantial human involvement that is necessary in the rejection of spurious detections, in performing dynamics and orbital calculations, and the rare recovery and analysis of fallen meteorites. The continuous monitoring allowed by dedicated wide-field surveillance cameras can provide students with a better understanding of the behavior of the night sky including meteors and meteor showers, stellar motion, the motion of the Sun, Moon, and planets, phases of the Moon, meteorological phenomena, etc. Additionally, some students intrigued by the possibility of UFOs and "alien visitors" may find that actual monitoring data can help them develop methods for identifying "unknown" objects. We currently have two ultra-low light-level surveillance cameras coupled to fish-eye lenses that are actively obtaining data. We have developed curricula suitable for middle or high school students in astronomy and earth science courses and are in the process of testing and revising our materials.

  16. THE ACTIVE ROLE OF THE JUDGE IN THE FIELD OF UNFAIR TERMS LITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Titus Paveliu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unfair contract terms mark a delicate area in the field of consumer protection given the premise in which the consumer finds himself. This field of private law stems from the idea that the consumer needs an enhanced protection which from a legal standpoint may consist of introducing of measures of substantial law that can provide support in the precontractual phase, with evidence and even in understanding the legal consequences at hand. At a first glance, these comprise most of the benefits a consumer is granted and may choose to utilize in a litigation procedure against a professional in case on unfair contract terms. However, there is also a lesser known benefit that comes in the form of the obligation of the national courts to sanction on its own motion and in any procedural phase the occurrence of unfair contract terms. This line of thought has support within the Romanian legal system, but the decisive arguments in this sense com in the form of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union from the past decades. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the hystorical evolution of the active role of the court in civil law litigation, especially from the perspective of unfair terms cases in which consumers are parties to the proceedings, and to highlight the process that the Romanian judges have to follow in solving this type of cases.

  17. Active matter beyond mean-field: ring-kinetic theory for self-propelled particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yen-Liang; Ihle, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Hanke et al. [Phys. Rev. E 88, 052309 (2013)] showed that mean-field kinetic theory fails to describe collective motion in soft active colloids and that correlations must not be neglected. Correlation effects are also expected to be essential in systems of biofilaments driven by molecular motors and in swarms of midges. To obtain correlations in an active matter system from first principles, we derive a ring-kinetic theory for Vicsek-style models of self-propelled agents from the exact N-particle evolution equation in phase space. The theory goes beyond mean-field and does not rely on Boltzmann's approximation of molecular chaos. It can handle precollisional correlations and cluster formation, which are both important to understand the phase transition to collective motion. We propose a diagrammatic technique to perform a small-density expansion of the collision operator and derive the first two equations of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy. An algorithm is presented that numerically solves the evolution equation for the two-particle correlations on a lattice. Agent-based simulations are performed and informative quantities such as orientational and density correlation functions are compared with those obtained by ring-kinetic theory. Excellent quantitative agreement between simulations and theory is found at not-too-small noises and mean free paths. This shows that there are parameter ranges in Vicsek-like models where the correlated closure of the BBGKY hierarchy gives correct and nontrivial results. We calculate the dependence of the orientational correlations on distance in the disordered phase and find that it seems to be consistent with a power law with an exponent around -1.8, followed by an exponential decay. General limitations of the kinetic theory and its numerical solution are discussed.

  18. Static magnetic field effects on proteases with fibrinolytic activity produced by Mucor subtilissimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Wendell; Nascimento, Thiago; Brandão-Costa, Romero; Fernandes, Thiago; Porto, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The influence of a static magnetic field (SMF) on crude enzyme extracts with proteolytic activity is described and discussed. Proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze peptide bonds, and fibrinolytic enzymes, which dissolve fibrin clots, have industrial relevance, and applicability dependent on improvements of productivity and activity. We investigated whether a moderate SMF affects proteolysis in different in vitro tests: general proteolysis of azocasein substrate, and static and dynamic fibrinolytic processes (to compare fibrin gel configuration under exposure). Crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state fermentation of Mucor subtilissimus UCP (Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil) 1262, were used to carry out assays under slightly heterogeneous fields: a varied vertical SMF (for tests in Eppendorf tubes, from 0.100 to 0.170 T) and a varied horizontal SMF (for tests in Petri dishes, from 0.01 to 0.122 T), generated by two permanent magnets (NdFeB alloy). Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in static fibrinolysis assays after 24 h of exposure. The mean diameter of halos of fibrin degradation in the treated group increased by 21% compared to the control group; and the pixel number count of fibrin consumption (in a computational analysis of the area of each halo) enhanced by 30% with exposure. However, in dynamic fibrinolysis assays, no effects of SMF were observed. These results suggest a response of fibrin monomers to the SMF as a possible cause of the observed effects. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Active control of acoustic field-of-view in a biosonar system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Yovel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active-sensing systems abound in nature, but little is known about systematic strategies that are used by these systems to scan the environment. Here, we addressed this question by studying echolocating bats, animals that have the ability to point their biosonar beam to a confined region of space. We trained Egyptian fruit bats to land on a target, under conditions of varying levels of environmental complexity, and measured their echolocation and flight behavior. The bats modulated the intensity of their biosonar emissions, and the spatial region they sampled, in a task-dependant manner. We report here that Egyptian fruit bats selectively change the emission intensity and the angle between the beam axes of sequentially emitted clicks, according to the distance to the target, and depending on the level of environmental complexity. In so doing, they effectively adjusted the spatial sector sampled by a pair of clicks-the "field-of-view." We suggest that the exact point within the beam that is directed towards an object (e.g., the beam's peak, maximal slope, etc. is influenced by three competing task demands: detection, localization, and angular scanning-where the third factor is modulated by field-of-view. Our results suggest that lingual echolocation (based on tongue clicks is in fact much more sophisticated than previously believed. They also reveal a new parameter under active control in animal sonar-the angle between consecutive beams. Our findings suggest that acoustic scanning of space by mammals is highly flexible and modulated much more selectively than previously recognized.

  20. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Menmuir, S.; Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.

    2006-09-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  1. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecconello, M [Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, Alfven Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Menmuir, S [Department of Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, School of Engineering Science, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10691 Stockhom (Sweden); Brunsell, P R [Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, Alfven Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Kuldkepp, M [Department of Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, School of Engineering Science, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10691 Stockhom (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  2. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconello, M; Menmuir, S; Brunsell, P R; Kuldkepp, M

    2006-01-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties

  3. Antitrypanosomal activity of aloin and its derivatives against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewabe, Yitagesu; Bisrat, Daniel; Terefe, Getachew; Asres, Kaleab

    2014-03-10

    There is an urgent need for the development of new, cheap, safe and highly effective drugs against African trypanosomiasis that affects both man and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. In the present study the exudate of Aloe gilbertii, an endemic Aloe species of Ethiopia, aloin, aloe-emodin and rhein were tested for their in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal activities against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. Aloin was prepared from the leaf exudate of A. gilbertii by acid catalyzed hydrolysis. Aloe-emodin was obtained by oxidative hydrolysis of aloin, while rhein was subsequently derived from aloe-emodin by oxidation. In vitro trypanocidal activity tests were conducted on parasites obtained from infected mice, while mice infected with T. congolense were used to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of the test substances. Results of the study showed that all the test substances arrested parasites motility at effective concentration of 4.0 mg/ml within an incubation period ranging from 15 to 40 min. Moreover, the same concentration of the test substances caused loss of infectivity of the parasites to mice during 30 days observation period. Among the tested substances, rhein showed superior activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.4 mg/ml. No adverse reactions were observed when the test substances were administered at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. Rhein at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the exudate, aloin and aloe-emodin at a dose of 400 mg/kg reduced the level of parasitaemia significantly (P aloin and its derivatives particularly rhein have the potential to be used as a scaffold for the development of safe and cost effective antitrypanosomal drugs that can be useful in the continuing fight against African trypanosomiasis.

  4. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations-a college dormitory and a research laboratory-during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pi lot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air

  5. Activities of the senspol and NICOLE network concerning field investigation at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. von [GeoDelft, AB Delft (Netherlands); Alcock, S. [Cranfield Univ. of Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    At a European level several networks can be identified aimed at developments and exchange of knowledge relevant to sustainable management of the subsurface. Based on the common interests in the field of site characterisation and monitoring the SENSPOL and NICOLE networks have established links resulting in cooperation in several project-activities. In this presentation two projects will be addressed: - Seville technicalmeeting (Aznacollar mining site). - Bridging gaps between sensor developers and (end) users in a pragmatic approach (GAPS-project). The goal of the Seville technical meeting was to apply the latest sensing technologies at a site contaminated by metal mining activities, to properly evaluate the advances and limitations in the monitoring of contaminated sites for sustainable land management and to determine further steps to commercial exploitation. Some 17 different instruments have been brought including: - Electrochemical sensors using different forms of anodic stripping voltammetry and constant current chronopotentiometry combined with several types of screen printed electrodes. - An amperometric biosensor using screen printed electrodes, which measures toxicity by inhibition effects on urease and its sensitive to Hg(II), Ag(I), Cu(I) and to a lesser extent to Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) and a selectrochemical DNA biosensor measuring overall toxicity. - A luminescent bacterial sensors for measuring the bioavailable fraction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg, and a bioluminescent fiber optic sensor for Hg and As. - Toxicity testing instruments (Checklight 'ToxScreen Multi-Shot Test, ToxAlert {sup registered} 100 and ToxAlert {sup registered} 10) - A fieldprobe for pH, EC, TDS measurement - A lead automatic analyser AQUAMET using a ion-selective electrode. - Pulse-neutron borehole device in which interaction of neutrons with the surrounding medium can be used to monitor changes. In a two-day field session on the mining site participants were provided

  6. Explosive Volcanic Activity at Extreme Depths: Evidence from the Charles Darwin Volcanic Field, Cape Verdes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Devey, C. W.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions on the deep sea floor have traditionally been assumed to be non-explosive as the high-pressure environment should greatly inhibit steam-driven explosions. Nevertheless, occasional evidence both from (generally slow-) spreading axes and intraplate seamounts has hinted at explosive activity at large water depths. Here we present evidence from a submarine field of volcanic cones and pit craters called Charles Darwin Volcanic Field located at about 3600 m depth on the lower southwestern slope of the Cape Verdean Island of Santo Antão. We examined two of these submarine volcanic edifices (Tambor and Kolá), each featuring a pit crater of 1 km diameter, using photogrammetric reconstructions derived from ROV-based imaging followed by 3D quantification using a novel remote sensing workflow, aided by sampling. The measured and calculated parameters of physical volcanology derived from the 3D model allow us, for the first time, to make quantitative statements about volcanic processes on the deep seafloor similar to those generated from land-based field observations. Tambor cone, which is 2500 m wide and 250 m high, consists of dense, probably monogenetic medium to coarse-grained volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks that are highly fragmented, probably as a result of thermal and viscous granulation upon contact with seawater during several consecutive cycles of activity. Tangential joints in the outcrops indicate subsidence of the crater floor after primary emplacement. Kolá crater, which is 1000 m wide and 160 m deep, appears to have been excavated in the surrounding seafloor and shows stepwise sagging features interpreted as ring fractures on the inner flanks. Lithologically, it is made up of a complicated succession of highly fragmented deposits, including spheroidal juvenile lapilli, likely formed by spray granulation. It resembles a maar-type deposit found on land. The eruption apparently entrained blocks of MORB-type gabbroic country rocks with

  7. Active knee range of motion assessment in elite track and field athletes: normative values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Kakoura, Lena; Tsitas, Kostas; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Siozos, Alexandros; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background flexibility is an important physical characteristic in athletes in terms of performance and injury prevention. Active Range Of Motion (AROM) was assessed in elite Greek track and field athletes. Methods prospective cohort study was carried out. In the period 2000–2010, the AROM was measured bilaterally with the Active Knee Extension (AKE) test during an in-season period with a goniometer in 127 athletes. Results male runners and jumpers had a higher mean AROM than throwers, but this result was not statistically significant. Female jumpers had a higher mean AROM than both runners and throwers, but the difference was also not statistically significant. Conclusion in athletes, mean posterior thigh muscle flexibility is likely to be between 72.3° and 73.9°. Posterior thigh muscle flexibility is associated with performance, the higher the AROM, the better performance is achieved athletes have generally high AROM, and this may be a result of their increased muscle flexibility. The normative values of posterior thigh flexibility may assist in better monitoring rehabilitation of the posterior thigh muscle injuries and be useful in pre-season screening of athletes’ flexibility. PMID:26605196

  8. Infrared Selection of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Juneau, Stéphanie; da Cunha, Elisabete; Salvato, Mara; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Ilbert, Olivier; Toba, Yoshiki; Lim, Chen-Fatt; Tang, Ji-Jia; Wang, Wei-Hao; Ferraro, Nicholas; Urry, Megan C.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of the connection among black hole accretion, star formation, and galaxy morphology at z≤slant 2.5. We focus on active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by their mid-IR power-law emission. By fitting optical to far-IR photometry with state-of-the-art spectral energy distribution (SED) techniques, we derive stellar masses, star formation rates, dust properties, and AGN contributions in galaxies over the whole COSMOS field. We find that obscured AGNs lie within or slightly above the star-forming sequence. We confirm our previous finding about compact host galaxies of obscured AGNs at z˜ 1, and find that galaxies with 20%-50% AGN contributions tend to have smaller sizes, by ˜25%-50%, compared to galaxies without AGNs. Furthermore, we find that a high merger fraction of up to 0.5 is appropriate for the most luminous ({log}({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )˜ 12.5) AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies, but not for the whole obscured AGN sample. Moreover, the merger fraction depends on the total and star-forming IR luminosity, rather than on the decomposed AGN infrared luminosity. Our results suggest that major mergers are not the main driver of AGN activity, and therefore obscured AGNs might be triggered by internal mechanisms, such as secular processes, disk instabilities, and compaction in a particular evolutionary stage. We make the SED modeling results publicly available.

  9. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory with space partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-02-01

    Aiming at efficient numerical analysis of time-dependent (TD) many-electron dynamics of atoms involving multielectron continua, the TD restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory with space partition (TD-RASSCF-SP) is presented. The TD-RASSCF-SP wave function is expanded in terms of TD configuration-interaction coefficients with Slater determinants composed of two kinds of TD orbitals: M ̂ orbitals are defined to be nonvanishing in the inner region (V ̂), a small volume around the atomic nucleus, and M ˇ orbitals are nonvanishing in the large outer region (V ˇ). For detailed discussion of the SP strategy, the equations of motion are derived by two different formalisms for comparison. To ensure continuous differentiability of the wave function across the two regions, one of the formalisms makes use of the property of the finite-element discrete-variable-representation (FEDVR) functions and introduces additional time-independent orbitals. The other formalism is more general and is based on the Bloch operator as in the R -matrix theory, but turns out to be less practical for numerical applications. Hence, using the FEDVR-based formalism, the numerical performance is tested by computing double-ionization dynamics of atomic beryllium in intense light fields. To achieve high accuracy, M ̂ should be set large to take into account the strong many-electron correlation around the nucleus. On the other hand, M ˇ can be set much smaller than M ̂ for capturing the weaker correlation between the two outgoing photoelectrons. As a result, compared with more accurate multiconfigurational TD Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method, the TD-RASSCF-SP method may achieve comparable accuracy in the description of the double-ionization dynamics. There are, however, difficulties related to the stiffness of the equations of motion of the TD-RASSCF-SP method, which makes the required time step for this method smaller than the one needed for the MCTDHF approach.

  10. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  11. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-12-16

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.

  12. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Lehmann

    Full Text Available The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013, and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP. To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively. Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  13. Magnetic field activated drug release system based on magnetic PLGA microspheres for chemo-thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kun; Song, Lina; Gu, Zhuxiao; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been extensively investigated for cancer therapy in order to obtain better specific targeting and therapeutic efficiency. Herein, we developed doxorubicin-loaded magnetic PLGA microspheres (DOX-MMS), in which DOX was encapsulated in the core and high contents (28.3 wt%) of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (IOs) were electrostatically assembled on the surface of microsphere to ensure the high sensitivity to response of an external alternating current magnetic field (ACMF). The IOs in PLGA shell can both induce the heat effect and trigger shell permeability enhancement to release drugs when DOX-MMs was activated by ACMF. Results show that the cumulative drug release from DOX-MMs exposed to ACMF for 30 min (21.6%) was significantly higher (approximately 7 times higher) than that not exposed to ACMF (2.8%). The combination of hyperthermia and enhanced DOX release from DOX-MMS is beneficial for in vitro 4T1 breast cancer cell apoptosis as well as effective inhibition of tumor growth in 4T1 tumor xenografts. Therefore, the DOX-MMS can be optimized as powerful delivery system for efficient magnetic responsive drug release and chemo-thermal therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  15. VTP as an Active Layer in a Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Nur Adilah; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Halizan, Muhammad Zharfan Mohd; Bawazeer, Tahani M.; Alsenany, Nourah; Alsoufi, Mohammad S.; Majid, Wan Haliza Abdul; Supangat, Azzuliani

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, a p-type organic material from metal phthalocyanine (MPc) derivative, vanadyl 3,10,17,24-tetra-tert-butyl-1,8,15,22-tetrakis (dimethylamino)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (VTP) has been utilized for fabrication of an organic electronic device. Prior to the fabrication of a vertical organic field effect transistor (VOFET), fundamental work in investigating the energy level of VTP has been done through determination of oxidation and reduction potentials. Energy levels of VTP were calculated based on the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis analyses. Subsequently, the soluble VTP was employed as an active layer in VOFET with different thicknesses of 90.4 nm, 66.4 nm, and 52.1 nm. It is found that a device with 66.4 nm VTP's thickness showed the optimum performance, by giving the maximum current density and lowest threshold voltage of around 37 mA/cm2 and 7.1 V, respectively. The effects of the channel thickness on the semi-transparent VOFET devices are explained in this work.

  16. Development and Evaluation for Active Learning Instructional Design of Epidemiology in Nursing Informatics Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Yukie

    2016-01-01

    Nursing education classes are classifiable into three types: lectures, classroom practice, and clinical practice. In this study, we implemented a class that incorporated elements of active learning, including clickers, minutes papers, quizzes, and group work and presentation, in the subject of "epidemiology", which is often positioned in the field of nursing informatics and which is usually taught in conventional knowledge-transmission style lectures, to help students understand knowledge and achieve seven class goals. Results revealed that the average scores of the class achievement (five levels of evaluation) were 3.6-3.9, which was good overall. The highest average score of the evaluation of teaching materials by students (five levels of evaluation) was 4.6 for quizzes, followed by 4.2 for announcement of test statistics, 4.1 for clickers, and 4.0 for news presentation related to epidemiology. We regard these as useful tools for students to increase their motivation. One problem with the class was that it took time to organize the class: creation of tests, class preparation and marking, such as things to be returned and distribution of clickers, and writing comments on small papers.

  17. Change Detection Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Active Learning and Markov Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Change detection has been widely used in remote sensing, such as for disaster assessment and urban expansion detection. Although it is convenient to use unsupervised methods to detect changes from multi-temporal images, the results could be further improved. In supervised methods, heavy data labelling tasks are needed, and the sample annotation process with real categories is tedious and costly. To relieve the burden of labelling and to obtain satisfactory results, we propose an interactive change detection framework based on active learning and Markov random field (MRF. More specifically, a limited number of representative objects are found in an unsupervised way at the beginning. Then, the very limited samples are labelled as “change” or “no change” to train a simple binary classification model, i.e., a Gaussian process model. By using this model, we then select and label the most informative samples by “the easiest” sample selection strategy to update the former weak classification model until the detection results do not change notably. Finally, the maximum a posteriori (MAP change detection is efficiently computed via the min-cut-based integer optimization algorithm. The time consuming and laborious manual labelling process can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained. The experiments on several WorldView-2 images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of suspensions and nanoemulsions of citral in combination with heat or pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, E; Berdejo, D; Espina, L; García-Gonzalo, D; Pagán, R

    2018-01-01

    The application of essential oils in form of nanoemulsions has been proposed as a method to improve their solubility in aqueous solutions, and hence their antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of citral, applied directly or in combined treatments with heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF), as a function of the inoculation procedure assayed: (i) a simple, vigorous shaking method by vortex agitation (suspension of citral; s-citral) or (ii) the previous preparation of nanoemulsions by the emulsion phase inversion (EPI) method (nanoemulsion of citral; n-citral). n-Citral was more effective in either inhibiting or inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai than s-citral. However, when combined with heat, a greater synergistic effect was observed with s-citral rather than with n-citral, either in lab media (pH 7·0 and 4·0) or apple juice. For instance, while almost 5 log 10 cell cycles were inactivated in apple juice after 15 min at 53°C in the presence of 0·1 μl ml -1 of s-citral, the use of n-citral required 30 min. The use of nanoemulsions did not modify the slight synergism observed when citral and mild PEF were combined (150 μs, 30 kV cm -1 ). The exploration of different delivery systems of antimicrobial compounds such as citral in aqueous food products aids in the establishment of successful combined treatments for food preservation. While at room temperature, citral in form of a nanoemulsion shows a higher antimicrobial activity; its combination with heat would imply a partial loss of the outstanding synergistic lethal effect achieved when added in suspension form. Therefore, the most suitable procedure to magnify the synergism between heat and citral when processing juices would merely require an intense homogenization step prior to the combined treatment. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Lab mice in the field: unorthodox daily activity and effects of a dysfunctional circadian clock allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, Serge; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Albrecht, Urs; Schmutz, Isabelle; Daan, Moritz; Daan, Berte; Rienks, Froukje; Poletaeva, Inga; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2011-04-01

    experiments on fitness consequences in the natural environment. It also demonstrates that the activity of mice, while strictly nocturnal in the laboratory, may be partially or completely diurnal in the field. The new method allows assessment of natural selection on specific alleles on a day-today basis. © 2011 Sage Publications

  20. The Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Listening Strategy during Shadowing Activity on Field-Dependent and Field-Independent EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Alizadeh Oghyanous

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of teaching metacognitive listening strategies through shadowing activity on the listening comprehension of field-dependent (FD and field-independent (FI EFL learners. Since the researcher had access only to female participants,85 female EFL learners from a language institute in Tehran, at the pre-intermediate level of proficiency with the age range of 18-35 were selected out of the initial 120 participants based on their performance on a piloted PET. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT was administered to the selected participants in order to categorize them into the two experimental groups (49 FD and 36 FI. The participants including both FD and FI sat in several classes. During a five-week instruction period (twice a week, both groups practiced listening comprehension for 45 minutes through a combination of shadowing activity, and metacognitive strategy instruction with no difference in treatment. The results of the independent samples t-test demonstrated that there was no significant difference between listening posttest scores of FI and FD groups. Therefore, it was concluded that metacognitive strategy training coupled with shadowing activity could be equally beneficial in terms of listening proficiency for all students regardless of their perceptual tendency (FD/FI. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers regarding metacognitive strategy training and listening comprehension enhancement.

  1. Osteocytes exposed to far field of therapeutic ultrasound promotes osteogenic cellular activities in pre-osteoblasts through soluble factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-07-01

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was reported to accelerate the rate of fracture healing. When LIPUS is applied to fractures transcutaneously, bone tissues at different depths are exposed to different ultrasound fields. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). Moreover, we have reported that the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of ultrasound beam in rat fracture model. However, the mechanisms of how different axial distances of LIPUS influence the mechanotransduction of bone cells are not understood. To understand the cellular mechanisms underlying far field LIPUS on enhanced fracture healing in rat model, the present study investigated the effect of ultrasound axial distances on (1) osteocyte, the mechanosensor, and (2) mechanotransduction between osteocyte and pre-osteoblast (bone-forming cell) through paracrine signaling. We hypothesized that far field LIPUS could enhance the osteogenic activities of osteoblasts via paracrine factors secreted from osteocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of axial distances of LIPUS on osteocytes and osteocyte-osteoblast mechanotransduction. In this study, LIPUS (plane; 2.2 cm in diameter, 1.5MHz sine wave, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was applied to osteocytes (mechanosensor) at three axial distances: 0mm (near field), 60mm (mid-near field) and 130 mm (far field). The conditioned medium of osteocytes (OCM) collected from these three groups were used to culture pre-osteoblasts (effector cell). In this study, (1) the direct effect of ultrasound fields on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes; and (2) the osteogenic effect of different OCM treatments on pre-osteoblasts were assessed. The immunostaining results indicated the ultrasound beam at far field resulted in more β-catenin nuclear translocation in osteocytes than all other groups. This indicated that osteocytes could detect the

  2. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for bosonic many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lévêque, Camille; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-01-01

    We develop an ab initio time-dependent wavefunction based theory for the description of a many-body system of cold interacting bosons. Like the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (MCTDHB), the theory is based on a configurational interaction Ansatz for the many-body wavefunction with time-dependent self-consistent-field orbitals. The theory generalizes the MCTDHB method by incorporating restrictions on the active space of the orbital excitations. The restrictions are specified based on the physical situation at hand. The equations of motion of this time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory are derived. The similarity between the formal development of the theory for bosons and fermions is discussed. The restrictions on the active space allow the theory to be evaluated under conditions where other wavefunction based methods due to exponential scaling in the numerical effort cannot, and to clearly identify the excitations that are important for an accurate description, significantly beyond the mean-field approach. For ground state calculations we find it to be important to allow a few particles to have the freedom to move in many orbitals, an insight facilitated by the flexibility of the restricted-active-space Ansatz . Moreover, we find that a high accuracy can be obtained by including only even excitations in the many-body self-consistent-field wavefunction. Time-dependent simulations of harmonically trapped bosons subject to a quenching of their noncontact interaction, show failure of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii approach within a fraction of a harmonic oscillation period. The TD-RASSCF theory remains accurate at much reduced computational cost compared to the MCTDHB method. Exploring the effect of changes of the restricted-active-space allows us to identify that even self-consistent-field excitations are mainly responsible for the accuracy of the method. (paper)

  3. Active stress field and seismotectonic features in Intra-Carpathian region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Diaconescu, Mihai; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-04-01

    The Romanian Intra-Carpathian Region is located on the eastern half of Tisa-Dacia geodynamic block from the Neogene Carpathian-Pannonian Basin. The distribution of seismicity displays clear clusters and narrower zones with seismogenic potential confirmed by the damaging earthquakes recoded in the region, e.g. July 01, 1829 (Mw=6.2), October 10, 1834 (Mw=5.6), January 26, 1916 (Mw=6.4), July 12, 1991 (Mw=5.7), December 2, 1991 (Mw=5.5). The state of recent stress and deformation appears to be controlled by the interaction of plate-boundary and intraplate forces, which include the counterclockwise rotation and N-NE-directed indentation of the Adria microplate and buoyancy forces associated with differential topography and lithospheric heterogeneities. The stress field and tectonic regime are investigated at regional and local scales by the formal inversion of focal mechamisms. There can be observed short-scale lateral changes of i) tectonic regimes from compressive (reverse and strike-slip faultings) to pure extensive (normal faultings) and ii) variation of stress directions (SHmax) from NE-SW to EW and WNW-ESE towards Southern Carpathians and NS within Easter Carpathians. The changes in stress directions occur over a distance that is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the lithosphere. A comparative analysis of stress tensor with GPS velocity/displacememt vectors shows variations from paralellism to orthogonality, suggesting different mechanisms of crustal deformations.The major seismic activity (Mw≥5.0) appears to be generally concentrated along the faults systems bordering de Tisa-Dacia Block, intersections of faults of different ages, internal shear zones and with the border of the former structural terrains, old rifts and neostructures.

  4. Activating persulfate by Fe⁰ coupling with weak magnetic field: performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xinmei; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Naiyun; Shen, Jimin; Li, Jialing; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Weak magnetic field (WMF) and Fe(0) were proposed to activate PS synergistically (WMF-Fe(0)/PS) to degrade dyes and aromatic contaminants. The removal rates of orange G (OG) by WMF-Fe(0)/PS generally decreased with increasing initial pH (3.0-10.0) and increased with increasing Fe(0) (0.5-3.0 mM) or PS dosages (0.5-3.0 mM). Compared to its counterpart without WMF, the WMF-Fe(0)/PS process could induce a 5.4-28.2 fold enhancement in the removal rate of OG under different conditions. Moreover, the application of WMF significantly enhanced the decolorization rate and the mineralization of OG. The degradation rates of caffeine, 4-nitrophenol, benzotriazole and diuron by Fe(0)/PS were improved by 2.1-11.1 fold due to the superimposed WMF. Compared to many other sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies under similar reaction conditions, WMF-Fe(0)/PS technology could degrade selected organic contaminants with much greater rates. Sulfate radical was identified to be the primary radical species responsible for the OG degradation at pH 7.0 in WMF-Fe(0)/PS process. This study unraveled that the presence of WMF accelerated the corrosion rate of Fe(0) and thus promoted the release of Fe(2+), which induced the increased production of sulfate radicals from PS and promoted the degradation of organic contaminants. Employing WMF to enhance oxidation capacity of Fe(0)/PS is a novel, efficient, promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT z {approx} 0.9 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Nagao, T.; Matsubayashi, K.; Riguccini, L. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Aida, Y.; Ideue, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Murayama, T., E-mail: kajisawa@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the fraction of [O II] emitters in galaxies at z {approx} 0.9 as a function of the local galaxy density in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. [O II] emitters are selected by the narrowband excess technique with the NB711-band imaging data taken with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope. We carefully selected 614 photo-z-selected galaxies with M{sub U3500} < -19.31 at z = 0.901 - 0.920, which includes 195 [O II] emitters, to directly compare the results with our previous study at z {approx} 1.2. We found that the fraction is almost constant at 0.3 Mpc{sup -2} < {Sigma}{sub 10th} < 10 Mpc{sup -2}. We also checked the fraction of galaxies with blue rest-frame colors of NUV - R < 2 in our photo-z-selected sample, and found that the fraction of blue galaxies does not significantly depend on the local density. On the other hand, the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation predicted that the fraction of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 0.9 decreases with increasing projected galaxy density even if the effects of the projection and the photo-z error in our analysis were taken into account. The fraction of [O II] emitters decreases from {approx}60% at z {approx} 1.2 to {approx}30% at z {approx} 0.9 independent of galaxy environment. The decrease of the [O II] emitter fraction could be explained mainly by the rapid decrease of star formation activity in the universe from z {approx} 1.2 to z {approx} 0.9.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF AN ACTIVE SHIELDING SYSTEM OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF POWER LINES BASED ON MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Kuznetsov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The synthesis of the active shielding systems by technogenic magnetic field generated by the different types of high voltage power lines in a given region of space using various cables of controlled magnetic field sources. Methodology. The initial parameters for the synthesis of active shielding system parameters are the location of the high voltage power lines with respect to the protected transmission line space, geometry and number of cables, operating currents, as well as the size of the protected space and normative value magnetic field induction, which should be achieved as a result of shielding. The objective of the synthesis of the active shielding system is to determine their number, configuration, spatial arrangement, wiring diagrams and compensation cables currents, setting algorithm of the control systems as well as the resulting value of the induction magnetic field at the points of the protected space. Synthesis of active shielding system is reduced to the problem of multiobjective nonlinear programming with constraints in which calculation of the objective functions and constraints are carried out on the basis of Biot – Savart – Laplace law. The problem is solved by a stochastic multi-agent optimization of multiswarm of particles which can significantly reduce the time to solve it. Results. Active screening system synthesis results for the various types of transmission lines and with different amounts of controlled cables is given. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of induction of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time carried out the synthesis of the active shielding systems, by magnetic field generated by the different types of high voltage power lines within a given region of space controlled by a magnetic field sources with different amounts of controlled cables. Practical value, Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number

  7. Prediction of Anticancer Activity of 2-phenylindoles: Comparative Molecular Field Analysis Versus Ridge Regression using Mathematical Molecular Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Subhash C; Zhu, Qianhong; Mills, Denise

    2010-09-01

    Topological indices (TIs) and atom pairs (APs) were used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for anticancer activity for a set of 43 derivatives of 2-phenylindole. Results show that QSARs formulated using TI+AP outperform those using either TI or AP alone. The q2 of the ridge regression model using TI+AP was 0.867 as compared to 0.705 reported in the literature using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) method.

  8. Activities and cooperation in nuclear data field in China during 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Youxiang

    2001-01-01

    The paper includes follow contents: 1. meetings held in China in 2000, 2. the international meetings and workshops in nuclear data field attended by staffs of CNDC in 2000, 3. the foreign scientists in nuclear data field visited CNDC/CIAE in 2000, 4. staff of CNDC worked in or visited foreign country

  9. Active Learning in Neuroscience: A Manipulative to Simulate Visual Field Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew Yue-Lin; Carvalho, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent in 20-57% of stroke patients, visual field defects have been shown to impact quality of life. Studies have shown increased risk of falling, ambulatory difficulties, impaired reading ability, and feelings of panic in crowded or unfamiliar places in patients with visual field defects. Rehabilitation, independence, and mental health may…

  10. Active old-field restoration in the most arid lands of the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of former agricultural fields can be challenging, especially in arid systems, where factors such as wind erosion, water stress, soil alteration, and competition from weeds can strongly affect plant establishment and growth. Experiments were conducted in two former agricultural fields in ...

  11. Multi-point ground-based ULF magnetic field observations in Europe during seismic active periods in 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prattes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of ground-based Ultra Low Frequency (ULF magnetic field measurements observed from June to August 2004 during the Bovec earthquake on 12 July 2004. Further we give information about the seismic activity in the local observatory region for an extended time span 2004 and 2005. ULF magnetic field data are provided by the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA where the experience and heritage from the CHInese MAGnetometer (CHIMAG fluxgate magnetometer comes to application. The intensities of the horizontal H and vertical Z magnetic field and the polarization ratio R of the vertical and horizontal magnetic field intensity are analyzed taking into consideration three SEGMA observatories located at different close distances and directions from the earthquake epicenter. We observed a significant increase of high polarization ratios during strong seismic activity at the observatory nearest to the Bovec earthquake epicenter. Apart from indirect ionospheric effects electromagnetic noise could be emitted in the lithosphere due to tectonic effects in the earthquake focus region causing anomalies of the vertical magnetic field intensity. Assuming that the measured vertical magnetic field intensities are of lithospheric origin, we roughly estimate the amplitude of electromagnetic noise in the Earths crust considering an average electrical conductivity of <σ>=10−3 S/m and a certain distance of the observatory to the earthquake epicenter.

  12. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  13. 3D magneto-convective heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled cavity under partially active magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kolsi, Lioua; Oztop, Hakan F.; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Malekshah, Emad Hasani; Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal; Borjini, Mohamed Naceur

    2018-05-01

    A computational study has been performed to investigate the effects of partially active magnetic field on natural convection heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled and three-dimensional differentially heated closed space. Two cases are considered to see this effect as magnetic field is applied to upper half (Case I) and lower half (Case II) while remaining walls are insulated. The finite volume method is used to solve governing equations and results are obtained for different governing parameters as Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100), nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.05) and height of the active zone (0 ≤ LB ≤ 1). It is found that location of magnetic field plays an important role even at the same Hartmann number. Thus, it can be a good parameter to control heat and fluid flow inside the closed space.

  14. Study of crystal-field excitations and Raman active phonons in o-DyMnO.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandl, S.; Mansouri, S.; Mukhin, A.A.; Ivanov, V.Yu.; Balbashov, A.; Gospodino, M.M.; Nekvasil, Vladimír; Orlita, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 323, č. 8 (2011), s. 1104-1108 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : manganite * multiferroic * Raman active phonons * crystal fields Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2011

  15. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pallottino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s. To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%. The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information

  16. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  17. Japanese status-quo and our activities in the field of nuclear fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, Masao; Imai, Osamu

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy is expected to take the place of current petroleum-base-energy in the near future. In order to effectively utilize the nuclear energy, nuclear fuel recycle system has to be established. The technology for reprocessing the spent fuel, which is a part of this recycle system, is very similar to the ones in chemical industry. Our company has been keeping its eyes on the field of such nuclear energy as one of the future promising businesses and recentrly established Nuclear Energy Department as a center for further expanding the business opportunity in the field of such spent fuel reprocessing as well as other fields of nuclear fuel recycle system. (author)

  18. MiDAS Field Guide – a Comprehensive Online Source of Information About the Microbes of Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. It has proven very useful for studies of key processes such as nitrification/denitrification, biological phosphorus removalas well as investigations of poor flocculation and settling (bulking). Currently we are continuing our efforts to establish universal...... guide to the microbes of activated sludge by comparing microbial community composition in 32 WWTPs located worldwide. This will facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of the ecosystem of activated sludge. Reference: McIlroy et al. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge...

  19. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensors Activated by External Radio Frequency Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Vedova, Paolo; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecular beacon (a nanomachine) is constructed that can be actuated by a radio frequency (RF) field. The nanomachine consists of the following elements arranged in molecular beacon configuration: a gold nanoparticle that acts both as quencher for fluorescence and a localized heat source...... by substituting the gold nanoparticle by an organic quencher, shows no increase in fluorescence signal when exposed to the RF field. It may therefore be concluded that the increased fluorescence for the gold nanoparticleconjugated nanomachines is not due to bulk heating of the solution, but is caused...... by the presence of the gold nanoparticles and their interaction with the RF field; however, existing models for heating of gold nanoparticles in a RF field are unable to explain the experimental results. Due to the biocompatibility of the construct and RF treatment, the nanomachines may possibly be used inside...

  20. Markov Random Field Restoration of Point Correspondences for Active Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    In this paper it is described how to build a statistical shape model using a training set with a sparse of landmarks. A well defined model mesh is selected and fitted to all shapes in the training set using thin plate spline warping. This is followed by a projection of the points of the warped...... model mesh to the target shapes. When this is done by a nearest neighbour projection it can result in folds and inhomogeneities in the correspondence vector field. The novelty in this paper is the use and extension of a Markov random field regularisation of the correspondence field. The correspondence...... distribution is a smoothness term and the observation model is the curvature of the shapes. The Markov Random Field is optimised using a combination of Gibbs sampling and the Metropolis-Hasting algorithm. The parameters of the model is found using a leave-one-out approach. The method leads to a generative...

  1. Co-registered Geochemistry and Metatranscriptomics Reveal Unexpected Distributions of Microbial Activity within a Hydrothermal Vent Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Olins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite years of research into microbial activity at diffuse flow hydrothermal vents, the extent of microbial niche diversity in these settings is not known. To better understand the relationship between microbial activity and the associated physical and geochemical conditions, we obtained co-registered metatranscriptomic and geochemical data from a variety of different fluid regimes within the ASHES vent field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Microbial activity in the majority of the cool and warm fluids sampled was dominated by a population of Gammaproteobacteria (likely sulfur oxidizers that appear to thrive in a variety of chemically distinct fluids. Only the warmest, most hydrothermally-influenced flows were dominated by active populations of canonically vent-endemic Epsilonproteobacteria. These data suggest that the Gammaproteobacteria collected during this study may be generalists, capable of thriving over a broader range of geochemical conditions than the Epsilonproteobacteria. Notably, the apparent metabolic activity of the Gammaproteobacteria—particularly carbon fixation—in the seawater found between discrete fluid flows (the intra-field water suggests that this area within the Axial caldera is a highly productive, and previously overlooked, habitat. By extension, our findings suggest that analogous, diffuse flow fields may be similarly productive and thus constitute a very important and underappreciated aspect of deep-sea biogeochemical cycling that is occurring at the global scale.

  2. Co-registered Geochemistry and Metatranscriptomics Reveal Unexpected Distributions of Microbial Activity within a Hydrothermal Vent Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olins, Heather C; Rogers, Daniel R; Preston, Christina; Ussler, William; Pargett, Douglas; Jensen, Scott; Roman, Brent; Birch, James M; Scholin, Christopher A; Haroon, M Fauzi; Girguis, Peter R

    2017-01-01

    Despite years of research into microbial activity at diffuse flow hydrothermal vents, the extent of microbial niche diversity in these settings is not known. To better understand the relationship between microbial activity and the associated physical and geochemical conditions, we obtained co-registered metatranscriptomic and geochemical data from a variety of different fluid regimes within the ASHES vent field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Microbial activity in the majority of the cool and warm fluids sampled was dominated by a population of Gammaproteobacteria (likely sulfur oxidizers) that appear to thrive in a variety of chemically distinct fluids. Only the warmest, most hydrothermally-influenced flows were dominated by active populations of canonically vent-endemic Epsilonproteobacteria . These data suggest that the Gammaproteobacteria collected during this study may be generalists, capable of thriving over a broader range of geochemical conditions than the Epsilonproteobacteria . Notably, the apparent metabolic activity of the Gammaproteobacteria -particularly carbon fixation-in the seawater found between discrete fluid flows (the intra-field water) suggests that this area within the Axial caldera is a highly productive, and previously overlooked, habitat. By extension, our findings suggest that analogous, diffuse flow fields may be similarly productive and thus constitute a very important and underappreciated aspect of deep-sea biogeochemical cycling that is occurring at the global scale.

  3. Swim stress, motion, and deformation of active matter: effect of an external field

    OpenAIRE

    Takatori, Sho C.; Brady, John F.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the stress, dispersion, and average swimming speed of self-propelled particles subjected to an external field that affects their orientation and speed. The swimming trajectory is governed by a competition between the orienting influence (i.e., taxis) associated with the external (e.g., magnetic, gravitational, thermal, nutrient concentration) field versus the effects that randomize the particle orientations (e.g., rotary Brownian motion and/or an intrinsic tumbling mechanism like t...

  4. Active galactic nuclei vs. host galaxy properties in the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Marchesi, S.; Perna, M.; Pozzi, F.; Salvato, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Volonteri, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The coeval active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy evolution, and the observed local relations between super massive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxy properties suggest some sort of connection or feedback between SMBH growth (I.e., AGN activity) and galaxy build-up (I.e., star formation history). Aims: We looked for correlations between average properties of X-ray detected AGN and their far-IR (FIR) detected, star forming host galaxies in order to find quantitative evidence for this connection, which has been highly debated in recent years. Methods: We exploited the rich multiwavelength data set (from X-ray to FIR) available in the COSMOS field for a large sample (692 sources) of AGN and their hosts in the redshift range 0.1

  5. Construction and Control of an active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    perforamnce of an active and passive boom suspension. A model has been made of an advanced active system, that combines a traditional trapezoid, with a spring pendulum system. The system can be described with a linear forth order model. The system has been the foundation for an active suspension...

  6. Status of the LANL activities in the field of RF superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Chan, K.C.D.; Edwards, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Since the last workshop we have tested six β=0.64, 700 MHz, 5-cell elliptical superconducting cavities in collaboration with JLAB in vertical cryostats. All the cavities exceeded the requirements for Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) (Q 0 =5x10 9 at E acc =5 MV/m) with ample margin. The low-field Q 0 at 2 K was 2-3x10 10 and the maximum accelerating field reached 12 MV/m, which corresponds to peak electric and magnetic fields of 41 MV/m and 835 Oe, respectively. Power couplers have also been tested in a test bench up to over 1 MW. Since the APT project has transitioned to Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) project, a new type of superconducting accelerating structure called spoke cavity emerged as an excellent candidate for the low energy sections between the RFQ and the elliptical cavities. We tested a β=0.29, 340 MHz, 2-gap spoke cavity on loan from Argonne National Laboratory. The results showed Q 0 =2x10 9 at low fields and a maximum accelerating field E acc =12.5 MV/m at 4 K. At 5 MV/m, the Q 0 was 1.5x10 9 . Encouraged by these results, we started fabricating some spoke cavities and are planning to test one of them in the beamline of LEDA (Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator) in the future. (author)

  7. Hemispheric asymmetry in event knowledge activation during incremental language comprehension: A visual half-field ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P; Elman, Jeffrey L

    2016-04-01

    During incremental language comprehension, the brain activates knowledge of described events, including knowledge elements that constitute semantic anomalies in their linguistic context. The present study investigates hemispheric asymmetries in this process, with the aim of advancing our understanding of the neural basis and functional properties of event knowledge activation during incremental comprehension. In a visual half-field event-related brain potential (ERP) experiment, participants read brief discourses in which the third sentence contained a word that was either highly expected, semantically anomalous but related to the described event (Event-Related), or semantically anomalous but unrelated to the described event (Event-Unrelated). For both visual fields of target word presentation, semantically anomalous words elicited N400 ERP components of greater amplitude than did expected words. Crucially, Event-Related anomalous words elicited a reduced N400 relative to Event-Unrelated anomalous words only with left visual field/right hemisphere presentation. This result suggests that right hemisphere processes are critical to the activation of event knowledge elements that violate the linguistic context, and in doing so informs existing theories of hemispheric asymmetries in semantic processing during language comprehension. Additionally, this finding coincides with past research suggesting a crucial role for the right hemisphere in elaborative inference generation, raises interesting questions regarding hemispheric coordination in generating event-specific linguistic expectancies, and more generally highlights the possibility of functional dissociation of event knowledge activation for the generation of elaborative inferences and for linguistic expectancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective assessment of the fast neutron component in mixed neutron-gamma field using TLD activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M. E-mail: marika@rudjer.irb.hr; Miljanic, S.; Blagus, S.; Knezevic, Z.Z.; Osvay, M

    2003-06-01

    Selective determination of the fast neutron component in a mixed radiation field by the TL dosimetry was studied. TL responses due to the induced radioactivity in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters via the {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na reaction were used to measure the neutron part in a mixed 14.5 MeV neutron and gamma irradiation field. The lowest detectable neutron dose was found to be in order of 10 mSv of personal dose equivalent for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C.

  9. BIOPHYSICS. Response to Comments on "Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Stephen D; Boxer, Steven G

    2015-08-28

    Natarajan et al. and Chen and Savidge comment that comparing the electric field in ketosteroid isomerase's (KSI's) active site to zero overestimates the catalytic effect of KSI's electric field because the reference reaction occurs in water, which itself exerts a sizable electrostatic field. To compensate, Natarajan et al. argue that additional catalytic weight arises from positioning of the general base, whereas Chen and Savidge propose a separate contribution from desolvation of the general base. We note that the former claim is not well supported by published results, and the latter claim is intriguing but lacks experimental basis. We also take the opportunity to clarify some of the more conceptually subtle aspects of electrostatic catalysis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. An electric-field-active 1377-nm narrow-line Si light-emitting diode at 150 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Yuhsuke; Igarashi, Jun; Tana-ami, Norishige; Fukatsu, Susumu

    2009-09-14

    A new class of silicon-based light-emitting diode is demonstrated using InSb-quantum-dot-embedded Si containing the emissive {311} rod-like defects (RLDs). A narrow peak centered at 1377 nm (900 meV) characteristic of the {311} RLDs was found to develop out of an otherwise broad background electroluminescence (EL) upon the application of electric fields in the growth direction. Such electric-field-active EL was observed up to 150 K with a slight downward shift of the peak energies, accompanied by an anomaly in the thermal roll-off of the EL intensity. Spectral variations with temperature and electric field indicate a switching of dominance between the closely correlated defect states that are responsible for the EL emission.

  11. Energy shift estimation of demand response activation on domestic refrigerators – A field test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Gudmand-Høyer, Kristian; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the amount of energy that can be shifted during demand response (DR) activation on domestic refrigerator. Though there are many methods for DR activation like load reduction, load shifting and onsite generation, the method under study is load shifting....... Electric heating and cooling equipment like refrigerators, water heaters and space heaters and coolers are preferred for such DR activation because of their energy storing capacity. Accurate estimation of available regulating power and energy shift is important to understand the value of DR activation...

  12. Radiological impact of oil and Gas Activities in selected oil fields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    recommended for the public and non-nuclear industrial environment, while the levels for the fields at Otorogu, Ughelli West, ... long-term health side effects on the staff working in the facilities and residents of the host communities. Interim proactive .... The Akata formation is composed of dark gray shales and silts with some ...

  13. Optical fields of the lowest modes in a uniformly active thin subwavelength spiral microcavity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smotrova, E. I.; Benson, T. M.; Sewwell, Ph.; Čtyroký, Jiří; Sauleau, R.; Nosich, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 24 (2010), s. 3773-3775 ISSN 0146-9592 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Integrated optics * Optical waveguide theory * Electromagnetic field theory Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.316, year: 2010

  14. Calculation of the magnetic field in the active zone of a hysteresis clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, M. A.; Glukhov, O. M.

    1977-01-01

    The initial distribution of magnetic induction in the armature stationary was calculated relative to the polar system of a hysteresis clutch. Using several assumptions, the problem is reduced to calculating the static magnetic field in the ferromagnetic plate with finite and continuous magnetic permeability placed in the air gap between two identical, parallel semiconductors with rack fixed relative to the tooth or slot position.

  15. Far-Field Voice Activity Detection and Its Applications in Adverse Acoustic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    phones, VOIP terminals) and research environments (smart rooms), a multiple microphone VAD is also considered. The system processes signals captured by far-field sensors in order to integrate spatial information in addition to the frequency content available at a single sensor. The core of the system...

  16. Flow and magnetic field properties in the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 12396

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Boehm, F.; Balthasar, H.; Fischer, C.E.; Kuckein, C.; Gonzalez, N.B.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Diercke, A.; Feller, A.; Gonzalez Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Pator Yabar, A.; Rezaei, R.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, Michal; Solanki, S.K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 10 (2016), s. 1090-1098 ISSN 0004-6337. [Dynamic Sun - Exploring the Many Facets of Solar Eruptive Events. Potsdam, 26.10.2015-29.10.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * magnetic fields * sunspots Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.916, year: 2016

  17. Acute exposure to high‐induction electromagnetic field affects activity of model peripheral sensory neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průcha, J.; Krůšek, Jan; Dittert, Ivan; Sinica, Viktor; Kádková, Anna; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2018), s. 1355-1362 ISSN 1582-4934 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28784A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : electromagnetic field * primary sensory neuron * ion channel * bradykinin receptor * transient receptor potential channel Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.499, year: 2016

  18. Gold nanoparticle-based sensors activated by external radio frequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedova, Paolo Della; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Mateiu, Ramona; Faralli, Adele; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-14

    A novel molecular beacon (a nanomachine) is constructed that can be actuated by a radio frequency (RF) field. The nanomachine consists of the following elements arranged in molecular beacon configuration: a gold nanoparticle that acts both as quencher for fluorescence and a localized heat source; one reporter fluorochrome, and; a piece of DNA as a hinge and recognition sequence. When the nanomachines are irradiated with a 3 GHz RF field the fluorescence signal increases due to melting of the stem of the molecular beacon. A control experiment, performed using molecular beacons synthesized by substituting the gold nanoparticle by an organic quencher, shows no increase in fluorescence signal when exposed to the RF field. It may therefore be concluded that the increased fluorescence for the gold nanoparticle-conjugated nanomachines is not due to bulk heating of the solution, but is caused by the presence of the gold nanoparticles and their interaction with the RF field; however, existing models for heating of gold nanoparticles in a RF field are unable to explain the experimental results. Due to the biocompatibility of the construct and RF treatment, the nanomachines may possibly be used inside living cells. In a separate experiment a substantial increase in the dielectric losses can be detected in a RF waveguide setup coupled to a microfluidic channel when gold nanoparticles are added to a low RF loss liquid. This work sheds some light on RF heating of gold nanoparticles, which is a subject of significant controversy in the literature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Efficiency improvement of the investment and innovation activities in the transport facility construction field with public-private partnership involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayeva, Marina; Serebryakova, Yelena; Shalnev, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    Growing demand to increase the investment volume in modernization and development projects for transport infrastructure define the urgency of the current study. The amount of private sector investments in the field is insufficient to implement the projects for road construction due to their significant capital intensity and long payoff period. The implementation of social significant infrastructure projects on the principles of public-private partnership is one of the key strategic directions of growth for transport facilities. The authors come up with a concept and methodology for modeling the investment and innovation activity in the transport facility construction. Furthermore, there is developed a model to find the balance between public and private sector investments in implementing construction projects for transport infrastructure with involvement of PPP (further - public-private partnership). The suggested concepts aim to improve the efficiency rate of the investment and innovation activity in the field of transport facility construction on the basis of public and private sectors collaboration.

  20. Activity, distribution, and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the near surface soils of onshore oil and gas fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kewei; Tang, Yuping; Ren, Chun; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Wanmeng; Sun, Yongge

    2013-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but the ecological characteristics of MOB in hydrocarbon microseep systems are still poorly understood. In this study, the activity, distribution, and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic communities in the surface soils underlying an oil and gas field were investigated using biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. Measurements of potential methane oxidation rates and pmoA gene copy numbers showed that soils inside an oil and gas field are hot spots of methane oxidation and MOB abundance. Correspondingly, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes also revealed considerable differences in the methanotrophic community composition between oil and gas fields and the surrounding soils. Principal component analysis ordination furthermore indicated a coincidence between elevated CH4 oxidation activity and the methanotrophic community structure with type I methanotrophic Methylococcus and Methylobacter, in particular, as indicator species of oil and gas fields. Collectively, our results show that trace methane migrated from oil and gas reservoirs can considerably influence not only the quantity but also the structure of the methanotrophic community.

  1. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  2. Hardware Activation by Means of PUFs and Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Field-Programmable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Parrilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reusable design using IP cores requires of efficient methods for protecting the Intellectual Property of the designer and the corresponding license agreements. In this work, a new protection procedure establishing an activation protocol in a similar way to the activation process in the software world is presented. The procedure, named SEHAS (Secure Hardware Activation System allows the distribution of cores in either Blocked (not functioning or Demo (functioning with limited features modes, while ensuring the license agreements by identifying not only the IP core but also the implementation device, using Physically Unclonable Functions (PUF. Moreover, SEHAS secures the exchange of information between the core and the core vendor using an Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC. This secure channel allows the IP core vendor to send a unique Activation Code to the core in order to switch it to the Activated Mode, thus enabling all its features.

  3. Direct configuration interaction and multiconfigurational self-consistent-field method for multiple active spaces with variable occupations. I. Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    In order to reduce the number of ineffective configurations in a priori generated configuration spaces, a direct configuration interaction method has been developed which limits the electron occupations of orbital groups making up a total active space. A wave function is specified by first partitioning an active space into an unrestricted number of orbital groups and second by providing limiting values, in the form of minima and maxima, for the electron occupancies of each group. The configuration interaction problem corresponding to all possible determinants satisfying these conditions is solved in a fully direct manner by the use of Slater-Condon expressions in conjunction with single and double replacements. This configuration interaction approach, termed occupation restricted multiple active space-configuration interaction, has also been linked with orbital optimization programs to produce the occupation restricted multiple active space-self consistent field method.

  4. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for laser-driven many-electron dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-01-01

    We present the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory as a framework for the time-dependent many-electron problem. The theory generalizes the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) theory by incorporating the restricted-active-space scheme...... well known in time-independent quantum chemistry. Optimization of the orbitals as well as the expansion coefficients at each time step makes it possible to construct the wave function accurately while using only a relatively small number of electronic configurations. In numerical calculations of high...

  5. Higher order mode excitation in eccentric active nano-particles for tailoring of the near-field radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the excitation of resonant modes inside eccentrically layered cylindrical active nano-particles. The nano-particle is a three-layer structure comprised of a silica core, a free-space middle layer, and an outer shell of silver. It is shown that a concentric configuration, initially desi...... of the gain constant, is shown to be controlled by the direction of the core displacement. The present eccentric active nano-particles may provide alternative strategies for directive near-field radiation relative to the existing designs....

  6. Relationship between esterase activity and acrinathrin and methiocarb resistance in field populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymó, Ana C; Cervera, Amelia; Dolores Garcerá, M; Bielza, Pablo; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael

    2006-12-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a serious pest in the south-east of Spain owing to its direct feeding on crops, transmission of the tomato spotted wilt virus and its very high level of resistance to insecticides. Mechanisms of resistance were examined using field populations of F. occidentalis with different susceptibilities to acrinathrin, methiocarb (selective insecticides), endosulfan, metamidophos and deltamethrin (broad-spectrum insecticides). Esterase activity towards alpha-naphthyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl acetate in resistant strains was significantly higher than in the reference strain (MLFOM) for both model substrates. This higher activity was significantly correlated with acrinathrin and methiocarb resistance. Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Free radical scavenging activity and comparative metabolic profiling of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Senthil

    Full Text Available Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA, total phenolic content (TPC, and total flavonoid content (TFC of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1 MIR exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL, TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g, and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5 MIR. Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1 MIR when compared to 1.5 MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1 MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products.

  8. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Comparative Metabolic Profiling of In Vitro Cultured and Field Grown Withania somnifera Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Thirugnanasambantham, Pankajavalli; Oh, Taek Joo; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Hyung Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1MIR) exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL), TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g), and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g) compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5MIR). Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1MIR when compared to 1.5MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products. PMID:25874568

  9. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and early experience on home-cage and open-field activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, H K; Opitz, B; Werner, R; Clausing, P

    1996-01-01

    -C57BL/6 mice were intubated from gestational day 14-18 twice daily with 1.58 g/kg ethanol, 4.2 g/kg sucrose, or remained untreated. Offspring of ethanol treated or lab chow control groups were raised either by group-housed dams and weaned on postnatal day (PND) 28 or by individually housed dams and weaned on PND 21. Offspring of the sucrose control group were raised by individually housed dams and weaned on PND 21. Groups did not differ in pup weight or litter size. Offspring were assessed for home-cage activity (PND 36-38) and open-field behavior (PND 40-42). Mice prenatally exposed to ethanol showed increased activity in their home cages, whereas open-field behavior was generally not different from that of control groups. Conversely, different preweaning rearing conditions had affected open-field behavior, but not home-cage activity. In conclusion, home-cage behavior was a sensitive paradigm for detecting hyperactivity subsequent to a relatively low dose of prenatal ethanol in mice, and communal nesting/late weaning vs. individual nesting/ standard weaning may be a useful preweaning environmental manipulation to study possible modifications of prenatal neurobehavioral effects.

  10. Study of crystal-field excitations and Raman active phonons in o-DyMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, S.; Mansouri, S.; Mukhin, A.A.; Yu Ivanov, V.; Balbashov, A.; Gospodino, M.M.; Nekvasil, V.; Orlita, M.

    2011-01-01

    In DyMnO 3 orthorhombic single crystals, the weak Raman active phonon softening below T=100 K is correlated with the study of infrared active Dy 3+ CF excitations as a function of temperature and under applied magnetic field. We detect five H 13/2 CF transitions that we predict with appropriate CF Hamiltonian and we confirm that the magnetic easy axis lies in the ab plane. While the CF energy level shifts below T=100 K reflect different displacements of the oxygen ions that contribute to the phonon softening, lifting of the ground state Kramers doublet degeneracy (∼30 cm -1 ) is observed below T N =39 K due to the anisotropic Mn 3+ -Dy 3+ interaction, which could be responsible for the stability of the bc-cycloid ferroelectric phase. - Research highlights: → Origin of Raman active phonon softening in the multiferroic o-DyMnO 3 . → A crystal-field study under magnetic field of Dy 3+ in o-DyMnO 3 . → Location of the magnetic easy axis in o-DyMnO 3 . → Lifting of Kramers doublet degeneracy in o-DyMnO 3 .

  11. Activation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Ablation of HCC with Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Ruiqing; Miao, Xudong; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-03-28

    Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.

  12. Atomic systems with one and two active electrons in electromagnetic fields: Ionization and high harmonics generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I A; Kheifets, A S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a theoretical procedure for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for atomic systems with one or two valence electrons. Motion of the valence electrons is described by means of the Hartree-Fock potential including the exchange interaction. We apply the procedure to various physical phenomena occurring in atoms exposed to strong electromagnetic fields. As an illustration, we consider below the processes of high harmonics generation and attosecond pulses production.

  13. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR...... activation. The outcome of this experimental study quantifies the actual flexibility of household TCLs and the consequence for the different parties with respect to power behaviour. Each DR activation method adopts different scenarios to meet the power reduction, and has different impacts on the parameters...

  14. Reduction of interior sound fields in flexible cylinders by active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. D.; Fuller, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms of interior sound reduction through active control of a thin flexible shell's vibrational response are presently evaluated in view of an analytical model. The noise source is a single exterior acoustic monopole. The active control model is evaluated for harmonic excitation; the results obtained indicate spatially-averaged noise reductions in excess of 20 dB over the source plane, for acoustic resonant conditions inside the cavity.

  15. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1° E, 37.7° S, geographic; 49° S magnetic. The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly west-ward during the evening to early morning, and weakly east-ward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR at Millstone Hill (71.5° W, 42.6° N; 57° N. There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  16. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1° E, 37.7° S, geographic; 49° S magnetic. The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly west-ward during the evening to early morning, and weakly east-ward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR at Millstone Hill (71.5° W, 42.6° N; 57° N. There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  17. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  18. Effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on structures and antioxidant activity of soybean source peptides-SHCMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Liang, Rong; Li, Xingfang; Xing, Jie; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-12-15

    Recently, high-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) has successfully used in improvement of antioxidant activity. Ser-His-Cys-Met-Asn (SHCMN) obtained from soybean protein was chosen to investigate the phenomenon of antioxidant activity improvement. Effects of PEF treatment on antioxidant activity of SHCMN were evaluated by DPPH radical inhibition. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) were used to analyze structures of SHCMN. Two-factor-at-a-time results show that DPPH radical inhibition of SHCMN is significantly (Pelectric field intensity of 5kV/cm, pulse frequency of 2400Hz, and retention time of 2h. In addition, MIR and NMR spectra show that the basic structure of peptides SHCMN is stable by PEF treatment. But the secondary structures (α-helix, β-turn, and random coil) can be affected and zeta potential of PEF-treated SHCNM was reduced to 0.59±0.03mV. The antioxidant activity improvement of SHCMN might result from the changes of secondary structures and zeta potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulsed electric field processing preserves the antiproliferative activity of the milk fat globule membrane on colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S; Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Griffiths, M W; Corredig, M

    2015-05-01

    The present work evaluated the effect of processing on the antiproliferative activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) extracts. The antiproliferative activity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells of untreated MFGM extracts were compared with those extracted from pasteurized cream, thermally treated cream, or cream subjected to pulsed electrical field (PEF) processing. The PEF with a 37 kV/cm field strength applied for 1,705μs at 50 and 65°C was applied to untreated cream collected from a local dairy. Heating at 50 or 65°C for 3min (the passage time in the PEF chamber) was also tested to evaluate the heating effect during PEF treatments. The MFGM extracted from pasteurized cream did not show an antiproliferative activity. On the other hand, isolates from PEF-treated cream showed activity similar to that of untreated samples. It was also shown that PEF induced interactions between β-lactoglobulin and MFGM proteins at 65°C, whereas the phospholipid composition remained unaltered. This work demonstrates the potential of PEF not only a means to produce a microbiologically safe product, but also as a process preserving the biofunctionality of the MFGM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New trends in educational activity in the field of mechanism and machine theory

    CERN Document Server

    Castejon, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The First International Symposium on the Education in Mechanism and Machine Science (ISEMMS 2013) aimed to create a stable platform for the interchange of experience among researches of mechanism and machine science. Topics treated include contributions on subjects such as new trends and experiences in mechanical engineering education; mechanism and machine science in mechanical engineering curricula; MMS in engineering programs, such as, for example, methodology, virtual labs and new laws. All papers have been rigorously reviewed and represent the state of the art in their field.

  1. An analysis of university subjects from the field of adapted physical activity in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Baloun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inclusion of students with special educational needs is a process, which faces many challenges. An essential condition for the success of inclusion is the competence of physical educators. We suggest that it is necessary to establish courses focused on adapted physical activity as part of the university education for physical education (PE teachers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze courses focused on adapted physical activity within teacher preparation programs. METHODS: We conducted quantitative and qualitative content analysis of subjects which was focused on adapted physical activity at selected public universities in the Czech Republic. In total, subjects from the six faculties met the conditions. RESULTS: The results show the lack of emphasis for this area in the current PE teacher preparations programs, which is one of basic requirements for success of the inclusion process.

  2. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda

    SERVICE ROBOTS in precision agriculture have the potential to ensure a more competitive and sustainable production, but the lack of skilled engineers within this area is limiting the industry’s ability to develop new and innovative agricultural technology products. Part of the reason...... in agriculture and agricultural technology. This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary extracurricular activity for first year engineering students carried out in the Fall 2012 at the University of Southern Denmark. The case was based on practical group-work centered around an agricultural mobile...... robot. The activity was called Practical experience from day one and its primary objective was to improve the participants’ practical experience and give them a broader view of technology applied in agriculture. Based on evaluation of the activities it is concluded that working with a small...

  3. Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure and natural killer activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Bargellini, Annalisa; Scaringi, Meri; Bravo, Giulia; Borella, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-MF) are possible carcinogens to humans and some data suggest that they can act as promoters or progressors. Since NK cells play a major role in the control of cancer development, an adverse effect on ELF-MF on NK function has been hypothesized. We examined NK activity in 52 workers exposed to different levels of ELF-MF in various activities. Individual exposure was monitored during 3 complete work-shifts using personal dosimeters. Environmental exposure was also monitored. ELF-MF levels in the workers were expressed as Time-Weighted Average (TWA) values. NK activity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In the whole group the median occupational TWA was 0.21 μT. According to the TWA levels, workers were classified as low exposed (26 subjects, TWA ≤ 0.2 μT) and higher exposed workers (26 subjects; TWA > 0.2 μT). In higher exposed workers, we observed a trend to reduce NK activity compared to low exposed, but the difference was not significant. Then we selected a subgroup of highest exposed workers (12 subjects; TWA > 1 μT); no difference was observed between low and highest exposed subjects in the main personal variables. Considering both E:T ratios from 12:1 to 50:1 and Lytic Units, a significant reduction in NK activity was observed in the highest exposed workers compared to the low exposed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation between exposure and LU, while no correlation was evidenced with other personal characteristics. ELF-MF are considered possible carcinogens, and existing data suggest that they can act as promoters. Due to the role of NK activity in host defence against cancer, the results obtained in this study in workers exposed to ELF-MF levels exceeding 1 μT are in agreement with this hypothesis, and support the need for further investigation in this field

  4. Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-09-26

    The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

  5. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.

  6. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of contaminant immobilization by activated carbon amended to sediments in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakowska, M.I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Koelmans, A.A.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Addition of activated carbons (AC) to polluted sediments and soils is an attractive remediation technique aiming at reducing pore water concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). In this study, we present (pseudo-)equilibrium as well as kinetic parameters for sorption of a series of

  7. Activities of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission in the field of nuclear power plant licesing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives, the procedures and the ways of implementation of measures aiming at safety use of nuclear energy are presented. The juridical aspects in the licensing area and the regulatory activities used by CNEN. The description of nuclear power plants and the methodology used in studies of environmental protection and radiation protection are presented [pt

  8. Going Underground: A Field Investigation and Lab Activity on Karst Topography and Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Gary; Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Students learn science best with activities that mirror the way scientists work. This article describes how geologists investigate groundwater flow systems in areas of karst topography--geologic formations shaped by dissolving bedrock--and provides a way for students to replicate this research. Students also use electric current to model water…

  9. Efficient voice activity detection in reverberant enclosures using far field microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm suitable for voice activity detection under reverberant conditions is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of far-filed microphones the proposed solution processes speech signals of highly-varying intensity and signal to noise ratio, that are contaminated with several echoes...

  10. Field trials using a digital hearing aid with active noise reduction and dual-microphone directionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boymans, M.; Dreschler, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we measured the effects of a digital hearing aid on speech recognition or reception in noise for two noise reduction concepts: active noise reduction by speech-sensitive processing (SSP) and improved directionality by a dual- or so-called twin-microphone system (TMS). This was

  11. Single-active-electron potentials for molecules in intense laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    Single-active-electron potentials are computed for selected molecules, and molecular wave functions with the correct asymptotic behavior are produced. Asymptotic expansion coefficients are extracted from the wave functions and used to compute alignment-dependent ionization yields from molecular t...

  12. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  13. Neutron Activation Experiments on Niobium in NPI p-(7)Li Quasi-monoenergetic Neutron Field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honusek, Milan; Bém, Pavel; Burjan, Václav; Götz, Miloslav; Kroha, Václav; Novák, Jan; Šimečková, Eva; Fischer, U.; Simakov, SP.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 1374-1377 ISSN 0374-4884 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ND2010 * Nuclear data * Neutron activation * EAF, ENDF, Nb Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2011

  14. Time derivative of the horizontal geomagnetic field as an activity indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viljanen

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs in technological conductor systems are a manifestation of the ground effects of space weather. Large GICs are always associated with large values of the time derivative of the geomagnetic field, and especially with its horizontal component (dH/dt. By using the IMAGE magnetometer data from northern Europe from 1982 to 2001, we show that large dH/dt’s (exceeding 1 nT/s primarily occur during events governed by westward ionospheric currents. However, the directional distributions of dH/dt are much more scattered than those of the simultaneous baseline subtracted horizontal variation field vector ΔH. A pronounced difference between ΔH and dH/dt takes place at about 02–06 MLT in the auroral region when dH/dt prefers an east-west orientation, whereas ΔH points to the south. The occurrence of large dH/dt has two daily maxima, one around the local magnetic midnight, and another in the morning. There is a single maximum around the midnight only at the southernmost IMAGE stations. An identical feature is observed when large GICs are considered. The yearly number of large dH/dt values in the auroral region follows quite closely the aa index, but a clear variation from year-to-year is observed in the directional distributions. The scattering of dH/dt distributions is smaller during descending phases of the sunspot cycle. Seasonal variations are also seen, especially in winter dH/dt  is more concentrated to the north-south direction than at other times. The results manifest the importance of small-scale structures of ionospheric currents when GICs are considered. The distribution patterns of dH/dt cannot be explained by any simple sheet-type model of (westward ionospheric currents, but rapidly changing north-south currents and field-aligned currents must play an important role.Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geomagnetic induction; rapid time variations - Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances

  15. Heat Source for Active Venting at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Located at the inside corner high of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), 30°N and the Atlantis Transform Fault (ATF), the Atlantis Massif has been uplifted over the past ~2 my. The Southern Ridge of this massif hosts the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF), an off-axis hydrothermal vent field with carbonate chimney ages surpassing 120,000 yrs. The fluids discharging at LCHF carry geochemical signals that show a direct interaction with serpentinites. However, mineralogical evidence suggests that peridotite hydration began early in the formation of oceanic core complexes and previous modeling results indicate that serpentinization is unlikely to generate the heat necessary to maintain current levels of discharge at LCHF. This work develops a model for the LCHF venting based on the evidence of tectonic strain, detachment faulting, serpentinization, and convective fluid flow. We constrain fluid flow at the LCHF by vent geochemistry, vent temperature, seismically inferred faulting, and expected geothermal gradient ≈100°C/km. Present understanding of tectonic processes at the intersection of MAR and ATF suggests that unroofing of the footwall and crustal flexing of the massif induced normal faults, which run parallel to the MAR, throughout the Southern Ridge. In the absence of the evidence of magmatism, we test the feasibility of the geothermal gradient to cause fluid circulation in the high-permeability, sub-vertical fault zone. Fluid circulation in the fault zone is complemented by the bulk porous flow driven through the Southern Ridge by the lateral temperature gradient between the cold water on the steep face along the ATF side and the hot interior of the massif. In this scenario, the high pH hydrothermal fluids pass through the serpentinized zone before discharging as both high-temperature focused flow (40°-91°C) and low-temperature (≈15°C) diffuse flow at the LCHF.

  16. Activity of diclazuril against coccidiosis in growing rabbits: experimental and field experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monita Vereecken

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of diclazuril in growing rabbits was investigated under experimental and field conditions. In a first experimental trial, the susceptibility of recent isolated French Eimeria field strains to in-feed use of diclazuril, salinomycin and robenidine was studied in fattening rabbits. Rabbits were challenged at the age of 31 d with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria magna, E. media and E. perforans. Production data and oocyst excretion were compared with an infected-untreated control group and an uninfected-untreated control group. Infection resulted in significantly lower production data and higher oocyst excretion in the infected-untreated control group. Salinomycin and diclazuril treated rabbits were able to control the infection, demonstrated also by comparable weight gain and final weight to those of the uninfected-untreated control rabbits and significantly higher than those of the infected-untreated control rabbits. Based on the production data and oocyst excretion, robenidine was not able to control the infection adequately. Economic performance (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and oocyst excretion were significantly worse than in the uninfected-untreated controls. In a second trial, a 1 yr longitudinal study was carried out in Italy to evaluate the excretion of coccidia in growing rabbits from 8 meat farms applying a 2-phase anticoccidial programme (diclazuril and robenidine. Parasitological parameters (oocyst counts and species identification were measured monthly. Seven of the 11 known coccidial rabbit species were identified. Variable levels of oocysts per gram were detected in the farms, but on all farms lower oocyst per gram and a reduced number of Eimeria spp. in rabbit faeces were recorded in the 8-mo treatment period with diclazuril.

  17. Southern San Andreas Fault evaluation field activity: approaches to measuring small geomorphic offsets--challenges and recommendations for active fault studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Salisbury, J. Barrett; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    In southern California, where fast slip rates and sparse vegetation contribute to crisp expression of faults and microtopography, field and high‐resolution topographic data (fault, analyze the offset values for concentrations or trends along strike, and infer that the common magnitudes reflect successive surface‐rupturing earthquakes along that fault section. Wallace (1968) introduced the use of such offsets, and the challenges in interpreting their “unique complex history” with offsets on the Carrizo section of the San Andreas fault; these were more fully mapped by Sieh (1978) and followed by similar field studies along other faults (e.g., Lindvall et al., 1989; McGill and Sieh, 1991). Results from such compilations spurred the development of classic fault behavior models, notably the characteristic earthquake and slip‐patch models, and thus constitute an important component of the long‐standing contrast between magnitude–frequency models (Schwartz and Coppersmith, 1984; Sieh, 1996; Hecker et al., 2013). The proliferation of offset datasets has led earthquake geologists to examine the methods and approaches for measuring these offsets, uncertainties associated with measurement of such features, and quality ranking schemes (Arrowsmith and Rockwell, 2012; Salisbury, Arrowsmith, et al., 2012; Gold et al., 2013; Madden et al., 2013). In light of this, the Southern San Andreas Fault Evaluation (SoSAFE) project at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) organized a combined field activity and workshop (the “Fieldshop”) to measure offsets, compare techniques, and explore differences in interpretation. A thorough analysis of the measurements from the field activity will be provided separately; this paper discusses the complications presented by such offset measurements using two channels from the San Andreas fault as illustrative cases. We conclude with best approaches for future data collection efforts based on input from the Fieldshop.

  18. Neutron field for activation experiments in horizontal channel of training reactor VR-1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefánik, Milan; Katovsky, K.; Vinš, M.; Šoltéš, J.; Závorka, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, NOV (2014), s. 302-305 ISSN 0969-806X. [1st International Conference on Dosimetry and its Applications (ICDA). Prague, 23.6.2013-28.6.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spectral index * neutron spectrometry * dosimetry-foils activation technique * irradiation channel * reaction rate * Gamma -spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2014

  19. Survey on the activities in Switzerland in the field of HTGR-development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlos, G.; Brogli, R.; Mathews, D.; Bucher, K.H.; Helbling, W.

    1991-01-01

    The activities of the Swiss industry and of the ''Paul Scherrer Institute'' in the development and production of components and systems for the nuclear industry are reviewed. For the HTGR, major programs include the German HTR-500 project, the gas-cooled district heating reactor (GHR), and the PROTEUS critical experiments. The experiments are being performed in the framework of an IAEA coordinated research program. (author)

  20. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, M.L.; Polglase, R.; Dyson, P.L.; Ujmaia, S.M. [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Fejer, B.G.; Scherliess, L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences

    2001-05-01

    We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1 E, 37.7 S, geographic; 49 S magnetic). The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours) of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular) drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly westward during the evening to early morning, and weakly eastward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Millstone Hill (71.5 W, 42.6 N; 57 N). There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere. (orig.)

  1. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  2. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity in field populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) resistant to azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichón, L B; Soleño, J; Anguiano, O L; Garrido, S A S; Montagna, C M

    2013-04-01

    The Río Negro and Neuquén Valley is the most important apple and pear growing region in Argentina. Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the main fruit-tree pest is being controlled by azinphosmethyl (AzMe), acetamiprid (Acet), and thiacloprid (Thia) among other insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of neonate larvae of codling moth to these three insecticides and on the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in their toxicity. All field populations presented significantly lower mortality to a discriminating concentration (DC) of Acet and AzMe. In addition, 13 of the 14 populations showed significantly lower mortality to DC of Thia. Most of the field populations (71%) showed significantly higher 7-ethoxycoumarine O-deethylase activity compared with the laboratory-susceptible strain. While positive significant correlation (gamma = 0.59) was found between Thia and AzMe mortalities at the DC level, no significant correlations were detected between Acet and Thia (gamma = 0.35) or Acet and AzMe (gamma = 0.12). However, Acet and Thia mortalities were significantly correlated to the percentage of individuals exhibiting 7-ethoxy-coumarine O-deethylase activity activities higher than the mean upper 95% confidence limit of the susceptible strain (gamma = -0.52 and gamma = -0.63, respectively).

  3. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for bosonic many-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Camille; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-04-01

    We have developed an ab-initio time-dependent wavefunction based theory for the description of many-body systems of bosons. The theory is based on a configurational interaction Ansatz for the many-body wavefunction with time-dependent self-consistent-field orbitals. The active space of the orbital excitations is subject to restrictions to be specified based on the physical situation at hand. The restrictions on the active space allow the theory to be evaluated under conditions where other wavefunction based methods, due to exponential scaling in the numerical efforts, cannot. The restrictions also allow us to clearly identify the excitations that are important for an accurate description, significantly beyond the mean-field approach. We first apply this theory to compute the ground-state energy of tens of trapped bosons, and second to simulate the dynamics following an instantaneous quenching of a non-contact interaction. The method provides accurate results and its computational cost is largely reduced compared with other wavefunction based many-body methods thanks to the restriction of the active orbital space. The important excitations are clearly identified and the method provides a new way to gain insight in correlation effects. This work was supported by the ERC-StG (Project No. 277767-TDMET) and the VKR center of excellence, QUSCOPE.

  4. CONDITIONS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN COMPANIES AND NGOs IN THE FIELD OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITIES: THE POLISH CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Drewniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is becoming an increasingly popular area of activity of companies which are interested in not only the managers or owners, but also customers, suppliers, NGOs, administrative and other stakeholders groups. The analysis aim is to present CSR initiatives as part of deliberate strategy of the company, which is one of the key sources of competitive advantage in the market. The findings concern the scope of cooperation between companies and NGOs in the field of socially responsible activities. The analysis indicates that the expected form of cooperation of NGOs with small businesses is to provide financial assistance to social organizations. However, in the case of medium-sized enterprises, these expectations also apply to material support. Moreover, in the case of medium-sized enterprises a key determinant of cooperation with social organization is realization of the social objective, while small businesses are more guided by "goodness of the heart". Considerations based on the identification of scope of CSR, are pointing to the key aspects of this activity to the company, the environment and customers. Discussions were extended to the characteristics of the benefits, barriers and forms of the cooperation, as well as, there were presented the results of research in the field of forms and determinants of such cooperation. Considerations are based on secondary sources, from national and international journals, books, magazines and specialist reports.

  5. High polysilicon TFT field effect mobility reached thanks to slight phosphorus content in the active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghdoudi, M.; Rogel, R.; Alzaied, N.; Fathallah, M.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of slightly phosphorus atoms introduced during deposition of polysilicon films. Polysilicon films are used as an active layer in thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on glass substrates at a maximum temperature of 600 deg. C.Three phosphorus atoms contents, determined by the value of the phosphine to silane ratio: Γ (3.7 x 10 -7 , 8 x 10 -7 , 26 x 10 -6 ), are used to optimize the active layer quality. The in-situ doped layers induce a better stability of the electrical characteristics, a higher mobility and lower value of the threshold voltage for the slightly doped active layers [M. Zaghdoudi, M.M. Abdelkrim, M. Fathallah, T. Mohammed-Brahim and F. Le-Bihan Control of the weak phosphorus doping in polysilicon, Materials Science and Forum, Vols. 480-481 (2005) pp.305.]. The present work shows that the effect of slightly phosphorus content improves the quality of oxide/polysilicon interface and decreases the defects density. Degradation of electrical properties is shown to originate from the creation of defect at the channel-interface oxide and in the grain boundaries. The effect of temperature change on the electrical properties was studied and the behaviour was also analyzed

  6. Research results in the field of information support for innovation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Žižlavský

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an actual issue focused on one of the world wide problem – effective development of an innovation process in the company. Just innovation is deemed as an essential part of company’s efficiency and its development with an impact on overall performance and competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss knowledge and findings of original primary research into South-Moravian companies within two projects of Internal Grant Agency Faculty of Business and Management Brno University of Technology, which were conducted in 2009 and 2010. For this analysis a questionnaire survey was used – the results of the primary research reflect innovative activities from the top managers’ point of view. The scientific aim of the paper is to gain knowledge and analyse the present status of innovative activities as it pertains to Czech and foreign professional literature and in the Czech business environment. Authors proved with help of questionnaire survey that many companies still neglect information support of their innovation activities although given the importance of innovation as an engine of growth. Moreover, as shown by the primary research, the majority of companies lack a sophisticated marketing information system, modelling and analysis of the future market, analyses of customers, their behaviour and unsaid needs, definition of price strategies, and analysis of new expansion areas. These findings are not affirmative for our business environment.

  7. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques

  8. Decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal waste and poultry manure in the soil in a biofuel crops field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovil, Cláudia Marques-Dos-Santos; de Varennes, Amarilis; Pinto, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Alves, Tiago Filipe; Mendes, Pedro; Sampaio, Sílvio César

    2017-05-01

    Biofuel crops are gaining importance because of the need to replace non-renewable sources. Also, due to the increasing amounts of wastes generated, there is the need to recycle them to the soil, both to fertilize crops and to improve soil physical properties through organic matter increase and microbiological changes in the rhizosphere. We therefore studied the influence of six biofuel crops (elephant grass, giant cane, sugarcane, blue gum, black cottonwood, willow) on the decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal solid waste and poultry manure. Organic amendments were incubated in the field (litterbag method), buried near each plant or bare soil. Biomass decrease and dehydrogenase, urease and acid phosphatase level in amendments was monitored over a 180-day period. Soil under the litterbags was analysed for the same enzymatic activity and organic matter fractions (last sampling). After 365 days, a fractionation of organic matter was carried out in both amendments and soil under the litterbags. For compost, willow and sugarcane generally led to the greatest enzymatic activity, at the end of the experiment. For manure, dehydrogenase activity decreased sharply with time, the smallest value near sugarcane, while phosphatase and urease generally presented the highest values, at the beginning or after 90 days' incubation. Clustering showed that plant species could be grouped based on biomass and enzymes measured over time. Plant species influenced the decomposition rate and enzymatic activities of the organic amendments. Overall, mineralization of both amendments was associated with a greater urease activity in soils. Dehydrogenase activity in manure was closely associated with urease activity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Investigating the use of Active Crop Canopy Sensors for Soybean Management in Field Research and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua Jay

    Approximately one-third of soybean yield gain is a result of improved agronomic practices, which includes disease and insect management. Treatments containing fungicide, insecticide, biological, and nutrient components were evaluated in Nebraska soybean fields during 2013 through 2015 to determine effects on soybean yield and profitability. The greatest yield (4.83 Mg ha -1, p=0.019) was achieved with a complete seed and pod set treatment, but resulted in the second lowest calculated net return (US151 ha -1, p=0.019) after accounting for fixed and variable costs at a soybean market price of US0.367 kg-1. The most profitable treatment was the fungicide seed treatment followed by no pod set treatment (US$241 ha-1, p=0.019). The use of pod set treatments in the absence of significant disease and insect pressure was not profitable in most instances. Crop canopy reflectance was measured several times throughout the season during 2014 and 2015 to evaluate normalized difference red edge (NDRE) index to predict soybean productivity. The NDRE values were used to calculate a cumulative reflectance value through the R6 growth stage, defined as area under the reflectance progress curve (AURPC). The AURPC values and seed yield were classified as top 25%, middle 50%, or bottom 25% by location. Multinomial regression determined that bottom AURPC values correctly predicted bottom yield 52.5% of the time (p=0.033), but ranged from 46.7 to 86.2% by location. Misclassifications by incorrectly identifying a bottom yield within the top AURPC ranged from 0.0% to 16.7% by location. The AURPC offers a novel method to delineate management zones in soybean production fields. Soybean canopy reflectance was also evaluated for the relationship between NDRE and soybean response to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) infection. SCN-resistant and -susceptible varieties were planted in SCN-infested and non-infested sites during 2015 and 2016. Susceptible varieties yielded

  10. High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Dielectric and Active Layers Printed Sequentially by Ultrasonic Spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Ming [ORNL; Sanjib, Das [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, flexible organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are reported with PVP dielectric and TIPS-PEN active layers sequentially deposited by ultrasonic spray-coating on plastic substrate. OFETs fabricated in ambient air with a bottom-gate/top-contact geometry are shown to achieve on/off ratios of >104 and mobilities as high as 0.35 cm2/Vs. These rival the characteristics of the best solution-processible small molecule FETs fabricated by other fabrication methods such as drop casting and ink-jet printing.

  11. On-going activities in Belgium in the field of FR & ADS: The progress since 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Some R&D achievements: • LEXUR II: investigate combined irradiation & LBE environment; irradiation in BOR60; 1st PIE currently running; • FP7 MAX (Myrrha Accelerator eXperiments) started, dealing with reliability & availability; • RHAPTER (Remote HAndling Proof-of-principle TEst Rig) : commissioning running; • LiLIPuTTeR (Liquid Lead-bismuth Innovative Pump Technology Test Rig): now used to test pump components; • HELIOS (rig for experimental gas – liquid oxygen conditioning programme): under commissioning; support for other experimental activities

  12. Validity and Reliability of Field-Based Measures for Assessing Movement Skill Competency in Lifelong Physical Activities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Lander, Natalie J; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Robertson, Samuel J; Lubans, David R

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that young people should develop competence in a variety of 'lifelong physical activities' to ensure that they can be active across the lifespan. The primary aim of this systematic review is to report the methodological properties, validity, reliability, and test duration of field-based measures that assess movement skill competency in lifelong physical activities. A secondary aim was to clearly define those characteristics unique to lifelong physical activities. A search of four electronic databases (Scopus, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and PubMed) was conducted between June 2014 and April 2015 with no date restrictions. Studies addressing the validity and/or reliability of lifelong physical activity tests were reviewed. Included articles were required to assess lifelong physical activities using process-oriented measures, as well as report either one type of validity or reliability. Assessment criteria for methodological quality were adapted from a checklist used in a previous review of sport skill outcome assessments. Movement skill assessments for eight different lifelong physical activities (badminton, cycling, dance, golf, racquetball, resistance training, swimming, and tennis) in 17 studies were identified for inclusion. Methodological quality, validity, reliability, and test duration (time to assess a single participant), for each article were assessed. Moderate to excellent reliability results were found in 16 of 17 studies, with 71% reporting inter-rater reliability and 41% reporting intra-rater reliability. Only four studies in this review reported test-retest reliability. Ten studies reported validity results; content validity was cited in 41% of these studies. Construct validity was reported in 24% of studies, while criterion validity was only reported in 12% of studies. Numerous assessments for lifelong physical activities may exist, yet only assessments for eight lifelong physical activities were included in this review

  13. Optimal placement of active braces by using PSO algorithm in near- and far-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastali, M.; Kheyroddin, A.; Samali, B.; Vahdani, R.

    2016-03-01

    One of the most important issues in tall buildings is lateral resistance of the load-bearing systems against applied loads such as earthquake, wind and blast. Dual systems comprising core wall systems (single or multi-cell core) and moment-resisting frames are used as resistance systems in tall buildings. In addition to adequate stiffness provided by the dual system, most tall buildings may have to rely on various control systems to reduce the level of unwanted motions stemming from severe dynamic loads. One of the main challenges to effectively control the motion of a structure is limitation in distributing the required control along the structure height optimally. In this paper, concrete shear walls are used as secondary resistance system at three different heights as well as actuators installed in the braces. The optimal actuator positions are found by using optimized PSO algorithm as well as arbitrarily. The control performance of buildings that are equipped and controlled using the PSO algorithm method placement is assessed and compared with arbitrary placement of controllers using both near- and far-field ground motions of Kobe and Chi-Chi earthquakes.

  14. On-site laboratory support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory environmental restoration field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, J.L.E.

    1995-07-01

    A remedial investigation/feasibility study has been undertaken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Bechtel National, Inc. and partners CH2M Hill, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, and PEER Consultants are contracted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, performing this work for ORNL's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. An on-site Close Support Laboratory (CSL) established at the ER Field Operations Facility has evolved into a laboratory where quality analytical screening results can be provided rapidly (e.g., within 24 hours of sampling). CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, chromatography, and wet chemistry. Radiochemical analyses include gamma spectroscopy, tritium and carbon-14 screens using liquid scintillation analysis, and gross alpha and beta counting. Cerenkov counting and crown-ether-based separation are the two rapid methods used for radiostrontium determination in water samples. By extending count times where appropriate, method detection limits can match those achieved by off-site contract laboratories. Volatile organic compounds are detected by means of gas chromatography using either headspace or purge and trap sample introduction (based on EPA 601/602). Ionic content of water samples is determined using ion chromatography and alkalinity measurement. Ion chromatography is used to quantify both anions (based on EPA 300) and cations. Wet chemistry procedures performed at the CSL include alkalinity, pH (water and soil), soil resistivity, and dissolved/suspended solids. Besides environmental samples, the CSL routinely screens health and safety and waste management samples. The cost savings of the CSL are both direct and indirect

  15. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Martin, S. T. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Kleinman, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thalman, R. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol indirect effects, which represent the impact of aerosols on climate through influencing the properties of clouds, remain one of the main uncertainties in climate predictions (Stocker et al. 2013). Reducing this large uncertainty requires both improved understanding and representation of aerosol properties and processes in climate models, including the cloud activation properties of aerosols. The Atmospheric System Research (ASR) science program plan of January 2010 states that: “A key requirement for simulating aerosol-cloud interactions is the ability to calculate cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei (CCN and IN, respectively) concentrations as a function of supersaturation from the chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol.” The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) study seeks to understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity (Manaus)—in particular, the differences in cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions between polluted and pristine conditions. One key question of GoAmazon2014/5 is: “What is the influence of the Manaus pollution plume on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of the aerosol particles and the secondary organic material in the particles?” To address this question, we measured size-resolved CCN spectra, a critical measurement for GoAmazon2014/5.

  16. Review on Japanese activities in the field of maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Fukuda, T.; Sato, M.; Okabayashi, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2002-01-01

    Summary of Japanese activities on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators (SG) is described in this paper. The concept (adoption of helical coil tube etc.) of MONJU SG was established in conceptional design started from 1968, and research and development (R and D) program was prepared. Parallel with basic studies such as material, welding, sodium water reaction and etc., overall verification tests using mock up SGs were conducted. As the first step, 1 Mw SG with two active helical tubes (and eight dummy tubes) was fabricated and operated, and many maintenance and repair experiences were accumulated through two small water leak troubles. Two 50Mw SGs, 1/5 scale of MONJU SG, were constructed and operated for long time. Post test examinations were carried out for No.1 50 Mw SG and feasibility of this type of SG was confirmed. In regard to maintenance and repair techniques, explosive and welding method for tube plugging and UT and ECT techniques for inspection of tube integrity are under development. Overall verification test for on-site and in-factory maintenance and repair techniques was conducted using No.2 50Mw SG evaporator and applicability of those techniques to real plant was evaluated. Many experiences were accumulated for removal and cleaning of sodium water reaction products after sodium water reaction in the cooling system and pressure relief system, using the Large Sodium Water Reaction Test Facility (SWAT-1 and 3). (author)

  17. Field measurement of mixing degree in coal mixer by later activable tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokooji, Makoto; Uemura, Katsumi; Adachi, Syoichi

    1975-01-01

    Mixing effectiveness in a rotary drum mixer for coke production was examined. Though the method to use the dispersion of characteristic values such as ash content or volatile components is common for measuring the mixing effectiveness, here the later activable tracer method with radioisotopes was employed, because the former method includes the dispersion of the characteristic values for raw materials themselves, and is poor in detectability. In a preliminary test, the expression for mixing degree was determined, and the tracer nuclide was selected. Coal mixture was irradiated in the TRIGA II reactor of St. Paul University for 4 hours at 100 kW. then further preliminary test was performed for La and Mn which were selected among the typical usable elements listed up by reviewing their γ-spectra. Finally, Mn was adopted by comparing both elements regarding their time required for activation analysis and economy. Manganese concentration originally contained in the coal mixture was 38 ppm. Mixing degree after passing through the coal mixer was 99.8%. The results of the regular test are shown in a table, and indicate that the mixer fully attained its aim. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Evolution of impedance field telemetry after one day of activation in cochlear implant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chun Hu

    Full Text Available Changes in impedance between 24 hours and one month after cochlear implantation have never been explored due to the inability to switch on within one day. This study examined the effect of early activation (within 24 hours on the evolution of electrode impedance with the aim of providing information on the tissue-to-electrode interface when electrical stimulation was commenced one day post implantation.We performed a retrospective review at a single institution. Patients who received a Nucleus 24RECA implant system (Cochlear, Sydney, Australia and underwent initial switch-on within 24 hours postoperatively were included. Impedance measurements were obtained intraoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks.A significant drop in impedance was noted 1 day after an initial activation within 24 hours followed by a significant rise in impedance in all channels until 1 week, after which the impedance behaved differently in different segments. Basal and mid-portion electrodes revealed a slight increase while apical electrodes showed a slight decrease in impedance from 1 week to 8 weeks postoperatively. Impedance was relatively stable 4 weeks after surgery.This is the first study to report the evolution of impedance in all channels between initial mapping 1 day and 1 month after cochlear implantation. The underlying mechanism for the differences in behavior between different segments of the electrode may be associated with the combined effect of dynamics among the interplay of cell cover formation, electrical stimulation, and fibrotic reaction.

  19. Investigation of silicide-induced-dopant-activation for steep tunnel junction in tunnel field effect transistor (TFET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sihyun; Kwon, Dae Woong; Park, Euyhwan; Lee, Junil; Lee, Roongbin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    Numerous researches for making steep tunnel junction within tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) have been conducted. One of the ways to make an abrupt junction is source/drain silicidation, which uses the phenomenon often called silicide-induced-dopant-segregation. It is revealed that the silicide process not only helps dopants to pile up adjacent to the metal-silicon alloy, also induces the dopant activation, thereby making it possible to avoid additional high temperature process. In this report, the availability of dopant activation induced by metal silicide process was thoroughly investigated by diode measurement and device simulation. Metal-silicon (MS) diodes having p+ and n+ silicon formed on the p- substrate exhibit the characteristics of ohmic and pn diodes respectively, for both the samples with and without high temperature annealing. The device simulation for TFETs with dopant-segregated source was also conducted, which verified enhanced DC performance.

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Department of Energy (DOE) activities at Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Ventura County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) activities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratories Site (DOE/SSFL), conducted May 16 through 26, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by an private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with DOE activities at SSFL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at SSFL, and interviews with site personnel. 90 refs., 17 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Effect of a strong, DC-induced magnetic field on circadian singing activity of the house cricket (orthoptera:gryllidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.C.; Bitzer, R.J.; Galliart, L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a strong, DC-induced electromagnetic field (EMF) on the circadian singing activity of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Groups of 10 crickets were exposed to strong, DC-induced EMFs under two light regimes, 12:12 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h. Exposure to the strong EMF resulted in an increase in mean time per hour during which one or more crickets were singing and in number of crickets singing per hour. Correcting for phase shift during O:24 (L:D) h, the daily pattern of singing was apparently unaffected by any treatment. The greatest percentage of singing and number of crickets singing per hour occurred during actual or expected scotophase. This is the first report of an increase in insect activity during exposure to a strong DC-induced EMF.

  2. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management

  3. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications.

  4. Field Trial of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer for the Determination of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; von Fricken, Michael E; Wilfong, Tara D; Aguenza, Elisa; Philippe, Taina T; Okech, Bernard A

    2017-10-01

    Throughout many developing and tropical countries around the world, malaria remains a significant threat to human health. One barrier to malaria elimination is the ability to safely administer primaquine chemotherapy for the radical cure of malaria infections in populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In the current study, a field trial of the world's first quantitative, point-of-care assay for measuring G6PD activity was conducted in Haiti. The performance of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer was compared with the gold standard spectrophotometric assay and genotyping of the G6PD allele in schoolchildren ( N = 343) from the Ouest Department of Haiti. In this population, 19.5% of participants (67/343) had some form of G6PD deficiency (< 60% residual activity) and 9.9% (34/343) had moderate-to-severe G6PD deficiency (< 30% residual activity). Overall, 18.95% of participants had the presence of the A-allele (65/343) with 7.87% (27/343) considered at high risk for drug-induced hemolysis (hemizygous males and homozygous females). Compared with the spectrophotometric assay, the sensitivity and specificity to determine participants with < 60% residual activity were 53.7% and 94.6%, respectively; for participants with 30% residual activity, the sensitivity and specificity were 5.9% and 99.7%, respectively. The biosensor overestimated the activity in deficient individuals and underestimated it in participants with normal G6PD activity, indicating the potential for a systematic measurement error. Thus, we suggest that the current version of the biosensor lacks adequate sensitivity and should be improved prior to its use as a point-of-care diagnostic for G6PD deficiency.

  5. Horizontal rotation of the local stress field in response to magmatic activity: Evidence from case studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    A complete understanding of the initiation, evolution, and termination of volcanic eruptions requires reliable monitoring techniques to detect changes in the conduit system during periods of activity, as well as corresponding knowledge of conduit structure and of magma physical properties. Case studies of stress field orientation prior to, during, and after magmatic activity can be used to relate changes in stress field orientation to the state of the magmatic conduit system. These relationships may be tested through modeling of induced stresses. Here I present evidence from case studies and modeling that horizontal rotation of the axis of maximum compressive stress at an active volcano indicates pressurization of a magmatic conduit, and that this rotation, when observed, may also be indicative of the physical properties of the ascending magma. Changes in the local stress field orientation during the 1992 eruption sequence at Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska were analyzed by calculating and inverting subsets of over 150 fault-plane solutions. Local stress tensors for four time periods, corresponding approximately to changes in activity at the volcano, were calculated based on the misfit of individual fault-plane solutions to a regional stress tensor. Results indicate that for nine months prior to the eruption, local maximum compressive stress was oriented perpendicular to regional maximum compressive stress. A similar horizontal rotation was observed beginning in November of 1992, coincident with an episode of elevated earthquake and tremor activity indicating intrusion of magma into the conduit. During periods of quiescence the local stress field was similar to the regional stress field. Similar horizontal rotations have been observed at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand (Miller and Savage 2001, Gerst 2003), Usu Volcano, Japan (Fukuyama et al. 2001), Unzen Volcano, Japan (Umakoshi et al. 2001), and Mt. St. Helens Volcano, USA (Moran 1994) in conjunction with eruptive

  6. Pain-inhibiting inhomogeneous static magnetic field fails to influence locomotor activity and anxiety behavior in mice: no interference between magnetic field- and morphine-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, János; Tímár, Júlia; Gyarmati, Zsuzsanna; Fürst, Zsuzsanna; Gyires, Klára

    2009-06-30

    We wanted to demonstrate (i) in the writhing test in mice, whether there was a prolonged analgesic effect induced by an inhomogeneous static magnetic field (SMF) exposure; (ii) whether SMF had an effect on the analgesic effect induced by 0.5mg/kgs.c. administered morphine, on the behavioral patterns, and on the hyperlocomotion-inducing effect of morphine. A magnetic exposure system developed by the present authors was used with peak-to-peak flux densities in the 2-754mT range. The writhing test was used for the assessment of pain. An elevated plus maze and a Conducta System was used for studying the anxiogenic or anxyolitic effect in mice, and the locomotor activity, respectively. We looked for the difference in the number of writhings and in the behavioral patterns between treated (s.c. morphine and/or SMF exposure) and control animals, respectively. (i) The antinociceptive effect could be identified 10-30min following SMF exposition in the writhing test in mice. (ii) SMF failed to affect the morphine-induced antinociception, the behavioral patterns in either type of tests, and the hyperlocomotion-inducing effect of morphine. (i) The long-lasting antinociceptive effect of SMF allows experiments under conditions, when in situ application of the SMF-producing device would be technically difficult or impossible; or where it would disturb the experiments. (ii) The results of behavioral tests with freely moving mice in or in the vicinity of inhomogeneous SMFs are not affected by the SMF in the applied flux density range. (iii) Morphine in treated subjects is not interacting with the inhomogeneous SMFs in the applied flux density range.

  7. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. I. CHARACTERIZING WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, Frank; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomical Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Lake, Sean; Petty, Sara; Wright, E. L. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is an extremely capable and efficient black hole finder. We present a simple mid-infrared color criterion, W1 - W2 {>=} 0.8 (i.e., [3.4]-[4.6] {>=}0.8, Vega), which identifies 61.9 {+-} 5.4 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates per deg{sup 2} to a depth of W2 {approx} 15.0. This implies a much larger census of luminous AGNs than found by typical wide-area surveys, attributable to the fact that mid-infrared selection identifies both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) AGNs. Optical and soft X-ray surveys alone are highly biased toward only unobscured AGNs, while this simple WISE selection likely identifies even heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGNs. Using deep, public data in the COSMOS field, we explore the properties of WISE-selected AGN candidates. At the mid-infrared depth considered, 160 {mu}Jy at 4.6 {mu}m, this simple criterion identifies 78% of Spitzer mid-infrared AGN candidates according to the criteria of Stern et al. and the reliability is 95%. We explore the demographics, multiwavelength properties and redshift distribution of WISE-selected AGN candidates in the COSMOS field.

  8. Entropy Production in Field Theories without Time-Reversal Symmetry: Quantifying the Non-Equilibrium Character of Active Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Nardini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Active-matter systems operate far from equilibrium because of the continuous energy injection at the scale of constituent particles. At larger scales, described by coarse-grained models, the global entropy production rate S quantifies the probability ratio of forward and reversed dynamics and hence the importance of irreversibility at such scales: It vanishes whenever the coarse-grained dynamics of the active system reduces to that of an effective equilibrium model. We evaluate S for a class of scalar stochastic field theories describing the coarse-grained density of self-propelled particles without alignment interactions, capturing such key phenomena as motility-induced phase separation. We show how the entropy production can be decomposed locally (in real space or spectrally (in Fourier space, allowing detailed examination of the spatial structure and correlations that underly departures from equilibrium. For phase-separated systems, the local entropy production is concentrated mainly on interfaces, with a bulk contribution that tends to zero in the weak-noise limit. In homogeneous states, we find a generalized Harada-Sasa relation that directly expresses the entropy production in terms of the wave-vector-dependent deviation from the fluctuation-dissipation relation between response functions and correlators. We discuss extensions to the case where the particle density is coupled to a momentum-conserving solvent and to situations where the particle current, rather than the density, should be chosen as the dynamical field. We expect the new conceptual tools developed here to be broadly useful in the context of active matter, allowing one to distinguish when and where activity plays an essential role in the dynamics.

  9. The regulatory activities of the KTA in the field of emission monitoring at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelhaeuser, H.

    1991-01-01

    The statutes of the KTA include the task to set up safety-specific rules, and to support and foster the application of these rules in the areas of nuclear science and engineering in which experts have established on the basis of their experience a common opinion and generally accepted knowledge. Experts in this context are meant to include manufacturers, owners and operators of nuclear installations, experts authorized to make expert opinions, and public authorities. The regulatory provisions for emission monitoring of nuclear facilities are published in the 1500 series of the KTA. The lecture explains the current KTA activities for remodelling and revision of rules 1503 and 1504 by the KTA subcommittee for radiation protection engineering. (orig./DG) [de

  10. Field test of a thermal active building system (tabs) in an office building in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondo, Daniela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing attention has been addressed in the last years to the assessment, at the same time, of energy performances and indoor environmental quality in buildings. Focusing on thermal comfort recent international standards as ISOEN7730 and EN15251 introduce criteria for using categories...... in the indoor environmental assessment of a building. At the same time, also use of low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems in non-residential buildings has increased, due to the energy efficiency and the economical cooling and heating performance of tins kind of plants. This paper presents...... an experimental study in an office building in Denmark where cooling in summer is provided by thermally activated building systems (TABS). Indoor climate quality evaluation, cooling system performance and energy consumption for a specific room were analyzed with different levels of internal gains. The experiments...

  11. R and D Activities of Joint Manufacture for ITER Poloidal Field Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yao; Song Yuntao; Huang Xiongyi; Shen Guang; Wu Huan; Wang Lin; Hu Bing; Luo Zhiren

    2015-01-01

    Electrical joints are critical components of the PF coil in the tokamak, serving as an electric and coolant transfer between adjacent conductors. The technologies and tooling used for joint manufacture are great challenges in coil fabrication, including termination box and cover manufacturing, jacket removal of the conductor, petals drawing apart and reformation, nickel coating removal and tin plating on the cable, compaction of the cable into the termination, final machining of the termination, etc. This paper mainly focuses on the solution of technical issues, based on previous R and D activities of joint. Meanwhile, a detailed manufacture plan has been confirmed. The technologies and tooling also can be used as reference for the electrical joint manufacture for PF coils and other large-scale coils. (paper)

  12. Modeling and classifying human activities from trajectories using a class of space-varying parametric motion fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Jacinto C; Marques, Jorge S; Lemos, João M

    2013-05-01

    Many approaches to trajectory analysis, such as clustering or classification, use probabilistic generative models, thus not requiring trajectory alignment/registration. Switched linear dynamical models (e.g., HMMs) have been used in this context, due to their ability to describe different motion regimes. However, these models are not suitable for handling space-dependent dynamics that are more naturally captured by nonlinear models. As is well known, these are more difficult to identify. In this paper, we propose a new way of modeling trajectories, based on a mixture of parametric motion vector fields that depend on a small number of parameters. Switching among these fields follows a probabilistic mechanism, characterized by a field of stochastic matrices. This approach allows representing a wide variety of trajectories and modeling space-dependent behaviors without using global nonlinear dynamical models. Experimental evaluation is conducted in both synthetic and real scenarios. The latter concerning with human trajectory modeling for activity classification, a central task in video surveillance.

  13. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Gordon; McMaken, Tyler C.

    2017-08-01

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  14. Effects of chronic restraint stress and estradiol on open field activity, spatial memory, and monoaminergic neurotransmitters in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R E; Ferguson, D; Luine, V N

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one days of chronic restraint stress impairs male rat performance on the radial arm maze [Luine et al. (1994) Brain Res. 639, 167-170], but enhances female rat performance [Bowman et al. (2001) Brain Res. 904, 279-289]. To assess possible ovarian hormone mechanisms underlying this sexually dimorphic response to stress, we examined chronic stress effects in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats received Silastic capsule implants containing cholesterol or estradiol and were assigned to a daily restraint stress (21 days, 6 h/day) or non-stress group. Following the stress period, subjects were tested for open field activity and radial arm maze performance. Stress and estradiol treatment affected open field activity. All stressed animals, with or without estradiol treatment, made fewer total outer sector crossings. In contrast, estradiol-treated animals, with or without stress, made more inner sector visits, an indication that estradiol decreased anxious behavior on the open field across time. As measured by the total number of visits required to complete the task, stress did not affect radial arm maze performance in ovariectomized rats, but estradiol-treated animals, with or without stress, performed better than non-treated animals on the radial arm maze. Stressed subjects receiving estradiol showed the best radial arm maze performance. Following killing, tissue samples were obtained from various brain regions known to contribute to learning and memory, and monoamine and metabolite levels were measured. Several changes were observed in response to both stress and estradiol. Most noteworthy, stress treatment decreased homovanillic acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, an effect not previously observed in stressed intact females. Estradiol treatment increased norepinephrine levels in CA3 region of the hippocampus, mitigating stress-dependent changes. Both stress and estradiol decreased dentate gyrus levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. In summary, the current

  15. River solute fluxes reflecting active hydrothermal chemical weathering of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades numerous studies have quantified the load of dissolved solids in large rivers to determine chemical weathering rates in orogenic belts and volcanic areas, mainly motivated by the notion that over timescales greater than ~100kyr, silicate hydrolysis may be the dominant sink for atmospheric CO2, thus creating a feedback between climate and weathering. Here, we report the results of a detailed study during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) in the major rivers of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) which hosts Earth's largest "restless" caldera and over 10,000 thermal features. The chemical compositions of rivers that drain thermal areas in the YPVF differ significantly from the compositions of rivers that drain non-thermal areas. There are large seasonal variations in river chemistry and solute flux, which increases with increasing water discharge. The river chemistry and discharge data collected periodically over an entire year allow us to constrain the annual solute fluxes and to distinguish between low-temperature weathering and hydrothermal flux components. The TDS flux from Yellowstone Caldera in water year 2007 was 93t/km2/year. Extensive magma degassing and hydrothermal interaction with rocks accounts for at least 82% of this TDS flux, 83% of the cation flux and 72% of the HCO3- flux. The low-temperature chemical weathering rate (17t/km2/year), calculated on the assumption that all the Cl- is of thermal origin, could include a component from low-temperature hydrolysis reactions induced by CO2 ascending from depth rather than by atmospheric CO2. Although this uncertainty remains, the calculated low-temperature weathering rate of the young rhyolitic rocks in the Yellowstone Caldera is comparable to the world average of large watersheds that drain also more soluble carbonates and evaporates but is slightly lower than calculated rates in other, less-silicic volcanic regions. Long-term average fluxes at

  16. Survey of the Current Activities in the Field of Modeling the Space Debris Environment at TU Braunschweig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Horstmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Space Systems at Technische Universität Braunschweig has long-term experience in the field of space debris modeling. This article reviews the current state of ongoing research in this area. Extensive activities are currently underway to update the European space debris model MASTER. In addition to updating the historical population, the future evolution of the space debris environment is also being investigated. The competencies developed within these activities are used to address current problems with regard to the possibility of an increasing number of catastrophic collisions. Related research areas include, for example, research in the field of orbit determination and the simulation of sensor systems for the acquisition and cataloging of orbital objects. In particular, the ability to provide simulated measurement data for object populations in almost all size ranges is an important prerequisite for these investigations. Some selected results on the distribution of space debris on Earth orbit are presented in terms of spatial density. Furthermore, specific fragmentation events will be discussed.

  17. Accuracy and Adoption of Wearable Technology Used by Active Citizens: A Marathon Event Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobiruchin, Monika; Suleder, Julian; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin

    2017-02-28

    Today, runners use wearable technology such as global positioning system (GPS)-enabled sport watches to track and optimize their training activities, for example, when participating in a road race event. For this purpose, an increasing amount of low-priced, consumer-oriented wearable devices are available. However, the variety of such devices is overwhelming. It is unclear which devices are used by active, healthy citizens and whether they can provide accurate tracking results in a diverse study population. No published literature has yet assessed the dissemination of wearable technology in such a cohort and related influencing factors. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine the adoption of wearable technology by runners, especially "smart" devices and (2) to investigate on the accuracy of tracked distances as recorded by such devices. A pre-race survey was applied to assess which wearable technology was predominantly used by runners of different age, sex, and fitness level. A post-race survey was conducted to determine the accuracy of the devices that tracked the running course. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether age, sex, fitness level, or track distance were influencing factors. Recorded distances of different device categories were tested with a 2-sample t test against each other. A total of 898 pre-race and 262 post-race surveys were completed. Most of the participants (approximately 75%) used wearable technology for training optimization and distance recording. Females (P=.02) and runners in higher age groups (50-59 years: P=.03; 60-69 years: P<.001; 70-79 year: P=.004) were less likely to use wearables. The mean of the track distances recorded by mobile phones with combined app (mean absolute error, MAE=0.35 km) and GPS-enabled sport watches (MAE=0.12 km) was significantly different (P=.002) for the half-marathon event. A great variety of vendors (n=36) and devices (n=156) were identified. Under real-world conditions

  18. Computer-based procedure for field activities: Results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); bly, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  19. Synchronization in primate cerebellar granule cell layer local field potentials: Basic anisotropy and dynamic changes during active expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Courtemanche

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellar cortex is remarkable for its organizational regularity, out of which task-related neural networks should emerge. So, in Purkinje cells, both complex and simple spike network patterns are evident in sensorimotor behavior. However, task-related patterns of activity in the granule cell layer (GCL have been less studied. We recorded local field potential (LFP activity simultaneously in pairs of GCL sites in monkeys performing an active expectancy (lever-press task, in passive expectancy, and at rest. LFP sites were selected when they showed strong 10-25 Hz oscillations; pair orientation was in stereotaxic sagittal and coronal (mainly, and diagonal. As shown previously, LFP oscillations at each site were modulated during the lever-press task. Synchronization across LFP pairs showed an evident basic anisotropy at rest: sagittal pairs of LFPs were better synchronized (more than double the cross-correlation coefficients than coronal pairs, and more than diagonal pairs. On the other hand, this basic anisotropy was modifiable: during the active expectancy condition, where sagittal and coronal orientations were tested, synchronization of LFP pairs would increase just preceding movement, most notably for the coronal pairs. This lateral extension of synchronization was not observed in passive expectancy. The basic pattern of synchronization at rest, favoring sagittal synchrony, thus seemed to adapt in a dynamic fashion, potentially extending laterally to include more cerebellar cortex elements. This dynamic anisotropy in LFP synchronization could underlie GCL network organization in the context of sensorimotor tasks.

  20. Recent progress in the field of automated welding applied to maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullafroz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Automated and robot welding has 5 advantages compared to manual welding: -) under some conditions the automated circular welding does not require requalification testing as manual welding does, -) welding heads in robots have a reduced size compared to manual gears so they can enter and treat complex piping, -) by using an adequate viewing system the operator can be more than 10 meters away from the welding site which means that the radiation doses he receives is cut by a factor 1.5 to 2, -) whatever the configuration is, the deposition rate in automated welding stays high, the quality standard is steady and the risk of repairing is low, -) a gain in productivity if adequate equipment is used. In general, automated welding requires a TIG welding process and is applied in maintenance activities to: -) the main primary system and other circuits in stainless austenitic steels, -) the main secondary system and other circuits in low-percentage carbon steels, and -) the closure of spent fuel canisters. An application to the repairing of BWR's pipes is shown. (A.C.)

  1. Field Prototype of the ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation Device for the Detection of Dirty Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cherubini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation (NAI device is a tool designed to improve CBRNE defense. It is designed to uncover radioactive and nuclear threats including those in the form of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, the so-called “dirty bombs”. The NAI device, at its current development stage, allows to detect 6 g of 235U hidden in a package. It is easily transportable, light in weight, and with a real-time response. Its working principle is based on two stages: (1 an “active” stage in which neutrons are emitted by a neutron generator to interact with the item under inspection, and (2 a “passive” stage in which secondary neutrons are detected originating a signal that, once processed, allows recognition of the offence. In particular, a clear indication of the potential threat is obtained by a dedicated software based on the Differential Die-Away Time Analysis method.

  2. The Influence of External Elastic Compression on the Activity of Track and Field Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the effects of external compression on the muscular strength, fatigue, and activity through electromyography (EMG and mechanomyography (MMG during isokinetic muscle actions. 66.4 N and 85.8 N tension-length curves (used as moderate and high compression, respectively were obtained with standard weights through a force transducer. All subjects (n = 12 performed 5 seconds of MVCs and 25 isokinetic knee extensions at 60o s-1 & 300o s- 1 with the two different compressions and without compression. The signals for strength production, EMG, and MMG amplitude (RMS were collected simultaneously. No significant differences were found among three compressions for strength production; while there was a significant decrescence in the ratio of torque and overall rmsEMG (P< 0.05 during performing isokinetic knee extensions at 60===?=== s-1 & 300===?=== s-1, comparing to the none compression. Local elastic compression on lower extremity did not significantly improve isokinetic strength in a short period of time, but did positively affect on muscular fatigue by helping maintain long-term force production through recruiting lesser motor units during movements.

  3. The Effects of Mechanical and Thermal Stimuli on Local Field Potentials and Single Unit Activity in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasen, Abigail; Youn, Youngwon; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Lai, Brant; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Rizvi, Khizer; Yeung, Philip; Shin, Damian S; Argoff, Charles; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain is a major, debilitating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to improve pain outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. Microelectrode recording allows us to measure both local field potentials (LFPs) and single neuronal unit activity (SUA). In this study, we examined how single unit and LFP oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia are impacted by mechanical and thermal sensory stimuli and explored their role in pain modulation. We assessed changes in LFPs and SUAs in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (Gpi), and globus pallidus externa (Gpe) following exposure with mechanical or thermal stimuli. Sensory thresholds were determined pre-operatively using quantitative sensory testing. Based on these data, patients were exposed to innocuous and noxious mechanical, pressure, and thermal stimuli at individualized thresholds. In the STN, LFP alpha oscillatory activity and SUA increased in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli; SUA further increased in response to noxious mechanical, noxious pressure, and noxious thermal stimuli (p thermal stimuli; SUA also increased in response to innocuous thermal stimuli (p thermal stimuli increased LFP gammaactivity; noxious pressure stimuli decreased low betaactivity; SUA increased in response to noxious thermal stimuli (p thermal stimuli alter basal ganglia LFPs and SUAs in PD. While STN SUA increases nearly uniformly to all sensory stimuli, SUA in the pallidal nuclei respond solely to thermal stimuli. Similarly, thermal stimuli yield increases in pallidal LFP activity, but not STN activity. We speculate that DBS may provide analgesia through suppression of stimuli-specific changes in basal ganglia activity, supporting a role for these nuclei in sensory and pain processing circuits. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  4. [Comparisons of Microbial Numbers, Biomasses and Soil Enzyme Activities Between Paddy Field and Drvland Origins in Karst Cave Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhen-jiang; Zeng, Hong-hu; Li, Qiang; Cheng, Ya-ping; Tang, Hua-feng; Li, Min; Huang, Bing-fu

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare microbial number, microbial biomass as well as soil enzyme activity between paddy field and dryland originated karst wetland ecosystems. The soil samples (0-20 cm) of uncultivated wetland, paddy field and dryland were collected in Huixian karst cave wetland, Guilin, China. Microbial numbers and biomass were detected using dilute plate incubation counting and chloroform fumigation-extraction, respectively. Microbial DNA was extracted according to the manufacturer's instructions of the kit. Microbial activity was examined using soil enzyme assays as well. The result showed that the bacteria number in paddy filed was (4.36 +/- 2.25) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1), which was significantly higher than those in wetland and dryland. Fungi numbers were (6.41 +/- 2.16) x 10(4) CFU x g(-1) in rice paddy and (6.52 +/- 1.55) x 10(4) CFU x g(-1) in wetland, which were higher than that in dryland. Actinomycetes number was (2.65 +/- 0.72) x 10(6) CFU x g(-1) in dryland, which was higher than that in wetland. Microbial DNA concentration in rice paddy was (11.92 +/- 3.69) microg x g(-1), which was higher than that in dryland. Invertase activity was (66.87 +/- 18.61) mg x (g x 24 h)(-1) in rice paddy and alkaline phosphatase activity was (2.07 +/- 0.99) mg x (g x 2 h)(-1) in wetland, both of which were higher than those in dryland. Statistical analysis showed there was a significant positive correlation of microbial DNA content, alkaline phosphatase activity and microbial carbon with soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, soil moisture, exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+, as well as a significant positive correlation of intervase activity with the former three microbial factors. The above results indicated that microbial biomass and function responded much more sensitively to land-use change than microbial number in karst cave wetland system. Soil moisture, SOC and some factors induced by land-use change

  5. Active photonic sensor communication cable for field application of optical data and power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthau, Eike; Rieske, Ralf; Zerna, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Omitting electrically conducting wires for sensor communication and power supply promises protection for sensor systems and monitored structures against lightning or high voltages, prevention of explosion hazards, and reduction of susceptibility to tampering. The ability to photonically power remote systems opens up the full range of electrical sensors. Power-over-fiber is an attractive option in electromagnetically sensitive environments, particularly for longterm, maintenance-free applications. It can deliver uninterrupted power sufficient for elaborate sensors, data processing or even actuators alongside continuous high speed data communication for remote sensor application. This paper proposes an active photonic sensor communication system, which combines the advantages of optical data links in terms of immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), high bandwidth, hardiness against tampering or eavesdropping, and low cable weight with the robustness one has come to expect from industrial or military electrical connectors. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented that implements a closed-loop regulation of the sensor power supply to guarantee continuous, reliable data communications while maintaining a highly efficient, adaptive sensor supply scheme. It is demonstrated that the resulting novel photonic sensor communication cable can handle sensors and actuators differing orders of magnitude with respect to power consumption. The miniaturization of the electro-optical converters and driving electronics is as important to the presented development as the energy efficiency of the detached, optically powered sensor node. For this reason, a novel photonic packaging technology based on wafer-level assembly of the laser power converters by means of passive alignment will be disclosed in this paper.

  6. Inception of activities in the field of nuclear power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascu, Paul Emil

    2001-01-01

    In the period 1960-1970 Romania's industry was strongly boosted and consequently an increased demand of energy resulted, what led to an energy consumption doubled every 5 years. As the classical fuel resources were directed as raw materials towards chemical industry, the nuclear power appeared as the sole serious alternating solution of the energy crisis. on a politico-economical basis as an optimal system the PHWR System was chosen, Canada as promoter of CANDU type reactors, becoming the principal partner in the development of Romania's nuclear power sector. Once the decision adopted several organisations, facilities and plants were created to ensure realization of the the majority of implied materials, equipment, and components for the PHWR reactors within the country's confines. So Feldioara plant for uranium ore concentration occurred for the mineral extracted in Apuseni and Calimani Mountains and Banat, the heavy water plant at T.Severin, the zirconium tubes plant at Giurgiu, steam generators different types of pumps manufactured at Grivita and IMGB plants and Bucharest and many other industrial units all over the country. To ensure the development of the industrial effort an institute for nuclear technology (ITN) was established having the main task of finding solutions, manufacturing procedures and testing the nuclear technologies specific to the PHWR system. Starting its activity as the Institut for Power Nuclear Reactor at Bucharest - Magurele it moved at Pitesti and later split into Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Fuel Plant. The INR Pitesti was equipped with a 14 MW t , hot laboratories, benchscale testing units etc. Episodes of the early development of the Nuclear Research Institute, some of them amusing, are evoked as well as remarkable achievements obtained from that period until now

  7. Chiral ligand-protected gold nanoclusters: Considering the optical activity from a viewpoint of ligand dissymmetric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chirality is a geometric property of a physical, chemical, or biological object, which is not superimposable on its mirror image. Its significant presence has led to a strong demand in the development of chiral drugs, sensors, catalysts, and photofunctional materials. In recent years, chirality of nanoscale organic/inorganic hybrids has received tremendous attention owing to potential applications in chiral nanotechnology. In particular, with the recent progress in the syntheses and characterizations of atomically precise gold nanoclusters protected by achiral thiolates, atomic level origins of their chirality have been unveiled. On the other hand, chirality or optical activity in metal nanoclusters can also be introduced via the surface chiral ligands, which should be universal for the nanosystems. This tutorial review presents some optically-active metal (gold nanoclusters protected by chiral thiolates or phosphines, and their chiroptical (or circular dichroism; CD properties are discussed mostly from a viewpoint of the ligand dissymmetric field scheme. The examples are the gold nanoclusters protected by (R-/(S-2-phenylpropane-1-thiol, (R-/(S-mercaptosuccinic acid, phenylboronate-D/L-fructose complexes, phosphine sulfonate-ephedrinium ion pairs, or glutathione. Some methodologies for versatile asymmetric transformation and chiroptical controls of the nanocluster compounds are also described. In the dissymmetric field model as the origin of optical activity, the chiroptical responses of the gold nanoclusters are strongly associated with coupled oscillator and/or CD stealing mechanisms based on the concept of induced CD (ICD derived from a perturbation theory, so on this basis, some characteristic features of the observed CD responses of chiral ligand-protected gold nanoclusters are presented in detail. We believe that various kinds of origins of chirality found in ligand-protected gold nanoclusters may provide models for understanding those of

  8. Field Report on the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Schmandt, B.; Palomeras, I.; Harder, S. H.; Creager, K. C.; Vidale, J. E.; Malone, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the second half of July we completed the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, one component of the Imaging Magma Under Saint Helens project. A team of ~75 volunteers deployed 3500 seismographs to ~5920 locations on and around Mount St. Helens over the course of 3 weeks. This instrument deployment was accompanied by 23 shots distributed around the volcano. Instrumentation consisted of ~2550 Reftek 125A (Texan) seismographs with 4.5 Hz geophones, and 920 Nodal Seismic recorders with 10 Hz geophones. The shots were also recorded by the permanent stations of the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network and 70 iMUSH broadband seismographs. Fifteen of the shots, 424 kg each, formed two rings around Mount Saint Helens at 15 km and 30 km radius from the summit. Eight of the shots, 828 kg each, were fired at distances of 50 to 80 km from MSH on NW-SE and NE-SW azimuths. The deployment geometry consisted of two lines oriented NW/SE and NE/SW, and three arrays. The offset of the lines ranged from 150 km to 190 km with an average spacing of 200 m. The first array was centered on the volcano with a radius of 30 km, and required both driving and hiking to deploy. Arrays two and three were set out with, and centered on, the NW/SE line. These arrays had a distance range from MSH of 30-75 km and an azimuth range of about 100 degrees. In addition to this large-scale deployment, we set out 7 beamforming arrays approximately collocated with iMUSH broadband seismographs, and above clusters of seismicity in the region. The aperture of these arrays was about 1 km with an instrument spacing of 100 m. The final deployment ended only days before the AGU abstract deadline, so we have not yet examined all of the data. However, the preliminary indications are that signal to noise is excellent: The shots, several of which registered on PNSN as ML>2.1, carried across the entire array, and were recorded as far away as Seattle and Corvallis on permanent stations. The array also recorded a

  9. Functional improvement and social participation through sports activity for children with mental retardation: a field study from a developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipanwita; Datta, Tarit K

    2012-09-01

    While the positive effect of sports and exercise on physical and psychological well being is well documented within the general population, the effects of sports on the functional ability of a child with mental retardation are limited. To determine if sports activities have been detrimental in improving functional ability in sample of children with mental retardation based in Kolkata, a metropolis in India. Field level study. Six sports associations registered under the Sports Authority of India for training children with mental retardation were shortlisted on the basis of four criteria. From the register, every third name (gender irrespective) belonging to the second (12-15 years) and third (15-21 years) subclasses (out of the four categories laid down in the Special Olympics participation rules) against a constraint of at least two years active attendance in the sports facility for the child was selected. A sample of 31 children was drawn and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) 12-item version was administered to the caregiver-teacher-coach team of the sample. Relative changes in scores between the point when the survey was conducted and the point when the child joined the sports facility was used as the dependent variable for regression analysis. The number of years in active sports, in school age of the respondent and base score of the children when they joined school were the independent variables. For seven of the WHODAS 2.0 12-item attributes, the number of years in sports activities was found to have a statistically significant effect (p mental retardation. The number of years in school was also another statistically significant factor (p sports activities was a significant factor responsible for improving the functioning of children with mild to moderate mental retardation.

  10. Involvement of Na+/K+ pump in fine modulation of bursting activity of the snail Br neuron by 10 mT static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ljiljana; Todorović, Nataša; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Stanić, Marina; Rauš, Snežana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Janać, Branka

    2012-07-01

    The spontaneously active Br neuron from the brain-subesophageal ganglion complex of the garden snail Helix pomatia rhythmically generates regular bursts of action potentials with quiescent intervals accompanied by slow oscillations of membrane potential. We examined the involvement of the Na(+)/K(+) pump in modulating its bursting activity by applying a static magnetic field. Whole snail brains and Br neuron were exposed to the 10-mT static magnetic field for 15 min. Biochemical data showed that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased almost twofold after exposure of snail brains to the static magnetic field. Similarly, (31)P NMR data revealed a trend of increasing ATP consumption and increase in intracellular pH mediated by the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger in snail brains exposed to the static magnetic field. Importantly, current clamp recordings from the Br neuron confirmed the increase in activity of the Na(+)/K(+) pump after exposure to the static magnetic field, as the magnitude of ouabain's effect measured on the membrane resting potential, action potential, and interspike interval duration was higher in neurons exposed to the magnetic field. Metabolic pathways through which the magnetic field influenced the Na(+)/K(+) pump could involve phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as blocking these processes abolished the effect of the static magnetic field.

  11. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals : Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; Ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to

  12. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  13. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  14. Manipulation of pre-target activity on the right frontal eye field enhances conscious visual perception in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Chanes

    Full Text Available The right Frontal Eye Field (FEF is a region of the human brain, which has been consistently involved in visuo-spatial attention and access to consciousness. Nonetheless, the extent of this cortical site's ability to influence specific aspects of visual performance remains debated. We hereby manipulated pre-target activity on the right FEF and explored its influence on the detection and categorization of low-contrast near-threshold visual stimuli. Our data show that pre-target frontal neurostimulation has the potential when used alone to induce enhancements of conscious visual detection. More interestingly, when FEF stimulation was combined with visuo-spatial cues, improvements remained present only for trials in which the cue correctly predicted the location of the subsequent target. Our data provide evidence for the causal role of the right FEF pre-target activity in the modulation of human conscious vision and reveal the dependence of such neurostimulatory effects on the state of activity set up by cue validity in the dorsal attentional orienting network.

  15. Secondary structure changes induced by pulsed electric field affect antioxidant activity of pentapeptides from pine nut (Pinus koraiensis) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xiuying

    2018-07-15

    We used a pulsed electric field (PEF) to treat four pentapeptides with similar amino acid sequences (KCHKP, KCHQP, QCHKP, and QCHQP). We then evaluated antioxidant activity of the pentapeptides according to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. Structures of the peptides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicated that antioxidant activities of KCHQP and QCHKP were increased by PEF, whereas those of KCHKP and QCHQP were reduced. The basic structures and functional groups of peptides were unaffected. PEF treatment reduced the α-helix contents of KCHQP and QCHKP, but increased those of KCHKP and QCHQP. Moreover, the chemical shifts at 14.46 ppm, 8.22 ppm, 7.87 ppm, 7.24 ppm, and 6.13 ppm attributable to hydrogen atoms of QCHKP shifted to the right, but the active hydrogens of QCHQP were not affected by PEF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMaken, Tyler C. [National Solar Observatory REU Program, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Petrie, Gordon J. D., E-mail: tmcmaken@gmail.com, E-mail: gpetrie@noao.edu [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  17. Interactively Improving Agricultural Field Mapping in Sub-Saharan Africa with Crowd-Sourcing and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    As satellite imagery becomes increasingly available, management of large image databases becomes more important for efficient image processing. We have developed a computer vision-based classification algorithm to distinguish smallholder agricultural land cover in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a group of high-resolution images from South Africa as a case study. For supervised classification, smallholder agriculture, with ambiguous patterns of small, irregular fields, requires a wide range of training data samples to adequately describe the variability in appearance. We employ crowd-sourcing to obtain new training data to expand the geographic range of our algorithm. A crowd-sourcing user is asked to hand-digitize the boundaries of agricultural fields in an assigned 1 km2 image. Yet random assignment of images to users could result in a highly redundant training data set with limited discriminative power. Furthermore, larger training data sets require a greater number of users to hand-digitize fields, which increases costs through crowd-sourcing engines like Amazon Mechanical Turk, as well as longer algorithm training times, which increases computing costs. Therefore, we employ an active learning approach to interactively select the most informative images to be hand-digitized for training data by crowd-sourcing users, based on changes in algorithm accuracy. We investigate the use of various image similarity measures used in content-based image retrieval systems, which quantify the distance, such as Euclidean distance or Manhattan distance, between a variety of extracted feature spaces to determine how similar the content of two images are. We determine the minimum training data set needed to maximize algorithm accuracy, as well as automate the selection of additional training images to classify a new target image that expands the geographic range of our algorithm.

  18. ACTIVE MEAN FIELDS FOR PROBABILISTIC IMAGE SEGMENTATION: CONNECTIONS WITH CHAN-VESE AND RUDIN-OSHER-FATEMI MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, Marc; Pohl, Kilian M; Janoos, Firdaus; Wells, William M

    2017-01-01

    Segmentation is a fundamental task for extracting semantically meaningful regions from an image. The goal of segmentation algorithms is to accurately assign object labels to each image location. However, image-noise, shortcomings of algorithms, and image ambiguities cause uncertainty in label assignment. Estimating the uncertainty in label assignment is important in multiple application domains, such as segmenting tumors from medical images for radiation treatment planning. One way to estimate these uncertainties is through the computation of posteriors of Bayesian models, which is computationally prohibitive for many practical applications. On the other hand, most computationally efficient methods fail to estimate label uncertainty. We therefore propose in this paper the Active Mean Fields (AMF) approach, a technique based on Bayesian modeling that uses a mean-field approximation to efficiently compute a segmentation and its corresponding uncertainty. Based on a variational formulation, the resulting convex model combines any label-likelihood measure with a prior on the length of the segmentation boundary. A specific implementation of that model is the Chan-Vese segmentation model (CV), in which the binary segmentation task is defined by a Gaussian likelihood and a prior regularizing the length of the segmentation boundary. Furthermore, the Euler-Lagrange equations derived from the AMF model are equivalent to those of the popular Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model for image denoising. Solutions to the AMF model can thus be implemented by directly utilizing highly-efficient ROF solvers on log-likelihood ratio fields. We qualitatively assess the approach on synthetic data as well as on real natural and medical images. For a quantitative evaluation, we apply our approach to the icgbench dataset.

  19. Marker-less reconstruction of dense 4-D surface motion fields using active laser triangulation for respiratory motion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Berkels, Benjamin; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim; Rumpf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To manage respiratory motion in image-guided interventions a novel sparse-to-dense registration approach is presented. We apply an emerging laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3-D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is reconstructed which describes the 4-D deformation of the complete patient body surface and recovers a multi-dimensional respiratory signal for application in respiratory motion management. The method is validated on real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured light scanner. In a study on 16 subjects, the proposed algorithm achieved a mean reconstruction accuracy of +/- 0.22 mm w.r.t. ground truth data.

  20. Tectonic geomorphology and neotectonic setting of the seismically active South Wagad Fault (SWF), Western India, using field and GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, D. M.; Chowksey, Vikas; Tiwari, Prabhuti; Chamyal, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The South Wagad Fault (SWF) is an E-W trending fault that delimits the Wagad uplift comprising Mesozoic rocks in its northern upthrown block and Neogene-Quaternary sediments in the southern downthrown block. Detailed GPR investigations were carried out at seven sites selected after field studies. All profiles clearly showed the lithological contrast across the fault. The sharp amplitude contrast of the radar waves along a vertical to sub-vertical line is interpreted as the near surface trace of the SWF. As the Quaternary sediments are not displaced, we infer that no large magnitude earthquake has occurred along the SWF in late Quaternary. We attribute the low magnitude of neotectonic activity along the SWF to gentle warping of the Tertiary rocks in the southern downthrown block and greater accumulation of compressive stresses along the nearby KMF with an opposite structural setting. This is consistent with the observed variable levels of ongoing seismicity in the region around the SWF.

  1. Research activity of institute of physical chemistry of Russian Academy of sciences in the field of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikaev, A.K. [Institute of Physical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The report is a brief review of the most important directions in research activity of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of RAS (Moscow) in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. The main attention is paid to researches and developments on liquid radioactive waste management including the removal of wastes to deep geological formations and the immobilization of the wastes. In particular, the data from the study on the properties of new, basaltic-like matrices for the immobilization are presented. The results of research on gas evolution from the systems modeling liquid high-level radioactive wastes are considered. The separation of some radionuclides from irradiated nuclear and the production of radiation sources by various methods are discussed. (author)

  2. Improved techniques in data analysis and interpretation of potential fields: examples of application in volcanic and seismically active areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Florio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Geopotential data may be interpreted by many different techniques, depending on the nature of the mathematical equations correlating specific unknown ground parameters to the measured data set. The investigation based on the study of the gravity and magnetic anomaly fields represents one of the most important geophysical approaches in the earth sciences. It has now evolved aimed both at improving of known methods and testing other new and reliable techniques. This paper outlines a general framework for several applications of recent techniques in the study of the potential methods for the earth sciences. Most of them are here described and significant case histories are shown to illustrate their reliability on active seismic and volcanic areas.

  3. Efficient numerical method for investigating diatomic molecules with single active electron subjected to intense and ultrashort laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gellért Zsolt; Borbély, Sándor; Nagy, Ladislau

    2017-12-01

    We have presented here an efficient numerical approach for the ab initio numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger Equation describing diatomic molecules, which interact with ultrafast laser pulses. During the construction of the model we have assumed a frozen nuclear configuration and a single active electron. In order to increase efficiency our system was described using prolate spheroidal coordinates, where the wave function was discretized using the finite-element discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) method. The discretized wave functions were efficiently propagated in time using the short-iterative Lanczos algorithm. As a first test we have studied here how the laser induced bound state dynamics in H2+ is influenced by the strength of the driving laser field.

  4. Strong Transverse Photosphere Magnetic Fields and Twist in Light Bridge Dividing Delta Sunspot of Active Region 12673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimin; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Liu, Chang; Ahn, Kwangsu; Toriumi, Shin; Cao, Wenda

    2018-01-01

    Solar Active Region (AR) 12673 is the most flare productive AR in the solar cycle 24. It produced four X-class flares including the X9.3 flare on 06 September 2017 and the X8.2 limb event on 10 September. Sun and Norton (2017) reported that this region had an unusual high rate of flux emergence, while Huang et al. (2018) reported that the X9.3 flare had extremely strong white-light flare emissions. Yang at al. (2017) described the detailed morphological evolution of this AR. In this report, we focus on usual behaviors of the light bridge (LB) dividing the delta configuration of this AR, namely the strong magnetic fields (above 5500 G) in the LB and apparent photospheric twist as shown in observations with a 0.1 arcsec spatial resolution obtained by the 1.6m telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory.

  5. Estimation of Emissions from Sugarcane Field Burning in Thailand Using Bottom-Up Country-Specific Activity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Open burning in sugarcane fields is recognized as a major source of air pollution. However, the assessment of its emission intensity in many regions of the world still lacks information, especially regarding country-specific activity data including biomass fuel load and combustion factor. A site survey was conducted covering 13 sugarcane plantations subject to different farm management practices and climatic conditions. The results showed that pre-harvest and post-harvest burnings are the two main practices followed in Thailand. In 2012, the total production of sugarcane biomass fuel, i.e., dead, dry and fresh leaves, amounted to 10.15 million tonnes, which is equivalent to a fuel density of 0.79 kg∙m−2. The average combustion factor for the pre-harvest and post-harvest burning systems was determined to be 0.64 and 0.83, respectively. Emissions from sugarcane field burning were estimated using the bottom-up country-specific values from the site survey of this study and the results compared with those obtained using default values from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The comparison showed that the use of default values lead to underestimating the overall emissions by up to 30% as emissions from post-harvest burning are not accounted for, but it is the second most common practice followed in Thailand.

  6. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsson, Viggó; Vaishampayan, Parag; Kviderova, Jana; Mapelli, Francesca; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Aguilera, Angeles; Hamisch, Domenica; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Magnússon, Sveinn; Marasco, Ramona; Borin, Sara; Calzada, Abigail; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Amils, Ricardo; Elster, Josef; Hänsch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C) and pH (2 to 4). Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus), indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h) deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA) analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:25371340

  7. Flight Activity and Field Infestation Relationships for Coffee Berry Borer in Commercial Coffee Plantations in Kona and Kau Districts, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Arthurs, Steven

    2017-12-05

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a recent invader to Hawaii. To date, limited information regarding the seasonal phenology of this pest on the islands limits the implementation of integrated control strategies. As part of a coffee farmer training program, we monitored CBB flight activity in 15 coffee plantations (Kona and Kau Districts) over 10 mo with methanol-ethanol (3:1 ratio) baited traps. Concurrently, we quantified CBB infestation and penetration rates inside developing coffee berries through the end of harvest. Approximately 1 million CBB were captured, with the highest activity (e.g., >500 CBB/trap/wk) in December through February, coinciding with end of main regional harvesting periods. Relatively high activity (>250 CBB/trap/wk) was also observed during berry development, in May and June (Kona) and June and July (Kau). Field infestation rates were higher overall in Kau (9.6 ± 1.1%) compared with coffee plantations in Kona (4.7 ± 0.4%). Linear regression investigated relationships between CBB trap data and berry infestation rates. Trap catch data generally correlated better with the proportion of shallow entries (AB position) compared with deeper penetrations (CD position) or total infestation. Pearson correlation coefficients based on different parameters (i.e., region, altitude, and berry phenology) revealed positive and mostly significant correlations between these variables (R values 0.410 to 0.837). Timing peak flight activity of CBB with insecticide applications will help coffee growers improve pest control. The ability of trap data to calculate reliable economic (action) thresholds for the CBB is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Pilot Field Test of Electrokinetically-Delivered and Thermally Activated Persulfate (EKTAP) for Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrol, D. M.; Head, N.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Inglis, A.; Garcia, A. N.; Reynolds, D. A.; Hayman, J.; Hogberg, D.; Austrins, L. M.; Sidebottom, A.; Auger, M.; Eimers, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2017-12-01

    Remediation of low-permeability soils that are contaminated with chlorinated solvents is challenging. In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with persulfate is promising, however, the delivery of the oxidant by hydraulic gradient is limited in low-permeability soils. Electrokinetic (EK) enhanced transport of amendments has shown the potential to overcome these limitations. In particular, the combined technology of EK-delivered and thermally activated persulfate (EKTAP) has been recently demonstrated in the laboratory as promising in these challenging environments (Chowdhury A. I. (2016) Hydraulic and Electrokinetic Delivery of Remediants for In-situ Remediation. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository, Paper 4135). This study presents the first pilot field test to evaluate EKTAP to enhance the distribution and effectiveness of persulfate in clayey soil. The pilot field test was conducted at a contaminated site formerly occupied by a chlorinated solvent production facility. In the EK transport phase, 925 L of 40 g/L persulfate was injected over 57 days, during which 9A of direct current (DC) was applied between two electrodes spaced 3 m apart. In the subsequent heating phase, 10A of alternate current (AC) was applied across the same electrodes for an additional 70 days. Extensive sampling of soil and groundwater in this EKTAP cell were compared to those from two parallel control cells, one with EK only and one with no electrodes. Results indicated that EK can significantly increase transport rates of persulfate in clayey soil. Persulfate activation primarily occurred in the period of DC application, indicating that the natural reduction capacity of the clay soil had a significant impact on persulfate decomposition. Temperature mapping indicated that AC current was able to increase soil temperatures, validating the EKTAP concept. Degradation of chlorinated compounds, in particular, 1-2, dichloroethane (1,2- DCA), was observed to be substantial in areas of persulfate

  9. Variability-selected active galactic nuclei in the VST-SUDARE/VOICE survey of the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cicco, D.; Paolillo, M.; Covone, G.; Falocco, S.; Longo, G.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Botticella, M. T.; Pignata, G.; Cappellaro, E.; Vaccari, M.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Salvato, M.; Radovich, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Schipani, P.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Active galaxies are characterized by variability at every wavelength, with timescales from hours to years depending on the observing window. Optical variability has proven to be an effective way of detecting AGNs in imaging surveys, lasting from weeks to years. Aims: In the present work we test the use of optical variability as a tool to identify active galactic nuclei in the VST multiepoch survey of the COSMOS field, originally tailored to detect supernova events. Methods: We make use of the multiwavelength data provided by other COSMOS surveys to discuss the reliability of the method and the nature of our AGN candidates. Results: The selection on the basis of optical variability returns a sample of 83 AGN candidates; based on a number of diagnostics, we conclude that 67 of them are confirmed AGNs (81% purity), 12 are classified as supernovae, while the nature of the remaining 4 is unknown. For the subsample of AGNs with some spectroscopic classification, we find that Type 1 are prevalent (89%) compared to Type 2 AGNs (11%). Overall, our approach is able to retrieve on average 15% of all AGNs in the field identified by means of spectroscopic or X-ray classification, with a strong dependence on the source apparent magnitude (completeness ranging from 26% to 5%). In particular, the completeness for Type 1 AGNs is 25%, while it drops to 6% for Type 2 AGNs. The rest of the X-ray selected AGN population presents on average a larger rms variability than the bulk of non-variable sources, indicating that variability detection for at least some of these objects is prevented only by the photometric accuracy of the data. The low completeness is in part due to the short observing span: we show that increasing the temporal baseline results in larger samples as expected for sources with a red-noise power spectrum. Our results allow us to assess the usefulness of this AGN selection technique in view of future wide-field surveys. Observations were provided by the ESO

  10. Thresholds of arsenic toxicity to Eisenia fetida in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Víctor; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdejo, José; Sauvé, Sébastien; Gaete, Hernán; Celis-Diez, Juan L; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the importance of using field-collected soils-and not artificially-contaminated soils-for ecotoxicity tests. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation of results, due to the presence of various contaminants and unavoidable differences in the physicochemical properties of the tested soils. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of metal toxicity in topsoils of 24 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed standardized earthworm reproduction tests (OECD 222 and ISO 11268-2) with Eisenia fetida. Total soil concentrations of Cu, As, Zn, and Pb were in the ranges of 82-1295 mg kg(-1), 7-41 mg kg(-1), 86-345 mg kg(-1), and 25-97 mg kg(-1), respectively. In order to differentiate between the effects of different metals, we used regression analysis between soil metal concentrations and earthworm responses, as well as between metal concentrations in earthworm tissues and earthworm responses. Based on regression analysis, we concluded that As was a metal of prime concern for Eisenia fetida in soils affected by Cu mining activities, while Cu exhibited a secondary effect. In contrast, the effects of Zn and Pb were not significant. Soil electrical conductivity was another significant contributor to reproduction toxicity in the studied soils, forcing its integration in the interpretation of the results. By using soils with electrical conductivity ≤ 0.29 dS m(-1) (which corresponds to EC50 of salt toxicity to Eisenia fetida), it was possible to isolate the effect of soil salinity on earthworm reproduction. Despite the confounding effects of Cu, it was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 values for total soil As at 8 mg kg(-1), 14 mg kg(-1) and 22 mg kg(-1), respectively, for the response of the cocoon production. However, it was not possible to determine these threshold values for juvenile production. Likewise, we were able to

  11. Hydrophobic dielectric surface influenced active layer thickness effect on hysteresis and mobility degradation in organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, N.

    2016-02-01

    Effect of active layer thickness, influenced by the hydrophobic dielectric surface, on the performance of copper phthalocyanine based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) was studied. While charge carrier mobility was found to be highest for an optimum thickness of 30 nm, hysteresis and threshold voltage shift were found to be minimum for 15 nm thick film which is attributed to the excess availability of photogenerated carriers, especially close to the dielectric/semiconductor interface, as this thickness is within the exciton quenching length in organic semiconductors. But prolonged bias stress resulted in larger decay in drain current for higher thickness indicating the dominant role played by the larger grain boundary density in the increased volume. These results were found to be different from that on unmodified SiO2 dielectric with higher surface energy and were suggested to be caused by the 3D growth mode of CuPc films on the hydrophobic surface. Mobility degradation at higher gate voltages also exhibited a dependence on the active layer thickness which was tuned by the hydrophobic surface induced growth mode at the dielectric/semiconductor interface.

  12. Evaluation of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller Antioxidant Activity and Some of the Morphological Characteristics in Different Vermicompost Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Yavari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction and function of effective substances of medicinal plants are influenced by environmental factors such as deficiency or increased of nutrients in the soil and substrates. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was performed in completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications. The effects of vermicompost were examined on the morphological and phytochemical features in aloe vera. Treatments consisted of four vermicompost percentages (0%, 15%, 30% and 45% in humus soil. The considered factors were leaf weight, gel fresh weight, gel dry weight, the antioxidant capacity of the gel, glucomannan of gel, flavonoids and phenols of gel, and anthocyanins of cortex. data analysis showed that the maximum of leaf weight, gel weight, dry weight of gel and gel glucomannan was obtained in 45% of vermicompost. The maximum of gel phenol, antioxidant activity of gel and anthocyanins of cortex belonged to 30% of vermicompost and gel flavonoid in 15% of vermicompost. To achieve maximum antioxidant capacity and optimum amount of active substances, more studies and application of different field of vermicompost are required in order to increase the value of medicinal properties.

  13. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Meisinger, J.J.; Corp, L.A

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  14. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation Promotes Anti-cell Proliferative Activity in Doxorubicin-treated Mouse Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yoshitaka; Matsui, Takuya; Deie, Masataka; Sato, Keiji

    2017-01-02

    We aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and doxorubicin therapy in a mouse osteosarcoma cell line (LM8 cells) in vitro. The effects of PEMF (5 mT, 200 Hz) of different durations and doxorubicin on the proliferative activity of LM8 cells were measured by the MTT assay. Apoptotic-related factors such as cell-cycle phase, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3/7 activity were investigated using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and apoptosis kits. Identification of intracellular signaling molecules induced by the combination was comprehensively explored using a stress and apoptosis-related protein array kit. PEMF enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by doxorubicin but did not affect the cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, or doxorubicin-induced G 2 /M arrest. The combination of PEMF and doxorubicin altered a few signaling molecules. PEMF tended to reduce the doxorubicin-induced decrease of phosphorylated BAD, while reducing the increased expression of total IĸB and phosphorylated-CHK1 induced by doxorubicin. Our results indicate that combination of PEMF and doxorubicin could be a novel chemotherapeutic strategy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: identification of active galactic nuclei in optical integral field unit surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Drory, Niv; Andrews, Brett H.; Merloni, Andrea; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate 2727 galaxies observed by MaNGA as of 2016 June to develop spatially resolved techniques for identifying signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We identify 303 AGN candidates. The additional spatial dimension imposes challenges in identifying AGNs due to contamination from diffuse ionized gas, extraplanar gas and photoionization by hot stars. We show that the combination of spatially resolved line diagnostic diagrams and additional cuts on H α surface brightness and H α equivalent width can distinguish between AGN-like signatures and high-metallicity galaxies with low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions-like spectra. Low-mass galaxies with high specific star formation rates are particularly difficult to diagnose and routinely show diagnostic line ratios outside of the standard star formation locus. We develop a new diagnostic - the distance from the standard diagnostic line in the line-ratio space - to evaluate the significance of the deviation from the star formation locus. We find 173 galaxies that would not have been selected as AGN candidates based on single-fibre spectral measurements but exhibit photoionization signatures suggestive of AGN activity in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO resolved observations, underscoring the power of large integral field unit surveys. A complete census of these new AGN candidates is necessary to understand their nature and probe the complex co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their hosts.

  16. Long-term evolution of the heliospheric magnetic field inferred from cosmogenic 44Ti activity in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, S.; Taricco, C.; Colombetti, P.; Rubinetti, S.; Sinha, N.; Bhandari, N.

    2018-02-01

    Typical reconstructions of historic heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) BHMF are based on the analysis of the sunspot activity, geomagnetic data or on measurement of cosmogenic isotopes stored in terrestrial reservoirs like trees (14C) and ice cores (10Be). The various reconstructions of BHMF are however discordant both in strength and trend. Cosmogenic isotopes, which are produced by galactic cosmic rays impacting on meteoroids and whose production rate is modulated by the varying HMF convected outward by the solar wind, may offer an alternative tool for the investigation of the HMF in the past centuries. In this work, we aim to evaluate the long-term evolution of BHMF over a period covering the past twenty-two solar cycles by using measurements of the cosmogenic 44Ti activity (τ1/2 = 59.2 ± 0.6 yr) measured in 20 meteorites which fell between 1766 and 2001. Within the given uncertainties, our result is compatible with a HMF increase from 4.87-0.30+0.24 nT in 1766 to 6.83-0.11+0.13 nT in 2001, thus implying an overall average increment of 1.96-0.35+0.43 nT over 235 years since 1766 reflecting the modern Grand maximum. The BHMF trend thus obtained is then compared with the most recent reconstructions of the near-Earth HMF strength based on geomagnetic, sunspot number, and cosmogenic isotope data.

  17. Testing insecticidal activity of novel chemically synthesized siRNA against Plutella xylostella under laboratory and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 60 years, synthetic chemical pesticides have served as a main tactic in the field of crop protection, but their availability is now declining as a result of the development of insect resistance. Therefore, alternative pest management agents are needed. However, the demonstration of RNAi gene silencing in insects and its successful usage in disrupting the expression of vital genes opened a door to the development of a variety of novel, environmentally sound approaches for insect pest management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were chemically synthesized and modified according to the cDNA sequence of P. xylostella acetylcholine esterase genes AChE1 and AChE2. All of them were formulated and used in insecticide activity screening against P. xylostella. Bioassay data suggested that Si-ace1_003 and Si-ace2_001 at a concentration of 3 µg cm(-2 displayed the best insecticidal activity with 73.7% and 89.0%, mortality, respectively. Additional bioassays were used to obtain the acute lethal concentrations of LC50 and LC90 for Si-ace2_001, which were 53.66 µg/ml and 759.71 µg/ml, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to confirm silencing and detected that the transcript levels of P. xylostella AChE2 (PxAChE2 were reduced by 5.7-fold compared to the control group. Consequently, AChE activity was also reduced by 1.7-fold. Finally, effects of the siRNAs on treated plants of Brassica oleracea and Brassica alboglabra were investigated with different siRNA doses. Our results showed that Si-ace2_001 had no negative effects on plant morphology, color and growth of vein under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The most important finding of this study is the discovery that chemically synthesized and modified siRNA corresponding to P. xylostella AChE genes cause significant mortality of the insect both under laboratory and field conditions, which provides a novel strategy to control P

  18. Active and passive seismic methods for characterization and monitoring of unstable rock masses: field surveys, laboratory tests and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, Chiara; Baillet, Laurent; Comina, Cesare; Jongmans, Denis; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate characterization and monitoring of potentially unstable rock masses may provide a better knowledge of the active processes and help to forecast the evolution to failure. Among the available geophysical methods, active seismic surveys are often suitable to infer the internal structure and the fracturing conditions of the unstable body. For monitoring purposes, although remote-sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical measurements are successfully tested on landslides, they may not be suitable to early forecast sudden rapid rockslides. Passive seismic monitoring can help for this purpose. Detection, classification and localization of microseismic events within the prone-to-fall rock mass can provide information about the incipient failure of internal rock bridges. Acceleration to failure can be detected from an increasing microseismic event rate. The latter can be compared with meteorological data to understand the external factors controlling stability. On the other hand, seismic noise recorded on prone-to-fall rock slopes shows that the temporal variations in spectral content and correlation of ambient vibrations can be related to both reversible and irreversible changes within the rock mass. We present the results of the active and passive seismic data acquired at the potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW Italy). Down-hole tests, surface refraction and cross-hole tomography were carried out for the characterization of the fracturing state of the site. Field surveys were implemented with laboratory determination of physico-mechanical properties on rock samples and measurements of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. This multi-scale approach led to a lithological interpretation of the seismic velocity field obtained at the site and to a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granitic cliff (fracturing, weathering and anisotropy). Continuous

  19. l-5-hydroxytryptophan resets the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Priyoneel; Singaravel, Muniyandi; Haldar, Chandana

    2012-03-01

    We report that l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a serotonin precursor, resets the overt circadian rhythm in the Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor, in a phase- and dose-dependent manner. We used wheel running to assess phase shifts in the free-running locomotor activity rhythm. Following entrainment to a 12:12 h light-dark cycle, 5-HTP (100 mg/kg in saline) was intraperitoneally administered in complete darkness at circadian time (CT)s 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21, and the ensuing phase shifts in the locomotor activity rhythm were calculated. The results show that 5-HTP differentially shifts the phase of the rhythm, causing phase advances from CT 0 to CT 12 and phase delays from CT 12 to CT 21. Maximum advance phase shift was at CT 6 (1.18 ± 0.37 h) and maximum delay was at CT 18 (-2.36 ± 0.56 h). No extended dead zone is apparent. Vehicle (saline) at any CT did not evoke a significant phase shift. Investigations with different doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of 5-HTP revealed that the phase resetting effect is dose-dependent. The shape of the phase-response curve (PRC) has a strong similarity to PRCs obtained using some serotonergic agents. There was no significant increase in wheel-running activity after 5-HTP injection, ruling out behavioral arousal-dependent shifts. This suggests that this phase resetting does not completely depend on feedback of the overt rhythmic behavior on the circadian clock. A mechanistic explanation of these shifts is currently lacking.

  20. The Effect of "Pumping" and "Nonpumping" Techniques on Velocity Production and Muscle Activity During Field-Based BMX Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Hurst, Howard T; Roberts, Simon J; Graydon, Robert W

    2017-02-01

    Rylands, LP, Hurst, HT, Roberts, SJ, and Graydon, RW. The effect of "pumping" and "nonpumping" techniques on velocity production and muscle activity during field-based BMX cycling. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 445-450, 2017-The aim of the current study was to determine if a technique called "pumping" had a significant effect on velocity production in Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cycling. Ten National standard male BMX riders fitted with surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors completed a timed lap of an indoor BMX track using the technique of pumping, and a lap without pumping. The lap times were recorded for both trials and their surface sEMG was recorded to ascertain any variation in muscle activation of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and medial gastrocnemius. The findings revealed no significant differences between any of muscle groups (p > 0.05). However, significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed between the pumping and nonpumping trials for both mean lap velocity (42 ± 1.8 km·h, 33 ± 2.9 km·h, respectively) and lap times (43.3 ± 3.1 seconds, 34.7 ± 1.49 seconds, respectively). The lap times recorded for the pumping trials were 19.50 ± 4.25% lower than the nonpumping, whereas velocity production was 21.81 ± 5.31% greater in the pumping trial compared with the nonpumping trial. The technique of pumping contributed significantly to velocity production, although not at the cost of additional muscle activity. From a physiological and technical perspective, coaches and riders should prioritize this technique when devising training regimes.

  1. Field and laboratory studies provide insights into the meaning of day-time activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti, the tuco-tuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Tomotani

    Full Text Available South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti, commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD. However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12:12 with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker.

  2. Field and laboratory studies provide insights into the meaning of day-time activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotani, Barbara M; Flores, Danilo E F L; Tachinardi, Patrícia; Paliza, José D; Oda, Gisele A; Valentinuzzi, Verônica S

    2012-01-01

    South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti), commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD) conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD). However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12:12) with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker.

  3. POWER FREQUENCY TECHNOGENIC MAGNETIC FIELD REDUCTION BY ACTIVE SCREENING IN SYSTEM SYNTHESIS IN AREA BASED ON STOCHASTIC MULTI-AGENT OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a method of synthesis of systems of active screening of technogenic power frequency magnetic fields within a given region of space, as well as the synthesis and performance evaluation systems synthesized active shielding magnetic field. Methodology. A mathematical model for calculating the components of the magnetic field created by current distributors power line generator or electrical conductors power and control windings magnetic executive bodies on the basis of the law of Biot - Savart - Laplace. Conductors are taken as a set of elementary sections conductors, which allows to calculate the magnetic field conductors of any shape that is different from the ideal straight lines or rectangles, and in particular, to consider the slack conductors power line power lines. Results. Synthesis of active shielding systems for technogenic power frequency magnetic fields is reduced to the solution of a nonlinear programming problem with constraints, which computation of the objective function and constraints is performed based on the Biot - Savart - Laplace law. Formulated nonlinear programming problem is solved by using the multiextremal and stochastic multi-agent method based on particle swarm optimization, in which the particle swarm move in a multidimensional search space. Originality. First developed a method for the synthesis of active shielding systems for technogenic power frequency magnetic fields using controlled source of the magnetic field by solving a nonlinear programming problem with constraints based on stochastic particle swarm optimization of multi-agent. Practical value. Examples of synthesis of systems of active shielding technogenic power frequency magnetic fields and high efficiency of the synthesized systems.

  4. Phreatic activity in the Valley of Desolation, Dominica (Lesser Antilles) - constraints from field investigations and experimental volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim; Aßbichler, Donja; Gilg, H. Albert; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    Dominica has one of the highest concentrations of potentially active volcanoes worldwide, flanked by abundant surficial geothermal manifestations: The Boiling Lake - Valley of Desolation area represents one of the most vigorous ones, hosting hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles, and steam vents. Intense alteration, together with predominantly phreatic explosive features of varying scales, characterize the whole area. The last historic eruptions in Dominica occurred at the Valley of Desolation. Phreatic eruptions are also the most likely type of volcanic activity to occur in the near future at Dominica in general and the Valley of Desolation in particular. Phreatic eruptions are up to date largely unpredictable in time and magnitude, strongly asking for constraints of eruptive conditions as well as trigger mechanisms. We conducted sampling and field mapping, together with the determination of in situ physical (density, humidity, permeability) and mechanical (strength, stiffness) properties to characterize the main active surficial area which possesses a high probability for a phreatic event. Rapid decompression experiments performed on selected samples from this area give insight into the fragmentation and ejection behavior of steam driven eruptions. These experiments were flanked by chemical analyses and laboratory measurements as porosity and granulometry. The results indicate that advanced argillic alteration in the proximity of degassing vents significantly changes the rock properties, which in turn play a crucial role for the degassing of hydrothermal systems. High-temperature acidic fluids lead to an intense alteration of the host rocks, and thereby cause the formation of a kaolinite-rich, low permeable layer above the vent. In addition, alteration enhances slope instabilities causing landslides which may cover and clog the outgassing vents. Such processes increase the likelihood of the site experiencing a pressurization, which may result in a steam

  5. Evaluation of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller Antioxidant Activity and Some of the Morphological Characteristics in Different Vermicompost Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yavari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA Construction and function of effective substances of medicinal plants are influenced by environmental factors such as deficiency or increased of nutrients in the soil and substrates. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was performed in completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications. The effects of vermicompost were examined on the morphological and phytochemical features in aloe vera. Treatments consisted of four vermicompost percentages (0%, 15%, 30% and 45% in humus soil. The considered factors were leaf weight, gel fresh weight, gel dry weight, the antioxidant capacity of the gel, glucomannan of gel, flavonoids and phenols of gel, and anthocyanins of cortex. data analysis showed that the maximum of leaf weight, gel weight, dry weight of gel and gel glucomannan was obtained in 45% of vermicompost. The maximum of gel phenol, antioxidant activity of gel and anthocyanins of cortex belonged to 30% of vermicompost and gel flavonoid in 15% of vermicompost. To achieve maximum antioxidant capacity and optimum amount of active substances, more studies and application of different field of vermicompost are required in order to increase the value of medicinal properties. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";}

  6. Cadmium bioaccumulation and gastric bioaccessibility in cacao: A field study in areas impacted by oil activities in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, F; Schreck, E; Lévêque, T; Uzu, G; López, F; Ruales, J; Prunier, J; Marquet, A; Maurice, L

    2017-10-01

    Cacao from South America is especially used to produce premium quality chocolate. Although the European Food Safety Authority has not established a limit for cadmium (Cd) in chocolate raw material, recent studies demonstrate that Cd concentrations in cacao beans can reach levels higher than the legal limits for dark chocolate (0.8 mg kg -1 , effective January 1st, 2019). Despite the fact that the presence of Cd in agricultural soils is related to contamination by fertilizers, other potential sources must be considered in Ecuador. This field study was conducted to investigate Cd content in soils and cacao cultivated on Ecuadorian farms in areas impacted by oil activities. Soils, cacao leaves, and pod husks were collected from 31 farms in the northern Amazon and Pacific coastal regions exposed to oil production and refining and compared to two control areas. Human gastric bioaccessibility was determined in raw cacao beans and cacao liquor samples in order to assess potential health risks involved. Our results show that topsoils (0-20 cm) have higher Cd concentrations than deeper layers, exceeding the Ecuadorian legislation limit in 39% of the sampling sites. Cacao leaves accumulate more Cd than pod husks or beans but, nevertheless, 50% of the sampled beans have Cd contents above 0.8 mg kg -1 . Root-to-cacao transfer seems to be the main pathway of Cd uptake, which is not only regulated by physico-chemical soil properties but also agricultural practices. Additionally, natural Cd enrichment by volcanic inputs must not be neglected. Finally, Cd in cacao trees cannot be considered as a tracer of oil activities. Assuming that total Cd content and its bioaccessible fraction (up to 90%) in cacao beans and liquor is directly linked to those in chocolate, the health risk associated with Cd exposure varies from low to moderate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Active feedback wide-field optical low-coherence interferometry for ultrahigh-speed three-dimensional morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo June; Choi, Hae Young; Lee, Byeong Ha; Na, Jihoon; Eom, Jonghyun

    2010-01-01

    A novel optical interferometric scheme for ultrahigh-speed three-dimensional morphometry is proposed. The system is based on wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) but with optically chopped illumination. The chopping frequency is feedback-controlled to be always matched with the Doppler frequency of the OCT interferometer, which provides an efficient page-wide demodulation suitable for ultrahigh-speed volumetric imaging. To compensate the unwanted variation in the OCT Doppler frequency of the system, the illumination frequency is phase-locked with an auxiliary laser interferometer which shares the reference arm with the OCT interferometer. The two-dimensional (2D) interference signals projected on the 2D array pixels of a 200 Hz CCD are accumulated during one imaging frame of the CCD. Then, each pixel of the CCD demodulates the OCT signal automatically. Owing to the proposed active frequency-locked illumination scheme, the demodulation does not depend on the variation in the axial scanning speed. Volumetric topograms or/and tomograms of several samples were achieved and rendered with a sensitivity of 58 dB at an axial scan speed of 0.805 mm s −1

  8. Impact of sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar on heavy metal availability and microbial activity: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chengrong; Yang, Xing; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Xu, Xiaoya; Wen, Yuhui; Rinklebe, Jörg; Ok, Yong Sik; Xu, Song; Wang, Hailong

    2018-06-01

    In the current study, we conducted a field experiment using the test plant, Brassica chinesis L. (pak choi), to investigate the effect of sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar on the bioavailability of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb), and the health of soil microbiota in a contaminated soil. Biochar application significantly (P < 0.05) increased pak choi yield. Bioavailability of heavy metals to plant shoots and roots decreased with increasing biochar application rates (at 0, 1.5, 2.25 and 3.0 t ha -1 ). Sequential extraction of the biochar-treated and -untreated soil revealed that exchangeable Cd reduced whereas organically-bound fraction increased with increasing biochar rate. The labile fractions of Cu and Pb decreased, but the residual fraction increased in biochar-treated soils compared to the control. Urease, catalase and invertase activities, and the populations of bacteria and actinomycetes were significantly enhanced, whereas fungi population declined in biochar-treated soils. This study highlights that sugarcane bagasse biochar has the potential to support the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals, and as such can improve the yield and quality of agricultural crops. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forming of titanium and titanium alloy miniature-cylinders by electrical-field activated powder sintering and forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkipli Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As demands on miniature products increase significantly, a rapid process and production system for high-throughput, highly flexible and cost-efficient volume production of miniaturised components made from a wide range of materials is needed. A novel and electrical-field-activated sintering and forming process shows the potential to produce solid parts from powder material without any binder. Using titanium (Ti and titanium alloy (90Ti10Sn powder material, several processing parameters have been investigated, such as pressure, heating rate, heating temperature and holding time, which helped to contribute to the optimum result. In this study, using graphite dies, graphite punches and tungsten carbide punches, solid samples were produced, having a cylinder shape of Ø4.00 mm × 4.00 mm. Several properties of the solid Ti and 90Ti10Sn samples, such as density, hardness and the microstructures, were examined, and these showed that good results have been obtained.

  10. Active control of passive acoustic fields: passive synthetic aperture/Doppler beamforming with data from an autonomous vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Spain, Gerald L; Terrill, Eric; Chadwell, C David; Smith, Jerome A; Lynch, Stephen D

    2006-12-01

    The maneuverability of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with hull-mounted arrays provides the opportunity to actively modify received acoustic fields to optimize extraction of information. This paper uses ocean acoustic data collected by an AUV-mounted two-dimensional hydrophone array, with overall dimension one-tenth wavelength at 200-500 Hz, to demonstrate aspects of this control through vehicle motion. Source localization is performed using Doppler shifts measured at a set of receiver velocities by both single elements and a physical array. Results show that a source in the presence of a 10-dB higher-level interferer having exactly the same frequency content (as measured by a stationary receiver) is properly localized and that white-noise-constrained adaptive beamforming applied to the physical aperture data in combination with Doppler beamforming provides greater spatial resolution than physical-aperture-alone beamforming and significantly lower sidelobes than single element Doppler beamforming. A new broadband beamformer that adjusts for variations in vehicle velocity on a sample by sample basis is demonstrated with data collected during a high-acceleration maneuver. The importance of including the cost of energy expenditure in determining optimal vehicle motion is demonstrated through simulation, further illustrating how the vehicle characteristics are an integral part of the signal/array processing structure.

  11. TACIS Belarus - an overview of results and planned activities in the field of radiation protection, emergency preparedness and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, L. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1996 the nuclear safety authorities of the Republic of Belarus were assisted with TACIS activities entitled: 'Transfer of Western European Regulatory Methodology and Practices to the Nuclear Safety Authorities of Belarus'. Considering the results of the Exploratory Mission which was arranged in 1996 the Regulatory Assistance Projects BE/RA/01 and BE/RA/02 were successful realised in 1998/1999 and in 2003/2004, respectively. These projects were financed by the Commission of the European Communities (EC) and implemented by a consortium of Technical Support Organisations (TSOs) from France (IRSN (former IPSN)), Germany (GRS) and Sweden (SSI) led by Riskaudit IRSN/GRS International. Beneficiary of the projects were Promatomnadzor at the beginning and later the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus each in connection with the Republican Centre of Radiation Control and Monitoring (RCRCM). The actual project BE/RA/03 'Regulatory Assistance to Belarus in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection including Radiological Emergency Preparedness' was started by the end of August 2006. (author)

  12. TACIS Belarus - an overview of results and planned activities in the field of radiation protection, emergency preparedness and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, L.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1996 the nuclear safety authorities of the Republic of Belarus were assisted with TACIS activities entitled: 'Transfer of Western European Regulatory Methodology and Practices to the Nuclear Safety Authorities of Belarus'. Considering the results of the Exploratory Mission which was arranged in 1996 the Regulatory Assistance Projects BE/RA/01 and BE/RA/02 were successful realised in 1998/1999 and in 2003/2004, respectively. These projects were financed by the Commission of the European Communities (EC) and implemented by a consortium of Technical Support Organisations (TSOs) from France (IRSN (former IPSN)), Germany (GRS) and Sweden (SSI) led by Riskaudit IRSN/GRS International. Beneficiary of the projects were Promatomnadzor at the beginning and later the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus each in connection with the Republican Centre of Radiation Control and Monitoring (RCRCM). The actual project BE/RA/03 'Regulatory Assistance to Belarus in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection including Radiological Emergency Preparedness' was started by the end of August 2006. (author)

  13. {CoIII2DyIII2} single molecule magnet with two resolved thermal activated magnetization relaxation pathways at zero field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Alejandro V; Carrella, Luca; Rentschler, Eva; Alborés, Pablo

    2014-02-14

    The new complex [Co(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(teaH)2(Piv)6] in the {Co(III)2Dy(III)2} family, shows two well resolved thermal activated magnetization relaxation pathways under AC experiments in zero DC field. Fitted crystal field parameters suggest that the origin of these two pathways relies on two different excited mJ sub-levels.

  14. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During

  15. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of

  16. Comparison of the Active Bagnold Dune Field with Other Aeolian Deposits Observed at Gale using ChemCam Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, A.; Dehouck, E.; Meslin, P. Y.; Williams, A. J.; Stein, N.; Gasnault, O.; Bridges, N.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Schröder, S.; Payre, V.; Rapin, W.; Pinet, P. C.; Sautter, V.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Curiosity rover at Gale crater, Mars, had the opportunity to investigate an active dune field called Bagnold Dunes for the first time on another planet. The objectives of this campaign were threefold: Understand the present-day aeolian processes on Mars by investigating the grain size of the particles and their dynamics; Understand the past aeolian processes by looking at the morphology and texture of the dunes; and Investigate the source of the dunes material by measuring their chemistry and mineralogy. The ChemCam instrument acquired a large data volume during this campaign: 18 targets on barchan dunes, 15 targets on a linear dune and then 3 targets on a mega-ripple. In this study, we compare the Bagnold Dunes data to those acquired on soil patches (Aeolis Palus soils) along the traverse corresponding to 60 targets. We have observed that the major oxide composition of the dunes is similar to that of Aeolis Palus soils, with the exception of the FeO and MnO contents that are slightly more elevated in the dunes. Moreover, the material from the dunes and more particularly the coarser particles ( 200 microns) are depleted in volatiles (mostly H) compared to the Aeolis Palus soils. The grain size analyses show that the dunes are depleted in fine-grained particles (fine-grained particles is that the dunes, being active, have undergone physical sorting and therefore have lost their finest particles that seem to be the carrier of the volatiles (amorphous component and dust). Moreover, the dunes seem to be enriched in mafic minerals compared to the Aeolis Palus soils, as also shown by the CheMin and APXS instruments. However, thanks to the small footprint of ChemCam, we have shown that the coarsest particles were even more enriched in mafic minerals than the finer ones, in agreement with multispectral ChemCam passive and Mastcam observations. Therefore, the olivine abundance measured by CheMin (analysing only particles < 150 microns) could represent a lower limit with

  17. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  18. Far-red enrichment and photosynthetically active radiation level influence leaf senescence in field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseaux, M.C.; Hall, A.J.; Sánchez, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Basal leaves frequently senesce before anthesis in high population density crops. This paper evaluates the hypothesis that quantitative and qualitative changes in the light environment associated with a high leaf area index (LAI) trigger leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) canopies. Mean leaf duration (LD, time from achievement of maximum leaf area) of leaf 8 was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 51 to 19 days as crop population density was increased from 0.47 to 4.76 plants m−2. High compared to low plant population density was associated with earlier reduction in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red/far-red ratio (R/FR) reaching the target leaf. However the changes in R/FR preceded those in PAR. When the light environment of individual leaves of isolated plants growing under field conditions was manipulated using filters and FR-reflecting mirrors, LD was positively and linearly related with the mean daily PAR (MDR) received in the FR- (no FR enrichment) treatments. FR enrichment of light reaching the abaxial surface of the leaf significantly (P < 0.05) reduced LD by 9 days at intermediate PAR levels with respect to FR-controls, but did not affect LD at the maximum PAR used in these experiments. However, when light reaching both leaf surfaces was enriched with FR, LD (for leaves receiving maximum PAR) was 13 days shorter than that of the FR- control. These results show that basal leaf senescence in sunflower is enhanced both by a decrease in PAR and by a decrease in R/FR. (author)

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-Based Procedures for Field Activities: Results from Three Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Computer-Based Procedure (CBP) research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. One area that could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety is in improving procedure use. Nearly all activities in the nuclear power industry are guided by procedures, which today are printed and executed on paper. This paper-based procedure process has proven to ensure safety; however, there are improvements to be gained. Due to its inherent dynamic nature, a CBP provides the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, and just-in-time training. Compared to the static state of paper-based procedures (PBPs), the presentation of information in CBPs can be much more flexible and tailored to the task, actual plant condition, and operation mode. The dynamic presentation of the procedure will guide the user down the path of relevant steps, thus minimizing time spent by the field worker to evaluate plant conditions and decisions related to the applicability of each step. This dynamic presentation of the procedure also minimizes the risk of conducting steps out of order and/or incorrectly assessed applicability of steps.

  20. Are Complex Magnetic Field Structures Responsible for the Confined X-class Flares in Super Active Region 12192?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Chen, Huadong, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-10

    From 2014 October 19 to 27, six X-class flares occurred in super active region (AR) 12192. They were all confined flares and were not followed by coronal mass ejections. To examine the structures of the four flares close to the solar disk center from October 22 to 26, we firstly employ composite triple-time images in each flare process to display the stratified structure of these flare loops. The loop structures of each flare in both the lower (171 Å) and higher (131 Å) temperature channels are complex, e.g., the flare loops rooting at flare ribbons are sheared or twisted (enwound) together, and the complex structures were not destroyed during the flares. For the first flare, although the flare loop system appears as a spindle shape, we can estimate its structures from observations, with lengths ranging from 130 to 300 Mm, heights from 65 to 150 Mm, widths at the middle part of the spindle from 40 to 100 Mm, and shear angles from 16° to 90°. Moreover, the flare ribbons display irregular movements, such as the left ribbon fragments of the flare on October 22 sweeping a small region repeatedly, and both ribbons of the flare on October 26 moved along the same direction instead of separating from each other. These irregular movements also imply that the corresponding flare loops are complex, e.g., several sets of flare loops are twisted together. Although previous studies have suggested that the background magnetic fields prevent confined flares from erupting,based on these observations, we suggest that complex flare loop structures may be responsible for these confined flares.

  1. Climate-driven changes to dune activity since the Last Glacial Maximum in the Mu Us dune field, north-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu; Yi, Shuangwen; Vandenberghe, Jef; Mason, Joseph A.; Zhou, Yali; Wang, Xianyan

    2017-04-01

    Dune field dynamics are influenced by the interplay between two variables that are highly sensitive to climate change: surface erodibility (affected by vegetation, moisture, and other factors) and wind transport capacity. This basic connection with climate is clearly important in assessing possible responses of dryland landscapes to climate change in the 21st century, and has also led to many studies utilizing dune sand stratigraphy to reconstruct paleoclimatic change. The relations between the dynamics of the aeolian landscape and its drivers are not yet completely understood, however. In recent ten years, we have been working in the Mu Us dune field, a typical semi-arid dune field in north-central China. Dozens of dune chronstratigraphies have been investigated to reconstruct paleoenvironmental changes in the Mu Us dune field since about 20,000 years, by optical simulated luminescence dating and analysis of proxy indexes. Mechanisms about climatic forcing of dune field variations could then be discussed. In particular, our recent study finds that the evidence of aeolian sand deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is scarce in not only the Mu Us but also many mid-latitude dune fields around the world, whereas abundant evidence exists for aeolian sand accumulation during the deglaciation, i.e. after about 15 ka. We find in the Mu Us dune field, aeolian sands deposited during the LGM are preserved as fills in periglacial sand wedges and beneath loess deposits near the downwind dune field margin. The scarcity of LGM dune sand elsewhere in the dune field is interpreted as the result of intensive aeolian activity without substantial net sand accumulation. Increasing sand accumulation after 15 ka, reflected by much more extensive preservation, signals a change in sand supply relative to sand transportation through the dune field. Reduced wind strength and other environmental changes including regional permafrost degradation after 15 ka transformed the dune

  2. Change of physical activity of the grey seal when exposed to the magnetic field with frequencies of 2, 18 and 36 Hz for 1–4 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlev A. P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of motor activity of the grey seal when exposed to magnetic fields with frequencies equal to 2, 18 and 36 Hz for 1–4 hours have been presented. The data have been obtained using the methods of continuous logging and registration of certain behavioral manifestations. As the evaluation parameter of motor activity of seals the estimated ratio of emersions per minute has been selected. It has been shown that depending on the frequency of the generated magnetic fields and duration of exposure in this animal, the motor activity of the seal can both be oppressed and increased significantly. The influence of the magnetic field with the frequency of 2 Hz on grey seal for 1–4 hours causes an increase in motor activity of the animal during the period of its exposure; before and after the exposure to MP the number of acts of emersions has been much lower. The effect of MP with the frequency of 18 Hz depends on its duration on the animal: exposure for 1–2 hours causes an increase in motor activity of the seal as during the impact, and at its termination; more prolonged exposure (3–4 hours causes a decrease in motor activity in the period of MP impact and a sharp increase in acts of emersions after the termination of MP generation. The influence of the magnetic field with the frequency of 36 Hz depends on the duration of its effects on the animal: the exposure over 1 hour causes a reduction in motor activity during the MP exposure and after the cessation of its effects; longer exposure (2–4 hours causes a rise in the number of acts of emersions as during the MP generation and after termination of its impact on the animal. Experiments with the "imaginary effect" confirm the validity of the obtained data as during all four experiences some significant fluctuation of animal motor activity has been observed.

  3. ON A SYSTEM FOR INFORMATION ANALYSIS (SCIENCE INDEX OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZATIONS IN THE FIELD OF RADIATION HYGIENE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Evdokimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Science Index system for information analysis is one of effective modern indexes of innovative activity of Russian research and educational personnel, research and educational institutions. However, it should be noted that this assessment system does not yet include such important parameters as data on patent analysis and dissertation research. The article describes information search and preliminary bibliometric assessment of publication activity of the authors and some research institutions and periodicals in the field of radiation hygiene and medicine.

  4. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS AS THE GUARANTOR OF LEGAL PROTECTION OF A HUMAN IN THE FIELD OF AVIATION ACTIVITIES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Pyvovar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effectiveness of human rights protection in the Council of Europe largely depends on activities of the European Court, which demonstrates high standards of justice, particularly in matters of human rights protection in the field of aviation activities. The article offers a critical assessment of Ukrainian national legislation in terms of its internal legal consistency and compliance with international legal acts. Methods: The methods of legal analysis are used to study court decisions in the aviation field; methods of comparative legal analysis, forecasting and dialectical - in the study of problems in the further improvement of Ukrainian legislation. Also in article applied the theory of legal comparative, approaches to applying the analogy of legal and law in process of making decisions on similar court cases. Results: The article deals with the analysis of the European Court of Human Rights jurisdiction on cases of protection of human rights in the field of aviation activities. Two groups of cases in which Ukraine is a defendant are identified: a cases of international concern (in particular the Malaysia Airlines’ Boeing 777-200ER crash; b cases of national character (citizens of Ukraine against the State of Ukraine. The author's position on deciding the cases in the field of aviation activities is based on the principles of respect for the European Convention on Human Rights, 1950. Discussion: The conclusion about the necessity of amending some national laws, taking into account the legal positions of the European Court (in particular, regarding the right of airlines workers to strike is made, and the fact that the issues of States and airlines activities to respect human and civil rights in the field of aviation activities are covered by jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights and occupy an important place in its practice is indicated.

  5. Reinforcing key concepts in the discipline of geobiology through active learning in the field - an example integrating middle school through graduate school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooly, W., III; Werne, J. P.; O'Beirne, M.; Johnson, E.; Martin, P. A.; Harris, J. H., IV; Fouskas, F.; Steinman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal was to introduce students to current research in the scientific discipline of geobiology. To accomplish this, we established a three-fold approach to link course work with fieldwork through: 1) active participation in the field and laboratory, 2) multi-tiered mentoring, 3) and formal education modules. During the summer of 2015, six undergraduate students and seven graduate students collected field samples from Green Lake (NY) and Mahoney Lake (BC). The students learned how to take water and sediment samples, process samples in anaerobic chambers in the field, and deal with moderately adverse field conditions. These learning by doing activities reinforced lessons learned in the classroom. The second phase involved two high school students who helped process and analyze the samples in the laboratory during summer session. These students worked with the undergraduate and graduate students who participated in the fieldwork. This interaction benefited both the high school students, who learned new methods, and the university students who learned to explain their field research and mentor younger students. The third phase involved creation of education modules to better inform middle school students of the issues of hypoxia. We piloted portions of our module at a conference for forty middle school girls. Graduate students showed the girls field equipment and how to make oxygen measurements using handheld instruments. In all of these activities, the students had the opportunity to work with the PI's, who were fully engaged in the process and who made a constant effort to be educators in the field and in the lab.

  6. Electrical measurements in the atmosphere and the Ionosphere over an active thunderstorm. II - Direct current electric fields and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Kelley, M. C.; Siefring, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    On August 9, 1981, a series of three rockets was launched over an air mass thunderstorm off the eastern seaboard of Virginia while simultaneous stratospheric and ground-based electric field measurements were made. The conductivity was substantially lower at most altitudes than the conductivity profiles used by theoretical models. Direct current electric fields over 80 mV/m were measured as far away as 96 km from the storm in the stratosphere at 23 km altitude. No dc electric fields above 75 km altitude could be identified with the thunderstorm, in agreement with theory. However, vertical current densities over 120 pA/sq m were seen well above the classical 'electrosphere' (at 50 or 60 km). Frequent dc shifts in the electric field following lightning transients were seen by both balloon and rocket payloads. These dc shifts are clearly identifiable with either cloud-to-ground (increases) or intercloud (decreases) lightning flashes.

  7. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  8. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of magnetic field-assisted ultrasonication for the disintegration of waste activated sludge using Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su; Deng, Feng; Huang, Si-Qi; Liu, Shu-Yang; Ai, Le-Xian; She, Pu-Ying

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated for the first time the feasibility of using a magnetic field for sludge disintegration. Approximately 41.01% disintegration degree (DD) was reached after 30min at 180mT magnetic field intensity upon separate magnetic field treatment. Protein and polysaccharide contents significantly increased. This test was optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to fit the multiple equation of the DD. The maximum DD was 43.75% and the protein and polysaccharide contents increased to 56.71 and 119.44mg/L, respectively, when the magnetic field strength was 119.69mT, reaction time was 30.49min, and pH was 9.82 in the optimization experiment. We then analyzed the effects of ultrasound alone. We are the first to combine magnetic field with ultrasound to disintegrate waste-activated sludge (WAS). The optimum effect was obtained with the application of ultrasound alone at 45kHz frequency, with a DD of about 58.09%. By contrast, 62.62% DD was reached in combined magnetic field and ultrasound treatment. This combined test was also optimized using BBD with RSM to fit the multiple equation of DD. The maximum DD of 64.59% was achieved when the magnetic field intensity was 197.87mT, ultrasonic frequency was 42.28kHz, reaction time was 33.96min, and pH was 8.90. These results were consistent with those of particle size and electron microscopy analyses. This research proved that a magnetic field can effectively disintegrate WAS and can be combined with other physical techniques such as ultrasound for optimal results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Observation and interpretation of particle and electric field measurements inside and adjacent to an active auroral arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, C.W.; Kelley, M.C.

    1977-06-01

    A Javelin sounding rocket instrumented to measure electric fields, energetic particles, and suprathermal electrons was flown across an auroral display in the late expansion phase of a substorm. Four distinct regions of fields and particles were interpreted here in light of our present understanding of auroral dynamics.r of 10 and resemble fluxes mesured in the equatorial plane during the expansion phase. The hard fluxes in the equatorward zone are further energized and may act as a source for the outer radiation belt as inward convection further energizes them.

  11. The Atypical Sunquake of May 10, 2012, and Specifics of Nonstationary Processes in the Active Region with a Magnetic Field of Composite Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, I. Yu.; Livshits, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The M flare that arises after magnetic field emersion in a small spot is analyzed. The disturbance, which propagated downwards and generated a source of acoustic waves (sunquake), was simultaneous with an outburst of hard X-radiation. The reasons of such sunquakes are discussed. Rearrangement of the magnetic configuration in the analyzed event is confirmed: field lines and strong currents at low altitudes above the polarity boundary line are transformed into the currents along the system of loops oriented at wide angles to the neutral line. This rearrangement occurred in the proximity of a small region (sigmoid) presumably identified by the location of the primary pulse energy release. In this case, there was no development of a high-energy sigmoid flare with the formation and ejection of large-scale magnetized ropes. Apparently, this was hindered by the nonstationarity of the phenomena at this activity center with a magnetic field of composite topology and multiple flare-generating centers.

  12. Noxological Competence as a Basis for Professional Activities of Bachelor of Education in the Field of Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, Petr V.; Abramova, Svetlana V.; Boyarov, Evgeniy N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with a currently relevant issue of training Bachelors of Education in the field of Health and Safety. It presents the results of the research conducted by the authors from 2008 to 2015 that disclose the particularities of Bachelor training in Health and Safety based on the modular and noxological approaches. The system of…

  13. Horizontal flow fields in and around a small active region The transition period between flux emergence and decay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; Gonzalez Manrique, S. J.; Sobotka, Michal; Gonzalez, N.B.; Hoch, S.; Diercke, A.; Kummerow, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Nicklas, H.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Schubert, M.; Sigwarth, M.; Solanki, S.K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 596, December (2016), A3/1-A3/12 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04338S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312495 - SOLARNET Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * photosphere * magnetic fields Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  14. An historical overview of the activities in the field of exposure and risk assessment of non-ionizing radiation in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The exposure and risk evaluation process in Bulgaria concerning non-ionizing radiation health and safety started in the early 1970s. Then, the first research laboratory "Electromagnetic fields in the working environment" was founded in the framework of the Centre of Hygiene, belonging to the Medical Academy, Sofia. The main activities were connected with developing legislation, new equipment for measurement of electromagnetic fields, new methods for measurement and exposure assessment, in vivo and human studies for developing methods, studying the effect of non-ionizing radiation on human body, developing exposure limits. Most of the occupations as metal industry, plastic welding, energetics, physiotherapy, broadcasting, telephone stations, computer industry, etc., have been covered by epidemiological investigations and risk evaluation. In 1986, the ANSI standard for safe use of lasers has been implemented as national legislation that gave the start for studies in the field of risk assessment concerning the use of lasers in industry and medicine. The environmental exposure studies started in 1991 following the very fast implementation of the telecommunication technologies. Now, funds for research are very insignificant, and studies in the field of risk assessment are very few. Nevertheless, Bulgaria has been an active member of the WHO International EMF Project, since 1997, and that gives good opportunity for collaboration with other Member states, and for implementation of new approach in the EMF policy for workers and people's protection against non-ionizing radiation exposure.

  15. Active optics and the axisymmetric case: MINITRUST wide-field three-reflection telescopes with mirrors aspherized from tulip and vase forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulie, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires larger size telescopes. Compared to the catadioptric Schmidt, the optical properties of a three mirror telescope provides significant advantages. (1) The flat field design is anastigmatic at any wavelength, (2) the system is extremely compact -- four times shorter than a Schmidt -- and, (3) compared to a Schmidt with refractive corrector -- requiring the polishing of three optical surfaces --, the presently proposed Modified-Rumsey design uses all of eight available free parameters of a flat fielded anastigmatic three mirror telescope for mirrors generated by active optics methods. Compared to a Rumsey design, these parameters include the additional slope continuity condition at the primary-tertiary link for in-situ stressing and aspherization from a common sphere. Then, active optics allows the polishing of only two spherical surfaces: the combined primary-tertiary mirror and the secondary mirror. All mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. This compact system is of interest for space and ground-based astronomy and allows to built larger wide-field telescopes such as demonstrated by the design and construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° FOV, consisting of an in-situ stressed double vase form primary-tertiary and of a stress polished tulip form secondary. Optical tests of these telescopes, showing diffraction limited images, are presented.

  16. Reactivity Models of Hydrogen Activation by Frustrated Lewis Pairs: Synergistic Electron Transfers or Polarization by Electric Field?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokob, Tibor András; Bakó, I.; Stirling, A.; Hamza, A.; Pápai, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 11 (2013), s. 4425-4437 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : heterolytic dihydrogen activation * small-molecule activation * gaussian-basis sets Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.444, year: 2013

  17. Brief Report: Performing on the Stage, the Field, or Both? Australian Adolescent Extracurricular Activity Participation and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Corey J.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation.…

  18. Gaze-related mimic word activates the frontal eye field and related network in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko

    2009-09-18

    This is an fMRI study demonstrating new evidence that a mimic word highly suggestive of an eye gaze, heard by the ear, significantly activates the frontal eye field (FEF), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsolateral premotor area (PMdr) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) connected with the frontal-parietal network. However, hearing a non-sense words that did not imply gaze under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the FEF would be a critical area for generating/processing an active gaze, evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied gaze closely associated with social skill. We suggest that the implied active gaze may depend on prefrontal-parietal interactions that modify cognitive gaze led by spatial visual attention associated with the SPL.

  19. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: II. Insecticide residues and impact on dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, K.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Dhawan, A.K.; Dureja, P.

    2001-01-01

    Insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages post crop emergence in cotton fields and soil was sampled at regular intervals after each treatment. Soil was analysed for insecticide residues and activity of the enzymes dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Insecticide residues detected in the soil were in small quantities and they did not persist for long. Only endosulfan leached below 15 cm. Insecticides had only temporary effects on enzyme activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment or by the end of the experimental period. (author)

  20. Personal power-frequency magnetic field exposure in women recruited at an infertility clinic: association with physical activity and temporal variability

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Hauser, Russ; Wang, Lu; Kavet, Robert; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Current epidemiologic approaches for studying exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of miscarriage are potentially biased due to lack of attention to the relationship of exposure with physical activity and within-individual variability in exposures over time. This analysis examines these two issues using data from a longitudinal pilot study of 40 women recruited from an infertility clinic that contributed data for up to three 24-h periods separated by a median of 3.6 weeks....

  1. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  2. Intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch with partial coverage of the toroidal surface by a discrete active coil array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    An active feedback system is required for long pulse operation of the reversed field pinch (RFP) device to suppress resistive wall modes (RWMs). A general feature of a feedback system using a discrete active coil array is a coupling effect which arises when a set of side band modes determined by the number of active coils is produced. Recent results obtained on the EXTRAP T2R RFP demonstrated the suppression of independent m = 1 RWMs using an active feedback system with a two-dimensional array of discrete active coils in the poloidal and toroidal directions. One of the feedback algorithms used is the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Active feedback systems having different number of active coils in the poloidal (Mc) and toroidal (Nc) directions (Mc × Nc = 2 × 32 and Mc × Nc = 4 × 16) are studied. Different side band effects are seen for these configurations. A significant prolongation of the plasma discharge is achieved for the intelligent shell feedback scheme using the 2 × 32 active coil configuration. This is attributed to the side band sets including only one of the dominant unstable RWMs and avoiding coupling to resonant modes. Analog proportional-integral-derivative controllers are used in the feedback system. Regimes with different values of the proportional gain are studied. The requirement of the proportional-integral control for low proportional gain and proportional-derivative control for high proportional gain is seen in the experiments.

  3. EFFECTIVE FACTORS IN NSD PROCESS OF IRANIAN ACTIVE SCIENCE-BASED BUSINESSES IN THE FIELD OF NUTRITION COUNSELING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Meigounpoory; Aliye Hashemi; Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi; Yousof Azizi

    2013-01-01

    The intensive competition to offer new services in health care systems plus the patients tendency to receive appropriate and modern services have led to the application of innovations. In order to innovate in nutrition counseling services, New Service Development (NSD) process providing the least cost and most efficiency for enterprises, is one of the most appropriate solutions. The aim of this study was to identify effective factors of NSD process in the field of nutrition counseling. To imp...

  4. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  5. Upper critical fields and thermally-activated transport of Nd(0.7Fe0.3) FeAs single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakirev, Fedor F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jaroszynski, J [NHMFL, FSU; Hunte, F [NHMFL, FSU; Balicas, L [NHMFL, FSU; Jo, Youn - Jung [NHMFL, FSU; Raicevic, I [NHMFL, FSU; Gurevich, A [NHMFL, FSU; Larbalestier, D C [NHMFL, FSU; Fang, L [CHINA; Cheng, P [CHINA; Jia, Y [CHINA; Wen, H H [CHINA

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of the resistivity and the upper critical field H{sub c2} of Nd(O{sub 0.7}F{sub 0.3})FeAs single crystals in strong DC and pulsed magnetic fields up to 45 T and 60 T, respectively. We found that the field scale of H{sub c2} is comparable to {approx}100 T of high T{sub c} cuprates. H{sub c2}(T) parallel to the c-axis exhibits a pronounced upward curvature similar to what was extracted from earlier measurements on polycrystalline samples. Thus this behavior is indeed an intrinsic feature of oxypnictides, rather than manifestation of vortex lattice melting or granularity. The orientational dependence of H{sub c2} shows deviations from the one-band Ginzburg-Landau scaling. The mass anisotropy decreases as T decreases, from 9.2 at 44K to 5 at 34K. Spin dependent magnetoresistance and nonlinearities in the Hall coefficient suggest contribution to the conductivity from electron-electron interactions modified by disorder reminiscent that of diluted magnetic semiconductors. The Ohmic resistivity measured below T{sub c} but above the irreversibility field exhibits a clear Arrhenius thermally activated behavior over 4--5 decades. The activation energy has very different field dependencies for H{parallel}ab and H{perpendicular}ab. We discuss to what extent different pairing scenarios can manifest themselves in the observed behavior of H{sub c2}, using the two-band model of superconductivity. The results indicate the importance of paramagnetic effects on H{sub c2}(T), which may significantly reduce H{sub c2}(0) as compared to H{sub c2}(0) {approx}200--300 T based on extrapolations of H{sub c2}(T) near T{sub c} down to low temperatures.

  6. Reciprocal activation/inactivation of ERK in the amygdala and frontal cortex is correlated with the degree of novelty of an open-field environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedo, Frederico Velasco; Dias, Caio Vitor Bueno; Dias, Flavia Regina Cruz; Samuels, Richard Ian; Carey, Robert J; Carrera, Marinete Pinheiro

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) has been used to identify brain areas activated by exogenous stimuli including psychostimulant drugs. Assess the role of the amygdala in emotional responses. Experimental manipulations were performed in which environmental familiarity was the variable. To provide the maximal degree of familiarity, ERK was measured after removal from the home cage and re-placement back into the same cage. To maximize exposure to an unfamiliar environment, ERK was measured following placement into a novel open field. To assess whether familiarity was the critical variable in the ERK response to the novel open field, ERK was also measured after either four or eight placements into the same environment. ERK quantification was carried out in the amygdala, frontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens. After home cage re-placement, ERK activation was found in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens but was absent in the amygdala. Following placement in a novel environment, ERK activation was more prominent in the amygdala than the frontal cortex or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, with habituation to the novel environment, ERK phosphors declined markedly in the amygdala but increased in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens to the level observed following home cage re-placement. The differential responsiveness of the amygdala versus the frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens to a novel versus a habituated environment is consistent with a reciprocal interaction between these neural systems and points to their important role in the mediation of behavioral activation to novelty and behavioral inactivation with habituation.

  7. Personal power-frequency magnetic field exposure in women recruited at an infertility clinic: association with physical activity and temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Hauser, Russ; Wang, Lu; Kavet, Robert; Meeker, John D

    2016-03-01

    Current epidemiologic approaches for studying exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of miscarriage are potentially biased due to lack of attention to the relationship of exposure with physical activity and within-individual variability in exposures over time. This analysis examines these two issues using data from a longitudinal pilot study of 40 women recruited from an infertility clinic that contributed data for up to three 24-h periods separated by a median of 3.6 weeks. Physical activity was positively associated with peak exposure metrics. Higher physical activity within environments did not necessarily lead to higher peak exposures, suggesting that movement between and not within environments increases one's probability of encountering a high field source. Peak compared with central tendency metrics were more variable over time. Future epidemiology studies associated with peak exposure metrics should adjust for physical activity and collect more than 1 d of exposure measurement to reduce bias. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual's perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual's overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators' alertness and job-performance.

  9. The magnetic field of active region 11158 during the 2011 February 12-17 flares: Differences between photospheric extrapolation and coronal forward-fitting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Sun, Xudong; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    We developed a coronal nonlinear force-free field (COR-NLFFF) forward-fitting code that fits an approximate nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) solution to the observed geometry of automatically traced coronal loops. In contrast to photospheric NLFFF codes, which calculate a magnetic field solution from the constraints of the transverse photospheric field, this new code uses coronal constraints instead, and this way provides important information on systematic errors of each magnetic field calculation method, as well as on the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. In this study we applied the COR-NLFFF code to NOAA Active Region 11158, during the time interval of 2011 February 12-17, which includes an X2.2 GOES-class flare plus 35 M- and C-class flares. We calculated the free magnetic energy with a 6 minute cadence over 5 days. We find good agreement between the two types of codes for the total nonpotential E N and potential energy E P but find up to a factor of 4 discrepancy in the free energy E free = E N – E P and up to a factor of 10 discrepancy in the decrease of the free energy ΔE free during flares. The coronal NLFFF code exhibits a larger time variability and yields a decrease of free energy during the flare that is sufficient to satisfy the flare energy budget, while the photospheric NLFFF code shows much less time variability and an order of magnitude less free-energy decrease during flares. The discrepancy may partly be due to the preprocessing of photospheric vector data but more likely is due to the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. We conclude that the coronal field cannot be correctly calculated on the basis of photospheric data alone and requires additional information on coronal loop geometries.

  10. Quasi-static three-dimensional magnetic field evolution in solar active region NOAA 11166 associated with an X1.5 flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Udaipur 313 001 (India); Wiegelmann, T., E-mail: vema@prl.res.in, E-mail: wiegelmann@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    We study the quasi-static evolution of coronal magnetic fields constructed from the non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation aiming to understand the relation between the magnetic field topology and ribbon emission during an X1.5 flare in active region (AR) NOAA 11166. The flare with a quasi-elliptical and two remote ribbons occurred on 2011 March 9 at 23:13 UT over a positive flux region surrounded by negative flux at the center of the bipolar AR. Our analysis of the coronal magnetic structure with potential and NLFFF solutions unveiled the existence of a single magnetic null point associated with a fan-spine topology and is co-spatial with the hard X-ray source. The footpoints of the fan separatrix surface agree with the inner edge of the quasi-elliptical ribbon and the outer spine is linked to one of the remote ribbons. During the evolution, the slow footpoint motions stressed the field lines along the polarity inversion line and caused electric current layers in the corona around the fan separatrix surface. These current layers trigger magnetic reconnection as a consequence of dissipating currents, which are visible as cusp-shaped structures at lower heights. The reconnection process reorganized the magnetic field topology whose signatures are observed at the separatrices/quasi-separatrix layer structure in both the photosphere and the corona during the pre-to-post flare evolution. In agreement with previous numerical studies, our results suggest that the line-tied footpoint motions perturb the fan-spine system and cause null point reconnection, which eventually causes the flare emission at the footpoints of the field lines.

  11. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume IV. Field activities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, C.

    1984-01-01

    This volume describes those activities which took place at the Sperry DOE Gravity Head plant site at the East Mesa Geothermal Reservoir near Holtville, California between February 1980, when site preparation was begun, and November 1982, when production well 87-6 was permanently abandoned. Construction activities were terminated in July 1981 following the liner collapse in well 87-6. Large amounts of program time manpower, materials, and funds had been diverted in a nine-month struggle to salvage the production well. Once these efforts proved futile, there was no rationale for continuing with the site work unless and until sufficient funding to duplicate well 87-6 was obtained. Activities reported here include: plant construction and pre-operational calibration and testing, drilling and completion of well 87-6, final repair effort on well 87-6, abandonment of well 87-6, and performance evaluation of well 87.6. (MHR)

  12. Preparation of antioxidant peptide from egg white protein and improvement of its activities assisted by high-intensity pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Guo, Yang; You, Qi; Yin, Yongguang; Liu, Jingbo

    2012-05-01

    Egg white protein powder was hydrolyzed by three proteases-alcalase, trypsin, and pepsin-to produce antioxidant peptides. Three kinds of hydrolysates were prepared under optimal enzymatic parameters that were obtained from the preliminary one-factor-at-a-time test and response surface methodology. Thereafter, three enzymatic hydrolysates were sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration membranes in cut-off MW of 30, 10, and 1 kDa, and tested in terms of their reducing power (RP). Effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) were further investigated on the antioxidant peptides to improve their activities. Alcalase hydrolysates possessed stronger RP ability than the other two hydrolysates, particularly for the fraction within alcalase could be regarded as the most appropriate enzyme for preparation of bioactive peptide from egg white protein, with the best antioxidant activity. Also, PEF showed some effects on the peptide and could be further applied to improve its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of Low-Density Static Magnetic Field on the Oxidation of Ammonium by Nitrosomonas europaea and by Activated Sludge in Municipal Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipič, Jasmina; Kraigher, Barbara; Tepuš, Brigita; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ammonium removal is a key step in biological wastewater treatment and novel approaches that improve this process are in great demand. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that ammonium removal from wastewater can be stimulated by static magnetic fields. This was achieved by analysis of the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) on the growth and activity of Nitrosomonas europaea, a key ammonia-oxidising bacterium, where increased growth and increased ammonia oxidation rate were detected when bacteria were exposed to SMF at 17 mT. Additionally, the effect of SMF on mixed cultures of ammonia oxidisers in activated sludge, incubated in sequencing batch bioreactors simulating wastewater treatment process, was assessed. SMFs of 30 and 50 mT, but not of 10 mT, increased ammonium oxidation rate in municipal wastewater by up to 77% and stimulated ammonia oxidiser growth. The results demonstrate the potential for use of static magnetic fields in increasing ammonium removal rates in biological wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27904349

  14. Calculation of magnetic field-induced current densities for humans from EAS countertop activation/deactivation devices that use ferromagnetic cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingxiang; Gandhi, Om P.

    2005-01-01

    Compliance testing of electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices requires that induced current densities in central nervous system (CNS) tissues, i.e. brain and the spinal cord, be less than the prescribed safety limits. Even though ferromagnetic cores are mostly used for activation/deactivation of embedded magnetic tags, assumed equivalent air-core coils with guessed increased number of ampere turns have always been used to calculate the magnetic fields for the proximal region to which a customer is exposed. We show that at low frequencies up to several kilohertz, duality of electric and magnetic circuits may be exploited such that the shaped high reluctance core is modelled as though it was a higher conductivity electric circuit of the corresponding shape. The proposed procedure is tested by examples of two magnetic cores typical of countertop activation/deactivation devices. The equivalent exposure magnetic fields obtained from the dual electric fields are shown to be in excellent agreement (within ±5%) with those measured for these ferromagnetic EAS devices. The previously proposed impedance method is then used to calculate the induced current densities for a 1.974 × 1.974 × 2.93 mm resolution anatomic model of a human. For the two considered EAS systems using excitation currents of 5000 A turns at 200 Hz, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged induced current densities in the CNS tissues are calculated and found to be less than the ICNIRP safety limits.

  15. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Hybrid active layers from a conjugated polymer and inorganic nanoparticles for organic light emitting devices with emission colour tuned by electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Andrey N; Alexandrova, Elena L; Shcherbakov, Igor P [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26, Polytechnicheskaya Str., St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aleshin@transport.ioffe.ru

    2009-05-21

    We report on the investigation of the electrical and optical properties of hybrid active layers for organic devices consisting of a conjugated polymer MEH-PPV mixed with ZnO and Si nanoparticles. The effect of an electric field on the photoluminescence (PL) from a MEH-PPV : ZnO composite film is studied. We have found that in the absence of an electric field PL emission from the MEH-PPV : ZnO composites have two main maxima in the blue-red regions. Three additional minor PL maxima attributed to the exciplex states were found at {approx}420-480 nm. Application of a voltage bias to planar electrodes significantly suppresses the blue emission. Generation of excited states in the MEH-PPV : ZnO structures implies the presence of several radiative recombination mechanisms with the formation of polymer-nanoparticle complexes including exciplex states and charge transfer between the polymer and nanoparticles that can be controlled by an electric field. This effect provides the possibility to tune by an electric field the emission colour of organic light emitting diodes by combining an efficient emission from both organic/inorganic materials involved.

  18. MiDAS Field Guide – a Comprehensive Online Source of Information About the Microbes of Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    activated sludge wastewater treatment systems, linking their identity with available information on their function and distribution. The guide includes the approx. 100 abundant genera that are present in most treatment plants (based on a survey of 25 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants ...

  19. The production and activity test of cellulases using bagasse substrate on Aspergillus niger isolated from Clove field, Kare, Madiun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhi, Muh. Waskito; Sulistyarsi, Ani; Pujiati

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus sp is a microorganism which has a high ability to produce cellulase enzymes. In producing Cellulase enzymes requires appropriate concentration and incubation time to obtain optimum enzyme activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of inoculum concentration and incubation time towards production and activity of cellulases from Aspergillus sp substrate bagasse. This research used experiments method; completely randomized design with 2 factorial repeated 2 times. The treatment study include differences inoculum (K) 5% (K1), 15% (K2) 25%, (K3) and incubation time (F) that is 3 days (F1), 6 days (F2), 9 days (F3), 12 days (F4). The data taken from the treatment are glucose reduction and protein levels of crude cellulase enzyme activity that use Nelson Somogyi and Biuret methods. Analysis of variance ANOVA data used two paths with significance level of 5% then continued with LSD test. The results showed that: Fhit>Ftab. Thus, there is effect of inoculum concentrations and incubation time toward activity of crude cellulases of Aspergillus sp. The highest glucose reduction of treatment is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with 12 days incubation time) amount 12.834 g / ml and the highest protein content is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with with 12 days incubation time) amount 0.740 g / ml.

  20. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship of angiotesin-converting enzyme and thermolysin inhibitors. II. A comparison of CoMFA models incorporating molecular orbital fields and desolvation free energies based on active-analog and complementary-receptor-field alignment rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, C L; Marshall, G R

    1993-08-06

    The utility of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), a three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3-D QSAR) paradigm, as a tool to aid in the development of predictive models has been previously addressed (Depriest, S.D. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, in press). Although predictive correlations were obtained for angiotensin-converting and thermolysin inhibitors, certain inadequacies of the CoMFA technique were noted. Primarily, CoMFA steric and electrostatic fields alone do not fully characterize the zinc-ligand interaction. Previously, this was partially rectified by the inclusion of indicator variables into the QSAR table to designate the class of zinc-binding ligand. Recent advances in molecular modeling technology have allowed us to further address this limitation of the preceding study. Using molecular orbital fields derived from semiempirical calculations as additional descriptors in the QSAR table, predictive correlations were produced based on CoMFA and molecular orbital fields alone--indicator variables no longer being necessary. Arbitrary information concerning the alignment of molecules under study within the active-site introduces ambiguities into the CoMFA study. Crystallographic information detailing the binding mode of several thermolysin enzyme inhibitors has previously been used as a guide for the alignment of additional, noncrystallized, inhibitors. However, this process was complicated by the lack of parameters for zinc in the molecular mechanical force field. Therefore, zinc-ligand interactions were ignored during the standard minimization procedure. The use of field-fit minimization using complementary receptor fields as templates is presented as a possible solution to the problem. Predictive correlations were obtained from analyses based on this method of molecular alignment. The availability of crystallographic data for thermolysin enzyme-inhibitor complexes allowed for an alternate definition of the CoMFA region

  1. Comparisons of Unconsolidated Sediments Analyzed by APXS (MSL-Curiosity) within Gale Crater, Mars: Soils, Sands of the Barchan and Linear Dunes of the Active Bagnold Dune Field, and Ripple-field Sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. M.; O'Connell-Cooper, C.; Spray, J. G.; Gellert, R.; Boyd, N. I.; Desouza, E.

    2017-12-01

    The MSL-APXS has analyzed a variety of unconsolidated sediments within the Gale impact crater, including soils, sands from barchan [High, Namib dunes], and linear dunes [Nathan Bridges, Mount Desert dunes], within the active Bagnold dune field, and sands from two smaller ripple fields ("mega-ripples"). The Gale "soils" (unsorted, unconsolidated sediments, ranging from fine-grained particles (including dust) to coarser "pebbly" material [>2 mm]), are, to a large degree, similar to Martian basaltic soils quantified by APXS, at Gusev crater (MER-A_Spirit) and Meridiani Planum (MER-B_Opportunity). Some local contributions are indicated by, for example, the enriched K levels (relative to a martian average basaltic soil [ABS]) within coarser Gale soil samples, and a Cr, Mn, Fe enrichment within finer-grained samples. Sands (grain size 62 µm to 2 mm) of the Bagnold dunes, generally, exhibit elevated Mg and Ni, indicating enrichment from olivine and pyroxene, but depleted S, Cl and Zn, indicating high activity levels and low dust. Compositional differences, related both to position within a dune (i.e., crest versus off-crest sand), and type of dune (linear versus barchan), are identified. Off-crest sands have Na, Al, Si, K, P contents similar to (or slightly depleted, relative to) the ABS, enrichment in Mg, and low dust content, whilst crest sands contain very high Mg and Ni (relative to the ABS), low felsic elemental concentrations and very low dust content. Cr is significantly enriched (and, to a lesser degree, Mn, Fe, Ti) in the off-crest sands of the linear dunes. In contrast, barchan dunes off-crest sands have Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ti abundances similar to those in the Gale soils. Additionally, Ni concentrations in barchan dunes off-crest sands are enriched relative to the linear dunes. Analyses from a small, isolated "mega-ripple" reveal a composition similar to that of the Gale soils, including a high dust content. The second mega-ripple, within a larger ripple field, is

  2. The Use of Environmental Magnetic Methodology To Look At Hydrothermal Fluid Circulation Through Sediment Near An Active Vent-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandau, A.; Urbat, M.

    Variations of magnetomineralogical contents of holocene-pleistocene marine sedi- ments from Sites 1036 A-C (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 169) sensitively reflect the lateral and vertical convection of hydrothermal fluids in the Dead Dog Vent Field (Juan de Fuca Ridge). Clay mineralogical analyses (Lackschewitz et al., 2000) pro- vides a record of authigenesis associated with high heat flow, that indicates a temper- ature gradient of 8C/m (206C and 268C at 21.8 and 27.8 meters below seafloor respectively). Our magnetic results indicate gradual as well as abrupt changes of the magnetomineralogical contents (dissolution, precipitation of iron oxides and/or sul- fides) as a function of temperature accelerated sediment alteration and thereby refine a previous determination of sediment alteration facies at Holes 1036 A-C based on shipboard data. The combination of the rock magnetic dataset with the non-magnetic results leads to a better understanding of this dynamic hydrothermal system.

  3. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  4. Laboratory and field experiments used to identify Canis lupus var. familiaris active odor signature chemicals from drugs, explosives, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Norma; Wan, TianLang; Harper, Ross J; Hsu, Ya-Li; Chow, Michael; Rose, Stefan; Furton, Kenneth G

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography to identify the signature odors that law enforcement-certified detector dogs alert to when searching for drugs, explosives, and humans. Background information is provided on the many types of detector dog available and specific samples highlighted in this paper are the drugs cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxy- N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy), the explosives TNT and C4, and human remains. Studies include the analysis and identification of the headspace "fingerprint" of a variety of samples, followed by completion of double-blind dog trials of the individual components in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds that dogs alert to. SPME-GC/MS has been demonstrated to have a unique capability for the extraction of volatiles from the headspace of forensic specimens including drugs and explosives and shows great potential to aid in the investigation and understanding of the complicated process of canine odor detection. Major variables evaluated for the headspace SPME included fiber chemistry and a variety of sampling times ranging from several hours to several seconds and the resultant effect on ratios of isolated volatile components. For the drug odor studies, the CW/DVB and PDMS SPME fibers proved to be the optimal fiber types. For explosives, the results demonstrated that the best fibers in field and laboratory applications were PDMS and CW/DVB, respectively. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC/ECD) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was better for analysis of nitromethane and TNT odors, and C-4 odors, respectively. Field studies with detector dogs have demonstrated possible candidates for new pseudo scents as well as the potential use of controlled permeation devices as non-hazardous training aids providing consistent permeation of target odors.

  5. A new surface-potential-based compact model for the MoS2 field effect transistors in active matrix display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jingchen; Peng, Songang; Liu, Wei; Wu, Quantan; Li, Ling; Geng, Di; Yang, Guanhua; Ji, Zhouyu; Lu, Nianduan; Liu, Ming

    2018-02-01

    We present a continuous surface-potential-based compact model for molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors based on the multiple trapping release theory and the variable-range hopping theory. We also built contact resistance and velocity saturation models based on the analytical surface potential. This model is verified with experimental data and is able to accurately predict the temperature dependent behavior of the MoS2 field effect transistor. Our compact model is coded in Verilog-A, which can be implemented in a computer-aided design environment. Finally, we carried out an active matrix display simulation, which suggested that the proposed model can be successfully applied to circuit design.

  6. Application of the French Space Operation Act and the Development of Space Activities in the Field of Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuzac, F.; Biard, A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of space activities has led France to define a new legal framework: French Space Operation Act (FSOA). The aim of this act, is to define the conditions according to which the French government authorizes and checks the spatial operations under its jurisdiction or its international responsibility as State of launch, according to the international treaties of the UN on space, in particular the Treaty (1967) on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, the Convention ( 1972 ) on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, and the Convention (1975) on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. The main European space centre is the Guiana Space Centre (CSG), settled in France. A clarification of the French legal framework was compulsory to allow the arrival of new launchers (Soyuz and Vega). This act defines the competent authority, the procedure of authorization and licenses, the regime for operations led from foreign countries, the control of spatial objects, the enabling of inspectors, the delegation of monitoring to CNES, the procedure for urgent measures necessary for the safety, the registration of spatial objects. In this framework, the operator is fully responsible of the operation that he leads. He is subjected to a regime of authorization and to governmental technical monitoring delegated to CNES. In case of litigation, the operator gets the State guarantee above a certain level of damage to third party. The introduction of FSOA has led to issue a Technical Regulation set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. This general regulation is completed by a specific regulation applicable to CSG that covers the preparation phase of the launch, and all specificities of the launch range, as regards the beginning of the launch. The Technical Regulation is based on 30 years of Ariane's activities and on the

  7. A study of solar magnetic fields below the surface, at the surface, and in the solar atmosphere - understanding the cause of major solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields govern all aspects of solar activity from the 11-year solar cycle to the most energetic events in the solar system, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). As seen on the surface of the sun, this activity emanates from localized concentrations of magnetic fields emerging sporadically from the solar interior. These locations are called solar Active Regions (ARs). However, the fundamental processes regarding the origin, emergence and evolution of solar magnetic fields as well as the generation of solar activity are largely unknown or remain controversial. In this dissertation, multiple important issues regarding solar magnetism and activities are addressed, based on advanced observations obtained by AIA and HMI instruments aboard the SDO spacecraft. First, this work investigates the formation of coronal magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), structures associated with major solar activity such as CMEs. In the past, several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of this major activity, which can be categorized in two contrasting groups (a) the MFR is formed in the eruption, and (b) the MFR pre-exists the eruption. This remains a topic of heated debate in modern solar physics. This dissertation provides a complete treatment of the role of MFRs from their genesis all the way to their eruption and even destruction. The study has uncovered the pre-existence of two weakly twisted MFRs, which formed during confined flaring 12 hours before their associated CMEs. Thus, it provides unambiguous evidence for MFRs truly existing before the CME eruptions, resolving the pre-existing MFR controversy. Second, this dissertation addresses the 3-D magnetic structure of complex emerging ARs. In ARs the photospheric fields might show all aspects of complexity, from simple bipolar regions to extremely complex multi-polar surface magnetic distributions. In this thesis, we introduce a novel technique to infer the subphotospheric configuration of emerging

  8. Review Article: On the relation between the seismic activity and the Hurst exponent of the geomagnetic field at the time of the 2000 Izu swarm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Masci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many papers document the observation of earthquake-related precursory signatures in geomagnetic field data. However, the significance of these findings is ambiguous because the authors did not adequately take into account that these signals could have been generated by other sources, and the seismogenic origin of these signals have not been validated by comparison with independent datasets. Thus, they are not reliable examples of magnetic disturbances induced by the seismic activity. Hayakawa et al. (2004 claim that at the time of the 2000 Izu swarm the Hurst exponent of the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF: 0.001–10 Hz band of the geomagnetic field varied in accord with the energy released by the seismicity. The present paper demonstrates that the behaviour of the Hurst exponent was insufficiently investigated and also misinterpreted by the authors. We clearly show that during the Izu swarm the changes of the Hurst exponent were strongly related to the level of global geomagnetic activity and not to the increase of the local seismic activity.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Modelling-Oriented Workshops for Engineering Undergraduates in the Field of Thermally Activated Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto; Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Two 20-h modelling-based workshops focused on the explanation of thermally activated phenomena were held at the University of Palermo, Italy, during the Academic Year 2014-2015. One of them was conducted by applying an inquiry-based approach, while the other, still based on laboratory and modelling activities, was not focused on inquiry. Seventy-two students belonging to the Undergraduate Program for Chemical Engineering attended the two workshops. The related content was focused on an à la Feynman unifying approach to thermally activated phenomena. Questionnaires were administered to the students of both groups, before and post instruction. Responses were analysed using k-means cluster analysis and students' inferred lines of reasoning about the description and explanation of phenomena were studied in both groups. We find that both workshops can be considered effective in improving student's reasoning skills. However, the inquiry-based approach revealed to be more effective than the traditional one in helping students to build mechanisms of functioning and explicative models and to identify common aspects in apparently different phenomena.

  10. Detection of active hydrothermal vent fields in the Pescadero Basin and on the Alarcon Rise using AUV multibeam and CTD data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Troni, G.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.; Thomas, H. J.; Thompson, D.; Conlin, D.; Martin, E. J.; meneses-Quiroz, E.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Angel Santa Rosa del Rio, M.

    2015-12-01

    The MBARI AUV D. Allan B. collected high resolution bathymetry, sidescan, and subbottom profiles along the neovolcanic zone of the Alarcon Rise and across the southern Pescadero Basin during 2012 and 2015 MBARI expeditions to the Gulf of California (GOC). The combination of high resolution multibeam bathymetry and seawater temperature data has proven effective in identifying active high temperature vent fields, as validated by inspection and sampling during ROV dives. The AUV carries a 200 kHz multibeam sonar, 110 kHz chirp sidescan sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp subbottom profiler, and a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor for ~17-hour duration missions. Flying at 5.4 km/hr at 50 m altitude, the processed AUV bathymetry has a 0.1 m vertical precision and a 1 m lateral resolution. Chimneys taller than 1.5 m are sufficiently distinctive to allow provisional identification. The CTD temperature data have a nominal 0.002°C accuracy. Following calculation of potential temperature and correcting for average local variation of potential temperature with depth, anomalies greater than 0.05 °C can be reliably identified using a spike detection filter. MBARI AUV mapping surveys are typically planned using a 150 m survey line spacing, so the CTD data may be collected as much as 75 m away from any vent plume source. Five active high temperature vent fields were discovered in the southern GOC, with the Auka Field in the southern Pescadero Basin, and the Ja Sít, Pericú, Meyibó, and Tzab-ek Fields along the Alarcon Rise. In all five cases, hydrothermal vent chimneys are readily identifiable in the multibeam bathymetry, and temperature anomalies are observed above background variability. Other apparent hydrothermal chimneys were observed in the bathmetry that did not exhibit water temperature anomalies; most of these were visited during ROV dives and confirmed to be inactive sites. The maximum water column anomalies are 0.13°C observed above the Meyibó field and 0.25

  11. Evolution of Field-Aligned Electron and Ion Densities From Whistler Mode Radio Soundings During Quiet to Moderately Active Period and Comparisons With SAMI2 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A.; Sonwalkar, V. S.; Huba, J. D.

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of field-aligned electron and ion distributions is necessary for understanding the physical processes causing variations in field-aligned electron and ion densities. Using whistler mode sounding by Radio Plasma Imager/Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (RPI/IMAGE), we determined the evolution of dayside electron and ion densities along L ˜ 2 and L ˜ 3 (90-4,000 km) during a 7 day (21-27 November 2005) geomagnetically quiet to moderately active period. Over this period the O+/H+ transition height was ˜880 ± 60 km and ˜1000 ± 100 km, respectively, at L ˜ 2 and L ˜ 3. The electron density varied in a complex manner; it was different at L ˜ 2 and L ˜ 3 and below and above the O+/H+ transition height. The measured electron and ion densities are consistent with those from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and other past measurements, but they deviated from bottomside sounding and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 empirical model results. Using SAMI2 (Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) ionosphere model) with reasonably adjusted values of inputs (neutral densities, winds, electric fields, and photoelectron heating), we simulated the evolution of O+/H+ transition height and field-aligned electron and ion densities so that a fair agreement was obtained between the simulation results and observations. Simulation studies indicated that reduced neutral densities (H and/or O) with time limited O+-H charge exchange process. This reduction in neutral densities combined with changes in neutral winds and plasma temperature led to the observed variations in the electron and ion densities. The observation/simulation method presented here can be extended to investigate the role of neutral densities and composition, disturbed winds, and prompt penetration electric fields in the storm time ionosphere/plasmasphere dynamics.

  12. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Marek Fikrle; Jan Kucera; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat to accumulate selenium (Se) via a soil-addition procedure at sowing time. Total Se in mature-grain samples was determined by neutron activation analysis (cyclic and radiochemical). Results show that Se-supplementation at the top rate (100 g Se ha -1 ) can increase Se contents up to 2, 16, 18 and 20 times for Jordao, Roxo, Marialva and Celta cultivars, respectively, when compared to their unsupplemented crops. These findings do not preclude the need for weighing up an eventual trade-off between agrochemical costs, field logistics and Se recovery for alternative Se-biofortification methods. (author)

  13. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations

  14. Observational comparisons of intestinal microbiota characterizations, immune enzyme activities, and muscle amino acid compositions of loach in paddy fields and ponds in Sichuan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Duan, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Ya; Du, Jun; Zhao, Liulan; Du, Zongjun; Han, Shuaishuai

    2017-06-01

    A balanced intestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the growth and health of animals because it can influence the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Different culture conditions may change the ecology of microbial in intestine and thus affect the overall growth performance of an animal. In this study, we compared intestinal morphologies, microbiota characterizations, immune enzyme activities, and muscle amino acid compositions of loach cultured in paddy fields and ponds. The fish were fed with the same diets from May 5 to November 5 (2015) in three paddy or ponds. Fish samples were collected for analysis in the August (summer season) and November (fall season) during the feeding trial. In both culture conditions, results based on microscopy observation showed that the intestinal perimeter, fold height, fold radical, and total absorption of the gut were significantly higher in the foregut than that found in the midgut and hindgut (P fish was similar between the two culture conditions (P > 0.05). The percentage of carcass weight to whole loach weight for samples collected from paddy field (91.6 ± 1.1) was significantly higher than the index measured for loach from pond (87.3 ± 3.4, P fish from summer to fall. The sequencing results of bands indicated that the predominant microorganisms are Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria in the intestine of fish being cultured in both cultures. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP, in two culture conditions) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, in paddy field) presented a gradual decrease trend from foregut to hindgut of fish. The activities of acid phosphatase (ACP, in midgut), AKP (in midgut and hindgut), SOD (in foregut), and lysozyme (LZM, in midgut) were significantly higher in fish cultured in paddy than those in pond (P amino acids (valine, methionine, and phenylalanine) based on total amino acids in muscle was significantly higher in fish cultured in paddies than in ponds. In

  15. Active-duty physicians' perceptions and satisfaction with humanitarian assistance and disaster relief missions: implications for the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J Oravec

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States Department of Defense participates in more than 500 missions every year, including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, as part of medical stability operations. This study assessed perceptions of active-duty physicians regarding these activities and related these findings to the retention and overall satisfaction of healthcare professionals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An Internet-based survey was developed and validated. Of the 667 physicians who responded to the survey, 47% had participated in at least one mission. On a 7-point, Likert-type response scale, physicians reported favorable overall satisfaction with their participation in these missions (mean = 5.74. Perceived benefit was greatest for the United States (mean = 5.56 and self (mean = 5.39 compared to the target population (mean = 4.82. These perceptions were related to participants' intentions to extend their military medical service (total model R (2 = .37, with the strongest predictors being perceived benefit to self (β = .21, p<.01, the U.S. (β = .19, p<.01, and satisfaction (β = .18, p<.05. In addition, Air Force physicians reported higher levels of satisfaction (mean = 6.10 than either Army (mean = 5.27, Cohen's d = 0.75, p<.001 or Navy (mean = 5.60, Cohen's d = 0.46, p<.01 physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Military physicians are largely satisfied with humanitarian missions, reporting the greatest benefit of such activities for themselves and the United States. Elucidation of factors that may increase the perceived benefit to the target populations is warranted. Satisfaction and perceived benefits of humanitarian missions were positively correlated with intentions to extend time in service. These findings could inform the larger humanitarian community as well as military medical practices for both recruiting and retaining medical professionals.

  16. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on paraoxonase serum activity and lipid peroxidation metabolites in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifirad, Soroush; Farzampour, Shahrokh; Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Amoli, Mahsa Mohammad; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Larijani, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic effects of ELF-MF exposure have not been studied well so far. Therefore we have hypothesized that ELF-MF exposure might have atherogenic effect by impairing antioxidant function and increasing lipid peroxidation. This study was therefore undertaken to examine the effects of ELF-MF on paraoxonase (PON) activity, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation metabolites. Effects of time on remodeling of antioxidant system were also investigated in this study. Seventy five Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups as follows: 1) Sham exposure, 2) Single exposure to 60 Hz, sacrificed immediately after exposure, 3) Single exposure to 60 Hz, sacrificed 72 hours after exposure, 4) Fourteen days of exposure to 60 Hz, sacrificed immediately after exposure, and 5) Fourteen days of exposure to 60 Hz, sacrificed 72 hours after exposure. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. The results were compared using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD for multiple caparisons. Single ELF-MF exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation (CD and MDA) and increased antioxidant serum activity (HDL, paraoxonase activity, and serum total antioxidant capacity). Chronic ELF-MF exposure increased lipid peroxidation and affected antioxidant system. Free fatty acids levels were significantly increased after both single and two weeks exposure. Chronic exposure led to irreversible changes while acute exposure tended to reversible alterations on above mentioned parameters. According to the results of this study, ELF-MF exposure could impair oxidant-antioxidant function and might increase oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capability was dependent on the duration and continuity of ELF-MF exposure.

  17. Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie

    1999-06-01

    This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

  18. Dosimetric characteristics of radiation fields on board Czechoslovak Airlines' aircraft as measured with different active and passive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurney, F.; Obraz, O.; Pernicka, F.; Votockova, I.; Turek, K.; Vojtisek