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Sample records for pre-treatment headache intensity

  1. Aspirin is first-line treatment for migraine and episodic tension-type headache regardless of headache intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Christian; Voelker, Michael; Steiner, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    (1) To establish whether pre-treatment headache intensity in migraine or episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) predicts success or failure of treatment with aspirin; and (2) to reflect, accordingly, on the place of aspirin in the management of these disorders. Stepped care in migraine management uses symptomatic treatments as first-line, reserving triptans for those in whom this proves ineffective. Stratified care chooses between symptomatic therapy and triptans as first-line on an individual basis according to perceived illness severity. We questioned the 2 assumptions underpinning stratified care in migraine that greater illness severity: (1) reflects greater need; and (2) is a risk factor for failure of symptomatic treatment but not of triptans. With regard to the first assumption, we developed a rhetorical argument that need for treatment is underpinned by expectation of benefit, not by illness severity. To address the second, we reviewed individual patient data from 6 clinical trials of aspirin 1000 mg in migraine (N = 2079; 1165 moderate headache, 914 severe) and one of aspirin 500 and 1000 mg in ETTH (N = 325; 180 moderate, 145 severe), relating outcome to pre-treatment headache intensity. In migraine, for headache relief at 2 hours, a small (4.7%) and non-significant risk difference (RD) in therapeutic gain favored moderate pain; for pain freedom at 2 hours, therapeutic gains were almost identical (RD: -0.2%). In ETTH, for headache relief at 2 hours, RDs for both aspirin 500 mg (-4.2%) and aspirin 1000 mg (-9.7%) favored severe pain, although neither significantly; for pain freedom at 2 hours, RDs (-14.2 and -3.6) again favored severe pain. In neither migraine nor ETTH does pre-treatment headache intensity predict success or failure of aspirin. This is not an arguable basis for stratified care in migraine. In both disorders, aspirin is first-line treatment regardless of headache intensity. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  2. Pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and headache intensity in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Stuart; Bhullar, Navjot; Immink, Maarten; Della Vedova, Chris; Hayball, John

    2012-01-01

    A central model for chronic tension-type headache (CTH) posits that stress contributes to headache, in part, by aggravating existing hyperalgesia in CTH sufferers. The prediction from this model that pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and headache activity has not yet been examined. To determine whether pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and prospective headache activity in CTH sufferers. Self-reported stress, pain sensitivity and prospective headache activity were measured in 53 CTH sufferers recruited from the general population. Pain sensitivity was modelled as a mediator between stress and headache activity, and tested using a nonparametric bootstrap analysis. Pain sensitivity significantly mediated the relationship between stress and headache intensity. The results of the present study support the central model for CTH, which posits that stress contributes to headache, in part, by aggravating existing hyperalgesia in CTH sufferers. Implications for the mechanisms and treatment of CTH are discussed.

  3. Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and does the pain occur during times of stress or after you have been sitting in one position for a long time?YesNoDo you have intense throbbing pain, often with nausea or vomiting, and see flashing lights or spots before the headache?YesNoDo your headaches occur after you read, watch ...

  4. Effect of Flunarizine on Serum Glutamate Levels and its Correlation with Headache Intensity in Chronic Tension-Type Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Putra Surbakti

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Since there was no significant correlation found between serum glutamate and headache intensity after treatment with flunarizine, it is suggested that decreasing of headache intensity after flunarizine treatment occurred not through glutamate pathways in CTTH patients.

  5. Effectiveness of an intensive multidisciplinary headache treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunreben-Stempfle, Birgit; Griessinger, Norbert; Lang, Eberhard; Muehlhans, Barbara; Sittl, Reinhard; Ulrich, Kathrin

    2009-07-01

    To investigate if the effectiveness of a 96-hour multidisciplinary headache treatment program exceeds the effectiveness of a 20-hour program and primary care. When dealing with chronic back pain, low-intensity multidisciplinary treatment yields no significantly better results than standard care and monodisciplinary therapy; however, high-intensity treatment does. For multidisciplinary headache treatment, such comparisons are not yet available. In a previous study undertaken by our Pain Center, the outcome of a minimal multidisciplinary intervention model (20-hour) did not exceed primary care. Forty-two patients suffering from frequent headaches (20 +/- 9 headache days/month; range: 8-30) were treated and evaluated in a 96-hour group program. The results were compared with the outcomes of the previous study. Subjects who had undergone either the 20-hour multidisciplinary program or the primary care were used as historical control groups. A significant reduction in migraine days (P tension-type headache days (P tension-type headache days (P = .016), and frequency of migraine attacks (P = .016). In comparison with the 20-hour multidisciplinary program, the 96-hour program showed significantly better effects only in the reduction of migraine days (P = .037) and depression score (P = .003). The responder-rates (> or =50% improvement) in the 96-hour program were significantly higher than in the 20-hour program (migraine days, P = .008; tension-type headache days, P = .044) and primary care (migraine days, P = .007; tension-type headache days, P = .003; tension-type headache intensity, P = .037). The effect sizes were small to medium in the 96-hour program. Particularly with the reduction of migraine symptomatology, the 96-hour program performed better than the 20-hour program, which produced only negligible or small effects. Intensive multidisciplinary headache treatment is highly effective for patients with chronic headaches. Furthermore, migraine symptomatology

  6. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common type of headache is a tension headache. Tension headaches are due to tight muscles in your shoulders, neck, scalp and jaw. They are often related to stress, depression or anxiety. You are more likely to ...

  7. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment ... visits to the doctor. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, published by the International Headache Society, is used to classify more than 150 types ...

  8. Predicting Dropout from Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder Using Pre-treatment Characteristics: A Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroling, Maartje S; Wiersma, Femke E; Lammers, Mirjam W; Noorthoorn, Eric O

    2016-11-01

    Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An exploratory logistic regression was performed using eating disorder variables, general psychopathology, personality and demographics to identify predictors of dropout. Binge eating pathology, preoccupations with eating, shape and weight, social adjustment, agreeableness, and social embedding appeared to be significant predictors of dropout. Also, education showed an association to dropout. This is one of the first studies investigating pre-treatment predictors for dropout in BED treatment. The total explained variance of the prediction model was low, yet the model correctly classified 80.6% of cases, which is comparable to other dropout studies in eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Effect of Flunarizine on Serum Glutamate Levels and its Correlation with Headache Intensity in Chronic Tension-Type Headache Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, Khairul Putra; Sjahrir, Hasan; Juwita-Sembiring, Rosita; Mutiara, Erna

    2017-10-15

    Some of the excitatory neurotransmitters including glutamate have been suggested to be involved in headache pathophysiology. To our knowledge, there is a lack of publication about flunarizine efficacy in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) treatments and the roles of glutamate in CTTH pathophysiology. This study aimed to investigate the flunarizine effect on serum levels of glutamate and its correlation with headache intensity based on the Numeric Rating Scale for pain (NRS) scores in CTTH patients. In a prospective randomised, double-blind study with pre and post-test design, seventy-three CTTH patients were randomly allocated with flunarizine 5 mg, flunarizine 10 mg and amitriptyline 12.5 mg groups. The serum levels of glutamate and NRS scores were measured before and after 15-day treatment. Flunarizine 5 mg was more effective than flunarizine 10 mg and amitriptyline 12.5 mg in reducing serum glutamate levels, whereas amitriptyline 12.5 mg was the most effective in reducing headache intensity. There was found nonsignificant, but very weak negative correlation between headache intensity and serum glutamate levels after flunarizine 5 mg administration (r = -0.062; P = 0.385), nonsignificant very weak negative correlation after flunarizine 10 mg administration (r = -0.007; P = 0.488) and there was found a significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.508; P = 0.007) between headache intensity and serum glutamate levels after amitriptyline 12.5 mg administration. Since there was no significant correlation found between serum glutamate and headache intensity after treatment with flunarizine, it is suggested that decreasing of headache intensity after flunarizine treatment occurred not through glutamate pathways in CTTH patients.

  10. Pain Sensitivity Mediates The Relationship between Stress and Headache Intensity in Chronic Tension-Type Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Cathcart; Navjot Bhullar; Maarten Immink; Chris Della Vedova; John Hayball

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A central model for chronic tension-type headache (CTH) posits that stress contributes to headache, in part, by aggravating existing hyperalgesia in CTH sufferers. The prediction from this model that pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and headache activity has not yet been examined.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and prospective headache activity in CTH sufferers.METHOD: Self-reported stress, pain sen...

  11. Predicting dropout from intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy for binge eating disorder using pre-treatment characteristics: A naturalistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroling, M.S.; Wiersma, F.E.; Lammers, M.W.; Noorthoorn, E.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Method: Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An

  12. Use of high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues prior to multielemental analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Calle, Inmaculada; Costas, Marta; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two ultrasound-based procedures are developed for sample preparation prior to determination of P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Sr in biological tissues by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Ultrasound-assisted extraction by means of a cup-horn sonoreactor and ultrasonic-probe slurry sampling were compared with a well-established procedure such as magnetic agitation slurry sampling. For that purpose, seven certified reference materials and different real samples of animal tissue were used. Similar accuracy and precision is obtained with the three sample preparation approaches tried. Limits of detection were dependent on both the sample matrix and the sample pre-treatment used, best values being achieved with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction include reduced sample handling, decreased contamination risks (neither addition of surfactants nor use of foreign objects inside the extraction vial), simpler background (no solid particles onto the sample carrier) and improved recovery for some elements such as P. A mixture of 10% v/v HNO 3 + 20–40% v/v HCl was suitable for extraction from biological tissues. - Highlights: ► We implement high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues. ► Multielemental analysis is performed by total reflection X-ray spectrometry. ► Ultrasound-based procedures are developed and compared to conventional slurry preparation. ► Features such as background, recovery and sample handling are favored by using ultrasonic extraction.

  13. Ecological momentary assessment of the relationship between headache pain intensity and pain interference in women with migraine and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Graham; Pavlovic, Jelena; Lipton, Richard B; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; O'Leary, Kevin C; Buse, Dawn C; Evans, E Whitney; Bond, Dale S

    2016-11-01

    Background While pain intensity during migraine headache attacks is known to be a determinant of interference with daily activities, no study has evaluated: (a) the pain intensity-interference association in real-time on a per-headache basis, (b) multiple interference domains, and (c) factors that modify the association. Methods Participants were 116 women with overweight/obesity and migraine seeking behavioral treatment to lose weight and decrease headaches in the Women's Health and Migraine trial. Ecological momentary assessment, via smartphone-based 28-day headache diary, and linear mixed-effects models were used to study associations between pain intensity and total- and domain-specific interference scores using the Brief Pain Inventory. Multiple factors (e.g. pain catastrophizing (PC) and headache management self-efficacy (HMSE)) were evaluated either as independent predictors or moderators of the pain intensity-interference relationship. Results Pain intensity predicted degree of pain interference across all domains either as a main effect (coeff = 0.61-0.78, p < 0.001) or interaction with PC, allodynia, and HMSE ( p < 0.05). Older age and greater allodynia consistently predicted higher interference, regardless of pain intensity (coeff = 0.04-0.19, p < 0.05). Conclusions Pain intensity is a consistent predictor of pain interference on migraine headache days. Allodynia, PC, and HMSE moderated the pain intensity-interference relationship, and may be promising targets for interventions to reduce pain interference.

  14. Effect of Prayer on Intensity of Migraine Headache: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajadini, Haleh; Zangiabadi, Nasser; Divsalar, Kouros; Safizadeh, Hossein; Esmaili, Zahra; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is a common form of headache that affects patients quality of life negatively. In addition to pharmacologic treatment, there are a variety of nonpharmacologic treatments for migraine headache. In present study, we examined the effect of prayer on intensity of migraine pain. In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial from October 2013 to June 2014, this study has been conducted in Kerman, Iran. We randomly assigned 92 patients in 2 groups to receive either 40 mg of propranolol twice a day for 2 month (group "A") or 40 mg of propranolol twice a day for 2 months with prayer (group "B"). At the beginning of study and 3 months after intervention, patients' pain was measured using the visual analogue scale. At the beginning of study and before intervention, the mean score of pain in patients in groups A and B were 5.7 ± 1.6 and 6.5 ± 1.9, respectively. According to results of independent t test, mean score of pain intensity at the beginning of study were similar between patients in 2 groups (P > .05). Three month after intervention, mean score of pain intensity decreased in patients in both groups. At this time, the mean scores of pain intensity were 5.4 ± 1.1 and 4.2 ± 2.3 in patients in groups A and B, respectively. This difference between groups was statistically significant (P prayer can be used as a nonpharmacologic pain coping strategy in addition to pharmacologic intervention for this group of patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Effect of venous dexamethasone, oral caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of postdural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudifar, Mehrdad; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Adib, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication after regional anesthesia, especially in younger people, bothersome to patients and needs prophylaxis to prevent this complication. This study was conducted aiming to determine the preventive effect of dexamethasone plus caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of PDPH after spinal anesthesia. In a clinical trial study, 90 candidates for the lower extremities orthopedic elective operation were divided into two groups of 45 individuals each. Intervention group received the compound of 500 mg acetaminophen +65 mg oral caffeine +8 mg venous dexamethasone an hour before spinal blocking, and the control group received placebo tablets + a dexamethasone equivalent volume of venous normal saline. The level of postoperative headache at the time of entrance to recovery and discharge, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively were measured based on Visual Analog Scale criterion in the two groups and then compared with each other. During the study, 24 patients in the control group and 17 patients in the intervention group were afflicted with headache; however, with no significant difference (P = 0.14). Total frequency of headache incidence was 35 times in the control group and 27 times in the intervention group (P = 0.32). Though the taking of acetaminophen + caffeine + dexamethasone is associated with a decrease in headache intensity and duration and decrease in PDPH incidence, compared with placebo, however, no essentially and statistically significant effect was produced.

  16. Combination of Pre-Treatment DWI-Signal Intensity and S-1 Treatment: A Predictor of Survival in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Sequential S-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify whether the combination of pre-treatment radiological and clinical factors can predict the overall survival (OS in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC treated with stereotactic body radiation and sequential S-1 (a prodrug of 5-FU combined with two modulators therapy with improved accuracy compared with that of established clinical and radiologic risk models. METHODS: Patients admitted with LAPC underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI scan at 3.0-T (b = 600 s/mm2. The mean signal intensity (SIb = 600 of region-of-interest (ROI was measured. The Log-rank test was done for tumor location, biliary stent, S-1, and other treatments and the Cox regression analysis was done to identify independent prognostic factors for OS. Prediction error curves (PEC were used to assess potential errors in prediction of survival. The accuracy of prediction was evaluated by Integrated Brier Score (IBS and C index. RESULTS: 41 patients were included in this study. The median OS was 11.7 months (2.8-23.23 months. The 1-year OS was 46%. Multivariate analysis showed that pre-treatment SIb = 600 value and administration of S-1 were independent predictors for OS. The performance of pre-treatment SIb = 600 and S-1 treatment in combination was better than that of SIb = 600 or S-1 treatment alone. CONCLUSION: The combination of pre-treatment SIb = 600 and S-1 treatment could predict the OS in patients with LAPC undergoing SBRT and sequential S-1 therapy with improved accuracy compared with that of established clinical and radiologic risk models.

  17. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  18. Exercise Headaches

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    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  19. Other primary headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Bahra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ′Other Primary Headaches′ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ′alarm clock headache′, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review.

  20. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1995-01-01

    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose......-dependent headache and dilatation of the temporal, radial and middle cerebral artery. NTG-induced headache, although less intense, resembles migraine in pain characteristics, but the accompanying symptoms are rarely present. Cephalic large arteries are dilated during migraine headache as well as during NTG headache....... N-acetylcysteine enhances the formation of NO and potentiates NTG-induced headache, whereas mepyramine, a H1-antagonist capable of blocking histamine-induced headache, has no effect. Thus, the headache is dependent on NO or other steps in the NO cascade. The model is useful for pharmacological...

  1. Tension Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tight band around your head. A tension headache (tension-type headache) is the most common type of headache, and ... Headache after a head injury, especially if the headache gets worse ... tension or stress. But research suggests muscle contraction isn't the ...

  2. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  3. Migraine headaches in a nutshell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the International Headache Society, a migraine is a headache that lasts for 4–72 hours and presents with at least two of the following symptoms: unilateral localisation, moderate to severe pain intensity, aggravation by movement, and a pulsating feeling. The headache is also usually accompanied by nausea ...

  4. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Iris

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  5. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Perceived Pain Intensity and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Amirani, Ahmadreza; Amirifard, Hamed; Shahrakipoor, Mahnaz

    2015-08-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress reduction (MBSR) on perceived pain intensity and quality of life in patients with chronic headache. Thus, forty patients based on the diagnosis of a neurologist and diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS) for migraine and chronic tension-type headache were selected and randomly assigned to the intervention group and control group, respectively. The participants completed the Pain and quality of life (SF-36) questionnaire. The intervention group enrolled in an eight-week MBSR program that incorporated meditation and daily home practice, per week, session of 90-minutes. Results of covariance analysis with the elimination of the pre-test showed significantly improvement of pain and quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group. The findings from this study revealed that MBSR can be used non-pharmacological intervention for improvement the quality of life and development of strategies to cope with pain in patients with chronic headache. And can be used in combination with other therapies such as pharmacotherapy.

  6. Secondary Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can be caused by general medical conditions such as severe hypertension, or by conditions that affect the brain and ...

  7. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a role. Unlike migraine and tension headache, cluster headache generally isn't associated with triggers, such as foods, hormonal changes or stress. Once a cluster period begins, however, drinking alcohol ...

  8. [Headache Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly

    2017-03-01

    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Headache Attributed to Airplane Travel: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenburg, Hida; Jackfert, Katelin

    2018-06-14

    Headaches due to airplane travel are rare but documented in the literature. We aim to provide a review of diagnostic criteria and treatment for this condition. Several cases of this syndrome have been reported since it was first described in 2004. Airplane headache is classified as unilateral, stabbing, orbito-frontal pain, lasting under 30 min, and occurs during ascent or descent of a plane. Patients with this condition can develop anxiety and fear of flying given the intensity and severity of the pain. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is unknown, but theories include suspected barotrauma given changes in barometric pressure during ascent and descent. There are no randomized controlled trials regarding treatment, but case reports suggest headache prevention with pre-treatment with naproxen, decongestants, and triptans prior to air travel. Some non-pharmacological therapies reported include Valsalva maneuvers, chewing, relaxation techniques, and pressure at the pain area. As more cases of headache attributed to airplane travel are reported, epidemiological data can be obtained to further understand the incidence and prevalence of this condition, which can lead to improved treatment options for patients.

  10. Tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, D K

    1978-05-01

    Headache is an extremely common symptom, and many headaches undoubtedly have a relationship to stressful situations. The clear definition, however, of a "tension headache" complex and its differentiation from migraine in some patients is difficult. The problems are in the identification of a specific headache pattern induced by stress or "tension" and the relationship of the symptom to involuntary contraction of neck and scalp muscles. Treatment consists of analgesics and occasionally mild tranquilizers. Psychotherapy consists of reassurance and often other supportive measures, including modification of life styles. Various feedback techniques have been reported of value, but their superiority to suggestion and hypnosis is still problematic.

  11. Thunderclap headache

    OpenAIRE

    Dodick, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim is to review the background underlying the debate related to the alternative nomenclatures for and the most appropriate diagnostic evaluation of patients with thunderclap headache. The clinical profile and differential diagnosis of thunderclap headache is described, and a nosological framework and diagnostic approach to this group of patients is proposed.

  12. National Headache Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Topic Sheets (Spanish) Headache FAQ NHF Webinars Education Modules MigrainePro™ Children’s Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ...

  13. Cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes) of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye). It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name) in bouts that can occur ...

  14. Effectiveness of Trigger Point Manual Treatment on the Frequency, Intensity, and Duration of Attacks in Primary Headaches: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falsiroli Maistrello

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA variety of interventions has been proposed for symptomatology relief in primary headaches. Among these, manual trigger points (TrPs treatment gains popularity, but its effects have not been investigated yet.ObjectiveThe aim was to establish the effectiveness of manual TrP compared to minimal active or no active interventions in terms of frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in adult people with primary headaches.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, COCHRANE, Web Of Science, and PEDro databases up to November 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Two independent reviewers appraised the risk-of-bias (RoB and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE to evaluate the overall quality of evidence.ResultsSeven RCTs that compared manual treatment vs minimal active intervention were included: 5 focused on tension-type headache (TTH and 2 on Migraine (MH; 3 out of 7 RCTs had high RoB. Combined TTH and MH results show statistically significant reduction for all outcomes after treatment compared to controls, but the level of evidence was very low. Subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in attack frequency (no. of attacks per month after treatment in TTH (MD −3.50; 95% CI from −4.91 to −2.09; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −1.92; 95% CI from −3.03 to −0.80; 2 RCTs. Pain intensity (0–100 scale was reduced in TTH (MD −12.83; 95% CI from −19.49 to −6.17; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −13.60; 95% CI from −19.54 to −7.66; 2RCTs. Duration of attacks (hours was reduced in TTH (MD −0.51; 95% CI from −0.97 to −0.04; 2 RCTs and in MH (MD −10.68; 95% CI from −14.41 to −6.95; 1 RCT.ConclusionManual TrPs treatment of head and neck muscles may reduce frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in TTH and MH, but the quality of evidence according to GRADE approach was very low for the presence of few studies, high RoB, and imprecision of results.

  15. The buffering effect of family functioning on the psychological consequences of headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Zandieh, Sara; Dehghani, Mohsen; Assazadegan, Farhad; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether high family functioning mitigates the association between headache intensity and distress. The sample consisted of 124 patients with chronic or recurrent headache. Patients completed validated questionnaires about headache intensity, family functioning, and

  16. Headaches - danger signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs ... and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Tension headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are chronic, they can interfere with life and work. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call 911 if: You are experiencing "the worst headache of your life" You have speech, vision, or movement problems or loss of balance, especially if you have not had these symptoms ...

  18. Association between headache and temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelhuda, Amira Mokhtar; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Sang-Yun; Kim, Young-Kyun

    2017-12-01

    Headaches are one of the most common conditions associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). In the present paper, we evaluated the relationship between headache and TMD, determined whether headache influences the symptoms of TMD, and reported two cases of TMD accompanied by headache. Our practical experience and a review of the literature suggested that headache increases the frequency and intensity of pain parameters, thus complicating dysfunctional diseases in both diagnostic and treatment phases. Therefore, early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMD is necessary to avoid the overlap of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

  19. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  20. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  1. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  2. [A rarely known headache: Airplane travel headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Filiz; Erkılınç, Büşra; Çabalar, Murat; Çağırıcı, Sultan; Yayla, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, headache associated with airplane travel has gained importance with case reports and took its place in the classification of headache in 2013. This rare condition has different spesific characteristic from the primary headaches and its pathophysiology is not clear yet. In this case report, a 27-years-old female patient was diagnosed with the headache associated with airplane travel by history, examination and imaging findings. The possible pathophysiology and treatment were discussed.

  3. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  4. Circadian variations in the clinical presentation of headaches among migraineurs: A study using a smartphone headache diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Cho, Soo-Jin; Park, Sang-Gue; Chu, Min Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Migraines occur within certain time frames. Nevertheless, information regarding circadian variation in the clinical presentation of migraine is limited. We investigated circadian variations in the clinical presentation of migraine using a smartphone headache diary (SHD). We enrolled adult participants with the diagnosis of migraine according to the third beta edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Participants were asked to log in to the SHD every day for 90 days to record the occurrence of headaches. We compared the occurrence and clinical presentation of headaches during four 6-hour quadrants per day (00:00-05:59, 06:00-11:59, 12:00-17:59, and 18:00-23:59). Migraine-type headache was defined as a headache attack that fulfilled all criteria of migraine, except for the criterion regarding typical headache duration. Eighty-two participants kept a dairy for at least 50% of the study period and recorded 1491 headache attacks. Among the 1491 headache attacks, 474 (31.8%) were classified as migraine-type headaches and 1017 (68.2%) were classified as non-migraine-type headaches. All headaches, migraine-type headaches and non-migraine-type headaches occurred most frequently between 06:00 and 11:59, and least frequently between 18:00 and 23:59, and between 00:00 and 05:59. Migrainous headache characteristics, such as unilateral pain, pulsating quality, severe headache intensity, aggravation by movement, nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia presented most frequently between 06:00 and 11:59, and least frequently between 18:00 and 23:59, and 00:00 and 05:59 among 1491 all headache attacks. Headache clinical presentation as well as headache occurrence exhibited circadian periodicity among migraineurs. SHD: smartphone headache diary; ICHD-3 beta: the third edition beta version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders.

  5. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  6. Headaches in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his or her head to indicate severe pain. Tension-type headache Tension-type headaches can cause: A pressing tightness ... headaches. Be alert for things that may cause stress in your child's life, such as difficulty ... Keep a headache diary. A diary can help you determine what ...

  7. Headache in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tad

    2014-09-01

    Sports- and exercise-related headaches are not unusual. Despite their frequent occurrence in this context, there are little epidemiologic data concerning sports-related headache. The recent attention of concussive injuries and associated post-traumatic headache has renewed interest in the study of those headaches occurring after head trauma; however, any primary headache type can also occur in the setting of contact and/or collision sports. The nonspecific nature of headaches provides unique challenges to clinicians encountering this complaint. It is, therefore, imperative that physicians treating athletes are able to distinguish the various headache types and presentations often seen in this population.

  8. Headache In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Headaches are common in children. The presentation of headache in children is varied and hence the characterization of headache is more challenging. This situation is worsened further by inadequacies in the history and the effect of maturational factors. Relevant epidemiological and limitations in the applicability of International Headache Society criteria in childhood headache and the rationale for newer criteria are discussed. Migraine and tension-type headache are the common primary headache seen in children. Although there is a paucity of clinical trials the management of childhood migraine, the important role of correct pharmacological approach has been delineated. The pivotal role of non-pharmacological treatment is emphasized.

  9. Headache care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  10. [Headache: classification and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaat, P A T; Couturier, E G M

    2016-11-01

    There are many types of headache and, moreover, many people have different types of headache at the same time. Adequate treatment is possible only on the basis of the correct diagnosis. Technically and in terms of content the current diagnostics process for headache is based on the 'International Classification of Headache Disorders' (ICHD-3-beta) that was produced under the auspices of the International Headache Society. This classification is based on a distinction between primary and secondary headaches. The most common primary headache types are the tension type headache, migraine and the cluster headache. Application of uniform diagnostic concepts is essential to come to the most appropriate treatment of the various types of headache.

  11. HIT-6 and MIDAS as measures of headache disability in a headache referral population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Rose, Marianne S; Becker, Werner J; Christie, Suzanne N; Giammarco, Rose; Mackie, Gordon F; Eloff, Arnoldas G; Gawel, Marek J

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the headache impact test (HIT-6) and the migraine disability assessment scale (MIDAS) as clinical measures of headache-related disability. The degree of headache-related disability is an important factor in treatment planning. Many quality of life and headache disability measures exist but it is unclear which of the available disability measures is the most helpful in planning and measuring headache management. We compared HIT-6 and MIDAS scores from 798 patients from the Canadian Headache Outpatient Registry and Database (CHORD). Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between the HIT-6 and MIDAS total scores, headache frequency and intensity, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores. A positive correlation was found between HIT-6 and MIDAS scores (r = 0.52). The BDI-II scores correlated equally with the HIT-6 and the MIDAS (r = 0.42). There was a non-monotonic relationship between headache frequency and the MIDAS, and a non-linear monotonic relationship between headache frequency and the HIT-6 (r = 0.24). The correlation was higher between the intensity and the HIT-6 scores (r = 0.46), than MIDAS (r = 0.26) scores. Seventy-nine percent of patients fell into the most severe HIT-6 disability category, compared with the 57% of patients that fell into the most severe MIDAS disability category. Significantly more patients were placed in a more severe category with the HIT-6 than with the MIDAS (McNemar chi-square = 191 on 6 d.f., P MIDAS appear to measure headache-related disability in a similar fashion. However, some important differences may exist. Headache intensity appears to influence HIT-6 score more than the MIDAS, whereas the MIDAS was influenced more by headache frequency. Using the HIT-6 and MIDAS together may give a more accurate assessment of a patient's headache-related disability.

  12. Headache and endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biase, Stefano; Longoni, Marco; Gigli, Gian Luigi; Agostoni, Elio

    2017-05-01

    The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) includes headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures (EVPs). The aim of this review is to describe the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of headache related to vascular lesions and EVPs. Current studies regarding this issue are contradictory, although generally favouring headache improvement after EVPs. Further large studies are needed to adequately assess the effect of EVPs on headache.

  13. Massage Therapy and Frequency of Chronic Tension Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Christopher; Chandler, Clint; Moraska, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. The effect of massage therapy on chronic nonmigraine headache was investigated. Methods. Chronic tension headache sufferers received structured massage therapy treatment directed toward neck and shoulder muscles. Headache frequency, duration, and intensity were recorded and compared with baseline measures. Results. Compared with baseline values, headache frequency was significantly reduced within the first week of the massage protocol. The reduction of headache frequency continued for the remainder of the study (P = .009). The duration of headaches tended to decrease during the massage treatment period (P = .058). Headache intensity was unaffected by massage (P = .19). Conclusions. The muscle-specific massage therapy technique used in this study has the potential to be a functional, nonpharmacological intervention for reducing the incidence of chronic tension headache. PMID:12356617

  14. Headache associated with hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Petar M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hemodialysis (HD is one of the most accessible methods for the treatment of the growing number of patients suffering from terminal-stage renal insufficiency. Although headache is the most frequently encountered neurological symptom during HD, there are few studies reporting its prevalence and clinical features. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the frequency, demographic and clinical features of headache during HD, and to compare these parameters among patients with and without headache. METHOD The study involved 126 patients (48 female and 78 male with chronic renal failure on regular HD for at least six months, at the Dialysis Unit of Nephrology Department, Kruševac. All patients were inquired about their possible problems with headache using the standardized questionnaire designed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, published in 2004 (ICHD-II. Subsequently, the patients were clinically evaluated and patients with headaches were further sub classified by a neurologist with special interest in headache disorders. Patients with headache were compared to the patients without headache regarding age, sex, duration of HD, causes of end-stage renal disease, arterial diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and serum values of the most important blood parameters such as sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine. In the group of patients with headache we analyzed the characteristics of specific headache type according to ICHD-II classification. We also analyzed the most important clinical features of hemodialysis headache (HDH. RESULTS In the group of 126 evaluated patients, 41 (32.5% patients had headaches. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients with headaches and those without headaches regarding sex, age, BMI, duration of HD, causes of end-stage renal disease, arterial blood pressure, red blood cell count

  15. Unusual headaches in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Cynthia C; Mays, MaryAnn; Tepper, Stewart J

    2011-08-01

    Prevalence of headache lowers with age, and headaches of elderly adults tend to be different than those of the younger population. Secondary headaches, such as headaches associated with vascular disease, head trauma, and neoplasm, are more common. Also, certain headache types tend to be geriatric disorders, such as primary cough headache, hypnic headache, typical aura without headache, exploding head syndrome, and giant cell arteritis. This review provides an overview of some of the major and unusual geriatric headaches, both primary and secondary.

  16. Rare nocturnal headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anna S; Kaube, Holger

    2004-06-01

    This review describes rare headaches that can occur at night or during sleep, with a focus on cluster headaches, paroxysmal hemicrania, short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing, hypnic headache and exploding head syndrome. It is known that cluster headaches and hypnic headache are associated with rapid eye movement sleep, as illustrated by recent polysomnographic studies. Functional imaging studies have documented hypothalamic activation that is likely to be of relevance to circadian rhythms. These headache syndromes have been shown to respond to melatonin and lithium therapy, both of which have an indirect impact on the sleep-wake cycle. There is growing evidence that cluster headache and hypnic headache are chronobiological disorders.

  17. Principles of headaches evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rosa Rolim de Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT However common tension-type headache is in epidemiologic population-based studies, migraine is the most common diagnosis in patients seeking treatment for headache in primary care. The appropriate evaluation of headache should be as follows: 1 To rule out the most serious underlying pathologies and to look for other secondary causes of headache, 2 To determine the type of primary headache using the patient's history as a primary diagnostic tool. Symptoms can always overlap, particularly between migraine and tension-type headache and between migraine and some secondary causes of headache (such as neurologic or systemic disease. A brief headache screen based only on anamnesis and physical examination data which direct to an underlying pathology is useful to primary care physicians in particular. An imaging study is not necessary in the vast majority of patients presenting with headache. Nevertheless, imaging (usually CT scan is warranted in the patients outlined above.

  18. Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jiying; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Xuelian; Ran, Li; Tan, Ge; Chen, Lixue; Wang, Kuiyun; Liu, Bowen

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.

  19. Traumatic-event headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas David C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after

  20. Drug therapy in headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  1. Hijab (headscarf) headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Huma N; Solomon, Glen D

    2015-03-01

    Hijab (headscarf) headache is well known among wearers and is a common topic of discussion. It has never previously been reported in the medical literature. Five women described bilateral headache either prompted by or worsened by donning the hijab, or headscarf. The headache always resolved soon after removal of the headscarf. Hijab headache may also be alleviated by minimal modifications in style while allowing women to maintain their moral conviction. It likely represents an extracranial etiology of headache, and recognition may prevent unnecessary evaluation and suffering in hijab wearers. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  2. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  3. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe...... or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness...... and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  4. Primary headaches in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a widespread clinical problem; the prevalence is high in all age groups, from which children and teenagers are not spared. It has been reported that, as many as 75% of school-age children may experience headache infrequently, among them 10% have recurrent headaches. [1],[2] The vast majority of headaches are primary and classified as migraine, tension-type headache (TTH, cluster headache, and other trigeminal autonomic cephalgias. The type of primary headaches could usually be diagnosed by a thorough and careful history taking, and physical examination. Once the diagnosis of migraine is established and appropriate reassurance provided, a balanced and individually tailored treatment plan can be instituted. The goal of treatment includes abortive or acute pain treatment, preventive long-term treatment, and biobehavioral therapy. Knowledge of precise impact of primary headaches on child′s quality of life helps to design a proper comprehensive treatment plan.

  5. Headaches. More than just sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

  6. Team players against headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaul, Charly; Visscher, Corine M; Bhola, Rhia

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform...... for medication overuse headache. The significant value of physiotherapy, education in headache schools, and implementation of strategies of cognitive behavioural therapy was highlighted and the way paved for future studies and international collaboration....

  7. Team players against headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaul, Charly; Visscher, Corine M; Bhola, Rhia

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform f...... for medication overuse headache. The significant value of physiotherapy, education in headache schools, and implementation of strategies of cognitive behavioural therapy was highlighted and the way paved for future studies and international collaboration....

  8. Headache in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2013-01-01

    . Results: Fifty per cent of the children had an improvement in headache frequency above 50% at six months. By the use of repeated measurement analysis, we found a significant decrease in headache frequency in all of the six headache groups, whereas the increase in quality of life (PedsQL™ 4.0...

  9. Headache and botulinum toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, M.; Camerlingo, M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss clinical and international experience about botulinum toxins (BTX types A and B) in headache treatment. Data from literature suggest good results for the treatment of tensiontype headache, migraine and chronic tension–type headache. In the present paper mechanisms of action and injection sites will also be discussed.

  10. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  11. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  12. Headache diaries and calendars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torelli, Paola; Jensen, Rigmor

    2010-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common types of pain and, in the absence of biological markers, headache diagnosis depends only on information obtained from clinical interviews and physical and neurological examinations. Headache diaries make it possible to record prospectively the characteristics...... of every attack and the use of headache calendars is indicated for evaluating the time pattern of headache, identifying aggravating factors, and evaluating the efficacy of preventive treatment. This may reduce the recall bias and increase accuracy in the description. The use of diagnostic headache diaries...... practice for diagnosis and follow-up of treatments; and (2) describe the tools that have been developed for research and their main applications in the headache field. In addition, we include information on diaries available online and proposals for future areas of research....

  13. Hemodialysis-related headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sav, Murat Yusuf; Sav, Tansu; Senocak, Elif; Sav, Nadide Melike

    2014-10-01

    Headache is one of the most frequently encountered neurological symptoms during hemodialysis. According to International Classification of Headache criteria dialysis-related headache was defined as the headache occurring during hemodialysis with no specific characteristic. It resolves spontaneously within 72 hours after the hemodialysis session ends. There are few studies in the literature investigating the clinical features of dialysis headache. The pathophysiology of hemodialysis-related headache is not known, but various triggering factors have been identified, including changes in blood pressure, serum sodium and magnesium levels during hemodialysis sessions, caffeine deprivation and stress. The aim of this article is to evaluate and analyze features of headache in patients undergoing hemodialysis. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  14. Rare primary headaches: clinical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, G; d'Onofrio, F; Torelli, P

    2004-10-01

    So-called "rare" headaches, whose prevalence rate is lower than 1% or is not known at all and have been reported in only a few dozen cases to date, constitute a very heterogeneous group. Those that are best characterised from the clinical point of view can be classified into forms with prominent autonomic features and forms with sparse or no autonomic features. Among the former are trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hemicrania continua, while the latter comprise classical trigeminal neuralgia, hypnic headache, primary thunderclap headache, and exploding head syndrome. The major clinical discriminating factor for the differential diagnosis of TACs is the relationship between duration and frequency of attacks: the forms in which pain is shorter lived are those with the higher frequency of daily attacks. Other aspects to be considered are the time pattern of symptoms, intensity and timing of attacks, the patient's behaviour during the attacks, the presence of any triggering factors and of the refractory period after an induced attack, and response to therapy, especially with indomethacin. Often these are little known clinical entities, which are not easily detected in clinical practice. For some of them, e. g., thunderclap headache, it is always necessary to perform instrumental tests to exclude the presence of underlying organic diseases.

  15. Influence of headache frequency on clinical signs and symptoms of TMD in subjects with temple headache and TMD pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gary C; John, Mike T; Ohrbach, Richard; Nixdorf, Donald R; Schiffman, Eric L; Truelove, Edmond S; List, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The relationship of the frequency of temple headache to signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) was investigated in a subset of a larger convenience sample of community TMD cases. The study sample included 86 painful TMD, nonheadache subjects; 309 painful TMD subjects with varied frequency of temple headaches; and 149 subjects without painful TMD or headache for descriptive comparison. Painful TMD included Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders diagnoses of myofascial pain, TMJ arthralgia, and TMJ osteoarthritis. Mild to moderate-intensity temple headaches were classified by frequency using criteria based on the International Classification of Headache Disorder, 2nd edition, classification of tension-type headache. Outcomes included TMD signs and symptoms (pain duration, pain intensity, number of painful masticatory sites on palpation, mandibular range of motion), pressure pain thresholds, and temple headache resulting from masticatory provocation tests. Trend analyses across the painful TMD groups showed a substantial trend for aggravation of all of the TMD signs and symptoms associated with increased frequency of the temple headaches. In addition, increased headache frequency showed significant trends associated with reduced PPTs and reported temple headache with masticatory provocation tests. In conclusion, these findings suggest that these headaches may be TMD related, as well as suggesting a possible role for peripheral and central sensitization in TMD patients. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  17. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  18. [Primary headache and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesztelyi, Gyöngyi

    2004-11-28

    Primary headaches--mainly tension-type headache and migraine--affect a significant portion of the population. Depression is also highly prevalent. The co-existence of a primary headache and depression in the same patient therefore might be a coincidence due to the high prevalence of these conditions, but there might be a causal relationship between them, or headaches and depression might have a common background. This review of the literature summarizes the features of the relationship between primary headaches and depression. Depression is more prevalent in headache patients than in the headache-free population. Prospective epidemiological studies suggest a common genetic, biochemical or environmental background behind primary headaches and depression. This theory is supported by the role of the same neurotransmitter systems (mostly serotonin and dopamine) in headaches as well as in depression. Comorbid depression is associated with female gender, higher age, and higher frequency of headaches. Most depression inventories--questionnaires used to screen for the severity of depressive symptoms--contain transdiagnostic items, therefore their use in their original form is limited in organic diseases: due to the somatic items they might overestimate the severity of depression. When examining a headache patient special attention should be paid to the recognition of comorbid depression. The diagnosis of suspected mood disorder could be supported by using simple screening methods, such as the original or the abbreviated versions of standard depression inventories, but the final diagnosis of major depression needs psychiatric evaluation. Quality of life of the headache patient is affected not only by the characteristics of pain (frequency, duration, severity) but also by the disability caused by headache and the associating mood disorder. Recognizing coexisting mood disorder and disability helps to make the best treatment choice for the acute and preventive treatment of

  19. [Headache: Otorhinolaryngological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, O

    2016-01-01

    Headache is the main symptom in a wide variety of diseases of which ear, nose and throat (ENT) entities are only a small fraction but are not reflected in the number of patients. Comprehensive knowledge of the clinical signs of the most common primary headaches, e. g. migraine, is therefore essential for the ENT specialist because the few patients with secondary headache from ENT-related causes must be identified. Reasons for confusing primary headache with e. g. sinusitis are mostly symptoms mediated by the trigeminal nerve, such as nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea because branches of the trigeminal nerve also innervate the meninges. The ENT-specific origin of headaches is characterized by clinical findings of physical organ disease; therefore, from an ENT perspective imaging should be part of the diagnostic procedure as normal imaging findings are indicative of primary headache, which would not normally be treated by an ENT specialist.

  20. Pediatric Headache: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Raquel; DiSabella, Marc T

    2017-03-01

    Headache represents the most common neurologic disorder in the general population including children and is increasingly being recognized as a major source of morbidity in youth related to missed school days and activities. In this article, we take a holistic approach to the child presenting with headache with a focus on the detailed headache history, physical and neurologic examinations, and diagnostic evaluation of these patients. Clinical presentations and classification schema of multiple primary and secondary headache types in children are discussed using the International Headache Criteria (IHCD-3) as a guide, and a summary provided of the various treatment modalities employed for pediatric headache including lifestyle modifications, behavioral techniques, and abortive and preventive medications. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Headache in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Seby; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous inflammatory disorders characterized by systemic or localized inflammation, leading to ischemia and tissue destruction. These include disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, systemic vasculitides, and central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis (primary or secondary). Headache is a very common manifestation of CNS involvement of these diseases. Although headache characteristics can be unspecific and often non-diagnostic, it is important to recognize because headache can be the first manifestation of CNS involvement. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary not only to treat the headache, but also to help prevent serious neurological sequelae that frequently accompany autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss headache associated with autoimmune diseases along with important mimics. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  2. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.

    2013-02-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  3. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahre, H; Böke, M; Winter, J; Bahroun, K; Behm, H; Hopmann, Ch; Steves, S; Awakowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered. (paper)

  4. Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Scheib, Stefan G; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-08-21

    Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MV-FFF, 10 MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3 mm, 0.5 sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

  5. The prevalence and impact of headache in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz P; Silva Junior, Ariovaldo A

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, several epidemiological studies on headache have been produced, most with an emphasis on prevalence and the association of primary headaches with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Data on the burden of headache, however, are scarce. The aim of this paper is to review all Brazilian population-based studies on headache, as well as to analyze the Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) data collected with the PhD thesis of the senior author (LPQ). A literature review was performed using the keywords ("headache" or "migraine") and ("epidemiology" or "prevalence") and (Brazil). Another part of this paper will look at unpublished data on disability (MIDAS), collected with the prevalence data of the Brazilian nationwide epidemiological study of headache. There are 6 published epidemiological studies of headache in Brazil. The mean 1-year prevalence of headache in Brazil is 70.6%, of migraine 15.8%, of tension-type headache (TTH) 29.5%, and of chronic daily headache (CDH) 6.1%. Disability is significantly higher: in females compared to males; in patients with migraine and CDH compared to patients with TTH; and in those with headaches ≥15 days per month rather than those with episodic headaches. There was also a positive relationship between pain intensity and severity of disability. Patients with higher disability used more both abortive and prophylactic medication. The mean prevalence of headache in Brazil, and some of its subtypes, is similar to the rates described in other countries of the world. Disability is higher in females, in patients with migraine, in individuals with headaches ≥15 days per month, and in those with severe head pain. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  6. Case studies of uncommon headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph W

    2006-05-01

    The following interesting and uncommon headache disorders are presented through case studies: exploding head syndrome, hypnic headache, neck-tongue syndrome, "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, nummular headache, red ear syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome, and cardiac cephalalgia.

  7. Ictal headache and visual sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccioli, M.; Parisi, P.; Tisei, P.; Villa, M. P.; Buttinelli, C.; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, D. G. A.

    Migrainous headache is reported by patients with photosensitive epilepsy, whereas their relatives complain more often about headache than the relatives of patients with other types of epilepsy. We therefore investigated whether headache itself could be an epileptic symptom related to

  8. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  9. Tension type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension type headaches are common in clinical practice. Earlier known by various names, the diagnosis has had psychological connotations. Recent evidence has helped clarify the neurobiological basis and the disorder is increasingly considered more in the preview of neurologists. The classification, clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of tension type headache are discussed in this paper.

  10. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Majid T Noghani; Hossein Rezaeizadeh; Sayed Mohammad Baqer Fazljoo; Mahmoud Yousefifard; Mansoor Keshavarz

    2016-01-01

    There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which or...

  11. Temporomandibular disorders in headache patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Christiane-Espinola-Bandeira; Oliveira, José-Luiz-Góes; Jesus, Alan-Chester-Feitosa; Maia, Mila-Leite-de Moraes; de Santana, Jonielly-Costa-Vasconcelos; Andrade, Loren-Suyane-Oliveira; Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana-de Souza; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo-José; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its seve-rity in individuals with headache. Study Design: 60 adults divided into three groups of 20 individuals: chronic daily headache (CDH), episodic headache (EH) and a control group without headache (WH). Headache diagnosis was performed according to the criteria of International Headache Society and the signs and symptoms of TMD were achieved by using a clinical exam and an anamnestic quest...

  12. Headache in children's drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojaczyńska-Stanek, Katarzyna; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Gola, Małgorzata

    2008-02-01

    Headache is a common health problem in childhood. Children's drawings are helpful in the diagnosis of headache type. Children, especially younger ones, communicate better through pictures than verbally. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of drawings of the child's headache in the diagnostic process carried out by a pediatrician and a pediatric neurologist. At the beginning of a visit in a neurological clinic, or on the first day of hospitalization, the child was asked, "Please draw your headache," or "How do you feel your headache?" without any additional explanations or suggestions. Clinical diagnosis of headache type was made on the basis of the standard diagnostic evaluation. For the purpose of this study, children's headaches were categorized as migraine, tension-type headache, or "the others." One hundred twenty-four drawings of children with headaches were analyzed by 8 pediatricians and 8 pediatric neurologists. The analysts were unaware of the clinical history, age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients. The clinical diagnosis was considered the "gold standard" to which the headache drawing diagnosis was compared. There were 68 girls 5-18 years of age and 56 boys 7-18 years of age. Of the 124 children, 40 were clinically diagnosed with migraine (32.2%), 47 with tension-type headache (37.9%), and 37 (29.8%) as the others. Children with migraine most frequently draw sharp elements. Children with tension-type headache mainly drew compression elements and pressing elements. In the group of "the other" headaches, 21 children were diagnosed with somatoform disorders. The most frequent element in this group's drawings was a whirl in the head. Colors used most frequently were black and red, which signify severe pain. There was no difference in sensitivity of diagnoses between neurologists and pediatricians. Because the evaluation of drawings by children with headaches done both by pediatricians and pediatric neurologists was correct for

  13. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  14. Headache yesterday in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

  15. Characteristics of Elderly-Onset (≥65 years) Headache Diagnosed Using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae Jin; Kim, Yong Jae; Kim, Byung Kun; Kim, Byung Su; Kim, Jae Moon; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Moon, Heui Soo; Cha, Myoung Jin; Park, Kwang Yeol; Sohn, Jong Hee; Chu, Min Kyung; Cho, Soo Jin

    2016-10-01

    New-onset headache in elderly patients is generally suggestive of a high probability of secondary headache, and the subtypes of primary headache diagnoses are still unclear in the elderly. This study investigated the characteristics of headache with an older age at onset (≥65 years) and compared the characteristics between younger and older age groups. We prospectively collected demographic and clinical data of 1,627 patients who first visited 11 tertiary hospitals in Korea due to headache between August 2014 and February 2015. Headache subtype was categorized according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version. In total, 152 patients (9.3%, 106 women and 46 men) experienced headache that began from 65 years of age [elderly-onset group (EOG)], while the remaining 1,475 patients who first experienced headache before the age of 65 years were classified as the younger-age-at-onset group (YOG). Among the primary headache types, tension-type headache (55.6% vs. 28.8%) and other primary headache disorders (OPH, 31.0% vs. 17.3%) were more common in the EOG than in the YOG, while migraine was less frequent (13.5% vs. 52.2%) (p=0.001) in the EOG. Among OPH, primary stabbing headache (87.2%) was more frequent in the EOG than in the YOG (p=0.032). The pain was significantly less severe (p=0.026) and the frequency of medication overuse headache was higher in EOG than in YOG (23.5% vs. 7.6%, p=0.040). Tension-type headache and OPH headaches, primarily stabbing headache, were more common in EOG patients than in YOG patients. The pain intensity, distribution of headache diagnoses, and frequency of medication overuse differed according to the age at headache onset.

  16. Enhanced methane production from pig slurry with pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2018-02-01

    Intensive amount of manure produced in pig breeding sectors represents negative impact on the environment and requires optimal management. Anaerobic digestion as a well-known manure management process was optimized in this experimental study by pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. The effect of PEF on methane production was investigated at three different intensities (15, 30 and 50 kWh/m 3 ). The results indicate that the methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was improved by continuous escalation of applied intensity, up to 50 kWh/m 3 . In comparison with untreated slurry, methane production and COD removal were increased up to 58% and 44%, respectively.

  17. Unusual headache syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz P

    2013-01-01

    Some headache syndromes have few cases reported in the literature. Their clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, and treatment may have not been completely defined. They may not actually be uncommon but rather under-recognized and/or underreported. A literature review of unusual headache syndromes, searching PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, was performed. After deciding which disorders to study, relevant publications in scientific journals, including original articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, and letters or correspondences to the editors were searched. This paper reviewed the clinical characteristics, the pathogenesis, the diagnosis, and the treatment of five interesting and unusual headache syndromes: exploding head syndrome, red ear syndrome, neck-tongue syndrome, nummular headache, and cardiac cephalgia. Recognizing some unusual headaches, either primary or secondary, may be a challenge for many non-headache specialist physicians. It is important to study them because the correct diagnosis may result in specific treatments that may improve the quality of life of these patients, and this can even be life saving. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  18. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  19. Rethinking headache chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B; Houle, Timothy T

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this series is to examine several threats to the interpretation of headache chronification studies that arise from methodological issues. The study of headache chronification has extensively used longitudinal designs with 2 or more measurement occasions. Unfortunately, application of these designs, when combined with the common practice of extreme score selection as well as the extant challenges in measuring headache frequency rates (eg, unreliability, regression to the mean), induces substantive threats to accurate interpretation of findings. Partitioning the amount of observed variance in rates of chronification and remission attributable to regression artifacts is a critical yet previously overlooked step to learning more about headache as a potentially progressive disease. In this series on rethinking headache chronification, we provide an overview of methodological issues in this area (this paper), highlight the influence of rounding error on estimates of headache frequency (second paper), examine the influence of random error and regression artifacts on estimates of chronification and remission (third paper), and consider future directions for this line of research (fourth paper). © 2013 American Headache Society.

  20. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years...

  1. Stress and headache chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy; Nash, Justin M

    2008-01-01

    In this special section, the concept of stress has been linked to the chronification of headache and is considered to be one of several likely mechanisms for the progression of an otherwise episodic disorder to a chronic daily phenomenon. The present review discusses the concept of stress and describes the mechanisms through which stress could influence headache progression. The hypothesized mechanisms include stress serving as a unique trigger for individual attacks, as a nociceptive activator, and as a moderator of other mechanisms. Finally, the techniques used in the screening and management of stress are mentioned in the context of employing strategies for the primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention of headache progression.

  2. Headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders and masticatory myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuhiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Matsukawa, Yumiko; Dezawa, Ko; Nakaya, Yuka; Chen, Jui-Yen; Noma, Noboru; Oka, Shunichi; Iwata, Koichi; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the temporal association between temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms and headache during TMD treatment for patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to TMD (HATMD) specified in the Diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and International classification of headache disorders (ICHD)-3 beta. The study enrolled 34 patients with HATMD induced by masticatory myofascial pain but not by temporomandibular arthralgia. Facial pain intensity, the pressure pain threshold of pericranial muscles, and maximum unassisted opening of the jaw were assessed at an initial examination and before and after physical therapy. The intensity and frequency of headache episodes and tooth contact ratio were also recorded before and after the intervention. Headache intensity and frequency significantly decreased, and these reductions were temporally related to improvements in facial pain intensity, maximum unassisted opening, and pressure pain threshold during TMD treatment. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between facial pain intensity and headache intensity and between tooth contact ratio and pressure pain threshold. Among patients who fulfilled the DC/TMD and ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for HATMD, headache improved during TMD treatment, and the improvement was temporally related to amelioration of TMD symptoms. These findings suggest that sensitization in the central and peripheral nervous systems is responsible for HATMD. (J Oral Sci 58, 195-204, 2016).

  3. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carlo; D'Urso, Anna; Papi, Piero; Di Sabato, Francesco; Rosella, Daniele; Pompa, Giorgio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Aim . Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD's symptoms. Material and Methods . A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH) and Group without Headache (GwoH). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results . Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation) and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities), and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion . This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

  4. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Di Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD’s symptoms. Material and Methods. A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH and Group without Headache (GwoH. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results. Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities, and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion. This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

  5. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carlo; D'Urso, Anna; Di Sabato, Francesco; Pompa, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD's symptoms. Material and Methods. A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH) and Group without Headache (GwoH). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results. Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation) and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities), and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion. This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity. PMID:28420942

  6. Social Pre-treatment Modulates Attention Allocation to Transient and Stable Object Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Oláh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that ostensive-communicative signals in social learning situations enable observers to focus their attention on the intrinsic features of an object (e.g. color at the expense of ignoring transient object properties (e.g. location. Here we investigated whether off-line social cues, presented as social primes, have the same power to modulate attention allocation to stable and transient object properties as on-line ostensive-communicative cues. The first part of the experiment consisted of a pre-treatment phase, where adult male participants either received intensive social stimulation or were asked to perform non-social actions. Then, they participated in a change detection test, where they watched pairs of pictures depicting an array of five objects. On the second picture, a change occurred compared to the first picture. One object changed either its location (moving forward or backward or was replaced by another object, and participants were required to indicate where the change had happened. We found that participants detected the change more successfully if it had happened in the location of the object; however, this difference was reduced following a socially intense pre-treatment phase. The results are discussed in relation to the claims of the natural pedagogy theory.

  7. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, Safvet

    2017-09-01

    improvement each patient experienced was dramatic ( P < 0.001). Overall, the mean intensity of headaches declined from 6.6 ± 1.47 to 0, on an analog scale of 1-10 ( P < 0.001); and mean headache frequency was reduced from 5.83 ± 1.03/month to 0/month ( P < 0.001). Likewise, the migraine pain index fell from a mean of 149.33 ± 19.21/month to mean of 0/month ( P < 0.001). This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  8. Pre-treatment of oil palm fronds biomass for gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Fronds (OPF has been proven as one of the potential types of biomass feedstock for power generation. The low ash content and high calorific value are making OPF an attractive source for gasification. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pre-treatments of OPF residual on gasification. The pre-treatments included the briquetting process and extensive drying of OPF which are studied separately. In briquetting process, the OPF were mixed with some portions of paper as an additives, leaflets, and water, to form a soupy slurry. The extensive drying of OPF needs to cut down OPF in 4–6 cm particle size and left to dry in the oven at 150°C for 24 hours. Gasification process was carried out at the end of each of the pre-treated processes. It was found that the average gas composition obtained from briquetting process was 8.07%, 2.06%, 0.54%,and 11.02% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 respectively. A good composition of syngas was produced from extensive dried OPF, as 16.48%, 4.03%, 0.91%,and 11.15% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 contents respectively. It can be concluded that pre-treatments improved the physical characteristics of biomass. The bulk density of biomass can be increased by briquetting but the stability of the structure is depending on the composition of briquette formulation. Furthermore, the stability of gasification process also depended on briquette density, mechanical strength, and formulation.

  9. Gender influences headache characteristics with increasing age in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Ozge, Aynur; Saginc, Petek; Orekici, Gulhan; Uludüz, Derya; Yalın, Osman; Siva, Aksel; Bıçakçi, Şebnem; Karakurum, Başak; Öztürk, Musa

    2015-08-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is three times more prevalent in women than in men, especially during the reproductive ages. The neurobiological basis of the female dominance has been partly established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the headache manifestations in migraine patients. The study group consisted of 2082 adult patients from five different hospitals' tertiary care-based headache clinics. The relationship between headache characteristics and gender was evaluated in migraine with aura (MwA) and migraine without aura (MwoA). The duration, severity, frequency of headache and associated symptoms were evaluated in both genders and age-dependent variations and analyzed in two subgroups. Women with migraine were prone to significantly longer duration and intensity of headache attacks. Nausea, phonophobia and photophobia were more prevalent in women. Median headache duration was also longer in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.013) and MwoA (p < 0.001). Median headache intensity was higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.010) and MwoA (p = 0.009). The frequency of nausea was significantly higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.049). Throbbing headache quality and associated features (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) were significantly more frequent in women than in men in MwoA. The gender impact varied across age groups and significant changes were seen in female migraineurs after age 30. No age-dependent variation was observed in male migraineurs. Gender has an influence on the characteristics of the headache as well as on the associated symptoms in migraine patients, and this impact varies across the age groups, particularly in women. © International Headache Society 2014.

  10. Headaches: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4):199–208. Kemper KJ, Breuner CC. Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: headaches . Pediatrics in Review . 2010; ... based evaluation of complementary health approaches for pain management in the United States. Mayo Clinic Proceedings . September ...

  11. Epidemiology and comorbidity of headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovner, L.J.; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2008-01-01

    The burden associated with headache is a major public health problem, the true magnitude of which has not been fully acknowledged until now. Globally, the percentage of the adult population with an active headache disorder is 47% for headache in general, 10% for migraine, 38% for tension-type...... headache, and 3% for chronic headache that lasts for more than 15 days per month. The large costs of headache to society, which are mostly indirect through loss of work time, have been reported. On the individual level, headaches cause disability, suffering, and loss of quality of life that is on a par...

  12. Headache associated with airplane travel: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Ajith; Mathew, Mini; Iype, Thomas; Sandeep, P; Jabeen, Afshan; Ayyappan, K

    2013-01-01

    Airplane travel headache is rare and has recently been described as a new form of headache associated with a specific situation. Of the 1,208 patients with primary headaches attending a tertiary care neurology hospital, two (0.16%) patients satisfied the criteria for headache related to airplane travel. Both the patients fulfilled the proposed diagnostic criteria for airplane travel headache. This unique headache had a mean duration of 24 minutes, localized to the medial supraorbital region described as having an intense jabbing or stabbing character that occurred exclusively and maximally during aircraft landing or take-off, following which pain intensity subsided . This rare headache felt on aircraft descent is probably due to the squeeze effect on the frontal sinus wall, when air trapped inside it contracts producing a negative pressure leading to mucosal edema, transudation and intense pain. Use of nasal decongestants either alone or in combination with naproxen sodium prior to ascent and descent abated the headache episodes. Awareness about this unique entity is essential to provide proper treatment and avoid patient suffering.

  13. Temporomandibular disorders and migraine headache

    OpenAIRE

    Demarin, Vida; Bašić Kes, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    Migraine headache and temporomandibular disorders show significant overlap in the area or distribution of pain, the gender prevalence and age distribution. Temporomandibular disorders may cause headaches per se, worsen existent primary headaches, and add to the burden of headache disorders. The patients with combined migraine and tension-type headaches had a higher prevelance of temporomandibular disorders. Evidence supporting a close relationship include the increased masticatory...

  14. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication...... of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...

  15. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication...

  16. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PRE-TREATMENT IN AUTOMOTIVE PAINTING LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  18. Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopplow, O.; Barjenbruch, M.; Heinz, V.

    2003-07-01

    The anaerobic stabilization process depends - among others - on the bio-availability of organic carbon. Through pre-treatment of the sludge which leads to the destruction of micro-organisms and to the setting-free of cell content substances (disintegration), the carbon can be microbially converted better and faster. Moreover, effects on the digestion are likely. However, only little experience is available in the sludge treatment with pulsed electric fields. Laboratory-scale digestion tests have been run to analyse the influence of pulsed electric fields on the properties of sludge, anaerobic degradation, sludge water reload and foaming of digesters. The results will be compared with those of other disintegration methods (high pressure homogenise, thermal treatment). The effect of pre-treatment on the sludge is shown by the COD release. Degrees of disintegration have been achieved up to 20%. The specific energy input was high. The energy consumption has been decreased by initial improvements (pre-heating to 55{sup o}C). The filament bacteria were partially destroyed. The foam reduction in the digesters was marginal. The anaerobic degradation performance has been improved in every case. The degradation rate of organic matter increased about 9%. Due to the increase of degradation, there is a higher reload of the sludge-water with COD and nitrogen compounds. (author)

  19. Behavioral treatment of headaches: extending the reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral treatments (predominantly biofeedback, relaxation, and cognitive-behavioral) have been utilized in headache management for many decades. Although effective, they have not been as widely implemented as desired, chiefly due to their time-intensive nature, special therapist qualifications, and patient costs. This paper focuses on ways to make these treatments more affordable and more readily accessible to patients. Various alternative delivery models have been explored. This paper reviews progress to date on three such approaches for treating recurrent headaches in adults--prudent limited office contact, Internet delivery, and mass media approaches. Clinical outcomes, advantages, and disadvantages of these approaches are reviewed in brief.

  20. Classification and clinical features of primary headache in Akaki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification and clinical features of primary headache in Akaki Textile Mill workers, ... study wherein data collection and examination of cases using a structured and ... like pressure or tightness with a mild to moderate intensity and anorexia.

  1. Mindfulness Meditation for Primary Headache Pain: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Gu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Mindfulness meditation may reduce pain intensity and is a promising treatment option for patients. Clinicians may consider mindfulness meditation as a viable complementary and alternative medical option for primary headache.

  2. New daily-persistent headache versus tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew S; Crystal, Sara C

    2010-12-01

    New daily-persistent headache (NDPH) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) are two forms of primary chronic daily headache of long duration that often are similar in their headache manifestations. NDPH distinguishes itself from CTTH and the other forms of chronic daily headache by its continuous head pain from onset. However, despite formalized criteria that specify NDPH must resemble the acute onset of a headache identical to that of CTTH, NDPH commonly has migraine features. Here, we review the available literature on NDPH and compare its clinical features, epidemiology, prognosis, inciting factors, and treatment to CTTH.

  3. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Method Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Results Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (pSmartphone headache diary application is an effective tool to assess migraine trigger factors. The headaches with trigger factors had greater severity or migraine features. The type of triggers and the presence of preventive medication influenced the headache characteristics; hence, an investigation of trigger factors would be helpful in understanding migraine occurrences. PMID:26901341

  4. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (pSmartphone headache diary application is an effective tool to assess migraine trigger factors. The headaches with trigger factors had greater severity or migraine features. The type of triggers and the presence of preventive medication influenced the headache characteristics; hence, an investigation of trigger factors would be helpful in understanding migraine occurrences.

  5. Update of Inpatient Treatment for Refractory Chronic Daily Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a group of headache disorders, in which headaches occur daily or near-daily (>15 days per month) and last for more than 3 months. Important CDH subtypes include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, hemicrania continua, and new daily persistent headache. Other headaches with shorter durations (headache and various psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Indications of inpatient treatment for CDH patients include poor responses to outpatient management, need for detoxification for overuse of specific medications (particularly opioids and barbiturates), and severe psychiatric comorbidities. Inpatient treatment usually involves stopping acute pain, preventing future attacks, and detoxifying medication overuse if present. Multidisciplinary integrated care that includes medical staff from different disciplines (e.g., psychiatry, clinical psychology, and physical therapy) has been recommended. The outcomes of inpatient treatment are satisfactory in terms of decreasing headache intensity or frequency, withdrawal from medication overuse, reducing disability, and improving life quality, although long-term relapse is not uncommon. In conclusion, inpatient treatment may be useful for select patients with refractory CDH and should be incorporated in a holistic headache care program.

  6. The efficacy of oral habit modification on headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Sheykhbahaei, Nafiseh; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj; Fatehi, Farzad

    2017-12-01

    Headache is the most common complaint of patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). Thus, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) examinations maybe necessary in patients with headache. Considering the high prevalence of bruxism and TMDs in patients with headache the effects of conservative TMD treatment on headache should be assessed. Patients were questioned about headaches in the past three months. Those responding affirmatively to this question were examined for TMD and bruxism. After the examinations, 219 patients remained in the study and received self-management instructions. Patients were requested to modify oral habits except when eating or sleeping. The degree of pain (visual analogue scale), headache disability index (HDI), frequency of headaches (FH) per month and TMD intensity were evaluated. The median levels of pain, HDI, FH, and TMD intensity were 8, 44, 8, and 7, respectively, before modifying oral habits and decreased to 4, 24, 2, and 3, respectively, after intervention. These decreases were statistically significant. Having patients maintain free space between the teeth and relax muscles can be an efficient method to treat headache and TMD, especially when repeated frequently.

  7. Headache Exacerbates Pain Characteristics in Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Alves da Costa, Dayse Regina; de Lima Ferreira, Ana Paula; Porporatti, André Luís; Svensson, Peter; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of headache in adults with masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) on the outcome variables clinical pain (ie, self-reported pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity), sleep quality, and pain catastrophizing. A total of 97 patients with MMP were diagnosed with co-existing headache (MMPH group, n = 50) or without headache (MMP group, n = 47) according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The outcome parameters were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); the Catastrophizing Thoughts subscale of the Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale (PRSS-C); pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles; and self-reported facial pain intensity measured on a 0- to 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Student t test for independent samples (α = 1.2%) and factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 5%) were used to analyze the data. The MMPH group showed significantly impaired sleep quality (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score 9.1 ± 3.5) compared with the MMP group (7.2 ± 3.4; P = .008). Subscale scores on the PRSS-C were significantly higher in the MMPH (2.1 ± 1.2) than in the MMP group (1.6 ± 1.4, uncorrected P = .048). Also, the PPTs (kgf/cm²) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were significantly lower in the MMPH group (1.52 ± 0.53; 1.29 ± 0.43, respectively) than in the MMP group (2.09 ± 0.73; 1.70 ± 0.68, respectively; P headache patients had lower PPTs in the anterior temporalis muscle (P = .041) in comparison with non-headache patients. Co-existence of headache further exacerbates clinical characteristics in patients with painful TMD, which implies involvement of common mechanisms and pathways of vulnerability in these patients.

  8. Nummular headache update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Montojo, Teresa; Alvarez, Mónica

    2012-04-01

    Nummular headache is characterized by head pain exclusively felt in a rounded or elliptical area, typically 1 to 6 cm in diameter. The pain remains confined to the same symptomatic area, which does not change in shape or size with time. The symptomatic area may be localized in any part of the head but mostly in the parietal region. Rarely, the disorder may be multifocal, each symptomatic area keeping all the characteristics of nummular headache. The pain is generally mild or moderate, commonly described as oppressive or stabbing, and lasting minutes, hours, or days, with a remitting or unremitting pattern. Superimposed on the baseline pain, there may be spontaneous or triggered exacerbations. During and between symptomatic periods, the affected area may show variable combinations of hypoesthesia, dysesthesia, paresthesia, tenderness, and trophic changes. Nummular headache emerges as a primary disorder with a clear-cut clinical picture developed in a unique topography.

  9. The Yekaterinburg headache initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Olesen, Jes; Osipova, Vera V

    2013-01-01

    for a demonstrational interventional project in Russia, undertaken within the Global Campaign against Headache. The initiative proposes three actions: 1) raise awareness of need for improvement; 2) design and implement a three-tier model (from primary care to a single highly specialized centre with academic affiliation......) for efficient and equitable delivery of headache-related health care; 3) develop a range of educational initiatives aimed at primary-care physicians, non-specialist neurologists, pharmacists and the general public to support the second action. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We set these proposals in a context...... of a health-care needs assessment, and as a model for all Russia. We present and discuss early progress of the initiative, justify the investment of resources required for implementation and call for the political support that full implementation requires. The more that the Yekaterinburg headache initiative...

  10. Temporomandibular dysfunction and headache disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciali, José G; Dach, Fabíola

    2015-02-01

    It has been well established that primary headaches (especially migraine, chronic migraine, and tension-type headache) and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) are comorbid diseases, with the presence of one of them in a patient increasing the prevalence of the others. The relationship between the 2 diseases may involve the sharing of common physiopathological aspects. Studies about the treatment of this disease association have shown that a simultaneous therapeutic approach to the 2 diseases is more effective than the separate treatment of each. As a consequence, specialists in orofacial pain are now required to know the criteria for the diagnosis of headaches, and headache physicians are required to know the semiologic aspects of orofacial pain. Nevertheless, a headache may be attributed to TMD, instead be an association of 2 problems - TMD and primary headaches - in these cases a secondary headache, described in item 11.7 of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, is still a controversial topic. Attempts to determine the existence of this secondary headache with a specific or suggestive phenotype have been frustrated. The conclusion that can be reached based on the few studies published thus far is that this headache has a preferential unilateral or bilateral temporal location and migraine-like or tension-type headache-like clinical characteristics. In the present review, we will consider the main aspects of the TMD-headache relationship, that is, comorbidity of primary headaches and TMD and clinical aspects of the headaches attributed to TMD from the viewpoint of the International Headache Society and of a group of specialists in orofacial pain. This paper aims to explore our understanding of the association between TMD and headaches in general and migraine in particular. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  11. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  12. Myelography and headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, B.

    1985-01-01

    The side effects associated with the use of Metrizamide, Iopamidol and Iotrol in two double blind studies on lumbar myelography were determined. The cause of headache is explained on the one hand as the result of the distribution of the contrast substance in the CSF space (early headache) and on the other hand due to the CSF leak through the puncture lesion. Peculiar hints are given for a safe examination technique. Iotrol seems to be the safest contrast substance for intrathecal use, however it should be used in the smallest possible amount to reduce even further contrast-related effects in myelography. (Author)

  13. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Abbott, Jeremy J

    2016-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and primary headaches can be perpetual and debilitating musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The presence of both can affect up to one-sixth of the population at any one time. Initially, TMDs were thought to be predominantly musculoskeletal disorders, and migraine was thought to be solely a cerebrovascular disorder. The further understanding of their pathophysiology has helped to clarify their clinical presentation. This article focuses on the role of the trigeminal system in associating TMD and migraine. By discussing recent descriptions of prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of headache and TMD, we will further elucidate this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; Bendtsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The substantial societal and individual burdens associated with tension-type headache (TTH) constitute a previously overlooked major public health issue. TTH is prevalent, affecting up to 78% of the general population, and 3% suffer from chronic TTH. Pericranial myofascial nociception probably...... is important for the pathophysiology of episodic TTH, whereas sensitization of central nociceptive pathways seems responsible for the conversion of episodic to chronic TTH. Headache-related disability usually can be reduced by identification of trigger factors combined with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic...... treatments, but effective treatment modalities are lacking. Benefits can be gained by development of specific and effective treatment strategies....

  15. Headache and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negro, A; Delaruelle, Z; Ivanova, T A

    2017-01-01

    , brain MRI and MR angiography with contrast ophthalmoscopy and lumbar puncture. During pregnancy and breastfeeding the preferred therapeutic strategy for the treatment of primary headaches should always be a non-pharmacological one. Treatment should not be postponed as an undermanaged headache can lead...... to stress, sleep deprivation, depression and poor nutritional intake that in turn can have negative consequences for both mother and baby. Therefore, if non-pharmacological interventions seem inadequate, a well-considered choice should be made concerning the use of medication, taking into account all...

  16. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  17. Descriptive features and causal attributions of headache in an Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, E; Sheffield, J

    1996-04-01

    The reported characteristics and causes of headache differ across individuals and between groups. Such differences are of interest from an epidemiological point of view. This study set out to identify the main descriptive features and causal attributions of headache within an Australian urban community. A sample of 261 subjects reporting headache volunteered to participate in the survey. Subjects completed a self-report questionnaire for assessing demographic variables, headache parameters (intensity, duration, etc), headache medication habits, and perceived causes of one's headache (as in the UK headache survey by Blau, 1990). Results revealed that the typical headache sufferer was a middle-aged employed individual. Migraine versus tension headache were equivalent in number, and on the average, subjects experienced moderate intensity, day-long headaches that recurred about nine times per month. With regard to causal attributions, the prevalence of headaches due to mental stress was higher than that due to any other single stimulus (eg, noise, exercise), and alcohol was the most frequent dietary cause of headache. These findings are generally consistent with those from previous surveys, although some interesting departures emerge which may be accounted for by demographic differences in the populations studied.

  18. Acute medication overuse in headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouch Valenty Krymchantovscki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary headache patients frequently overuse analgesics. Acute medication overuse plays an important role in the transformation of episodic into chronic headaches. The sudden discontinuation of analgesic and migraine prevention introduction are the main issues in the management of chronic daily headache patients. Educational strategies for those who do not overuse acute medications and an agressive approach to those overusing are fundamental for the efficacy of the primary frequent headache treatment.

  19. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  20. Primary stabbing headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Sjaastad, Ottar

    2010-01-01

    Primary stabbing headache is characterized by transient, cephalic ultrashort stabs of pain. It is a frequent complaint with a prevalence of 35.2%, a female preponderance, and a mean age of onset of 28 years (Vågå study). Attacks are generally characterized by moderate to severe, jabbing or stabbing pain, lasting from a fraction of a second to 3s. Attack frequency is generally low, with one or a few attacks per day. The paroxysms generally occur spontaneously, during daytime. Most patients exhibit a sporadic pattern, with an erratic, unpredictable alternation between symptomatic and non-symptomatic periods. Paroxysms are almost invariably unilateral. Temporal and fronto-ocular areas are most frequently affected. Attacks tend to move from one area to another, in either the same or the opposite hemicranium. Jabs may be accompanied by a shock-like feeling and even by head movement - "jolts" -or vocalization. On rare occasions, conjunctival hemorrhage and monocular vision loss have been described as associated features. Primary stabbing headache may concur, synchronously or independently, with other primary headaches. In contrast to what is the case in adults, in childhood it is not usually associated with other headaches. Treatment is rarely necessary. Indomethacin, 75-150 mg daily, may seem to be of some avail. Celecoxib, nifedipine, melatonin, and gabapentin have been reported to be effective in isolated cases and small series of patients. The drug studies need corroboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Headaches and Sinus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the following: 1. No nausea or vomiting (anorexia may occur) 2. No more than 1 of ... DIAGNOSIS IN PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH “SINUS HEADACHE” . Multiple studies, including large ... 10:202-209 In cases of non-sinus related headaches, the appropriate specialist ...

  2. Headache of cervical origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burguet, J L; Wackenheim, A

    1984-08-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''.

  3. Mechanism of brain tumor headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne P

    2014-04-01

    Headaches occur commonly in all patients, including those who have brain tumors. Using the search terms "headache and brain tumors," "intracranial neoplasms and headache," "facial pain and brain tumors," "brain neoplasms/pathology," and "headache/etiology," we reviewed the literature from the past 78 years on the proposed mechanisms of brain tumor headache, beginning with the work of Penfield. Most of what we know about the mechanisms of brain tumor associated headache come from neurosurgical observations from intra-operative dural and blood vessel stimulation as well as intra-operative observations and anecdotal information about resolution of headache symptoms with various tumor-directed therapies. There is an increasing overlap between the primary and secondary headaches and they may actually share a similar biological mechanism. While there can be some criticism that the experimental work with dural and arterial stimulation produced head pain and not actual headache, when considered with the clinical observations about headache type, coupled with improvement after treatment of the primary tumor, we believe that traction on these structures, coupled with increased intracranial pressure, is clearly part of the genesis of brain tumor headache and may also involve peripheral sensitization with neurogenic inflammation as well as a component of central sensitization through trigeminovascular afferents on the meninges and cranial vessels. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  4. Team players against headache: multidisciplinary treatment of primary headaches and medication overuse headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaul, C.; Visscher, C.M.; Bhola, R.; Sorbi, M.J.; Galli, F.; Rasmussen, A.V.; Jensen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform for

  5. Headache - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraine - what to ask your doctor; Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor ... How can I tell if the headache I am having is dangerous? What are ... headache ? A migraine headache ? A cluster headache ? What medical ...

  6. Central mechanisms of stress-induced headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, S; Petkov, J; Winefield, A H; Lushington, K; Rolan, P

    2010-03-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported trigger of an episode of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH); however, the causal significance has not been experimentally demonstrated to date. Stress may trigger CTTH through hyperalgesic effects on already sensitized pain pathways in CTTH sufferers. This hypothesis could be partially tested by examining pain sensitivity in an experimental model of stress-induced headache in CTTH sufferers. Such examinations have not been reported to date. We measured pericranial muscle tenderness and pain thresholds at the finger, head and shoulder in 23 CTTH sufferers (CTH-S) and 25 healthy control subjects (CNT) exposed to an hour-long stressful mental task, and in 23 CTTH sufferers exposed to an hour-long neutral condition (CTH-N). Headache developed in 91% of CTH-S, 4% of CNT, and 17% of CTH-N subjects. Headache sufferers had increased muscle tenderness and reduced pain thresholds compared with healthy controls. During the task, muscle tenderness increased and pain thresholds decreased in the CTH-S group compared with CTH-N and CNT groups. Pre-task muscle tenderness and reduction in pain threshold during task were predictive of the development and intensity of headache following task. The main findings are that stress induced a headache in CTTH sufferers, and this was associated with pre-task muscle tenderness and stress-induced reduction in pain thresholds. The results support the hypothesis that stress triggers CTTH through hyperalgesic effects on already increased pain sensitivity in CTTH sufferers, reducing the threshold to noxious input from pericranial structures.

  7. Overlap between Headache, Depression, and Anxiety in General Neurological Clinics: A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Bai Wei; Jian-Ping Jia; Fen Wang; Ai-Hong Zhou; Xiu-Mei Zuo; Chang-Biao Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Many studies have reported that depression and anxiety have bidirectional relationship with headache.However,few researches investigated the roles of depression or anxiety in patients with headache.We surveyed the prevalence of depression and anxiety as a complication or cause of headache among outpatients with a chief complaint of headache at neurology clinics in general hospitals.Additional risk factors for depression and anxiety were also analyzed.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted at 11 general neurological clinics.All consecutive patients with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled.Diagnoses of depression and anxiety were made using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview,and those for headache were made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders,2nd Edition.The headache impact test and an 11-point verbal rating scale were applied to assess headache severity and intensity.Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors of patients with headache for depression or anxiety.Results:A total of 749 outpatients with headache were included.Among them,148 (19.7%) were diagnosed with depression and 103 (13.7%) with anxiety.Further analysis showed that 114 (15.2%) patients complaining headache due to somatic symptoms of psychiatric disorders and 82 (10.9%) had a depression or anxiety comorbidity with headache.Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches.Poor sleep and severe headache-related disabilities were predictors for either depression or anxiety.Conclusion:Clinicians must identify the etiology of headache and recognize the effects of depression or anxiety on headache to develop specific treatments.

  8. Headache and temporomandibular disorders: evidence for diagnostic and behavioural overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaros, A G; Urban, D; Locke, J

    2007-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic and behavioural overlap of headache patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), individuals recruited from the general population with self-described headaches were compared with non-headache controls. The examination and diagnostic procedures in the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD were applied to both sets of subjects by a blinded examiner. Following their examination, subjects used experience sampling methods to obtain data on pain, tooth contact, masticatory muscle tension, emotional states and stress. Results showed that a significantly higher proportion of the headache patients received an RDC/TMD diagnosis of myofascial pain than non-headache controls. Headache patients also reported significantly more frequent and intense tooth contact, more masticatory muscle tension, more stress and more pain in the face/head and other parts of the body than non-headache controls. These results are similar to those reported for TMD patients and they suggest that headache patients and TMD patients overlap considerably in diagnosis and oral parafunctional behaviours.

  9. Impact of pre-treatment technologies on soil aquifer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Besançon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of pre-treatment options on the performances of soil columns simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT. For this purpose a conventional activated sludge (CAS process, a membrane bioreactor (MBR and vertical flow reed beds were used as single units or in combination before SAT. The influent and effluent from each treatment train were monitored over three successive 6-month periods, corresponding to changes in the operational conditions of the MBR and CAS units from 6 days' sludge retention time (SRT to 12 and 20 days. All the columns acted as efficient polishing steps for solids and bacteria. The column receiving effluent from the CAS system running at 6 days' SRT also presented high total nitrogen and total phosphorus removals, but this column was also associated with the lowest infiltration rates over that period. While the quality of the effluent from the column following the CAS process increased over 18 months of operation, the effluent quality of the columns receiving MBR effluent degraded. No correlations were found between variations in SRT of the MBR and CAS processes and the columns' performances. Overall, all columns, except the one receiving CAS effluent, underwent a reduction in infiltration rate over 18 months.

  10. Ultrasound pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Elvira, S; Fdz-Polanco, M; Plaza, F I; Garralón, G; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    Prior research indicates that ultrasounds can be used in batch reactors as pre-treatment before anaerobic digestion, but the specific energy required at laboratory-scale is too high. This work evaluates both the continuous ultrasound device performance (efficiency and solubilisation) and the operation of anaerobic digesters continuously fed with sonicated sludge, and presents energy balance considerations. The results of sludge solubilisation after the sonication treatment indicate that, applying identical specific energy, it is better to increase the power than the residence time. Working with secondary sludge, batch biodegradability tests show that by applying 30 kWh/m3 of sludge, it is possible to increase biogas production by 42%. Data from continuous pilot-scale anaerobic reactors (V=100 L) indicate that operating with a conventional HRT=20 d, a reactor fed with pre-treated sludge increases the volatile solids removal and the biogas production by 25 and 37% respectively. Operating with HRT=15 d, the removal efficiency is similar to the obtained with a reactor fed with non-hydrolysed sludge at HTR=20 d, although the specific biogas productivity per volume of reactor is higher for the pretreated sludge. Regarding the energy balance, although for laboratory-scale devices it is negative, full-scale suppliers state a net generation of 3-10 kW per kW of energy used.

  11. The association of headache frequency with pain interference and the burden of disease is mediated by depression and sleep quality, but not anxiety, in chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, María; Fernández-Muñoz, Juan J; Castaldo, Matteo; Wang, Kelun; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of potential relationship between mood disorders, sleep quality, pain, and headache frequency may assist clinicians in determining optimal therapeutic programs. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of sleep quality, anxiety, depression on potential relationships between headache intensity, burden of headache, and headache frequency in chronic tension type headache (CTTH). One hundred and ninety-three individuals with CTTH participated. Headache features were collected with a 4-weeks headache diary. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for assessing anxiety and depression. Headache Disability Inventory evaluated the burden of headache. Pain interference was determined with the bodily pain domain (SF-36 questionnaire). Sleep quality was assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Path analyses with maximum likelihood estimations were conducted to determine the direct and indirect effects of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality on the frequency of headaches. Two paths were observed: the first with depression and the second with sleep quality as mediators. Direct effects were noted from sleep quality, emotional burden of disease and pain interference on depression, and from depression to headache frequency. The first path showed indirect effects of depression from emotional burden and from sleep quality to headache frequency (first model R 2  = 0.12). Direct effects from the second path were from depression and pain interference on sleep quality and from sleep quality on headache frequency. Sleep quality indirectly mediated the effects of depression, emotional burden and pain interference on headache frequency (second model R 2  = 0.18). Depression and sleep quality, but not anxiety, mediated the relationship between headache frequency and the emotional burden of disease and pain interference in CTTH.

  12. Temporomandibular disorders in headache patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Christiane-Espinola-Bandeira; Oliveira, José-Luiz-Góes; Jesus, Alan-Chester-Feitosa; Maia, Mila-Leite-de Moraes; de Santana, Jonielly-Costa-Vasconcelos; Andrade, Loren-Suyane-Oliveira; Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana-de Souza; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo-José; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its seve-rity in individuals with headache. Study Design: 60 adults divided into three groups of 20 individuals: chronic daily headache (CDH), episodic headache (EH) and a control group without headache (WH). Headache diagnosis was performed according to the criteria of International Headache Society and the signs and symptoms of TMD were achieved by using a clinical exam and an anamnestic questionnaire. The severity of TMD was defined by the temporomandibular index (TMI). Results: The TMD signs and symptoms were always more frequent in individuals with headache, especially report of pain in TMJ area (CDH, n=16; EH, n=12; WH, n=6), pain to palpation on masseter (CDH, n=19; EH, n=16; WH, n=11) which are significantly more frequent in episodic and chronic daily headache. The mean values of temporomandibular and articular index (CDH patients) and muscular index (CDH and EH patients) were statistically higher than in patients of the control group, notably the articular (CDH=0.38; EH=0.25;WH=0.19) and muscular (CDH=0.46; EH=0.51; WH=0.26) indices. Conclusions: These findings allow us to speculate that masticatory and TMJ pain are more common in headache subjects. Besides, it seems that the TMD is more severe in headache patients. Key words:Temporomandibular dysfunction, headache disorders. PMID:22926473

  13. Common primary headaches in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a very common problem in pregnancy. Evaluation of a complaint of headache requires categorizing it as primary or secondary. Migrainous headaches are known to be influenced by fluctuation of estrogen levels with high levels improving it and low levels deteriorating the symptoms. Tension-type Headaches (TTHs are the most common and usually less severe types of headache with female to male ratio 3:1. Women known to have primary headache before conception who present with a headache that is different from their usual headache, or women not known to have primary headache before conception who present with new-onset of headache during pregnancy need neurologic assessments for potential secondary cause for their headache. In addition to proper history and physical examination, both non-contrast computed tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are considered safe to be performed in pregnant women when indicated. Treatment of abortive and prophylactic therapy should include non-pharmacologic tools, judicious use of drugs which are safe for mother and fetus.

  14. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid T Noghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD, constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS, inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD, celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna and Râzi (Rhazes believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder.

  15. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.

    2015-01-01

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  17. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  18. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  19. Chronorisk in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Haddock, Bryan; Lund, Nunu T

    2018-01-01

    and a spectral analysis identifying oscillations in risk. Results The Gaussian model fit for the chronorisk distribution for all patients reporting diurnal rhythmicity (n = 286) had a goodness of fit R2 value of 0.97 and identified three times of increased risk peaking at 21:41, 02:02 and 06:23 hours....... In subgroups, three to five modes of increased risk were found and goodness of fit values ranged from 0.85-0.99. Spectral analysis revealed multiple distinct oscillation frequencies in chronorisk in subgroups including a dominant circadian oscillation in episodic patients and an ultradian in chronic....... Conclusions Chronorisk in cluster headache can be characterised as a sum of individual, timed events of increased risk, each having a Gaussian distribution. In episodic cluster headache, attacks follow a circadian rhythmicity whereas, in the chronic variant, ultradian oscillations are dominant reflecting...

  20. [Different headache forms of chapter 4 of the International Headache Classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, A; Heinze, A; Göbel, H

    2012-12-01

    Chapter 4 of the International Classification of Headaches contains a group of clinically very heterogeneous primary headache forms. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these headache types and therapy is usually based on isolated case reports and uncontrolled studies. The forms include primary stabbing headache, primary cough headache, primary exertional headache, primary headache associated with sexual activity, hypnic headache, primary thunderclap headache, hemicrania continua and the new daily persistent headache. Some of these headache forms may be of a symptomatic nature and require careful examination, imaging and further tests. Primary and secondary headache forms must be carefully distinguished.

  1. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  2. Acute headache and persistent headache attributed to cervical artery dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Ashina, Messoud; Magyari, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    for Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to cervical carotid or vertebral artery dissection or Headache attributed to intracranial arterial dissection. Six months after dissection five of 19 patients still reported persistent headache attributed to dissection. The study demonstrates that the ICHD......The criteria for headache attributed to cervical artery dissection have been changed in the new third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta). We have retrospectively investigated 19 patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2006 with cervical artery dissection......-III beta criteria for cervical artery dissection are useful for classifying patients at the first encounter. We show for the first time that persistent headache attributed to arterial dissection is frequent....

  3. Primary headache diagnosis among chronic daily headache patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krymchantowski Abouch Valenty

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH refers to a group of non-paroxysmal daily or near-daily headaches with peculiar characteristics that are highly prevalent in populations of neurological clinics and not uncommon among non-patient populations. Most of the patients with CDH had, as primary diagnosis, episodic migraine, which, with the time, presented a progressive frequency, pattern modification and loss of specific migraine characteristics. Other CDH patients had chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and hemicrania continua, which evolved thru the time to the daily or near-daily presentation. The objective of this study was to determine the primary headache diagnosis among a population of chronic daily headache patients attending a tertiary center for headache treatment. During a 5-year period 651 consecutive chronic daily headache patients attending a private subspecialty center were studied prospectively. The criteria adopted were those proposed by Silberstein et al (1994, revised 1996. Five hundred seventy four patients (88.1% had episodic migraine as primary headache before turning into daily presentation, 52 (8% had chronic tension-type headache, 14 (2.2% had hemicrania continua and 11 patients (1.7% had new daily persistent headache. CDH is quite frequent in patients from clinic-based studies suggesting a high degree of disability. Emphasis on education of patients suffering from frequent primary headaches with regard to measures that are able to decrease suffering and disability as well as better medical education directed to more efficient ways to handle these patients are necessary to improve outcome of such a prevalent condition.

  4. Headache characteristics of uncomplicated intracranial vertebral artery dissection and validation of ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to intracranial artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Gyum; Choi, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Sung Un; Jung, Jin-Man; Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Moon Ho; Oh, Kyungmi

    2015-05-01

    Headache may be a warning sign of subsequent stroke in patients with vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Even though the headache characteristics of VAD have been described predominantly in patients with extracranial VAD and neurological complications, headache semiology is not well known in patients with uncomplicated intracranial vertebral artery dissection (ICVAD). In the present study, we attempt to identify the headache semiology that characterizes ICVAD and validate the revised version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) criteria for headache attributed to intracranial artery dissection. Six patients with neurologically uncomplicated ICVAD presented at a participating medical center, and eight similar patients were reviewed in the literature. Combining these data, we analyzed headache characteristics of patients with uncomplicated ICVAD according to their pain onset and duration, nature, intensity, location, aggravating and relieving factors, associated symptoms, response to medication, and prognosis. Headache in uncomplicated ICVAD usually has an acute mode of onset (11/14) and persistent (10/14) temporal feature. Pain that has a throbbing quality (nine of 14) and severe intensity (13/14) on the ipsilesional (10/14) and occipitonuchal area (12/14) is a headache prototype in ICVAD. Additionally, headache was intensified by head flexion and rotation (three of six), and relieved by head extension and supine positioning (five of six). Headache of all patients in the present study fulfilled the ICHD-3 beta criteria. Headache semiology of uncomplicated ICVAD is mostly homogenous in the present study. These characteristics may be helpful in the diagnosis of uncomplicated ICVAD. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Management of primary headache in emergency services of Santos and surrounding towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Primary headaches are often seen by Clinicians on duty at Emergency Services. We have investigated the treatment of such patients by 43 medical doctors who have been working at Emergency Services in the city of Santos and surrounding towns for many years. RESULTS: We confirmed the high prevalence of primary headaches in Emergency Services. There seem to be diagnosis difficulties concerning differentiating attacks of migraine and tension type headache. We also observed that IV dipirone was the most frequently prescribed treatment for patients with primary headaches in this study. There is no protocol in the literature which recommends IV dipirone for the treatment of migraine attacks or other primary headaches. CONCLUSION: It would be advisable to perform controlled double blind studies in order to verify the advantages of IV dipirone in the treatment of intense attacks primary headaches. We concluded that headache management recycling programs could be of interest for doctors who regularly work at Emergency Services.

  6. Orgasmic headache treated with nimodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jea Whan; Ha, Yeon Soo; Park, Seung Chol; Seo, Ill Young; Lee, Hak Seung

    2013-07-01

    Orgasmic headache (OH) is a sudden and severe headache that occurs at the time of or shortly after an orgasm. AIM.: We present the case of typical primary headache associated with sexual activity, especially during an orgasmic period. A 34-year-old man complained of sudden and severe headache during sexual activity, or orgasmic period, for 2 months. The headache developed abruptly with an orgasm and then decreased shortly over a period of 4 ≈ 8 hours. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe spasm of the M1 segment of both the middle cerebral arteries. He was treated with oral nimodipine (30 mg every 8 hours), which alleviated the headache and prevented its recurrence. We postulated a pathophysiological relationship between OH and migraine, especially with respect to vasoconstriction, and believe that in such cases, nimodipine may be an effective therapy. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  8. The design of a novel, environmentally improved cotton pre-treatment proces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis of Gerrit Bouwhuis, lecturer at Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology in Enschede is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These

  9. Application of ceramic membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma; Ha, Changwon; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    and particulate fouling materials (algae, suspended and colloidal particles). Also, a pre-treatment barrier reduces organics and provides better feed water quality for RO membranes. MF and UF pre-treatment prior to SWRO provides Low Silt Density Index (SDI) values

  10. Guidelines for the organization of headache education in Europe: the headache school II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Valade, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote education on headache disorders, European Headache Federation (EHF) in conjunction with National Headache Societies organizes educational courses meeting uniform standards according to previous published guidelines. Based on six headache summer schools' experience, an EHF...

  11. Quantitative evaluation of headache severity before and after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Amparo; Goncalves, Sandy; Salehi, Fateme; Bird, Jeff; Cooper, Paul; Van Uum, Stan; Lee, Donald H; Rotenberg, Brian W; Duggal, Neil

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT The relationship between headaches, pituitary adenomas, and surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas remains unclear. The authors assessed the severity and predictors of self-reported headaches in patients referred for surgery of pituitary adenomas and evaluated the impact of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery on headache severity and quality of life (QOL). METHODS In this prospective study, 79 patients with pituitary adenomas underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection and completed the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) QOL questionnaire preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS Preoperatively, 49.4% of patients had mild headache severity, 13.9% had moderate severity, 13.9% had substantial severity, and 22.8% had intense severity. Younger age and hormone-producing tumors predisposed greater headache severity, while tumor volume, suprasellar extension, chiasmal compression, and cavernous sinus invasion of the pituitary tumors did not. Preoperative headache severity was found to be significantly associated with reduced scores across all SF-36 QOL dimensions and most significantly associated with mental health. By 6 months postoperatively, headache severity was reduced in a significant proportion of patients. Of the 40 patients with headaches causing an impact on daily living (moderate, substantial, or intense headache), 70% had improvement of at least 1 category on HIT-6 by 6 months postoperatively, while headache worsened in 7.6% of patients. The best predictors of headache response to surgery included younger age, poor preoperative SF-36 mental health score, and hormone-producing microadenoma. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study confirm that surgery can significantly improve headaches in patients with pituitary adenomas by 6 months postoperatively, particularly in younger patients whose preoperative QOL is impacted. A larger multicenter study is underway to evaluate the long

  12. [Tricyclic antidepressant therapy in headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Máté; Csépány, Éva; Gyüre, Tamás; Bozsik, György; Bereczki, Dániel; Ertsey, Csaba

    2015-12-01

    The two most important representatives of the primary headaches are migraine and tension-type headache. More than 10% of the population suffer from migraine and even a greater part, approximately 30-40% from tension-type headache. These two headache types have a great effect both on the individual and on the society. There are two types of therapeutic approaches to headaches: the abortive and the prophylactic therapy. Prophylactic treatment is used for frequent and/or difficult-to-treat headache attacks. Although both migraine and tension-type headache are often associated with depression, for their treatment - in contrast to the widespread medical opinion - not all antidepressants were found to be effective. Amitriptyline, which is a tricyclic antidepressant, is used as a prophylactic therapy for headache since 1968. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in several double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Although the newer types of antidepressant, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, have a more favorable side-effect profile than tricyclic antidepressants, their headache prophylactic effect has not been proven yet.

  13. Temporomandibular disorders and headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Bassiur, Jennifer P

    2014-05-01

    Headache and temporomandibular disorders should be treated together but separately. If there is marked limitation of opening, imaging of the joint may be necessary. The treatment should then include education regarding limiting jaw function, appliance therapy, instruction in jaw posture, and stretching exercises, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and relax the muscles. The use of physical therapies, such as spray and stretch and trigger point injections, is helpful if there is myofascial pain. Tricyclic antidepressants and the new-generation antiepileptic drugs are effective in muscle pain conditions. Arthrocentesis and/or arthroscopy may help to restore range of motion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pain, emotion, headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussone, Gennaro; Grazzi, Licia; Panerai, Alberto E

    2012-10-01

    Pain has been considered as part of a defensive strategy whose specific role is to signal an immediate active danger to the organism. This definition fits well for acute pain. It does not work well, however, for chronic pain that is maintained even in absence of an ongoing, active threat. Currently, acute and chronic pain are considered to be separate conditions. What follows is a review of the different theories about pain and its history. Different hypotheses regarding pain mechanisms are illustrated. New data emerging from scientific research on chronic pain (migraine in particular) involving innovative imaging techniques are reported and discussed. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  15. Primary Headache Disorders- Part 2: Tension-type headache and medication overuse headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Gary W; Barkin, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    In Part 2 of Primary Headache disorders, we discuss the fourth Primary Headache Disorder, Tension-Type Headache (TTHA). We are again using the ICHD-III (Beta) definitions of such headaches, taking into consideration episodic and chronic TTHA, as well as the presence or absence of pericranial muscle tenderness. We discuss the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapeutic treatment of TTHA, and the aspects of the Myofascial Pain Syndrome that enhance and help the development of TTHA. We then discuss Medication Overuse Headache (MOH), itself a Secondary headache disorder, but one that is extremely important as it assists with the chronification of both migraine and TTHA. Finally we discuss how to manage and treat those patients with MOH. Chronic migraine, which is TTHA, Migraine as well as, in many patients, MOH, is discussed along with the treatment of this multifaceted disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, W. A. M.

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  17. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, W A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  18. [Venous angiomas and headache in children. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mauricio; Huete, Isidro; Hernández, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Venous angiomas (VA) are benign entities; however infrequent symptomatic cases may occur. Case report and literature review. A 6 year old girl was referred with a history of bi-frontal, non-pulsatile, headache with no nausea or vomiting. Headache intensity was 4-6/10. The episodes were frequent, 3-4 times per week. Triggers include academic work. Computed tomography showed a small VA in left caudate nucleus, which was confirmed by a brain MRI, with no evidence of inflammatory or ischaemic changes, or another vascular malformation. Psychological and psycho-pedagogic techniques were used, combined with relaxation and cognitive-behavioural techniques to reduce the intensity and frequency. There was a good outcome, and the headache decreased to 10 episodes per year. The patient was monitored for 12 years until graduation from high school. The VA remained without complications. In the study of a headache, a VA usually is an incidental finding. The International Classification of Headache Disorders III provides specific criteria of frequent episodic tension-type headache, and allows us begin specific therapy for it. Monitoring of non-symptomatic VA cases should be clinical. The surgical management of these entities is exceptional. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Headache Attributed to Craniocervical Dystonia - A Little Known Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcos Eugenio Ramalho; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio

    2017-02-01

    Craniocervical dystonia is a focal or segmental dystonia in its distribution, classically known as spasmodic torticollis when in its pure cervical presentation. Although craniocervical dystonia has been recognized as a possible cause of headache since the publication of the second version of International Classification of Headache Disorders, there are few studies about this entity. This was a narrative review. Craniocervical dystonia was associated with muscle pain in 67-89% of the cases. Headaches of any kind affected approximately 60% of patients with craniocervical dystonia, and were located mainly in the occipital and cervical regions. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia specifically was rarely found, and it was described in only one patient out of 80 in one study. Treatment with botulinum neurotoxin is considered to be the first-line treatment for focal dystonias, including craniocervical dystonia, and besides reducing clinical severity, impairment, and pain scores among the patients with craniocervical dystonia, there were also descriptions of improvements in headaches attributed to craniocervical dystonia and other headaches associated with this dystonia. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia has been poorly studied. There is a need for more studies to evaluate its characteristics and treatment. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  20. Headaches and Migraines: Understanding Headaches, From Mild to Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... address them. Regular exercise helps me with the stress trigger. Also, I avoid chocolate. "The point is," Eckhart declares, "medical research has really made a difference for me." Fast Fasts The most common type of headache is a tension headache. These usually are due ...

  1. Nummular headache: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Pareja, Julia

    2003-05-01

    Nummular headache (coin-shaped cephalgia) has an unusual distinct feature: it is characterized by mild-to-moderate pressure-like pain exclusively felt in a rounded or elliptical area typically 2-6 cm in diameter. Although any region of the head may be affected, the parietal area is the common localization of nummular headache. The pain remains confined to the same symptomatic area which does not change in shape or size with time. The pain is continuous but lancinating exacerbations lasting for several seconds or gradually increasing from 10 mins to 2 h may superimpose the baseline pain. The temporal pattern is either chronic or remitting. Pseudoremissions may be observed when the pain reaches a very low grade or only discomfort (not pain) in the affected area is reported. At times, discomfort may prevail. Either during symptomatic periods or interictally, the affected area may show a variable combination of hypoethesia, dysesthesia, paresthesia or tenderness. Physical and supplementary examinations are normal. Nummular headache emerges as a primary clear-cut clinical picture. The particular topography and signs of sensory dysfunction make it reasonable to vent the idea that nummular headache is an extracranial headache, probably stemming from epicranial tissues such as terminal branches of sensitive nerves. Nummular headache may seem to be the paradigm of epicranias (group of headaches and pericranial neuralgias stemming from epicranial tissues). Nummular headache must be distinguished from head pain secondary to local processes and from tender points of more extensive headaches. Although nummular headache may frequently coexist with other primary headaches, it has an independent course. Treatment is seldom necessary and in most cases simple reassurance is sufficient.

  2. Three-dimensional pre-treatment verification for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the 3DVH™ software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silveira, Thiago B.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Trindade, Cassia; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2013-01-01

    The IMRT quality assurance is normally analyzed punctual or bi-dimensionally. One difficult of this procedure is to evaluate the clinical impact of the QA result on treatment. The 3DVHTM software gives a 3D measured dose distribution, providing DVH analysis for organs at risk and target volumes. The aim of this work is to validate and implement the software 3DVH™ for IMRT treatments and to verify advantages over the QA 2D. The software uses two groups of data to generate the dose distribution: one from the treatment planning system and another from the irradiation for traditional QA 2D, measured with MapCHECK (Sun Nuclear) (MC). To validate the software, a small volume ionization chamber was used to check if both calculated 3DVHTM dose and measured dose by the chamber were equivalent. For QA analysis, ten IMRT cases planned in Eclipse 8.6 (Varian) and treated in Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA) were selected. For all cases, verification plans were created and irradiated in MC, and the analysis were made using the gamma index. Among the cases, five DVH comparisons between planned and measured data presented a deviation lower than 4% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the PTV and GTV's coverage. Other cases showed differences larger than 4%, presented in areas where the movements of the MLC leaves were more complex, mostly in the neighborhood of organs at risk. The 3DVH™ software provides several clinical advantages to IMRT QA, generating refined analysis of the cases evaluated, in comparison to conventional QA 2D. (author)

  3. A Recurrent Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Dylewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation A 43-year-old man presented to the emergency room in September 2004 with a two-day history of increasing headache, myalgias and low-grade fever. No family members had been ill recently and he denied having nausea or diarrhea. On examination, he was nontoxic, with a temperature of 37.5¡ãC, pulse of 90 beats/min and blood pressure of 146/84 mmHg. Skin rashes were not present, and the neck was supple. The patient claimed that he seldom had headaches but that he had been hospitalized in England 15 years ago for viral meningitis. He remembered receiving antibiotics at the time despite being told it was a viral meningitis. The patient underwent a computed tomography scan of the brain, which was normal, followed by a lumbar puncture. The opening pressure was not recorded, but there were 23x106/L polymorphonuclear cells and 308x106/L lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The CSF protein was elevated at 1.26 g/L (N¡Ü0.45, with a CSF glucose of 2.9 mmol/L compared with a serum value of 5.3 mmol/L. The peripheral white blood cell count was 10.5x109/L, with 8.0x109/L neutrophils.

  4. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tension type headaches: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of the pain:There is often a typical location for tension- type headaches, as ... Cranial nerve abnormalities, including papilloedema. • Signs of ... peripheral and central mechanisms underlie tension-type ... Physiotherapy has been shown to be an effective management option for .... Acupuncture in primary headache.

  6. Headache in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanly, John G; Urowitz, Murray B; O'Keeffe, Aidan G

    2013-01-01

    To examine the frequency and characteristics of headaches and their association with global disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).......To examine the frequency and characteristics of headaches and their association with global disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)....

  7. Hypoxic mechanisms in primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britze, Josefine; Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2017-01-01

    and cluster headache. Methods This narrative review investigates the current level of knowledge on the relation of hypoxia in migraine and cluster headache based on epidemiological and experimental studies. Findings Epidemiological studies suggest that living in high-altitude areas increases the risk...

  8. An individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy for tension-type headache - two experimental case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Lagerlöf, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of an individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy, based on a functional behavioral analysis (FBA), for tension-type headache (TTH). Two case studies with A1-A2-B-A3 design of two patients with TTH was conducted. Outcome variables were headache frequency, headache index (mean intensity), consumption of analgesics, self-efficacy in headache management (Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale [HMSE]), disability, and perceived loss of happiness for activities with family and friends. The results showed that headache frequency and headache index decreased for one of the patients. Self-efficacy in headache management increased markedly for both patients. A behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy based on an FBA can be a way for physical therapists to handle patients with TTH. Future investigations should focus on large group studies with longer observation periods.

  9. Adolescents' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Fotiou, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports secular trends in medicine use for headache among adolescents in 20 countries from 1986 to 2010. METHODS: The international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey includes self-reported data about medicine use for headaches among nationally...... representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. We included 20 countries with data from at least three data collection waves, with a total of 380 129 participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches varied from 16.5% among Hungarian boys in 1994 to 62.9% among girls in Wales in 1998....... The prevalence was higher among girls than boys in every country and data collection year. The prevalence of medicine use for headaches increased in 12 of 20 countries, most notably in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Wales. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches among adolescents...

  10. Migraine and tension type headache in adolescents at grammar school in Germany - burden of disease and health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Lucia; Straube, Andreas; Landgraf, Mirjam N; Filippopulos, Filipp; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Tension-type headache and migraine are among the most prevalent chronic disorders in children/adolescents. Data on health care utilization for headache in this age group, however, are sparse. In 1399 grammar school students (aged 12-19 years) with headache in the last six months in Germany a) the burden of disease for headache (mean intensity, mean frequency in the last three months and PedMIDAS means), b) medical care utilization defined by proportion of students consulting a physician in the last 12 months and/or taking analgetic drugs in the last three months by headache types (migraine and tension-type headache) and by burden of disease were assessed. Primary headache substantially impaired daily living activities in adolescents which was mainly related to migraine. Medical care utilization and drug use, however, was low (consulting a physician: 12.0 %, 95 %-CI = [10.3-13.8]; taking analgetic drugs: 29.9 %, 95 %-CI = [27.5-32.4]) - even among students with severe headache (physician consultation: headache and 40 % of those with migraine had neither seen a physician nor used analgetic drugs because of their headache in the preceding 12 months. Adolescents with headache might too rarely seek professional help for treatment of headache. Health promotion in adolescents should increase awareness for evidence-based treatment options for headache.

  11. The risk of headache attributed to surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, João E; Azevedo-Filho, Hildo R C; Rocha-Filho, Pedro A S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of headache in patients undergoing surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The risk of the post-craniotomy headache has never been studied. Patients with intracranial aneurysm, who were consecutively admitted to the Hospital da Restauração, Brazil, from May 2009 to October 2010, were interviewed before they underwent surgical or non-surgical treatment of the aneurysms. The patients were followed for 4 months after intervention. The International Headache Society criteria for post-craniotomy headache were used after surgery and adapted for headache after embolization (maximum intensity of pain on the same side of the aneurysm). We also used the Headache Impact Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Of 101 patients enrolled, 53 patients underwent craniotomy and 48 patients embolization. The surgery group was younger and had fewer women. The incidence of headache was 28/51 cases (54.9%) after surgery and 12/47 cases (25.5%) after embolization (relative risk = 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-3.72). The incidence of persistent headache was not different between the 2 groups. The only risk factor for headache after the intervention was craniotomy (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.7) and for persistent headache was anxiety prior to treatment (odds ratio = 8.5; 95% CI 1.7-42.3). The headache after treatment was not associated with the risk of anxiety or depression after the intervention. Patients who underwent craniotomy had an increased risk of headache after treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The incidence of persistent headache after 3 months was higher among patients who had anxiety before the intervention. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  12. Pain stress and headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Alberto E

    2012-05-01

    The association between pain and stress is an old one, but still it is not really clear who comes first. Pain induces stress, and stress induces pain. Pain is part of our homeostatic system and in this way is an emotion, i.e., it tells us that something is out-of-order (control), and emotion drives our behavior and one behavior is stress response. Stress comes from ourselves: the imagination we have or would like to have of us, from the image others give of us, from the goals we assume it is necessary to reach for our well-being or the goals others want us to fulfill. Stress comes from our social condition and the condition we would like, stress comes from dangerous situations we cannot control. Headache easily fits in the picture.

  13. Epicrania fugax: 19 cases of an emerging headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, María Luz; Ordás, Carlos M; Sánchez-Lizcano, María; Casas-Limón, Javier; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; García-García, María Eugenia; Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Barahona-Hernando, Raúl; Porta-Etessam, Jesús

    2013-05-01

    Epicrania fugax (EF) is a primary headache of recent description. We aimed to report 19 new cases of EF, and thus contribute to the characterization of this emerging headache. EF is characterized by painful paroxysms starting in a particular area of the head, and rapidly radiating forwards or backwards through the territories of different nerves. The pain is felt in quick motion along a lineal or zigzag trajectory. To date, 47 cases have been published, 34 with forward EF and 13 with backward EF. We performed a descriptive study of all EF cases attending our Headache Unit from April 2010 to December 2012. Demographic and clinical data were recorded with a structured questionnaire. Overall, there were 12 women and 7 men. Mean age at onset was 51.7 ± 16.2. Fourteen patients had forward EF, while 5 patients had backward EF. Painful paroxysms lasted 1-4 seconds. Pain intensity was usually moderate or severe, and pain quality was mostly electric. Four patients had ocular autonomic accompaniments. Pain frequency was extremely variable, and 7 patients identified some triggers. Between attacks, 13 patients had some pain or tenderness in the stemming area. Thirteen patients required therapy for their pain. Neuromodulators, indomethacin, anesthetic blockades, and steroid injections were used in different cases, with partial or complete response. EF appears as a distinct headache syndrome and could be eventually included in future editions of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  14. Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block for the Treatment of Acute Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Binfalah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block is emerging as is an attractive and effective treatment modality for acute migraine headaches, cluster headache, trigeminal neuralgia, and several other conditions. We assessed the efficacy and safety of this treatment using the Sphenocath® device. 55 patients with acute migraine headaches underwent this procedure, receiving 2 ml of 2% lidocaine in each nostril. Pain numeric rating scale (baseline, 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours and patient global impression of change (2 hours and 24 hours after treatment were recorded. The majority of patients became headache-free at 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours after procedure (70.9%, 78.2%, and 70.4%, resp.. The rate of headache relief (50% or more reduction in headache intensity was 27.3% at 15 minutes, 20% at 2 hours, and 22.2% at 24 hours. The mean pain numeric rating scale decreased significantly at 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours, respectively. Most patients rated the results as very good or good. The procedure was well-tolerated with few adverse events. This treatment is emerging as an effective and safe option for management of acute migraine attacks.

  15. Indications for computerized tomography in the case of headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huk, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Of the large number of patients with headache only very few suffer from an intracranial tumor. On the other hand, brain tumors may grow silently for a long period of time. Clinical analysis of patients with headache has demonstrated that a CT-scan is not indicated in cases where an adequate cause can be found and when the headache disappears together with the underlaying cause in a reasonable amount of time. A CT-scan, however, should be performed when an adequate cause is missing, when the headache recurs with increasing frequency, intensity and duration, when it is accentuated in the morning and in certain positions, and when it is associated with personality chances, dizziness and blurred vision. In chronic headache a CT-scan is indicated when a change in the character of the headache and its various qualities (location, frequency and duration of attacks, temporal coincidence etc.) can be detected. A thorough history, including the family history, of the complains together with an accurate clinical examination will deliver the criteria to avoid unnecessary CT-scanning. (orig.) [de

  16. The effect of trigger point management by positional release therapy on tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Ali; Rahimijaberi, Abbas; Mohamadi, Marzieh; Abbasi, Leila; Sarvestani, Fahimeh Kamali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points' management by Positional Release Therapy (PRT) and routine medical therapy in treatment of Tension Type Headache. Tension Type Headache is the most frequent headache with the basis of myofascial and trigger point disorders. PRT is an indirect technique that treats trigger points. 30 Patients with active trigger points in cervical muscles entered to the study. They were randomly assigned to PRT or medical therapy group. Headache frequency, intensity and duration and tablet count were recorded by use of a daily headache diary. Sensitivity of trigger points was assessed by numeric pain intensity and by use of a digital force gauge (FG 5020). Both groups showed significant reduction in headache frequency and duration and tablet count after treatment phase. However, the reduction of study variables was persisted only in PRT group after follow up phase. There was no significant reduction in headache intensity, neither in PRT and nor in medication group. Sensitivity of trigger points was significantly reduced. In comparison of the two study groups, there was no significant difference in headache frequency, intensity, duration and tablet count (p> 0.05). Both procedures were equally effective according to the study. Thus, PRT can be a treatment choice for patients with T.T.H.

  17. Predictors of migraine headache recurrence: A pooled analysis from the eletriptan database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodick, D.W.; Lipton, R.B.; Goadsby, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective.-To identify clinical variables associated with risk of headache recurrence within 22 hours of initial successful treatment of a migraine attack (2-hour headache response), and to analyze the effect of eletriptan in reducing the incidence of recurrence. Methods.-Data were pooled from 10...... evaluable. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified significant predictors of headache recurrence (return to moderate/severe pain intensity within 22 hours of initial headache response). Treatment response was assessed in two high-risk subgroups, defined by the presence of significant...

  18. Environmentally friendly hybrid coatings for corrosion protection: silane based pre-treatments and nanostructured waterborne coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fedel, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers a nanotechnology approach based on the production of metals pre-treatments and organic coatings (a complete protection system at all) designed from the nanoscale. The final aim is to develop protection systems with improved corrosion protection properties and a low environmental impact. In particular, multifunctional silane hybrid molecules were used to design sol-gel pre-treatments for metals and to modify the inner structure of UV curable waterborne organic coatings...

  19. Investigations of interfaces formed between bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) and aluminum after different Forest Product Laboratory pre-treatment times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, M.; Kim, J.; Wong, P.C.; Wong, K.C.; Mitchell, K.A.R

    2004-01-15

    The adhesion performance of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) coatings on high-purity aluminum surfaces, which have been subjected to a Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) pre-treatment for different times, has been assessed with secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After coating, SIMS measurement of the ratio of peak intensities at 71 to 70 amu is used to identify the direct Al-O-Si bonding. The overall strength of the silane adhesion is assessed by comparing measurements of the Si 2p signals before and after application of an ultrasonic rinse to the coated sample. For the shorter FPL pre-treatment times (<10 min), substantial BTSE adsorption occurs on less-firmly anchored parts of the oxide which can be removed by the sonication test. The optimal adhesive bonding is indicated by these more microscopic studies to occur with the pre-treatments in the 10-25 min range, and this is in close correspondence with the normal FPL recipe that has been identified by performance in macroscopic tests. Pre-treatments longer than 25 min modify the surface topography further and give less direct Al-O-Si bonding, although the total BTSE adsorption is essentially constant and the adhesion remains strong enough to survive the sonication test.

  20. Dose titration to reduce dipyridamole-related headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Ryu, Shan-Jin; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2006-01-01

    Combination of low-dose aspirin and modified-release dipyridamole (ASA+MR-DP) provides a significantly increased benefit in stroke prevention over aspirin alone. However, headaches were reported in more patients receiving dipyridamole-containing agents than in those receiving placebo. We undertook a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate which dosing regimens of ASA+MR-DP have better tolerance. This trial randomized 146 patients with a history of ischemic cerebrovascular disease into three groups: placebo (days 1-28), reduced dose (placebo on days 1-4, ASA+MR-DP once daily before bed during days 5-14, and b.i.d. on days 15-28), and regular dose (placebo on days 1-4, and ASA+MR-DP b.i.d. on days 5-28). Using Chinese diary card, headache was assessed as mean cumulated headache (Sigma frequency x intensity/occurrence days x study days) over the study period, and was graded 0-4 according to Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Common Toxicity Criteria, Version 2.0. Intent-to-treat patients after randomization was 46 in placebo group, 45, reduced dose, and 49, regular dose. Among commonly reported adverse effects, headache of any grade occurred significantly more in the regular dose group (38.8%), as compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). Mean cumulated headache was higher (p < 0.05) in the regular dose group than in the reduced group during days 5-14. Of 27 patients who dropped out, 15 (55.6%) were due to headache, which was substantially more in regular dose (8, 53.3%), though the difference was statistically insignificant. Initial reduced dose treatment with ASA+MR-DP may cause fewer headaches than regular dosing, and seems better tolerated by those susceptible to phosphodiesterase inhibitor-induced headache. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Improving enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem using peroxide and microwave assisted pre-treatment techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of microwave assisted alkali (MAA and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pre-treatment methods in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem was investigated. Ground cassava stems were by MAA method by varying microwave power, NaOH concentration and pre-treatment time. AHP method was performed at various H2O2 concentrations, pre-treatment temperatures and times. The results showed that reducing sugar yield was higher from MAA pretreated stem when compared with AHP pre-treatment, which demonstrated that MAA pre-treatment was effective in releasing sugars. SEM studies on the pre-treated samples revealed extensive distortion of fibres in MAA pre-treated than AHP pre-treated samples, which showed pores and cracks in the fibrous structure. Spectral studies showed the change in the chemical structure of pre-treated samples. The work revealed that the studied pre-treatment methods were effective in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem.

  2. Optimization of Pre-Treatment Process Parameters to Generate Biodiesel from Microalga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuma Onumaegbu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an integral part of microalga production process, which improves the release of intracellular products that are essential for biofuel production. In this work, pre-treatment parameters that will enhance the efficiency of lipid production using high-pressure homogenizer on microalgae biomass will be investigated. The high-pressure homogenizer that is considered is a GYB40-10S/GY60-6S; with a pre-treatment pressure of 1000 psi, 2000 psi, and 3000 psi, the number of passes; 1, 2, and 3, a reaction time of 3, 3.5, and 4 h. Pressure and cavitation increase the efficiency of the pre-treatment process of the homogenizer. In addition, homogenization shear force and pressure are the basic significant factors that enhance the efficiency of microalgae cell rupture. Also, the use of modelling to simulate pre-treatment processes (Response Surface Methodology (RSM, Box-Behnken Designs (BBD, and design of experiment (DOE for process optimization will be adopted in this study. The results clearly demonstrate that high-pressure homogenization pre-treatment can effectively disrupt microalga cell walls to enhance lipid recovery efficiency, with a relatively short extraction time, both that are essential for maintaining a good quality of lipids for biofuel production. A maximum of 18% lipid yields were obtained after 3 h of HPH pre-treatment at 3000 psi.

  3. Prediction of tension-type headache risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Stepanchenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tension-type headache is the actual problem of adolescent neurology, which is associated with the prevalence of the disease, the tendency of the disease to the chronic course and a negative impact on performance in education, work capacity and quality of patients’ life. The aim. To develop a method for prediction of tension-type headache occurrence in adolescents. Materials and methods. 2342 adolescent boys and girls at the age of 13-17 years in schools of Kharkiv were examined. We used questionnaire to identify the headache. A group of adolescents with tension-type headache - 1430 people (61.1% was selected. The control group included 246 healthy adolescents. Possible risk factors for tension-type headache formation were divided into 4 groups: genetic, biomedical, psychosocial and social. Mathematical prediction of tension-type headache risk in adolescents was performed using the method of intensive indicators normalization of E.N. Shigan, which was based on probabilistic Bayesian’s method. The result was presented in the form of prognostic coefficients. Results. The most informative risk factors for tension-type headache development were the diseases, from which the teenager suffered after 1 year (sleep disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, autonomic disorders in the family history, traumatic brain injury, physical inactivity, poor adaptation of the patient in the kindergarten and school, stresses. Diagnostic scale has been developed to predict the risk of tension-type headache. It includes 23 prognostic factors with their gradation and meaning of integrated risk indicator, depending on individual factor strength influence. The risk of tension-type headache development ranged from 25,27 to 81,43 values of prognostic coefficient (low probability (25,27-43,99, the average probability (43,99-62,71 and high probability (62,71- 81,43. Conclusion. The study of tension-type headache risk factors, which were obtained by using an assessed and

  4. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-08-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  5. Ultrasound coupled with Fenton oxidation pre-treatment of sludge to release organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Changxiu [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Jianguo, E-mail: jianguoj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety, Ministry of Education of China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, De' an [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-01

    We focused on the effects of ultrasound and Fenton reagent in ultrasonic coupling Fenton oxidation (U + F) pre-treatment processes on the disintegration of wastewater treatment plant sludge. The results demonstrated that U + F treatment could significantly increase soluble COD, TOC, total N, proteins, total P and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} concentrations in sludge supernatant. This method was more effective than ultrasonic (U) or Fenton oxidation (F) treatment alone. U + F treatment increased the soluble COD by 2.1- and 1.4-fold compared with U and F alone, respectively. U + F treatment increased the total N and P by 1.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared with F alone. After U + F treatment, sludge showed a considerably finer particle size and looser microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy, and the highest OH· signal intensity increased from 568.7 by F treatment to 1106.3 using electron spin resonance. This demonstrated that U + F treatment induces disintegration of sludge and release of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus better. - Highlights: • Combined ultrasound–Fenton pre-treatment was proposed for sludge disintegration. • Ultrasound–Fenton significantly increased carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus release. • Higher level of OH· was detected after combined disintegration than Fenton.

  6. Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review.

  7. Ultrasound coupled with Fenton oxidation pre-treatment of sludge to release organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Changxiu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an

    2015-01-01

    We focused on the effects of ultrasound and Fenton reagent in ultrasonic coupling Fenton oxidation (U + F) pre-treatment processes on the disintegration of wastewater treatment plant sludge. The results demonstrated that U + F treatment could significantly increase soluble COD, TOC, total N, proteins, total P and PO 4 3− concentrations in sludge supernatant. This method was more effective than ultrasonic (U) or Fenton oxidation (F) treatment alone. U + F treatment increased the soluble COD by 2.1- and 1.4-fold compared with U and F alone, respectively. U + F treatment increased the total N and P by 1.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared with F alone. After U + F treatment, sludge showed a considerably finer particle size and looser microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy, and the highest OH· signal intensity increased from 568.7 by F treatment to 1106.3 using electron spin resonance. This demonstrated that U + F treatment induces disintegration of sludge and release of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus better. - Highlights: • Combined ultrasound–Fenton pre-treatment was proposed for sludge disintegration. • Ultrasound–Fenton significantly increased carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus release. • Higher level of OH· was detected after combined disintegration than Fenton

  8. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Wook Park

    Full Text Available Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application.Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors.Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001, headache-related disability (p<0.001, abortive medication use (p = 0.02, and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001, relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4, hormonal changes (OR: 3.5, noise (OR: 2.8, alcohol (OR: 2.5, overeating (OR: 2.4, and stress (OR:1.8 were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication.Smartphone headache diary application is an effective tool to assess migraine

  9. Sleep in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, M C J; Jennum, P J; Lund, N T

    2015-01-01

    with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been suggested. Sleep in a large, well-characterized population of CH patients was investigated. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on two nights in 40 CH patients during active bout and one night in 25 age, sex and body mass index matched controls...... in hospital. Macrostructure and other features of sleep were analyzed and related to phenotype. Clinical headache characterization was obtained by semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Ninety-nine nights of PSG were analyzed. Findings included a reduced percentage of REM sleep (17.3% vs. 23.0%, P = 0.......0037), longer REM latency (2.0 vs. 1.2 h, P = 0.0012) and fewer arousals (7.34 vs. 14.1, P = 0.003) in CH patients. There was no difference in prevalence of sleep apnea between patients (38%) and matched controls (32%, P = 0.64) although the apnea index in patients was numerically higher (mean apnea...

  10. The buffering effect of family functioning on the psychological consequences of headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Zandieh, Sara; Dehghani, Mohsen; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether high family functioning mitigates the association between headache intensity and distress. The sample consisted of 124 patients with chronic or recurrent headache. Patients completed validated questionnaires about headache intensity, family functioning, and distress. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the interaction between headache intensity and family functioning on distress. Headache intensity was positively associated with distress (r = .28, p = .002). As hypothesized, family functioning moderated this association (B = -.01, p = .023). More specifically, the positive association between headache intensity and distress was significant only among patients with lower family functioning (B = .01, p families appear to buffer the distress level in patients; they showed relatively low levels of distress regardless of the severity of their headache. In contrast, patients with dysfunctional families who experienced more pain reported more distress, presumably because they did not receive adequate help and support from these families. This study underlines the importance of a broader perspective on family dynamics in coping with pain.

  11. "WHICH Headache to Investigate, WHEN, and HOW?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, K

    2016-11-01

    Headache is a common problem in medical practice. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) 1 divides all headaches into two broad categories. Most headaches seen in practice belong to the category of primary headaches, where there is no underlying structural cause identifiable. Less than 10% headaches in practice belong to the category of secondary headaches where there is an underlying condition, that can sometimes be ominous and life-threatening. Fear of missing a treatable serious secondary headache disorder is the most important reason why we need to investigate headache patients. There is no dilemma in investigating the patient when the clinical presentation is straightforward but when the headache presents differently or with 'red flags,' it can sometimes be quite challenging to order the right investigation and rapidly arrive at the right diagnosis. This article looks at some of the elusive headache scenarios and outlines an approach that addresses the issue of 'appropriate' investigation in the headache patient. With advancing technology and increasing expertise, the author feels it is time now to do away with the practice of ordering an exhaustive battery of tests in all headache patients. With experience, clinicians can learn to choose tests judiciously and order specific tests based on a working diagnosis. As the title suggests, knowing 'WHEN to order WHAT test in WHICH headache patient? ' forms the theme of this article. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  12. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Problems of Geriatric Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviyan Ghandehari

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no difference in clinical characteristics of headache between old individuals and younger’s. However, differential diagnosis of migrainous aura and transient ischemic attacks may be difficult in old people who frequently have vascular risk factors. Old people have less headache than the young’s. Chronic tension headache is the most common primary type of headache in the elderly. Chronic paroxismal hemicrania and headache due to giant cell arterities are specified to the elderly, Secondary headaches; e.g headache due to cervical spondylosis and brain tumors is more common in the old people than young. Old people poorly tolerate headache drugs, i.e. Ergotamine, Triptans and Tricyclics. Trigeminal neuralgia is often seen in the elderly and is resistant to medical therapy in the old people. Headache could be the main manifestation of depression in old people. Headaches secondary to disorders of internal medicine; i.e. hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have importance in the elderly. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is considered in every old person with sudden onset explosive headache especially in cases with decreased consciousness and neck stiffness. Old individuals use a collection of different drugs due to suffering various diseases and commonly have drug induced headaches. Neuroimaging should be performed in a geriatric patient with new onset sever headache without medical disorder or consumption of drug induced headache. Some of the old people suffer of multiple types of headache.

  13. Improved mechanical properties of retorted carrots by ultrasonic pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Li; Xu, Mi; Øiseth, Sofia K; Mawson, Raymond

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasound pre-processing treatment, compared to blanching, to enhance mechanical properties of non-starchy cell wall materials was investigated using carrot as an example. The mechanical properties of carrot tissues were measured by compression and tensile testing after the pre-processing treatment prior to and after retorting. Carrot samples ultrasound treated for 10 min at 60 °C provided a higher mechanical strength (P<0.05) to the cell wall structure than blanching for the same time period. With the addition of 0.5% CaCl(2) in the pre-treatment solution, both blanching and ultrasound treatment showed synergistic effect on enhancing the mechanical properties of retorted carrot pieces. At a relatively short treatment time (10 min at 60 °C) with the use of 0.5% CaCl(2), ultrasound treatment achieved similar enhancement to the mechanical strength of retorted carrots to blanching for a much longer time period (i.e. 40 min). The mechanism involved appears to be related to the stress responses present in all living plant matter. However, there is a need to clarify the relative importance of the potential stress mechanisms in order to get a better understanding of the processing conditions likely to be most effective. The amount of ultrasound treatment required is likely to involve low treatment intensities and there are indications from the structural characterisation and mechanical property analyses that the plant cell wall tissues were more elastic than that accomplished using low temperature long time blanching. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep-related headache and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niranjan N; Sahota, Pradeep

    2013-12-01

    Sleep and headache have both generated curiosity within the human mind for centuries. The relationship between headache and sleep disorders is very complex. While Lieving in 1873 first observed that headaches were linked to sleep, Dexter and Weitzman in 1970 described the relationship between headache and sleep stages. Though our understanding of sleep and headache relationship has improved over the years with expanding knowledge in both fields and assessment tools such as polysomnography, it is still poorly understood. Headache and sleep have an interdependent relationship. Headache may be intrinsically related to sleep (migraine with and without aura, cluster headache, hypnic headache, and paroxysmal hemicrania), may cause sleep disturbance (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache) or a manifestation of a sleep disorder like obstructive sleep apnea. Headache and sleep disorder may be a common manifestation of systemic dysfunction-like anemia and hypoxemia. Headaches may occur during sleep, after sleep, and in relation to different sleep stages. Lack of sleep and excessive sleep are both considered triggers for migraine. Insomnia is more common among chronic headache patients. Experimental data suggest that there is a common anatomic and physiologic substrate. There is overwhelming evidence that cluster headache and hypnic headaches are chronobiological disorders with strong association with sleep and involvement of hypothalamus. Cluster headache shows a circadian and circannual rhythmicity while hypnic headache shows an alarm clock pattern. There is also a preferential occurrence of cluster headache, hypnic headache, and paroxysmal hemicrania during REM sleep. Silencing of anti-nociceptive network of periaqueductal grey (PAG), locus ceruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus doing REM sleep may explain the preferential pattern. Sleep related headaches can be classified into (1) headaches with high association with obstructive sleep

  15. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yoney; Martin, Carlos; Gullon, Beatriz; Parajo, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  16. Tension-Type Headache - The Normal and Most Prevalent Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-02-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent form of primary headache in the general population but paradoxically the least studied headache. In this article, the epidemiology and diagnostic challenges of TTH are presented and discussed. The typical features and differential diagnosis of TTH are highlighted and the situations more likely to raise doubts are discussed. A structured approach to the patient and a better comprehension of the very frequent coexistence of migraine and medication overuse headache in the clinical population are emphasized. According to the IHS classification, several diagnoses should be applied but still some clinicians prefer to apply a single combined diagnosis in the severely affected patients, namely chronic migraine. Such uneven practice may complicate the diagnostic comparability and the entire management of TTH. The present treatment strategies for TTH are summarized and hopefully an increased awareness of TTH can translate into better quality of care and a more specific diagnosis and treatment for the numerous TTH sufferers. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  17. Benign vascular sexual headache and exertional headache: interrelationships and long term prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Silbert, P L; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G; Gubbay, S S

    1991-01-01

    There is a definite relationship between the vascular type of benign sexual headache and benign exertional headache. Forty five patients with benign vascular sexual headache were reviewed. Twenty seven (60%) experienced benign vascular sexual headache alone and eighteen (40%) had experienced both benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache on at least one occasion. The mean age was 34.3 years with a male:female ratio of 5.4:1. Thirty patients with a history of benign vascul...

  18. Female cluster headache in the United States of America: what are the gender differences? Results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D; Fishman, Royce S

    2012-06-15

    location: cluster headache pain is typically retro-orbital in location in both sexes but women are significantly more likely to experience cluster headache pain in the jaw, cheek and ear than men. f. Associated symptoms: women with cluster headache develop more “migrainous” associated symptoms than men, especially nausea and they are also more likely to have self-injurious behavior than men. g. Triggers: women with cluster headache are much less likely to have alcohol trigger a headache, but are significantly more likely to have “migrainous” triggers for their cluster headaches than men. h. Smoking issues: women are much less likely to have a smoking history than male cluster headache sufferers, more likely to have never smoked prior to cluster headache onset. i. Cycle issues: spring and fall are the most common time to start a cluster headache cycle in both sexes. Women are statistically significantly less likely to start a cluster headache cycle in the months of October–December than men. Women have more attacks per day and higher pain intensity nighttime attacks than men. j. in regard to acute treatment women statistically were less response to sumatriptan injectable and nasal spray than men, but statistically more likely to respond to inhaled lidocaine. There was equal efficacy in the sexes to inhaled oxygen but slower response in women. For preventive treatment no significant gender differences were noted, but overall women were less responsive to almost all preventives than men. k. Diagnostic delay: there remains a significant diagnostic delay for cluster headache patients in both sexes but women were more likely to be diagnosed after 10 years of symptom onset than males and significantly fewer women were diagnosed correctly at an initial physician visit than men. l. Female specific issues: cluster headache does not appear to be influenced by menses or menopause but 50% of the survey responders stated their headaches improved with pregnancy. Cluster

  19. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-01-01

    -treatment snack on uptake of mass treatment.Methods and Findings:In a cluster randomized trial carried out in Jinja district, Uganda, 12 primary schools were randomized into two groups; one received education messages for schistosomiasis prevention for two months prior to mass treatment, while the other......, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...... of side effects and the prevalence and mean intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined as the secondary outcomes. Uptake of praziquantel was higher in the snack schools, 93.9% (95% CI 91.7%-95.7%), compared to that in the non-snack schools, 78.7% (95% CI 75.4%-81.7%) (p = 0...

  20. Response surface methodology for the optimization of sludge solubilization by ultrasonic pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingyue; Zhang, Xiaohui; Lu, Peng; Cao, Qiguang; Yuan, Yuan; Yue, Mingxing; Fu, Yiwei; Wu, Libin

    2018-02-01

    The present study examines the optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment conditions with response surface experimental design in terms of sludge disintegration efficiency (solubilisation of organic components). Ultrasonic pre-treatment for the maximum solubilization with residual sludge enhanced the SCOD release. Optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment was conducted through a Box-Behnken design (three variables, a total of 17 experiments) to determine the effects of three independent variables (power, residence time and TS) on COD solubilization of sludge. The optimal COD was obtained at 17349.4mg/L, when the power was 534.67W, the time was 10.77, and TS was 2%, while the SE of this condition was 28792J/kg TS.

  1. Etiopathophysiological assessment of cases with chronic daily headache: A functional magnetic resonance imaging included investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Akram; Nami, Mohammad Torabi; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Ganjgahi, Habib; Vahabi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic daily headache (CDH) has gained little attention in functional neuro-imaging. When no structural abnormality is found in CDH, defining functional correlates between activated brain regions during headache bouts may provide unique insights towards understanding the pathophysiology of this type of headache. Methods We recruited four CDH cases for comprehensive assessments, including history taking, physical examinations and neuropsychological evaluations (The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation, Beck's Anxiety and Depression Inventories, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to self-rate the intensity of headache. Patients then underwent electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial Doppler (TCD) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evaluations during maximal (VAS = 8-10/10) and off-headache (VAS = 0-3/10) conditions. Data were used to compare in both conditions. We also used BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) -group level activation map fMRI to possibly locate headache-related activated brain regions. Results General and neurological examinations as well as conventional MRIs were unremarkable. Neuropsychological assessments showed moderate anxiety and depression in one patient and minimal in others. Unlike three patients, maximal and off-headache TCD evaluation in one revealed increased middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, at the maximal pain area. Although with no seizure history, the same patient's EEG showed paroxysmal epileptic discharges during maximal headache intensity, respectively. Group level activation map fMRI showed activated classical pain matrix regions upon headache bouts (periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nucleus), and markedly bilateral occipital lobes activation. Conclusion The EEG changes were of note. Furthermore, the increased BOLD signals in areas outside the classical pain matrix (i.e. occipital lobes) during maximal headaches may

  2. Previously unclassified bacteria dominate during thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic pre-treatment of primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Hasina M; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Thermophilic biological pre-treatment enables enhanced anaerobic digestion for treatment of wastewater sludges but, at present, there is limited understanding of the hydrolytic-acidogenic microbial composition and its contribution to this process. In this study, the process was assessed by comparing the microbiology of thermophilic (50-65 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) pre-treatment reactors treating primary sludge. A full-cycle approach for the 16S rRNA genes was applied in order to monitor the diversity of bacteria and their abundance in a thermophilic pre-treatment reactor treating primary sludge. For the thermophilic pre-treatment (TP), over 90% of the sequences were previously undetected and these had less than 97% sequence similarity to cultured organisms. During the first 83 days, members of the Betaproteobacteria dominated the community sequences and a newly designed probe was used to monitor a previously unknown bacterium affiliated with the genus Brachymonas. Between days 85 and 183, three phylotypes that affiliated with the genera Comamonas, Clostridium and Lysobacter were persistently dominant in the TP community, as revealed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Hydrolytic and fermentative functions have been speculated for these bacteria. Mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) and TP communities were different but they were both relatively dynamic. Statistical correlation analysis and the function of closely allied reference organisms indicated that previously unclassified bacteria dominated the TP community and may have been functionally involved in the enhanced hydrolytic performance of thermophilic anaerobic pre-treatment. This study is the first to reveal the diversity and dynamics of bacteria during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D

    1982-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer.

  4. Tinnitus Patients with Comorbid Headaches: The Influence of Headache Type and Laterality on Tinnitus Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Langguth

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBoth clinical experience and clinical studies suggest a relationship between tinnitus and headache. Here, we aimed to investigate the influence of comorbid headache type and headache laterality on tinnitus characteristics.MethodThe Tinnitus Research Initiative database was screened for patients of the Tinnitus Center of the University Regensburg who reported comorbid headaches. These patients were contacted to complete additional validated questionnaires. Based on these data, patients were categorized according to headache type and headache laterality, and their clinical characteristics were compared with tinnitus patients, who did not report comorbid headaches.ResultsData from 193 patients with tinnitus and comorbid headaches were compared with those from 765 tinnitus patients without comorbid headaches. Tinnitus patients with comorbid headache have higher scores in tinnitus questionnaires, a lower quality of life and more frequently comorbidities such as painful sensation to loud sounds, vertigo, pain (neck, temporomandibular, and general, and depressive symptoms when compared with tinnitus patients without headaches. Both headache laterality and headache type interact with the degree of comorbidity with higher impairment in patients with left-sided and bilateral headaches as well as in patients with migraine or cluster headache.ConclusionThe observed increased impairment in tinnitus patients with comorbid headache can be explained as an additive effect of both disorders on health-related quality of life. The more frequent occurrence of further comorbidities suggests a generally increased amplification of sensory signals in a subset of tinnitus patients with comorbid headaches.

  5. What do the patients with medication overuse headache expect from treatment and what are the preferred sources of information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, S B; Allena, M; Tassorelli, C

    2011-01-01

    % requested effective prevention and fast relief of the headache episodes. 80 and 75%, respectively expected reduction in frequency and intensity. A total of 64% expected information about self-management and 52% expected to receive education on their headaches. The study demonstrates that patients...... in specialized headache centres prefer personal information, that expectations are very high, and that education and information are important. Providing the right information and thus give patients realistic expectations might enhance compliance and improve outcome....

  6. Headache in children with Chiari I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldo, Irene; Tangari, Marta; Mardari, Rodica; Perissinotto, Egle; Sartori, Stefano; Gatta, Michela; Calderone, Milena; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Headache is the most common symptom of Chiari 1 malformation, a condition characterized by the herniation of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. However, the headache pattern of cases with Chiari 1 malformations is not well defined in the literature, especially in children. The aim of this retrospective chart review was to evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of headache in children with Chiari 1 malformation at initial evaluation and during follow up. Forty-five cases with tonsillar ectopia were selected among 9947 cases under 18 years of age who underwent neuroimaging between 2002 and 2010. A semistructured clinical interview (mean follow-up: 5.2 years) was conducted. Headache was classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Possible associations between clinical picture, in particular headache pattern, but also other signs and symptoms attributable to Chiari 1 malformation, and the extent of tonsillar ectopia were found for 3 different groups: those with borderline (headache, and 9/33 (27%) of those patients (5 with mild and 4 with severe tonsillar ectopia) reported headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation. In our studied pediatric population, the most common symptom for cases diagnosed with Chiari 1 malformation was headache, and headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation was the most common headache pattern in patients with Chiari 1 malformation. The presence of headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation along with 3 other signs or symptoms of Chiari 1 malformation were highly predictive of severe tonsillar ectopia. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  7. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  8. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy......, but not a prophylactic effect. Despite the fact that only a few high-quality RCT studies are available, oxygen treatment is close to an ideal treatment because it is effective and safe. However, sufferers of cluster headache do not always have access to oxygen because of logistic and financial concerns....

  9. Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Delivered Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Noel, Melanie; Claar, Robyn; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-01-01

    groups demonstrated statistically significant improvement headache pain intensity, activity limitations, depressive symptoms, and parent protective behaviors from baseline to post-treatment and these gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Adolescent anxiety symptoms and sleep did not change during the study period for either group. There were no statistically significant group differences on any secondary outcomes at post-treatment or follow-up (P > .05 for all outcomes). No adverse events were reported. Although adjunctive Internet CBT did not lead to additional benefit in this population, future research should evaluate whether it is an effective intervention for adolescents with headache who are unable to access specialized headache treatment. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  10. Tension-Type Headache - The Normal and Most Prevalent Headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    diagnosis of TTH are highlighted and the situations more likely to raise doubts are discussed. POTENTIAL SOLUTION: A structured approach to the patient and a better comprehension of the very frequent coexistence of migraine and medication overuse headache in the clinical population are emphasized. According...

  11. Headaches and Migraines: Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are thought to involve abnormal functioning of the brain's blood vessels. Migraines cause severe pain on one or both ... migraines. Toxic: The second most common type of vascular headache, toxic ... They are brought on by stressful events and involve the tightening or tensing of facial ...

  12. Carbon monoxide inhalation induces headache in a human headache model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine

    2018-01-01

    , double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 12 healthy volunteers were allocated to inhalation of CO (carboxyhemoglobin 22%) or placebo on two separate days. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0-10. We recorded mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by transcranial...

  13. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-08-01

    Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication/month). In our primary effect parameter we found a significant reduction in AUC with more than 25% and this is considered to be clinically relevant. We found also a significant and relevant reduction at -22% in intensity. A trend towards reduction in duration was seen. We found no statistically significant reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF pressure headache can be considered as a treatment option.

  14. Mechanical pre-treatment for enzymatically enhanced energy efficient TMP; Mekanisk foerbehandling av flis foer effektiv enzymatisk paaverkan vid energieffektiv TMP tillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2008-11-15

    Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) processes are high energy demanding. This together with the high energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, why less energy demanding processes are wished. This project has evaluated the potential for energy reductions in a TMP process by a mechanical pre-treatment of the wood chips combined with an enzymatic modification based on a cellulase mixture. The structure of the wood was opened up by the mechanical pre-treatment making it easier for the enzymes to penetrate into the pre-treated wood material. The enzymatic treatment was then run at optimum standard conditions. The EU project - Ecotarget 2004-2008 (www.ecotarget.com) have studied different types of enzymes that could be used for pre-treatment of wood chips in order to save energy during TMP processes. Based on these studies cellulose enzyme was recommended to be used at pre-treatment experiment performed by the Vaermeforsk project. Due to the fact that the Ecotarget-project has also been run during 2008 with activities involving enzymes, the steering board of the Vaermeforsk project took the decision to co-ordinate the experiments from both of the projects. This co-operation increased the funds and also the number of experiments for both of the projects. The experimental results from this project showed that energy reductions at a given tensile index could be achieved if gently mechanical pre-treated wood chips were enzymatically treated. An intensive mechanical pre-treatment gave negative effects on both fibre length and tear index while the light scattering coefficient was promoted, probably due to the fibre shortening. Enzymatic modification of mechanically pre-treated chips showed a favourable modification of the fibres, even regarding the fibre shortening, if compared to mechanical pre-treated chips only. The effects of cellulases was however not as expected, why a high amount of cellulases was used. Other types of enzymes which could attack the primary wall of

  15. SONO-OXIDATIVE PRE-TREATMENT OF WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE BEFORE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Şahinkaya

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of sonication, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 oxidation and their simultaneous combination (called "sono-oxidative pre-treatment" on chemical properties and anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS were investigated and compared comprehensively. Based on chemical parameters, the optimum operating conditions were found to be 0.3 g K2FeO4/g total solids (TS dosage for 2-h individual K2FeO4 oxidation, 0.50 W/mL ultrasonic power density for 10-min individual sonication and, lastly, the combination of 2.5-min sonication at 0.75 W/mL ultrasonic power density with 2-h chemical oxidation at 0.3 g K2FeO4/g TS dosage for sono-oxidative pre-treatment. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods under the optimized conditions were in the following descending order: 37.8% for sono-oxidative pre-treatment > 26.3% for sonication > 13.1% for K2FeO4 oxidation. The influences of these methods on anaerobic biodegradability were tested with the biochemical methane potential assay. It was seen that the cumulative methane production increased by 9.2% in the K2FeO4 oxidation reactor, 15.8% in the sonicated reactor and 18.6% in the reactor with sono-oxidative pre-treatment, compared to the control (untreated reactor.

  16. Pre-treatment with a sinus node blockade, ivabradine, before coronary CT angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechtsen, J; Egstrup, K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether a simple pre-treatment regimen of sinus node inhibition by ivabradine taken at home for only 1 day resulted in a lower pre-scanning heart rate (HR) and reduced the need for intravenous beta-blockers (BB) prior to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA)....

  17. The role of pre-treatment proactive coping skills in successful weight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Charlotte D. W.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Proactive coping encompasses future-oriented self-regulatory skills that help people prepare for future difficulties before they occur, such as planning and monitoring. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between pre-treatment proactive coping skills and expected

  18. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, T.; Klaasse Bos, G.J.; Zeeman, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After

  19. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  20. Effects of hydrothermal pre-treatments on Giant reed (Arundo donax) methane yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Girolamo, Giuseppe; Grigatti, Marco; Barbanti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    /20min, 180°C/10min and 180°C/20min. Conversely, the eight pre-treatments with H2SO4 catalyst incurred a methanogenic inhibition in association with high SO42- concentration in the hydrolysate, known to enhance sulphate reducing bacteria. Furfurals were also detected in the hydrolysate of five strong...

  1. Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa (Benth) ... There has been emphasis on the use of indigenous tree species to check land ... out to investigate the most effective pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and to ... Matured seeds of P. biglobosa were collected from farmers at Mbalagh ...

  2. Gambling Disorder: Exploring Pre-treatment and In-treatment Dropout Predictors. A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in a sample of gamblers attending a specialist clinic for gambling disorder. We analysed data on 846 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Firstly, we investigated differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables between treatment completers and pre-treatment dropouts, as well as between treatment completers and during-treatment dropouts. Subsequently, variables were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify significant predictors of pre-treatment and in-treatment dropout. Overall, 44.8% of clients did not complete the treatment: 27.4% dropped out before starting it, while 17.4% dropped out during the treatment. Younger age and use of drugs were associated with pre-treatment dropout, while family history of gambling disorder, a lower PGSI score, and being a smoker were related with in-treatment dropout. Our findings suggest that pre-treatment dropouts differ from in-treatment dropouts, and, thus, further research will benefit from considering these groups separately. In addition, this newly gained knowledge will also be helpful in increasing treatment retention in specific subgroups of problem gamblers.

  3. Investigation on the influence of pre-treatments on drying behaviour of broccoli by MRI experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the monitoring of internal moisture content of food products during drying non-destructively. In an experimental set-up with continuous and controlled hot air supply, the internal moisture distribution of broccoli with different pre-treatments are

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment biopsy for grading cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T; Kudnig, S T; Firestone, S M

    2018-06-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are common tumours of the canine skin, and are estimated to represent up to 20% of all skin tumours in dogs. Tumour grade has a major impact on the incidence of local recurrence and metastatic potential. In addition to helping the clinician with surgical planning, knowledge of the tumour grade also assists in proper prognostication and client education. For pre-treatment biopsies to be useful, there must exist a high level of correlation between the histopathological grade obtained from the pre-treatment biopsy and the actual histopathological grade from the excisional biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine concordance of tumour grade between various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch, needle core) and the "gold standard" excisional biopsy method. We found an overall concordance rate of 96% based on the Patnaik grading system, and an overall concordance rate of 92% based on the Kiupel grading system. The accuracy of the various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch and needle core) when compared with excisional biopsy was 92%, 100% and 100%, respectively, based on the Patnaik grading system, and 90%, 95% and 100%, respectively, based on the Kiupel grading system. Of the cases with discordant results, the pre-treatment biopsies tended to underestimate the grade of the tumour. Based on these results, we conclude that pre-treatment biopsies are sufficiently accurate for differentiating low-grade from high-grade MCTs, regardless of biopsy technique or tumour location. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence and Features of a Probable Diagnosis in First-Visit Headache Patients Based on the Criteria of the Third Beta Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: A Prospective, Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Moon, Heui-Soo; Cha, Myong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Su; Kim, Byung-Kun; Park, Jeong-Wook; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Chu, Min-Kyung; Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Moon; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the characteristics and significance of a probable diagnostic entity for primary headache disorder (PHD). A diagnosis of probable primary headache disorder (PPHD) is given when a patient's headache fulfills all but one criteria of the third beta edition of the international classification of headache disorder (ICHD-3β). Despite the uncertainty regarding this diagnosis, the inclusion of a probable diagnosis entity in this manual may aid in the accurate classification of headache disorders and allow effective treatment strategies to be started at the patient's initial visit. This cross-sectional multicenter registry study assessed first-visit patients with complaints of headaches who presented at the outpatient clinics of 11 neurologists in Korea. The classification of a headache disorder was made according to the criteria of the ICHD-3β by each investigator based on the initial evaluation of the patient or by a consensus meeting for uncertain cases. The rates of a probable diagnosis among PPHD patients were assessed and the clinical characteristics of these patients were compared with those of patients with a diagnosis of definite primary headache disorder (DPHD). A total of 1429 patients were diagnosed with PHD, and 305 (21.3%) of these patients had PPHD. The proportions of PPHD differed among the subtypes of DPHD as follows: migraines (16.1%), tension-type headaches (TTH; 33%), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC; 40.9%), and other PHD (14%, P headache intensity than patients with DPHD (5.8 ± 2.2 vs. 6.5 ± 2.1, respectively, P headache from onset (median: 1 vs. 4 months, respectively, P headaches. The incorporation of a probable diagnosis into the ICHD-3β may be useful for reducing the diagnoses of unspecified headaches. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  6. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impact during MHAM What is Migraine and Headache Awareness Month? June is Migraine and Headache Awareness Month, ... approved last week, which is called erenumab, the brand name of which is Aimovig, is a monoclonal ...

  7. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safvet Ors, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  8. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Migraine 101 Quiz Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... the facts when it comes to headaches and migraines? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. True/ ...

  9. Cluster-like headache aura status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, M; van der Naalt, J; Luijckx, GJ; De Keyser, J

    We describe a patient with successive attacks (40 to 90 minutes) of cluster-like headache associated with aphasia, and contralateral hemihypesthesia and hemiplegia. The condition can best be described as cluster-like headache aura status.

  10. Comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalles P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities are often associated with chronic neurological diseases, such as headache and epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To identify comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches, and to determine possible drug interactions. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire with information about type of epilepsy/headache, medical history, and medication was administered to 80 adult subjects (40 with epilepsy and 40 with chronic headache. RESULTS: Patients with epilepsy had an average of two comorbidities and those with headache of three. For both groups, hypertension was the most prevalent. On average, patients with epilepsy were taking two antiepileptic medications and those with headache were taking only one prophylactic medication. Regarding concomitant medications, patients with epilepsy were in use, on average, of one drug and patients with headache of two. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and headaches, have a high number of comorbidities and they use many medications. This may contribute to poor adherence and interactions between different medications.

  11. Headaches. More than just sinusitis; Kopfschmerzen. Mehr als nur Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauth, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2011-09-15

    Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

  12. Headaches: Treatment Depends on Your Diagnosis and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep a headache diary to help diagnose your headache type. Write down when your headaches occur, accompanying symptoms, and any potential triggers such as food, changes in sleep or stress. Tension-type headaches, the most common variety of ...

  13. Thunderclap headache: Diagnostic considerations and neuroimaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, A.M.; Bradley, M.D.; Stoodley, N.G.; Renowden, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thunderclap headache (TCH) is an acute and severe headache that has maximum intensity at onset; TCH can be primary or secondary. Primary TCH is diagnosed when no underlying cause is discovered; however, imaging is crucial in distinguishing secondary causes, which are wide-ranging. The radiologist should be aware of the list of potential diagnoses. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is the most common cause of secondary TCH. Aneurysmal SAH accounts for the majority of cases, although other causes should also be considered and these include perimesencephalic haemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula as well as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Conditions that may present with TCH, with or without SAH include cervical artery dissection and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Ischaemic stroke, pituitary apoplexy, and posterior reversible leucoencephalopathy are other potential causes, whereas non-vascular causes include colloid cysts of the third ventricle and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Imaging features are reviewed with reference to clues gleaned from initial imaging using computed tomography, as well as characteristics that should be sought using magnetic resonance imaging or angiographic imaging

  14. [A role of treatment of autonomic syndrome in patients with tension-type headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, S N

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the effect of correction of psycho-vegetative violations anxiolitikami on the frequency and intensity of headache. the study included 50 women (average age - 37,4 years) with confirmed diagnosis: frequent episodic headache and chronic headache no factor abuses. Patients of the main group received ibuprofen to 200-400 mg/day for headaches in combination with tizanidine (2-4 mg/day) and anvifen 750 mg a day for 8 weeks. Patients in the comparison group received ibuprofen and tizanidine in the same mode, but did not take anvifen. Evaluated the severity of headaches by visual analogue scale, the level of anxiety on the Hamilton depression rating scale, vegetative disorders on questionnaire ( Wayne), the quality of sleep before treatment and 60 days. In addition, 60 day therapy was conducted subjective assessment of the General state on a scale GGI. The conclusion about expediency of inclusion of, anvifen in the complex treatment of the condition.

  15. Temporomandibular disorders, facial pain, and headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Steven D

    2012-05-01

    Headaches and facial pain are common in the general population. In many cases, facial pain can be resultant from temporomandibular joint disorders. Studies have identified an association between headaches and temporomandibular joint disorders suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms of these 2 maladies. The aim of this paper is to elucidate potential commonalities of these disorders and to provide a brief overview of an examination protocol that may benefit the headache clinician in daily practice. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  16. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of chemical, thermobaric and thermochemical pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of high-fat cattle slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter W; Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group. Specific methane production was enhanced by 3.28% (chemical), 8.32% (thermobaric), and 8.49% (thermochemical) as a result of pre-treatment. Under batch digestion, thermobaric pre-treatment demonstrated the greatest improvement in methane yield with respect to degree of pre-treatment applied. Thermobaric pre-treatment was also the most viable for implementation at slaughterhouses, with potential for heat-exchange to reduce pre-treatment cost. Further investigation into long-term impact of pre-treatments in semi-continuous digestion experiments will provide additional evaluation of appropriate pre-treatment options for high-fat slaughterhouse wastewater. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  19. AUTOGENIC THERAPY IN TENSION HEADACHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amruthraj, Brunda; Mishra, H.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Ten subjects diagnosed as Psychalgia were taken for study. A multiple baseline design was adapted and clients were subjected to 30 sessions of autogenic training. They were assessed using physiological (EMG and thermal change) and behavioural measures (Visual analogue scale and behavioural symptom checklist). Findings revealed autogenic therapy to be effective in reducing tension headache. PMID:21927245

  20. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  1. AUTOGENIC THERAPY IN TENSION HEADACHE

    OpenAIRE

    Amruthraj, Brunda; Mishra, H.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Ten subjects diagnosed as Psychalgia were taken for study. A multiple baseline design was adapted and clients were subjected to 30 sessions of autogenic training. They were assessed using physiological (EMG and thermal change) and behavioural measures (Visual analogue scale and behavioural symptom checklist). Findings revealed autogenic therapy to be effective in reducing tension headache.

  2. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  3. Headache associated with cough : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordenier, Ann; De Hertogh, Willem; De Keyser, Jacques; Versijpt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected

  4. Evaluation and performance of arccheck and film using gamma criteria in pre-treatment quality assurance of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Ramachandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the use of ArcCHECK (AC as an alternative method to replace film dosimetry for pre-treatment quality assurance (QA of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR treatment plans. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with a varied diagnosis of lung, spine, sacrum, sternum, ribs, scapula, and femur undergoing SABR were selected for this study. Pre-treatment QA was performed for all the patients using ionization chamber and film dosimetry. Measurements were also carried out on an AC phantom. The planned and measured doses from the AC device and EBT3 films were compared using four different gamma criteria: 2%/2 mm, 3%/2 mm, 3%/1 mm, and 3%/3 mm. Results: The mean gamma passing rates at 3%/3 mm for all non-spine SABR cases were 98.79 ± 0.96 and 99.27 ± 1.03 with AC and films, respectively. The mean passing rates at 3%/2 mm for AC and films were 98.76 ± 0.42 and 99.43 ± 0.27 respectively for spine VMAT SABR, and 87.15 ± 2.45 and 99.79 ± 0.14 respectively for spine IMRT SABR. In the case of spine tumors, the gamma criterion was tightened due to the proximity of spinal cord to the planning target volume. Our results show that AC provides good results for all VMAT SABR plans. Conclusion: The AC results at 3%/3 mm were in good agreement with film dosimetry for most cases. We observed a significant reduction in QA time on using AC for SABR QA. This study showed that AC results are comparable to film dosimetry for all studied sites except for spine IMRT SABR.

  5. Interaction between anxiety, depression, quality of life and clinical parameters in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; González-Gutierrez, Jose L; Miangolarra-Page, Juan C; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the mediating or moderating role of anxiety and depression in the relationship between headache clinical parameters and quality of life in Chronic Tension-Type Headache (CTTH). Twenty-five patients diagnosed with CTTH according to the criteria of the International Headache Society were studied. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to substantiate the diagnosis and record the pain history. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) was used to assess depression, and the Trait Anxiety Scale (TA) from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered in order to assess anxiety. Moderating and mediating analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis using the SPSS General Linear Model procedure. Anxiety mediated the effect between headache frequency and quality of life, but not the effect of either headache intensity or duration. Anxiety totally mediated the effects of headache frequency on vitality, social functioning and mental health. On the other hand, depression modulated the effect in the mental health domain. The effect in the mental health domain was a function of the interaction between headache duration and depression (beta=-0.34, panxiety to be a moderating factor between intensity, frequency or duration of headache and perceived quality of life. Anxiety exerts a mediating effect, conditioning the relationship between headache frequency and some quality of life domains; depression seems to play an inherent role in the reduced quality of life of these patients, that is, it has a moderating effect.

  6. Simulated airplane headache: a proxy towards identification of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Sebastian Bao Dinh; Petersen, Torben; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    Airplane Headache (AH) occurs during flights and often appears as an intense, short lasting headache during take-off or landing. Reports are limited on pathological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this headache. Proper diagnosis and treatments would benefit from identification of potential pathways involved in AH pathogenesis. This study aimed at providing a simulated airplane headache condition as a proxy towards identification of its underlying mechanisms. Fourteen participants including 7 volunteers suffering from AH and 7 healthy matched controls were recruited after meeting the diagnostic and safety criteria based on an approved study protocol. Simulation of AH was achieved by entering a pressure chamber with similar characteristics of an airplane flight. Selected potential biomarkers including salivary prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), cortisol, facial thermo-images, blood pressure, pulse, and saturation pulse oxygen (SPO) were defined and values were collected before, during and after flight simulation in the pressure chamber. Salivary samples were analyzed with ELISA techniques, while data analysis and statistical tests were handled with SPSS version 22.0. All participants in the AH-group experienced a headache attack similar to AH experience during flight. The non-AH-group did not experience any headaches. Our data showed that the values for PGE 2 , cortisol and SPO were significantly different in the AH-group in comparison with the non-AH-group during the flight simulation in the pressure chamber. The pressure chamber proved useful not only to provoke AH-like attack but also to study potential biomarkers for AH in this study. PGE 2 , and cortisol levels together with SPO presented dysregulation during the simulated AH-attack in affected individuals compared with healthy controls. Based on these findings we propose to use pressure chamber as a model to induce AH, and thus assess new potential biomarkers for AH in future studies.

  7. Stress and Sleep Duration Predict Headache Severity in Chronic Headache Sufferers

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Timothy T.; Butschek, Ross A.; Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Rains, Jeanetta C.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the time-series relationships between stress, sleep duration, and headache pain among patients with chronic headaches. Sleep and stress have long been recognized as potential triggers of episodic headache (< 15 headache days/month), though prospective evidence is inconsistent and absent in patients diagnosed with chronic headaches (≥ 15 days/month). We reanalyzed data from a 28-day observational study of chronic migraine (n = 33) and chronic tension...

  8. Two Studies of the Long-Term Follow-up of Minimal Therapist Contact Treatments of Vascular and Tension Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Edward B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Followed up on tension and vascular headache patients, intially treated with biofeedback and/or relaxation training in either a minimal therapist contact or an intensive individual protocol, where one-half of patients continued keeping headache diaries and were seen monthly; others had minimal contact. Demonstrated equally good maintenance from…

  9. A Survey of Headache Medicine Physicians on the Likeability of Headaches and Their Personal Headache History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph W; Ghosh, Kamalika

    2016-03-01

    Two prior studies have shown an increased prevalence of migraine among physicians who are headache medicine specialists (HMS). There have been no studies of the prevalence of other headache disorders among HMS. A prior survey showed that neurologists like to treat some headaches more than others but there has not been a similar survey of HMS. The aim of the survey was to learn more about the prevalence of headaches among HMS and which headache disorders they like to treat. An email survey was sent to 749 physician members of the American Headache Society who were asked to respond to the following statement using a 5-point Likert scale (from 1, strongly disagree to 5, strongly agree): "I like to treat patients with the following types of headaches or syndromes." They were asked, "Have you personally suffered from any of the following at any time during your life: episodic migraine (EM), chronic migraine (CM), refractory migraine (RM), episodic cluster (EC), chronic cluster (CC), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and postconcussion syndrome (PCS)." The response rate was 15.8% (n = 118) with a mean age of 51.4 years, 64.4% males, and 85.6% neurologists. HMS reported likeability for treating disorders in rank order as follows: EM (mean = 4.69, SD = 0.61); CM (mean = 4.20, SD = 0.94); RM (mean = 3.62, SD = 1.17); EC (mean = 4.37, SD = 0.80); CC (mean = 3.68, SD = 1.10); NDPH (mean = 3.52, SD = 1.21); and PCS (mean = 3.66, SD = 1.18). The lifetime prevalence of disorders was as follows: EM, 69.5% (85.7% in females and 60.5% in males); CM, 13.6% (19% in females and 10.5% in males); RM, .9% (2.4% females and 0% males); EC, 1.7% (0% females and 2.6% males); CC, 0%; NDPH, 0%, and PCS, 4.2% (7.1% females and 2.6% males). HMS with a personal history of EM (mean = 4.73, SD = 0.51) showed a significant preference (t130  = 7.30, P headaches (mean = 3.90, SD = 0.77). HMS preferred to treat some

  10. Challenges in developing drugs for primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Hargreaves, Richard; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the history of drug development in primary headaches and discusses challenges to the discovery of innovative headache therapeutics. Advances in headache genetics have yet to translate to new classes of therapeutics and there are currently no clear predictive human biomarkers...... for any of the primary headaches that can guide preventative drug discovery and development. Primary headache disorder subtypes despite common phenotypic presentation are undoubtedly heterogeneous in their pathophysiology as judged by the variability of response to headache medicines. Sub......, despite having promising effects in basic pain models, have not delivered efficacy in the clinic. Future efforts may triage novel physiological mediators using human experimental models of headache pain to support drug discovery strategies that target active pathways pharmacologically....

  11. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on cerebral hemodynamics and headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Ashina, Messoud; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    InvestigationSodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a powerful vasodilatory agent that, similarly to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), releases nitric oxide (NO) but in contrast does not pass the blood-brain barrier. Nevertheless, it has already been used in animal models without any knowledge of its headache......-inducing potential. We hypothesized that SNP would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and radial but not cerebral arteries.MethodsFive healthy volunteers received intravenous infusions of SNP in a non-randomized dose-titration (1-5 µg/kg/min) study. We recorded headache intensity (verbal rating scale from...

  12. Intravenous nitroglycerin as an experimental model of vascular headache. Basic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1989-01-01

    To develop a reliable experimental model of vascular headache, we studied the dose-response relationship between headache and i.v. nitroglycerin (NTG) in 10 healthy subjects. NTG was infused intravenously over periods of 10 min separated by wash-out periods. Doses of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2......) at various doses and declined rapidly after NTG discontinuation. Wash-out periods of 10-20 min were sufficient. The reproducibility of headache intensity and character was satisfactory in the retest experiment. There were no unpleasant side effects and no visible flushing. Thus blindness was maintained. I...

  13. Lack of Correlation Between Vasodilatation and Pharmacologically Induced Immediate Headache in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Dalgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    these experiments were vasodilators we examined a possible correlation between headache scores and increases in arterial diameter. Methods: We identified nine studies and retrieved raw data in 89 healthy subjects (46 females, 43 males), mean age 27 years (range 18–59 years). The following variables were collected...... intensity. Results: The scatter plots show no relationship between maximal headache score and the relative changes in VmeanMCA and diameter of the STA. The main analyses of covariance showed a significant effect only of heart rate on headache (p = .014). The interaction tests were insignificant for all...

  14. Headache and pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, A; Delaruelle, Z; Ivanova, T A; Khan, S; Ornello, R; Raffaelli, B; Terrin, A; Reuter, U; Mitsikostas, D D

    2017-10-19

    This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Migraine is a risk factor for pregnancy complications, particularly vascular events. Data regarding other primary headache conditions are still scarce. Early diagnostics of the disease manifested by headache is important for mother and fetus life. It is especially important to identify "red flag symptoms" suggesting that headache is a symptom of a serious disease. In order to exclude a secondary headache additional studies can be necessary: electroencephalography, ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck, brain MRI and MR angiography with contrast ophthalmoscopy and lumbar puncture. During pregnancy and breastfeeding the preferred therapeutic strategy for the treatment of primary headaches should always be a non-pharmacological one. Treatment should not be postponed as an undermanaged headache can lead to stress, sleep deprivation, depression and poor nutritional intake that in turn can have negative consequences for both mother and baby. Therefore, if non-pharmacological interventions seem inadequate, a well-considered choice should be made concerning the use of medication, taking into account all the benefits and possible risks.

  15. The effect of lime pre-treatments of date palm leaves on delignification and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, M.; Ahmadi, F.; Rajaee Rad, A.; Zamiri, M.J.; Cone, J.W.; Polikarpov, I.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of lime pre-treatment on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability of date palm leaves (DPL). Lime pre-treatments, with or without oxygen supply, were applied for 1, 2 and 3 weeks at 25 and 40 °C. Lime was neutralized by the

  16. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  17. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural (furan-2-carboxaldehyde), formed during dilute acid hydrolysis of biomass, is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. The present study used a biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model biofuel fermentation broth. The pre-treatment in...

  18. Effect of sample pre-treatment on the determination of steroid esters in hair of bovine calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of three sample pre-treatment steps, washing, cutting and grinding on the determination of steroid esters in hair is studied. The study is performed by using hair samples obtained after pour-on application of steroid esters to bovine calves. After sample pre-treatment the hair is treated

  19. Effects of chemical-physical pre-treatment processes on hemp fibres for reinforcement of composites and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bohn, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    Retted hemp fibres were treated using chemical-physical pre-treatments and the material was characterised chemically in order to evaluate the effect of the pre-treatments, respectively, wet oxidation (WO), hydrothermal treatment (HT) and steam explosion (STEX). Process variables were addition...

  20. Study on the pre-treatment of oxidized zinc ore prior to flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-sheng; Chen, Yun; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Zheng-jun; Potgieter, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    The pre-treatment of zinc oxide bearing ores with high slime content is important to ensure that resources are utilized optimally. This paper reports an improved process using hydrocyclone de-sliming, dispersion reagents, and magnetic removal of iron minerals for the pre-treatment of zinc oxide ore with a high slime and iron content, and the benefits compared to traditional technologies are shown. In addition, this paper investigates the damage related to fine slime and iron during zinc oxide flotation, the necessity of using hydrocyclone de-sliming together with dispersion reagents to alleviate the influence of slime, and interactions among hydrocyclone de-sliming, reagent dispersion, and magnetic iron removal. Results show that under optimized operating conditions the entire beneficiation technology results in a flotation concentrate with a Zn grade of 34.66% and a recovery of 73.41%.

  1. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  2. Pre-treatment technology for electrochemical detection of heavy metal lead and cadmium in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke YAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet digestion is used as the pre-treatment technology for the electrochemical detection of heavy metals in food, and the complete wet digestion condition of food sample is optimized by electrochemical experiments. The results show that the experimental samples can be digested completely using the Nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide system and is not pre-digested after adding 10 mL nitric acid at 120~140 ℃ and adding 10~15 mL of hydrogen peroxide during the heating process. The correlation coefficient of electrochemical detect is 0.99 for digestion solution of the samples, and the recovery of standard addition is 82%~115%. Wet digestion as a pre-treatment technology of food samples. It can digest sample fully and meet the requirements of electrochemical detection.

  3. FMECA about pre-treatment system for purge gas of test blanket module in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The pre-treatment system for purge gas of TBM will be installed in Port Cell for installing TBM in ITER, the function of which includes filtering purge gas, removing HTO, cooling, and adjusting flow rate, etc. The purge gas treated will be conveyed into TES (Tritium Extraction System). The technological process and system components in pre-treatment system were introduced. Tritium releasing risk was regarded as failure criterion; failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) were carried out and several weaknesses or failure mode in the system were found. Besides, risk priority number (RPN) and failure mode criticality were calculated. Finally, some design improvement measures and usage compensation measures were given. At last, four important potential failure modes were found out. The analysis will provide the design basis for reducing risk of excessive tritium releasing, which is also a useful assist for safety analysis about other tritium system. (authors)

  4. Use of basic and specific pre-treatments for the biogas production. Revision and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Hernández, Carlos M.; García López, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in mind the importance that has today the use of national and international biogas plants, which use as raw material animal manure; as well as agricultural and agroindustrial residuals for the energy production and biofertilizers, minimizing the aspects of environmental contamination. This work is presented in three parts, in those which: firstly the technologies and the methods are described to apply the basic and special pre-treatments to the different biomass in order to obtain their maximum potential of methane. A second part where it is approached the particularities to do that. Finally, a third part where their possible use is analyzed in the Cuban case. As a result of the same one, the state of the art is shown in the use of basic and special pre-treatments, with the objective of to potentialize the increase of the methane production in agricultural or animal biomasses. (author)

  5. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  6. Influence of different pre-treatment routes on the anaerobic digestion of a filamentous algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Poulsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    biomass blending (20% compared to use of a mechanical size reduction method alone. The methane yields from Rhizoclonium biomass were however observed to be considerably lower than those of other algae species from......The anaerobic digestion of outdoor cultivated Rhizoclonium biomass was investigated in this study. The influence of applying mechanical and biological pre-treatment methods prior to the biomass digestion on the overall methane yields was examined. The results show that the application of a combined...

  7. Headache in 25 consecutive patients with atrial septal defects before and after percutaneous closure--a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Franz; Baumgartner, Helmut; Sándor, Peter S; Wessely, Peter; Wöber, Christian

    2011-09-01

    In contrast to patent foramen ovale that is highly prevalent in the general population, atrial septal defect (ASD) is a rare congenital heart defect. The effect of ASD closure on headache and migraine remains a matter of controversy. The objectives of our study were (1) to determine headache prevalence in consecutive patients with ASD scheduled for percutaneous closure for cardiologic indications, using the International Classification of Headache Disorders and (2) to compare headache characteristics before and after closure of ASD. In this observational case series no a priori power analysis was performed. Twenty-five consecutive patients were prospectively included over 27 months. Median duration of follow-up was 12 months [interquartile range 0]. Prevalence of active headache seemed to be higher compared with the general population: any headaches 88% (95% confidence interval 70-96), migraine without aura 28% (14-48), migraine with aura 16% (6-35). After ASD closure, we observed a slightly lower headache frequency (median frequency 1.0 [2.6] vs. 0.3 [1.5] headaches per month; P = .067). In patients with ongoing headaches, a significant decrease in headache intensity (median VAS 7 [3] vs. 5 [4]; P = .036) was reported. Three patients reporting migraine with aura before the intervention noted no migraine with aura attacks at follow-up, 2 of them reported ongoing tension-type headache, 1 migraine without aura. In summary, this prospective observational study confirms the high prevalence of headache, particularly migraine, in ASD patients and suggests a possible small beneficial effect of ASD closure. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  8. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Multicentre validation of IMRT pre-treatment verification: Comparison of in-house and external audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornet, Núria; Carrasco, Pablo; Beltrán, Mercè; Calvo, Juan Francisco; Escudé, Lluís; Hernández, Victor; Quera, Jaume; Sáez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We performed a multicentre intercomparison of IMRT optimisation and dose planning and IMRT pre-treatment verification methods and results. The aims were to check consistency between dose plans and to validate whether in-house pre-treatment verification results agreed with those of an external audit. Materials and methods: Participating centres used two mock cases (prostate and head and neck) for the intercomparison and audit. Compliance to dosimetric goals and total number of MU per plan were collected. A simple quality index to compare the different plans was proposed. We compared gamma index pass rates using the centre’s equipment and methodology to those of an external audit. Results: While for the prostate case, all centres fulfilled the dosimetric goals and plan quality was homogeneous, that was not the case for the head and neck case. The number of MU did not correlate with the plan quality index. Pre-treatment verifications results of the external audit did not agree with those of the in-house measurements for two centres: being within tolerance for in-house measurements and unacceptable for the audit or the other way round. Conclusions: Although all plans fulfilled dosimetric constraints, plan quality is highly dependent on the planner expertise. External audits are an excellent tool to detect errors in IMRT implementation and cannot be replaced by intercomparison using results obtained by centres

  10. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tailoring degradation of AZ31 alloy by surface pre-treatment and electrospun PCL fibrous coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanas, T. [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Sampath Kumar, T.S., E-mail: tssk@iitm.ac.in [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Perumal, Govindaraj; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology - Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-08-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was coated with polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous layer using electrospinning technique so as to control degradation in physiological environment. Before coating, the alloy was treated with HNO{sub 3} to have good adhesion between the coating and substrate. To elucidate the role of pre-treatment and coating, samples only with PCL coating as well as HNO{sub 3} treatment only were prepared for comparison. Best coating adhesion of 4B grade by ASTM D3359–09 tape test was observed for pre-treated samples. The effect of coating on in vitro degradation and biomineralization was studied using supersaturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5 ×). The weight loss and corrosion results obtained by immersion test showed that the combination of HNO{sub 3} pre-treatment and PCL coating is very effective in controlling the degradation rate and improving bioactivity. Cytotoxicity studies using L6 cells showed that PCL coated sample has better cell adhesion and proliferation compared to uncoated samples. Nano-fibrous PCL coating combined with prior acid treatment seems to be a promising method to tailor degradation rate with enhanced bioactivity of Mg alloys. - Highlights: • PCL electrospun coating on HNO{sub 3} pre-treated AZ31 alloy controls biodegradation. • Acid pre-treatment stabilizes the substrate - coating interface. • Electrospun porous coating improves biomineralization. • Coating similar to extracellular matrix enhances cell adhesion.

  12. Effect of the pre-treatment on the performance of MBR, Berghausen WWTP. Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A.E. Moustafa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot scale experiments were carried out to examine the effect of the pre-treatment methods on the performance of MBR. The PURON® MBR module was used in this study. In order to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the behaviour of membrane, samples were withdrawn at different locations in Berghausen WWTP. During the first period samples have been collected directly from the main source as raw sewage to determine its main characteristics. During the second period samples have been screened with screening 1 mm filter material to prevent debris from damaging the membrane. During the third phase samples have been taken after the primary settling tank to have the benefits of filtering out unwanted trash, removing scum and floating debris. The study showed that the membrane bio-reactor filters out nearly all solids, the pre-treatment has a positive effect on the MBR performance, and the pre-sedimentation is more effective than fine screening. Moreover, aeration is considered as one of the intrinsic parameters in both hydraulic and biological process performances because of its ability to maintain solids in suspension, scours the membrane surface, limits fouling, and provide oxygen to the biomass, which results in a better biodegradability.

  13. Pre-treatment of Biomass By Rolling - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Ravn, Christian; Nielsen, Emil Krabbe

    2017-01-01

    Pre-treatment of bulk straw material by rolling is studied as a possible method to prepare for subsequent biogas production. A combined experimental and theoretical study is presented. A pilot rolling mill with a double screw feeder is designed and constructed for crushing of bulk straw. Experime...... process window for pre-treatment of wheat straw by roll pressing varying the feed, the roll gap, the roll speed and the moisture content of the bulk straw.......Pre-treatment of bulk straw material by rolling is studied as a possible method to prepare for subsequent biogas production. A combined experimental and theoretical study is presented. A pilot rolling mill with a double screw feeder is designed and constructed for crushing of bulk straw....... Experiments show that the roll speed and the roll reduction should be chosen within a specific range depending on the injection screw speed to avoid blocking or insufficient compaction. A mechanical testing procedure of the bulk straw material including closed die compaction testing as well as simple...

  14. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  15. Antisense pre-treatment increases gene therapy efficacy in dystrophic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccate, Cécile; Mollard, Amédée; Le Hir, Maëva; Julien, Laura; McClorey, Graham; Jarmin, Susan; Le Heron, Anita; Dickson, George; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Piétri-Rouxel, France; Wood, Matthew J; Voit, Thomas; Lorain, Stéphanie

    2016-08-15

    In preclinical models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophin restoration during adeno-associated virus (AAV)-U7-mediated exon-skipping therapy was shown to decrease drastically after six months in treated muscles. This decline in efficacy is strongly correlated with the loss of the therapeutic AAV genomes, probably due to alterations of the dystrophic myofiber membranes. To improve the membrane integrity of the dystrophic myofibers at the time of AAV-U7 injection, mdx muscles were pre-treated with a single dose of the peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides that induced temporary dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma. The PPMO pre-treatment allowed efficient maintenance of AAV genomes in mdx muscles and enhanced the AAV-U7 therapy effect with a ten-fold increase of the protein level after 6 months. PPMO pre-treatment was also beneficial to AAV-mediated gene therapy with transfer of micro-dystrophin cDNA into muscles. Therefore, avoiding vector genome loss after AAV injection by PPMO pre-treatment would allow efficient long-term restoration of dystrophin and the use of lower and thus safer vector doses for Duchenne patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  17. Headache following intracranial neuroendovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Eric P; Moskowitz, Shaye I; Tepper, Stewart J; Gupta, Rishi; Novak, Eric; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Stillman, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    Predicting who will develop post-procedure headache (PPH) following intracranial endovascular procedures (IEPs) would be clinically useful and potentially could assist in reducing the excessive diagnostic testing so often obtained in these patients. Although limited safety data exist, the use of triptans or dihydroergotamine (DHE) often raise concern when used with pre/post-coiled aneurysms. We sought to determine risk factors for PPH following IEP, to evaluate the utility of diagnostic testing in patients with post-coil acute headache (HA), and to record whether triptans and DHE have been used safely in this clinical setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients undergoing IEPs. Bivariate analyses were conducted to compare patients who did and did not develop PPH. We reviewed records pertaining to 372 patients, of whom 263 underwent intracranial coil embolizations, 21 acrylic glue embolizations, and 88 stent placements. PPH occurred in 72% of coil patients, 33% of glue patients, and 14% of stent patients. Significant risk factors for post-coil HA were female gender, any pre-coil HA history, smoking, and anxiety/depression. A pre-stent history of HA exceeding 1 year's duration, and smoking were risk factors for post-stent HA. A pre-glue history of HA exceeding 1 year was the only risk factor for post-glue HA. In the small subgroup available for study, treatment with triptans or DHE was not associated with adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Diagnostic testing was low yield. Occurrence of PPH was common after IEPs and especially so with coiling and in women, smokers, and those with anxiety/depression, and was often of longer duration than allowed by current International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. The yield of diagnostic testing was low, and in a small subgroup treatment with triptans or DHE did not cause adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications

    OpenAIRE

    ?ZGE, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. I...

  19. Factors Associated With Medication-Overuse Headache in Patients Seeking Treatment for Primary Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Kelly R; Roland, Malcolm M; Smitherman, Todd A

    2018-03-09

    Although risk factors for medication-overuse headache have been identified within the general population, most studies have neglected clinical samples. The present study examined the relative and combined associations of these factors with medication-overuse headache in a sample of US adults seeking treatment for primary headache disorders. Treatment-seeking headache patients provided data on demographics, headache variables, psychiatric variables, use of headache medications, and use of other prescription medications and substances. A classification tree selection strategy was utilized within this cross-sectional study to differentiate between those with and without medication-overuse headache, and a final multivariable model assessed their combined utility. Forty-three of 164 participants (26.2%) met diagnostic criteria for medication-overuse headache. Relative to non-medication-overuse headache participants, participants with medication-overuse headache reported greater headache-related disability (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.18), escape and avoidance responses indicative of fear of pain (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.15), and use of combination medications for headache (odds ratio = 3.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.51-6.36). The final multivariable model differentiated well between the 2 groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = .78; 95% confidence interval = .71-.86). Items that assess headache-related disability, use of combination medications, and fear of pain help identify patients who are currently overusing acute headache medications and may serve as indicators of treatment progress. Future studies should apply similar analytic approaches longitudinally to identify headache sufferers at risk for medication-overuse headache prior to headache progression. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  20. Prevalence and association of headaches, temporomandibular joint disorders, and occlusal interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeltzsch, M; Troeltzsch, M; Cronin, R J; Brodine, A H; Frankenberger, R; Messlinger, K

    2011-06-01

    Although an interaction of malocclusion, parafunction, and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) can be inferred from the experience of daily practice, scientific evidence to corroborate this hypothesis does not exist. However, there are indications that TMD and headaches may be intertwined. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence or absence of an association of occlusal interferences, parafunction, TMD, or physiologic, muscular, or prosthodontic factors with the occurrence of headache. In a private practice population of 1031 subjects (436 men and 595 women, mean age 49.6 years) the demographic parameters, headache and general pain history, habits and general personal information were recorded. Clinical examination for dental, muscular, and temporomandibular joint pathology was accomplished. Data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square tests (α = .05). A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed with respect to confounding variables. Headache affliction was found to affect women more frequently than men (1.7:1). Students and non academics were more prone to suffer from headache. Parafunction (P=.001), TMD (P=.001) and gross differences between centric occlusion and maximum intercuspation of more than a 3 mm visible track marked with 8 μm articulation foil (P=.001) significantly influenced the presence of headache. Headache intensity and frequency decreased with age. While tension-type headache was most frequently diagnosed, the parameters studied were not significantly associated with one certain headache diagnosis more frequently than others. Stomatognathic factors of TMD, parafunction, and gross differences between centric occlusion and maximum intercuspation of more than 3 mm are associated with headache. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the cross-sectional nature of this study. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  1. Traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Reny; Schmidt, John E; Carlson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of significant traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a headache population. Several recent publications have emphasized the relationship between life stressors and/or daily hassles and recurrent headaches. However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of major traumatic stressors in patients with recurrent headaches. Eighty patients with either migraine or tension-type headache completed a PTSD checklist. Data were compared with those from patients with chronic masticatory muscle pain of similar intensity and duration. Almost 64% of the headache patients reported one or more major traumatic stressors. This percentage was not significantly different from that of the comparison group, and fell within the broad range reported for exposure to traumatic stressors in epidemiologic studies with nonpatient populations. One out of 6 patients in the total headache sample, and 1 out of 4 of those reporting a traumatic stressor, reported symptoms suggestive of current PTSD. The prevalence of current PTSD-like symptomatology reported by the headache patients was comparable to that of the comparison group of the present study, but higher than that reported for the general population in the available literature printed in English. Traumatic stressors most often reported were not related to direct physical trauma, but rather associated with loss or serious illness of a loved one. Exposure to traumatic events in patients with a primary diagnosis of recurrent headaches is similar to that reported for chronic masticatory muscle pain patients or nonpatient populations. However, symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of current PTSD appear to be more frequent in patients with recurrent headaches than reported in the scientific literature printed in English for nonpatient populations. Screening for PTSD symptomatology is recommended as part of the routine clinical evaluation of headache.

  2. PEMBERIAN INFRA RED, STRIPPING DAN STRETCHING TERHADAP NYERI TENSION HEADACHE DI PUSKESMAS TAPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cici Apriza Yanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of headache in Indonesia is very high. More than 90% of patients consult a doctor. The aim of research is to know the difference of pain after giving Infra Red, Stripping, and Stretching to the pain of tension headache. This research design is quasi experiment with pre and post test design. Population in this research is all patient of tension headache at Tapus Health Center. Sampling using accidental sampling with 10 samples. The data were collected using observation sheet of pain caused by tension headache. Data analysis was done by computerized using Wilcoxon test. The results showed that the mean intensity of pain before the 5.60 decreased to 4.78 after intervention and the mean intensity of tenderness before the 6.10 decreased to 5.27 after the intervention. The results of analysis showed that there was a difference in the intensity of pain (p = 0,005 and tenderness (p = 0,005.It can be concluded that therapy with Infra Red (IR, Stripping, and Stretching is effective to decreased pain intensity due to tension headache. For that it is expected to patients with pain complaints to tension headache to be always active and disciplined follow effective therapy in reducing the intensity of pain. Prevalensi sakit kepala di Indonesia sangatlah tinggi. Lebih dari 90% pasien yang berkonsultasi ke dokter. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan nyeri tekan dan gerak setelah pemberian Infra Red, Stripping, dan Stretching terhadap nyeri pada kasus tension headache di Puskesmas Tapus Kabupaten Pasaman tahun 2016. Desain penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperiment dengan desain pre dan post test. Populasi pada penelitian adalah seluruh pasien tension headache di Puskesmas Tapus pada bulan Juni sampai Juli tahun 2016. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik accidental sampling sehingga didapatkan sampel sebanyak 10 orang. Pengumpulan data penelitian menggunakan lembar observasi intensitas nyeri akibat tension headache. Analisis data

  3. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803

  4. Importance of Pain Acceptance in Relation to Headache Disability and Pain Interference in Women With Migraine and Overweight/Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Graham Thomas, J; Seng, Elizabeth K; Lipton, Richard B; Pavlović, Jelena M; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; O'Leary, Kevin C; Bond, Dale S

    2017-05-01

    Pain acceptance involves willingness to experience pain and engaging in valued activities while pain is present. Though pain acceptance could limit both headache-related disability and pain interference in individuals with migraine, few studies have addressed this issue. This study evaluated whether higher levels of total pain acceptance and its two subcomponents, pain willingness and activity engagement, were associated with lower levels of headache-related impairment in women who had both migraine and overweight/obesity. In this cross-sectional study, participants seeking weight loss and headache relief in the Women's Health and Migraine trial completed baseline measures of pain acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire [CPAQ]), headache-related disability (Headache Impact Test-6), and pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory). Migraine headache frequency and pain intensity were assessed daily via smartphone diary. Using CPAQ total and subcomponent (pain willingness and activity engagement) scores, headache frequency, pain intensity, and body mass index (BMI) as predictors in linear regression, headache-related disability, and pain interference were modeled as outcomes. On average, participants (n = 126; age = 38.5 ± 8.2 years; BMI = 35.3 ± 6.6 kg/m 2 ) reported 8.4 ± 4.7 migraine days/month and pain intensity of 6.0 ± 1.5 on a 0-10 scale on headache days. After correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted α = .008), pain willingness was independently associated with both lower headache-related disability (P treatment-seeking women with migraine and overweight/obesity. Future studies are needed to clarify direction of causality and test whether strategies designed to help women increase pain willingness, or relinquish ineffective efforts to control pain, can improve functional outcomes in women who have migraine and overweight/obesity. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  5. Temporomandibular disorders dysfunction in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Christiane-Espinola-Bandeira; Oliveira, José-Luiz-Góes; Jesus, Alan-Chester-Feitosa; Maia, Mila-Leite-de Moraes; de Santana, Jonielly-Costa-Vasconcelos; Andrade, Loren-Suyane-Oliveira; Quintans, Jullyana-de Souza Siqueira; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo-José; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2012-11-01

    To identify the frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its severity in individuals with headache. 60 adults divided into three groups of 20 individuals: chronic daily headache (CDH), episodic headache (EH) and a control group without headache (WH). Headache diagnosis was performed according to the criteria of International Headache Society and the signs and symptoms of TMD were achieved by using a clinical exam and an anamnestic questionnaire. The severity of TMD was defined by the temporomandibular index (TMI). The TMD signs and symptoms were always more frequent in individuals with headache, especially report of pain in TMJ area (CDH, n=16; EH, n=12; WH, n=6), pain to palpation on masseter (CDH, n=19; EH, n=16; WH, n=11) which are significantly more frequent in episodic and chronic daily headache. The mean values of temporomandibular and articular index (CDH patients) and muscular index (CDH and EH patients) were statistically higher than in patients of the control group, notably the articular (CDH=0.38; EH=0.25;WH=0.19) and muscular (CDH=0.46; EH=0.51; WH=0.26) indices. These findings allow us to speculate that masticatory and TMJ pain are more common in headache subjects. Besides, it seems that the TMD is more severe in headache patients.

  6. Improvement of Haramay Fiber by Pre-treatment of Retting Process withPhosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntari-Sasas; Neni-Rustini Eriawati

    2000-01-01

    Haramay as bast fiber contains of cellulose fiber as the main part, mixedwith hemi cellulose, pectin, and lignin as binding material for cellulosefiber to keep it together in the bundle form. For textile material, this bastfiber has to be freed from its binding material, called as retting process,before subjecting to scouring, dyeing and finishing process in textileindustry. In the retting process the dissolve of binding material can be doneeither by using enzyme in bio technology or extraction with strong alkalinecondition in common technology. Using sodium hydroxide for dissolving thebinding material can be carried out easily with good dissolving ability, butcan render the strength retention of the cellulose fiber. Pre-treatment ofthe bast fiber with phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), is expected to hydrolyze someof the binding materials that can not be dissolved in alkaline condition,including natural pigment that colored the fiber with creamy white. In thisstudy, the pre-treatment process before retting with phosphoric acid wascarried out in various condition, such as concentration of phosphoric acid (5ml/l- 25 ml/l), time and temperature of pre-treatment (1-3 hours at 50 o C or12-24 hours at room temperature), followed by neutralization in dilutealkaline. The retting process was carried out by means of scouring in variousconcentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH 38 o Be, 10 ml/l-30 m/l), and then wascontinued with bleaching process in hydrogen peroxide solution. Aftercarrying out those experiment, the bast fiber that called haramay wassubjected to testing for weight reduction, strength retention and degree ofwhiteness. From the testing results it is concluded that pre-treatment withphosphoric acid can increase the weight reduction, strength retention ortenacity and degree of whiteness of haramay fiber compared to the oneswithout pre-treatment with phosphoric acid. The best result was obtained bypre-treatment with 5 ml/l H 3 PO 4 at 50 o C for 2 hours, continued by

  7. Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation as physico-chemical pre-treatment processes on the change of rheology of wastewater sludge was investigated in this study. Pre-treated and raw sludges displayed non-Newtonian rheological behaviour with shear thinning as well as thixotropic properties for total solids ranging from 10 g/L to 40 g/L. The rheological models, namely, Bingham plastic, Casson law, NCA/CMA Casson, IPC Paste, and power law were also studied to characterize flow of raw and pre-treated sludges. Among all rheological models, the power law was more prominent in describing the rheology of the sludges. Pre-treatment processes resulted in a decrease in pseudoplasticity of sludge due to the decrease in consistency index K varying from 42.4 to 1188, 25.6 to 620.4 and 52.5 to 317.9; and increase in flow behaviour index n changing from 0.5 to 0.35, 0.62 to 0.55 and 0.63 to 0.58, for RS, UlS and FS, respectively at solids concentration 10-40 g/L. The correlation between improvement of biodegradability and dewaterability, decrease in viscosity, and change in particle size as a function of sludge pre-treatment process was also investigated. Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. Biodegradability was also enhanced by the pre-treatment processes and the maximum value was obtained (64%, 77% and 73% for raw, ultrasonicated and Fenton oxidized sludges, respectively) at total solids concentration of 25 g/L. Hence, pre-treatment of wastewater sludge modified the rheological properties so that: (1) the flowability of sludge was improved for transport through the treatment train (via pipes and pumps); (2) the dewaterability of wastewater sludge was enhanced for eventual disposal and; (3) the assimilation of nutrients by microorganisms for further value-addition was increased.

  8. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  9. Whiplash headache is transitory worsening of a pre-existing primary headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovner, L J; Obelieniene, D

    2008-07-01

    Acute and chronic whiplash headache are new diagnostic entities in the ICHD-2 (5.3, 5.4). In a prospective cohort study, 210 rear-end collision victims were identified consecutively from police records and asked about head and neck pain in questionnaires after 2 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. The results were compared with those of matched controls who were also followed for 1 year. Of 210 accident victims, 75 developed headache within 7 days. Of these, 37 had also neck pain and complied with the criteria for acute whiplash headache. These 37 had the same headache diagnoses, headache features, accompanying symptoms and long-term prognosis as the 38 without initial neck pain who therefore did not comply with the acute whiplash headache diagnosis. Previous headache was a major risk factor for headache both in the acute and chronic stage. Compared with the non-traumatized controls, headache in the whiplash group had the same prevalence, the same diagnoses and characteristic features, and the same prognosis. Both acute and chronic whiplash headache lack specificity compared with the headache in a control group, and have the same long-term prognosis, indicating that such headaches are primary headaches, probably elicited by the stress of the situation.

  10. Headache Attributed to Masticatory Myofascial Pain: Clinical Features and Management Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Porporatti, André Luís; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Speciali, José Geraldo; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César

    2015-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of headaches attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and assess the effects of two management strategies used for the management of TMD on headache intensity and frequency. The initial sample (n=60) of this randomized controlled trial comprised patients with masticatory myofascial pain according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), and headache. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 received only counseling for behavioral changes, and group 2 received counseling and an occlusal appliance. A 5-month follow-up period included three assessments. TMD-related headache characteristics, eg, headache intensity (scored on a visual analog scale [VAS]) and frequency were measured by a questionnaire. Two-way analysis of variance, chi-square, Friedman, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to test for differences considering a 5% significance level. The main clinical features of headache attributed to masticatory myofascial pain were the long duration (≥4 hours), frontotemporal bilateral location, and a pressing/tightening quality. Forty-one subjects (group 1, 17 subjects; group 2, 24 subjects) were included in the final analysis. There was a reduction in headache intensity and frequency, with no significant differences between groups (P>.05). The mean (±SD) baseline VAS was 7.6 (±2.2) for group 1 and 6.5 (±1.6) for group 2; final values were 3.1 (±2.2) (PHeadache attributed to masticatory myofascial pain was mainly characterized by long duration, frontotemporal bilateral location, and a pressing/tightening quality. Also, counseling and behavioral management of masticatory myofascial pain improved headache, regardless of the use of an occlusal appliance.

  11. The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochte, Bryson C.; Beletsky, Alexander; Samuel, Nebiyou K.; Grant, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Headache disorders are common, debilitating, and, in many cases, inadequately managed by existing treatments. Although clinical trials of cannabis for neuropathic pain have shown promising results, there has been limited research on its use, specifically for headache disorders. This review considers historical prescription practices, summarizes the existing reports on the use of cannabis for headache, and examines the preclinical literature exploring the role of exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids to alter headache pathophysiology. Currently, there is not enough evidence from well-designed clinical trials to support the use of cannabis for headache, but there are sufficient anecdotal and preliminary results, as well as plausible neurobiological mechanisms, to warrant properly designed clinical trials. Such trials are needed to determine short- and long-term efficacy for specific headache types, compatibility with existing treatments, optimal administration practices, as well as potential risks. PMID:28861505

  12. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache.We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats.Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity.Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  13. CGRP in human models of primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Ashina, Messoud

    2018-01-01

    experiments are likely due to assay variation; therefore, proper validation and standardization of an assay is needed. To what extent CGRP is involved in tension-type headache and cluster headache is unknown. CONCLUSION: Human models of primary headaches have elucidated the role of CGRP in headache...... pathophysiology and sparked great interest in developing new treatment strategies using CGRP antagonists and antibodies. Future studies applying more refined human experimental models should identify biomarkers of CGRP-induced primary headache and reveal whether CGRP provocation experiments could be used......OBJECTIVE: To review the role of CGRP in human models of primary headaches and to discuss methodological aspects and future directions. DISCUSSION: Provocation experiments demonstrated a heterogeneous CGRP migraine response in migraine patients. Conflicting CGRP plasma results in the provocation...

  14. Association between headache and temporomandibular joint disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luciana P; Santis, Tatiana O; Alfaya, Thays A; Godoy, Camila H L; Fragoso, Yara D; Bussadori, Sandra K

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and headache in children and adolescents. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was carried out involving 93 children and adolescents (6 to 14 years of age) at the outpatient service of a dental school. All participants underwent a clinical examination involving Axis 1 of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, along with a characterization of headache and an anthropometric evaluation. Statistical analysis involved the chi-squared test for quantitative variables and the Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's test for quantitative data. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to determine significant associations among gender, age, TMJD and headache. Mild TMJD was identified in 35.8% of the sample and was not associated the presence of headache. Moderate TMJD was found in 25.8% of patients and severe TMJD was found in 11.8%; both forms of TMJD were associated with headache. A significant correlation was found between the intensity of TMJD and the risk of headache. The present findings demonstrate a positive correlation between TMJD and headache in children and adolescents, independently of gender and age.

  15. Identification of subgroups of patients with tension type headache with higher widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Benito-González, Elena; Palacios-Ceña, María; Wang, Kelun; Castaldo, Matteo; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Identification of subgroups of patients with different levels of sensitization and clinical features can help to identify groups at risk and the development of better therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with tension type headache (TTH) with different levels of sensitization, clinical pain features, and psychological outcomes. A total of 197 individuals with TTH participated. Headache intensity, frequency, and duration and medication intake were collected with a 4-weeks diary. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the temporalis muscle, C5-C6 joint, second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscle to determine widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale assessed anxiety and depression. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory evaluated the state and trait levels of anxiety. The Headache Disability Inventory evaluated the burden of headache. Health-related quality of life was determined with the SF-36 questionnaire. Groups were considered as positive (three or more criteria) or negative (less than three criteria) on a clinical prediction rule: headache duration patients with TTH with higher sensitization, higher chronicity of headaches and worse quality of life but lower frequency and duration of headache episodes. This subgroup of individuals with TTH may need particular attention and specific therapeutic programs for avoiding potential chronification.

  16. Restricted neck mobility in children with chronic tension type headache: a blinded, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Pareja, Juan A

    2010-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in neck mobility between children with chronic tension type headache (CTTH) and healthy children, and to determine the influence of cervical mobility on headache intensity, frequency and duration. Fifty children, 13 boys and 37 girls (mean age 8.5 ± 1.6 years) with CTTH associated to peri-cranial tenderness (IHS 2.3.1) and 50 age- and sex matched children without headache (13 boys, 37 girls, mean age 8.5 ± 1.8 years, P = 0.955) participated. Cervical range of motion (CROM) was objectively assessed with a cervical goniometer by an assessor blinded to the children's condition. Children completed a headache diary for 4 weeks to confirm the diagnosis. Children with CTTH showed decreased CROM as compared to children without headache for flexion (z = -6.170; P 0.125) or gender (P > 0.250) did not influence CROM in either children with CTTH or without headache. Current results support the hypothesis that the cervical spine should be explored in children with headache. Further research is also needed to clearly define the potential role of the cervical spine in the genesis or maintenance of CTTH.

  17. Long-term effects of octreotide on pituitary gigantism: its analgesic action on cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Fumio; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Ogura, Toshio; Sato, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masataka; Makino, Hirofumi

    2004-10-01

    We report the case of 19-year-old man with pituitary gigantism due to growth hormone-producing pituitary macroadenoma. The patient complained of recurrent headache and excessive growth spurt since age 15. Octreotide administration was initiated following transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy. Octreotide injection for 4 years efficaciously reduced the size of remnant adenoma as well as serum growth hormone levels. Notably, octreotide exhibited a potent analgesic effect on his intractable cluster headache that has continued even after reduction of the adenoma volume. The analgesic effect lasted 2 to 6 hours after each injection and no tachyphylaxis to octreotide appeared during 4-year treatment. To characterize the headache and the pain intensity, analgesic drugs including octreotide, lidocaine, morphine and thiopental were tested using a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluation, with the result that octreotide exhibited a prompt and complete disappearance of the headache. Headache relief was in part reproduced by morphine injection (56% reduction) but not by lidocaine or thiopental. The present case suggests that the intractable headache associated with pituitary gigantism is possibly related to the endogenous opioid system. Thus, the headache control by octreotide is clinically helpful for continuation of the self-injection regimen.

  18. German Language Adaptation of the Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE-G) and Development of a New Short Form (HMSE-G-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Julia E; Rief, Winfried; French, Douglas J; Nilges, Paul; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate a German version of French and colleagues' Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale and to construct an abbreviated form for use in behavioral headache research. Furthermore, the contribution of headache-specific self-efficacy to pain-related disability in German chronic headache sufferers was examined. Headache-specific self-efficacy refers to an individuals' confidence that they can engage in behaviors to either prevent headache episodes or to manage headache-related pain and disability. Self-efficacy beliefs have been shown repeatedly to be positively associated with psychological well-being, effective coping, and enhanced treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional sample of 304 individuals diagnosed with either migraine, chronic tension-type headache, or a combination of 2 or more headache disorders completed the German Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale and questionnaires assessing headache activity, pain-related coping, general self-efficacy, depression, and anxiety. Responsiveness of the scale was analyzed in a longitudinal subsample of 32 inpatients undergoing headache treatment. Finally, a short form was constructed and evaluated regarding psychometric properties. The German Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale showed good reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.87) as did the 6-item short form (Cronbach's α = 0.72). In the longitudinal sample, both versions showed a good ability to change over time (SRM= 0.52-1.16). Chronic headache patients with higher levels of self-efficacy reported lower levels of disability (r = -0.26 to -0.31). Multiple regression analyses revealed headache intensity and headache-specific self-efficacy as strongest predictors of headache-related disability (βself-efficacy  = -0.21, βintensity  = 0.26). Both the 25-item version and the 6-item version appear to be valid, reliable measures of self-efficacy beliefs. These scales will allow clinicians to identify headache sufferers

  19. A Comparison of Cerebral Blood Flow in Migraineurs During Headache, Headache-Free and Treatment Periods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bednarczyk, Edward

    1999-01-01

    ...: Otherwise healthy patients with a minimum of one migraine headache per month (IHS criteria) were scanned using H215O, and positron emission tomography, within 24 hours of the onset of migraine headache...

  20. Laboratory tests of headache disorders - Dawn of a new era?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Olesen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    secondary headaches. Background In this narrative review we present and discuss published tests that might be useful in phenotyping and/or diagnosis of long-lasting headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, trigeminal neuralgia and persisting secondary...... headaches. Aim The palpometer test, quantitative sensory testing, nociceptive blink reflex and autonomic tests may be valuable to phenotype and/or diagnose subforms of migraine, tension-type headache, cluster headache, trigeminal neuralgia and medication-overuse headache. Provocation tests with glyceryl...... if well-reputed tertiary headache centers commence developing and implementing laboratory tests in order to improve the classification and treatment of headache patients....

  1. Development of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E.L.H.; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the development of chronic daily headache in 258 headache practice patients, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Twenty-two percent of the patients had daily headaches from the onset, and 78%

  2. Short-lasting headache syndromes and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D

    2004-08-01

    A number of primary headache syndromes are marked by their short duration of pain. Many of these syndromes have their own unique treatment, so they must be recognized by practicing physicians. In this article, a number of the short-lasting headache disorders are reviewed, including chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hypnic headache, exploding head syndrome, primary stabbing headache, and cough headache.

  3. CPD: The patient with daily headaches. | Maizels | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache.

  4. Post-myelogram headache - physiological or psychological?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Maynard, N.; Briggs, M.; Anslow, P.; McPherson, K.; Northover, J.

    1991-01-01

    Psychological aspects of post-lumbar puncture headache have hitherto received little attention. A hundred consecutive patients admitted for elective myelography were studied. Post-myelogram headache was assessed by an independent observer and found to be strongly associated with normality of the test (P<0.001). Psychological testing showed a trend between Hospital Anxiety Depression score and normality of myelogram as well as development of headache, although this did not achieve statistical significance. This study suggestet that there is a large psychological as well as organic component to post-myelogram headache. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral blood flow changes in cluster headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.W.; Hachinski, V.C.; Cooper, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Serial cerebral blood flod studies performed by the intra-carotid 133 Xenon method were fortuitously determined during the course of a cluster headache in a 32 year old man. The initial study was performed about 10 min after the headache began and showed values at the upper limit of normal. Twenty min after the headache started a second procedure showed that the autoregulatory response on hyperventilation was normal. Ergotamine tartrate was given intra-muscularly 23 min after the headache began and there was partial relief. A third cerebral blood flow estimation showed abnormally high values. The probable reasons for this are discussed. (author)

  6. Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, S.; Kirsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is very common and affects almost everyone at some point. It is one of the most common disorders that leads patients to see their physician. All different forms have the nociception via trigeminal nerve fibers in common. Beside the clinical course headaches are classified as either primary or secondary, with the latter having an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Imaging has a low diagnostic yield in primary headache but play an important role in the differential diagnosis of secondary forms. An overview of different forms of secondary headache is given, outlining diagnostic procedures and the morphologic imaging features of each syndrome.

  7. Young adults' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Andersen, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use is increasingly common and may have potential harmful side effects. The primary reason for using analgesics is headache symptoms. Whether OTCA use for headache is sensitive to psychosocial and social circumstances is an understudied topic.......Over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use is increasingly common and may have potential harmful side effects. The primary reason for using analgesics is headache symptoms. Whether OTCA use for headache is sensitive to psychosocial and social circumstances is an understudied topic....

  8. Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Danielle N; Anderson, Sarah L; Gedde, Margaret; Borgelt, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    No clinical trials are currently available that demonstrate the effects of marijuana on patients with migraine headache; however, the potential effects of cannabinoids on serotonin in the central nervous system indicate that marijuana may be a therapeutic alternative. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the effects of medical marijuana on the monthly frequency of migraine headache. Retrospective chart review. Two medical marijuana specialty clinics in Colorado. One hundred twenty-one adults with the primary diagnosis of migraine headache who were recommended migraine treatment or prophylaxis with medical marijuana by a physician, between January 2010 and September 2014, and had at least one follow-up visit. The primary outcome was number of migraine headaches per month with medical marijuana use. Secondary outcomes were the type and dose of medical marijuana used, previous and adjunctive migraine therapies, and patient-reported effects. Migraine headache frequency decreased from 10.4 to 4.6 headaches per month (pmedical marijuana. Most patients used more than one form of marijuana and used it daily for prevention of migraine headache. Positive effects were reported in 48 patients (39.7%), with the most common effects reported being prevention of migraine headache with decreased frequency of migraine headache (24 patients [19.8%]) and aborted migraine headache (14 patients [11.6%]). Inhaled forms of marijuana were commonly used for acute migraine treatment and were reported to abort migraine headache. Negative effects were reported in 14 patients (11.6%); the most common effects were somnolence (2 patients [1.7%]) and difficulty controlling the effects of marijuana related to timing and intensity of the dose (2 patients [1.7%]), which were experienced only in patients using edible marijuana. Edible marijuana was also reported to cause more negative effects compared with other forms. The frequency of migraine headache was decreased with medical

  9. Treatment of tension-type headache with articulatory and suboccipital soft tissue therapy: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Gómez, Anna Arnal; Martínez, Josep Benítez; Pascual-Vaca, Angel Oliva; Blanco, Cleofás Rodríguez

    2014-10-01

    This study researches the effectiveness of two manual therapy treatments focused on the suboccipital region for tension-type headache. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted over a period of four weeks with a follow-up at one month. Eighty-four patients with a mean age of 39.7 years (SD 11.4) with tension-type headache were assigned to 4 groups which included the following manual therapy treatment: suboccipital soft tissue inhibition; occiput-atlas-axis global manipulation; combination of both techniques; and a control group. The primary assessment consisted of collecting socio-demographic data and headache characteristics in a one-month base period, data such as age, gender, severity of pain, intensity and frequency of headache, among other. Outcome secondary assessment were: impact of headache, disability, ranges of motion of the craniocervical junction, frequency and intensity of headache, and pericranial tenderness. In the month prior to the study, average pain intensity, was rated at 6.49 (SD 1.69), and 66.7% subjects suffered headaches of moderate intensity. After 8 weeks, statistically significant improvements were noted. OAA manipulative treatment and combined therapy treatments proved to be more effective than suboccipital soft tissue inhibition for tension-type headache. The treatment with suboccipital soft tissue inhibition, despite producing less significant results, also has positive effects on different aspects of headache. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dosimetric pre-treatment verification of IMRT using an EPID; clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijtveld, Mathilda van; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In our clinic a QA program for IMRT verification, fully based on dosimetric measurements with electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), has been running for over 3 years. The program includes a pre-treatment dosimetric check of all IMRT fields. During a complete treatment simulation at the linac, a portal dose image (PDI) is acquired with the EPID for each patient field and compared with a predicted PDI. In this paper, the results of this pre-treatment procedure are analysed, and intercepted errors are reported. An automated image analysis procedure is proposed to limit the number of fields that need human intervention in PDI comparison. Materials and methods: Most of our analyses are performed using the γ index with 3% local dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement as reference values. Scalar parameters are derived from the γ values to summarize the agreement between measured and predicted 2D PDIs. Areas with all pixels having γ values larger than one are evaluated, making decisions based on clinically relevant criteria more straightforward. Results: In 270 patients, the pre-treatment checks revealed four clinically relevant errors. Calculation of statistics for a group of 75 patients showed that the patient-averaged mean γ value inside the field was 0.43 ± 0.13 (1 SD) and only 6.1 ± 6.8% of pixels had a γ value larger than one. With the proposed automated image analysis scheme, visual inspection of images can be avoided in 2/3 of the cases. Conclusion: EPIDs may be used for high accuracy and high resolution routine verification of IMRT fields to intercept clinically relevant dosimetric errors prior to the start of treatment. For the majority of fields, PDI comparison can fully rely on an automated procedure, avoiding excessive workload

  11. How the detector resolution affects the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment quality assurance results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, A; Esposito, M; Pini, S; Ghirelli, A; Zatelli, G; Russo, S

    2017-12-01

    Aim of this work was to study how the detector resolution can affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification results. Three detectors (PTW OCTAVIUS 4D 729, 1500 and 100 SRS) used in five configurations with different resolution were compared: 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS. Absolute local gamma passing rates of 3D pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) were evaluated for 150 dose distributions in 30 plans. Five different kinds of error were introduced in order to establish the detection sensitivity of the three devices. Percentage dosimetric differences were evaluated between planned dosevolume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by PTW DVH 4D® software. The mean gamma passing rates and the standard deviations were 92.4% ± 3.7%, 94.6% ± 1.8%, 95.3% ± 4.2%, 97.4% ± 2.5% and 97.6% ± 1.4 respectively for 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS with 2% local dose/2mm criterion. The same trend was found on the sensitivity analysis: using a tight gamma analysis criterion (2%L/1mm) only the 1000 SRS detected every kind of error, while 729 and 1500 merged detected three and four kinds of error respectively. Regarding dose metrics extracted from DVH curves, D50% was within the tolerance level in more than 90% of cases only for the 1000 SRS. The detector resolution can significantly affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment verification results. The choice of a detector with resolution suitable to the investigated field size is of main importance to avoid getting false positive. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of different pre-treatments in recovering pre-burial isotopic ratios of charred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, O; Braadbaart, F; van Os, B; van Hoesel, A; van Brussel, A A N; Fernandes, R

    2018-02-15

    Isotopic analysis of archaeological charred plant remains offers useful archaeological information. However, adequate sample pre-treatment protocols may be necessary to provide a contamination-free isotopic signal while limiting sample loss and achieving a high throughput. Under these constraints, research was undertaken to compare the performance of different pre-treatment protocols. Charred archaeological plant material was selected for isotopic analysis (δ 13 C and δ 15 N values) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry from a variety of plant species, time periods and soil conditions. Preservation conditions and the effectiveness of cleaning protocols were assessed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. An acid-base-acid protocol, successfully employed in radiocarbon dating, was used to define a contamination-free isotopic reference. Acid-base-acid isotopic measurements were compared with those obtained from untreated material and an acid-only protocol. The isotopic signals of untreated material and the acid-only protocol typically did not differ more than 1‰ from those of the acid-base-acid reference. There were no significant isotopic offsets between acid-base-acid and acid-only or untreated samples. Sample losses in the acid-base-acid protocol were on average 50 ± 17% (maximum = 98.4%). Elemental XRF measurements showed promising results in the detection of more contaminated samples albeit with a high rate of false positives. For the large range of preservation conditions described in the study, untreated charred plant samples, water cleaned of sediments, provide reliable stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The use of pre-treatments may be necessary under different preservation conditions or more conservative measurement uncertainties should be reported. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Multi-centre audit of VMAT planning and pre-treatment verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Bruggeman, Diego; Hernández, Victor; Sáez, Jordi; Navarro, David; Pino, Francisco; Martínez, Tatiana; Alayrach, Maria-Elena; Ailleres, Norbert; Melero, Alejandro; Jornet, Núria

    2017-08-01

    We performed a multi-centre intercomparison of VMAT dose planning and pre-treatment verification. The aims were to analyse the dose plans in terms of dosimetric quality and deliverability, and to validate whether in-house pre-treatment verification results agreed with those of an external audit. The nine participating centres encompassed different machines, equipment, and methodologies. Two mock cases (prostate and head and neck) were planned using one and two arcs. A plan quality index was defined to compare the plans and different complexity indices were calculated to check their deliverability. We compared gamma index pass rates using the centre's equipment and methodology to those of an external audit (global 3D gamma, absolute dose differences, 10% of maximum dose threshold). Log-file analysis was performed to look for delivery errors. All centres fulfilled the dosimetric goals but plan quality and delivery complexity were heterogeneous and uncorrelated, depending on the manufacturer and the planner's methodology. Pre-treatment verifications results were within tolerance in all cases for gamma 3%-3mm evaluation. Nevertheless, differences between the external audit and in-house measurements arose due to different equipment or methodology, especially for 2%-2mm criteria with differences up to 20%. No correlation was found between complexity indices and verification results amongst centres. All plans fulfilled dosimetric constraints, but plan quality and complexity did not correlate and were strongly dependent on the planner and the vendor. In-house measurements cannot completely replace external audits for credentialing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  15. Multimodal Physiotherapy Based on a Biobehavioral Approach as a Treatment for Chronic Tension-Type Headache: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common primary headache affecting the general population, which is characterized by bilateral headache and mild to moderate pain. This disorder causes high levels of disability and recent scientific evidence suggests that manual therapy (MT) and therapeutic exercise are effective in reducing medication intake and decreasing the frequency and intensity of headaches in patients with TTH. A 34-year-old woman was known to have chronic TTH. Initially, the patient presented moderate headaches 5 days per week, mechanical neck pain and no positive response to analgesics. A battery of self-reports was given to the patient to assess disability (using the Spanish versions of the Headache Impact Test-6 and the neck disability index), pain (visual analogue scale) and psychosocial issues (Spanish version of the pain catastrophizing scale) involved in the headaches. All measurements were taken four times during 161 days. Eleven sessions of treatment including MT, motor control therapeutic exercise (MCTE) and therapeutic patient education (TPE) were applied. This biobehavioral-based multimodal physical rehabilitation treatment combining MT, TPE and MCTE produced a substantial reduction in pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, disability and the impact of headaches on patient's life.

  16. A Conversation on Data Mining Strategies in LC-MS Untargeted Metabolomics: Pre-Processing and Pre-Treatment Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Tugizimana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolomic studies generate information-rich, high-dimensional, and complex datasets that remain challenging to handle and fully exploit. Despite the remarkable progress in the development of tools and algorithms, the “exhaustive” extraction of information from these metabolomic datasets is still a non-trivial undertaking. A conversation on data mining strategies for a maximal information extraction from metabolomic data is needed. Using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode generated from a LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic study (sorghum plants responding dynamically to infection by a fungal pathogen were used. Raw data were pre-processed with MarkerLynxTM software (Waters Corporation, Manchester, UK. Here, two parameters were varied: the intensity threshold (50–100 counts and the mass tolerance (0.005–0.01 Da. After the pre-processing, the datasets were imported into SIMCA (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden for more data cleaning and statistical modeling. In addition, different scaling (unit variance, Pareto, etc. and data transformation (log and power methods were explored. The results showed that the pre-processing parameters (or algorithms influence the output dataset with regard to the number of defined features. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the pre-treatment of data prior to statistical modeling affects the subspace approximation outcome: e.g., the amount of variation in X-data that the model can explain and predict. The pre-processing and pre-treatment steps subsequently influence the number of statistically significant extracted/selected features (variables. Thus, as informed by the results, to maximize the value of untargeted metabolomic data

  17. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  18. Recent developments in sample preparation and data pre-treatment in metabonomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Song, Yi peng; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-01

    Metabonomics is a powerful approach for biomarker discovery and an effective tool for pinpointing endpoint metabolic effects of external stimuli, such as pathogens and disease development. Due to its wide applications, metabonomics is required to deal with various biological samples of different properties. Hence sample preparation and corresponding data pre-treatment become important factors in ensuring validity of an investigation. In this review, we summarize some recent developments in metabonomics sample preparation and data-pretreatment procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Viral persistence in surface and drinking water: Suitability of PCR pre-treatment with intercalating dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, B; Goulet, M; Lucas, F S; Joyeux, M; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2016-03-15

    After many outbreaks of enteric virus associated with consumption of drinking water, the study of enteric viruses in water has increased significantly in recent years. In order to better understand the dynamics of enteric viruses in environmental water and the associated viral risk, it is necessary to estimate viral persistence in different conditions. In this study, two representative models of human enteric viruses, adenovirus 41 (AdV 41) and coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), were used to evaluate the persistence of enteric viruses in environmental water. The persistence of infectious particles, encapsidated genomes and free nucleic acids of AdV 41 and CV-B2 was evaluated in drinking water and surface water at different temperatures (4 °C, 20 °C and 37 °C). The infectivity of AdV 41 and CV-B2 persisted for at least 25 days, whatever the water temperature, and for more than 70 days at 4 °C and 20 °C, in both drinking and surface water. Encapsidated genomes persisted beyond 70 days, whatever the water temperature. Free nucleic acids (i.e. without capsid) also were able to persist for at least 16 days in drinking and surface water. The usefulness of a detection method based on an intercalating dye pre-treatment, which specifically targets preserved particles, was investigated for the discrimination of free and encapsidated genomes and it was compared to virus infectivity. Further, the resistance of AdV 41 and CV-B2 against two major disinfection treatments applied in drinking water plants (UV and chlorination) was evaluated. Even after the application of UV rays and chlorine at high doses (400 mJ/cm(2) and 10 mg.min/L, respectively), viral genomes were still detected with molecular biology methods. Although the intercalating dye pre-treatment had little use for the detection of the effects of UV treatment, it was useful in the case of treatment by chlorination and less than 1 log10 difference in the results was found as compared to the infectivity measurements

  20. Evaluation of pre-treatments for inhibiting bromate formation during ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This study compared several pre-treatment methods for inhibiting BrO3- formation during ozonation of tap water, from the DTU campus, including H2O2 addition (perozone), pH-depression, NH4+ and Cl2/NH4+ addition. At the same time, the inhibition of atrazine and carbamazepine removal was evaluated...... close to the 10 μg/L limit, however atrazine removal did not exceed 75%. Carbamazepine was completely removed under all the tested experimental conditions with the 3.5 mg/L O3 dose....

  1. Effect of pre-treatments on the germination of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) seeds in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyroglou, Gavriil; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    The major problem in seedlings production of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) is the poor and irregular germination due to seed dormancy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate methods of seed pre-treatments to increase germination. The effect of different solutions of KOH and NaOH, wood ash lye, GA3 and cold or warm stratification on germination were evaluated. Sets of four replicates of 25 seeds were soaked for 24 hours in KOH and NaOH solutions of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 %, in wood a...

  2. Occlusal stabilization splint therapy in orofacial pain and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwinska-Nastalska, E; Rolski, D; Szczyrek, P

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest an association between orofacial pain, accompanying temporomandibular disorders of myogenous origin, and headache, especially its tension-type. The occlusal appliance therapy is one of the options for the treatment of orofacial pain due to masticatory muscles tenderness. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of occlusal stabilization splint therapy in myofascial pain and tension-type headache in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Forty three such patients were enrolled into the study group. The patients were treated with stabilization occlusal splint of vertical thickness at vertical jaw separation, established individually for each patient using a cephalometric analysis. The intensity of orofacial pain (numeric rating scale) and headache (analog rating scale), frequency of headache (%), and jaw qualitative function were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 6 months. Medians of headache and orofacial pain intensity were reduced after 6 months of treatment compared with baseline: 6.0 vs. 2.0 (p Pain decreased below 3 score points in 61.8 % of the patients with headache (p = 0.23) and in 85.3 % of patients with orofacial pain (p orofacial pain was observed 81.4 % of patients after using occlusal stabilization splint for 6 months. We conclude that occlusal stabilization splint was effective in reducing painful symptoms of temporomandibular disorders of myogenous origin, a frequent feature of sleep disordered breathing.

  3. Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... blood vessels swell, tighten, or go through other changes that stimulate the ... nerves send a rush of pain messages to the brain, and this brings on a ...

  4. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraines may be triggered by foods, such as chocolate, certain cheeses, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). Caffeine withdrawal, ... while chewing, or weight loss. You have a history of cancer or immune system problem (such as ...

  5. Rounding behavior in the reporting of headache frequency complicates headache chronification research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy T; Turner, Dana P; Houle, Thomas A; Smitherman, Todd A; Martin, Vincent; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-06-01

    To characterize the extent of measurement error arising from rounding in headache frequency reporting (days per month) in a population sample of headache sufferers. When reporting numerical health information, individuals tend to round their estimates. The tendency to round to the nearest 5 days when reporting headache frequency can distort distributions and engender unreliability in frequency estimates in both clinical and research contexts. This secondary analysis of the 2005 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study survey characterized the population distribution of 30-day headache frequency among community headache sufferers and determined the extent of numerical rounding ("heaping") in self-reported data. Headache frequency distributions (days per month) were examined using a simplified version of Wang and Heitjan's approach to heaping to estimate the probability that headache sufferers round to a multiple of 5 when providing frequency reports. Multiple imputation was used to estimate a theoretical "true" headache frequency. Of the 24,000 surveys, headache frequency data were available for 15,976 respondents diagnosed with migraine (68.6%), probable migraine (8.3%), or episodic tension-type headache (10.0%); the remainder had other headache types. The mean number of headaches days/month was 3.7 (standard deviation = 5.6). Examination of the distribution of headache frequency reports revealed a disproportionate number of responses centered on multiples of 5 days. The odds that headache frequency was rounded to 5 increased by 24% with each 1-day increase in headache frequency (odds ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 1.25), indicating that heaping occurs most commonly at higher headache frequencies. Women were more likely to round than men, and rounding decreased with increasing age and increased with symptoms of depression. Because of the coarsening induced by rounding, caution should be used when distinguishing between episodic and chronic

  6. Headache in Patients With Pituitary Lesions: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Paul; Iuliano, Sherry; Weizenbaum, Emma; Laws, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Headache is a presenting feature in 37% to 70% of patients with pituitary tumor. Other pituitary lesions may also present with headache, and together these lesions account for about 20% of all primary brain lesions. Although pituitary lesions have been associated with headache, the exact nature of the relationship remains undefined. It is not always clear whether the presenting headache is an unrelated primary headache, a lesion-induced aggravation of a preexisting primary headache, or a separate secondary headache related to the lesion. To characterize headache in patients referred to a multidisciplinary neuroendocrine clinic with suspected pituitary lesions and to assess changes in headache in those who underwent surgery. We used a self-administered survey of headache characteristics completed by patients upon presentation and after any pituitary surgical procedure. One hundred thirty-three participants completed the preoperative questionnaire (response rate of 99%). The overall prevalence of headache was 63%. Compared to patients without headache, the group with headache was more likely to be female (P = .001), younger (P = .001), and to have had a prior headache diagnosis (P headache localized to the anterior region of the head. Fifty-one patients with headache underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Headache was not associated with increased odds of having surgery (odds ratio, 0.90). At 3 months, 81% of surgically treated patients with headache who completed the postoperative questionnaire (21/26) reported improvement or resolution of headaches. No patient who completed the postoperative questionnaire (44/84) reported new or worsened headache. Frequent, disabling headaches are common in patients with pituitary lesions referred for neuroendocrine consultation, especially in younger females with a preexisting headache disorder. Surgery in this group was associated with headache improvement or resolution in the majority and was not found to cause or worsen

  7. The anterior hypothalamus in cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; Schmitz, Nicole; Schoonman, Guus G; van Vliet, Jorine A; Haan, Joost; van Buchem, Mark A; Ferrari, Michel D; Kruit, Mark C

    2017-10-01

    Objective To evaluate the presence, localization, and specificity of structural hypothalamic and whole brain changes in cluster headache and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH). Methods We compared T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of subjects with cluster headache (episodic n = 24; chronic n = 23; probable n = 14), CPH ( n = 9), migraine (with aura n = 14; without aura n = 19), and no headache ( n = 48). We applied whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using two complementary methods to analyze structural changes in the hypothalamus: region-of-interest analyses in whole brain VBM, and manual segmentation of the hypothalamus to calculate volumes. We used both conservative VBM thresholds, correcting for multiple comparisons, and less conservative thresholds for exploratory purposes. Results Using region-of-interest VBM analyses mirrored to the headache side, we found enlargement ( p cluster headache compared to controls, and in all participants with episodic or chronic cluster headache taken together compared to migraineurs. After manual segmentation, hypothalamic volume (mean±SD) was larger ( p cluster headache compared to controls (1.72 ± 0.15 ml) and migraineurs (1.68 ± 0.19 ml). Similar but non-significant trends were observed for participants with probable cluster headache (1.82 ± 0.19 ml; p = 0.07) and CPH (1.79 ± 0.20 ml; p = 0.15). Increased hypothalamic volume was primarily explained by bilateral enlargement of the anterior hypothalamus. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses showed widespread changes in pain-modulating areas in all subjects with headache. Interpretation The anterior hypothalamus is enlarged in episodic and chronic cluster headache and possibly also in probable cluster headache or CPH, but not in migraine.

  8. Clinical aspects of perimenstrual headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2009-02-01

    Menstrual migraine (MM) is either pure, if attacks are limited solely during the perimenstrual window (PMW), or menstrually related (MRM), if two of three PMWs are associated with attacks with additional migraine events outside the PMW. Acute migraine specific therapy is equally effective in MM and non-MM. Although the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II classifies MM without aura, data suggest this needs revision. The studies on extended-cycle oral contraceptives suggest benefits for headache-prone individuals. Triptan mini-prophylaxis outcomes are positive, but a conclusion of "minimal net benefit compared to placebo" is not entirely unwarranted. In a 2008 evidence-based review, grade B recommendations exist for sumatriptan (50 and 100 mg), mefenamic acid (500 mg), and riza-triptan (10 mg) for the acute treatment of MRM. For the preventive mini-prophylactic treatment of MRM, grade B recommendations are provided for transcutaneous estrogen (1.5 mg), frovatriptan (2.5 mg twice daily), and naratriptan (1 mg twice daily).

  9. Pre-treatment attachment anxiety predicts change in depressive symptoms in women who complete day hospital treatment for anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with eating disorders are prone to depressive symptoms. This study examines whether depressive symptoms can change in women who complete intensive day treatment for anorexia and bulimia nervosa (BN), and whether these changes are associated with pre-treatment attachment insecurity. Participants were 141 women with anorexia nervosa restricting type (n = 24), anorexia nervosa binge purge type (n = 30), and BN (n = 87) who completed a day hospital treatment programme for eating disorders. They completed a pre-treatment self-report measure of attachment, and a pre-treatment and post-treatment self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Participants experienced significant reductions in depressive symptoms at post-treatment. Eating disorder diagnosis was not related to these improvements. However, participants lower in attachment anxiety experienced significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms than those who were higher in attachment anxiety. These results suggest that clinicians may tailor eating disorders treatments to patients' attachment patterns and focus on their pre-occupation with relationships and affect regulation to improve depressive symptoms. That depressive symptoms can decrease in women who complete day hospital treatment for anorexia and BN. That improvements in depressive symptoms do not vary according to eating disorder diagnosis in these women. That patients who complete treatment and who have higher attachment anxiety experience less improvements in depressive symptoms compared to those lower in attachment anxiety. That clinicians may attend to aspects of attachment anxiety, such as need for approval and up-regulation of emotions, to improve depressive symptoms in female patients with eating disorders. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Evaluation of headache severity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Swope, PharmD, BCPS

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Headache after SAH is persistent and treatment refractory. There may be an association with development of vasospasm and worsening of headache. Novel treatment strategies to attenuate headache in this population are needed.

  11. The economic pre-treatment of coal mine drainage water with caustic and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, B H; Nador, L; Addleman, S; Jeston, L

    2017-09-01

    Coal mine drainage waters are low in pH with varying amounts of iron and manganese and are generally brackish. The Austar Coal Mine in NSW, Australia, sought alternatives to their current lime dosing as the pre-treatment before the downstream reverse osmosis plant. Undesirable operating aspects of the current system include manganese and gypsum scaling/fouling, the need for anti-scalants and reduced water recovery. Thirteen processes for acid mine drainage were initially considered. The preferred process of caustic and ozone for Mn(II) oxidation was pilot tested at up to 0.74 kL/hr at the mine site. Under proper conditions and no aeration, about 81 per cent of the Fe could be removed (initially at 156 mg/L) as green rust. Supplemental aeration followed first-order kinetics and allowed 99.9 per cent Fe(II) oxidation and removal but only with a hydraulic residence time of about 47 minutes. The addition of supplemental Cu catalyst improved Fe removal. Ozone applied after caustic was effective in stoichiometrically oxidising recalcitrant Mn(II) and any remaining Fe(II). Control of the ozonation was achieved using the oxidation reduction potential during oxidation of the Mn(II) species. The use of caustic, followed by ozone, proved economically comparable to the current lime pre-treatment.

  12. Impact analysis of different chemical pre-treatments on colour of apple discs during drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Lukinac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to compare colour changes of chemically pre-treated dried apple discs. Changes were observed by chromameter in L*a*b* colour model by using Minolta chromameter CR-400 and by image analysis system in RGB colour model. Apple discs variety "Gold Rush" were pre-treated and dried in laboratory tray drier at drying temperature 70 °C and at airflow velocity of 1.5 ms-1. Different chemical pre-treatments were applied on apple discs (dipping in 0.5% ascorbic acid solution; 0.3% L–cysteine solution; 0.1% 4–hexyl resorcinol solution and 1% sodium metabisulphite solution. Mean values of colour parameters, colour changes and correlation coefficients for apple discs were calculated for both colour models. The analysis showed statistically significant influence of pre-treatment method on total colour changes for both chosen colour models of dried apples. Calculated correlation coefficient between colour changes for used models was found to be 0.894. According to colour characteristics the best results were achieved when samples were pre-treated with 0.5% ascorbic acid solution. According to calculated results it was found that image analysis method as well as colorimetric method can be used to observe the colour changes on dried apple discs.

  13. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment of thermomechanical pulp on hydrogen peroxide bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, E.; Charles, A.; Daneault, C.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatments of softwood TMP had been carried to evaluate its impact on the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide bleaching. The trials were performed after a factorial design of experiment using frequency, power and time as variables. The experiments were conducted in an ultrasonic bath and then bleached with hydrogen peroxide. Measurements such as brightness, L*A*B* color system coordinate, residual hydrogen peroxide and metal content were evaluated on bleached pulp. The results indicate that the effect of ultrasonic treatment on brightness was dependent on the ultrasound frequency used; the brightness increased slightly at 68 kHz and decreased at 40 and 170 kHz. These results were correlated to the ultrasound effect on the generation of transition metals (copper, iron and manganese) which are responsible for catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The influence of metal interference was minimized by using a chelating agent such as diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). With the results obtained in this study we have identified a set of option conditions, e.g. 1000 W, 40 kHz, 1.5 % consistency and 0.2% addition of DTPA prior to the bleaching stage (after ultrasonic pre-treatment) who improve brightness by 2.5 %ISO.

  14. Is Inconsistent Pre-treatment Bedtime Related to CPAP Non-Adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Amy M.; King, Tonya S.; Sawyer, Douglas A.; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Lack of adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) limits the effectiveness of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that an irregular bedtime would be negatively related to regular use of CPAP treatment. If so, modifying bedtime schedule may address the persistent problem of inconsistent CPAP use in adults with OSA. In a prospective longitudinal study, we examined whether inconsistent self-reported bedtime before initiation of CPAP treatment, operationalized as bedtime variability, was (1) different among those adherent (≥ 4 hours per night) and non-adherent to CPAP treatment at one week and one month; and/or (2) was related to one-week and one-month CPAP use when other variables were accounted for. Consecutively-recruited newly-diagnosed OSA adults (N=79) completed sleep diaries prior to CPAP treatment. One-week and one-month objective CPAP use data were collected. Pre-treatment bedtime variability was different among CPAP non-adherers and adherers at one month and was a significant predictor of non-adherence at one month in multivariate analyses. The odds of one-month CPAP non-adherence were 3.5 times greater in those whose pre-treatment bedtimes varied by >75 minutes. Addressing sleep schedule prior to CPAP initiation may be an opportunity to improve CPAP adherence. PMID:25353159

  15. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  16. EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENT ON THE DRYING KINETICS AND PRODUCT QUALITY OF STAR FRUIT SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHING LIK HII

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Start fruit (Avverhoa carambola is rich in nutrients and contains dietary antioxidants which are beneficial to human health. Currently, the commercial potential of this fruit has not been fully explored especially in its dried form. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the drying kinetics and product quality of star fruit slices. The various pre-treatment methods investigated were hot water blanching and dipping in sugar solution. The star fruit was cut into thin slices (5 mm for drying (60°C-80°C using a hot air ventilated oven. Mathematical modelling showed that the Page model was able to describe the moisture diffusion process during drying. Effective diffusivity values were found within the order reported for most food materials (10-8-10-12 m2/s. A decreasing trend in shrinkage ratios was observed with decreasing moisture ratios which corresponds to the greater rate of moisture removal especially at the falling rate period. Overall colour changes were more significant in the blanched samples which could be due to the non-enzymatic browning.

  17. Pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production - A systems analysis; Foerbehandling av biogassubstrat i systemanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My; Holmstroem, David; Lagerkvist, Anders; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    The present expansion of biogas capacity responds to a growing demand for renewable vehicle fuels. Biodegradable wastes are attractive substrates and are also prioritized in national policy. The full potential of the substrates can rarely be used however. This is partly due to impurities, or the availability or degradation speed may be limiting the biogas yield. In both cases there is a need of pre-treatments. This work deals with the system impacts of pre-treatment aiming to remove impurities in food waste and pre-treatments aiming to improve the biogas yield of horse manure and ley. In the latter case steam explosion and extrusion were the treatments studied. Gas yields and the plant and system impacts on energy, climate and economic were studied. The system includes the biogas plant as well as the impact in supplementary systems for heat and power production. The three named substrates were identified to be highly prioritised due to their total potential and the improvements possible in its realisation. Existing information from literature and contacts has form the data basis, with the addition of a few supplementary analyses of substrates. The project has been operated by the authors with participation of a group of facility operators and external reviewers. Four plants have been visited during the study. Operators of digestion plants and all interested in developing the efficiency of biogas plants are the main target group for the study. The rate that the potential yield of food waste can be utilised depends largely on how efficiently contaminants can be separated without loss of substrate. In this case the separation degree has the main impact on the economy, but not a pronounced climate effect. For all types of pre-treatments the water content of substrates is important, a higher water content is detrimental to economy, energy demand and climate impact. For both the energy balance and the climate impact the generation of vehicle fuel has a large impact. An

  18. Prostacyclin (epoprostenol) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    on the placebo day (p=0.002). During epoprostenol (0-30 min) and in the post-infusion phase (30-90 min), the area under the curve (AUC) for headache score was significantly larger than during and after placebo (p=0.005). PGI(2) caused headache associated with the dilatation of STA (AUC, p

  19. Some opthalmological aspects of headache | Macgregor | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ophthalmologist is often consulted about headaches being due to 'the eyes', but although interference with clear vision may occasionally cause headaches, by far the commonest cause of pain in and around rhe eyes is some type of neuralgia affecting rhe first division of the fifth cranial nerve, or one of the variants of ...

  20. Clinical aspects of headache in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Huma U; Cho, Tracey A

    2014-05-01

    Headaches are commonly seen in those patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are the most common form of pain reported among HIV patients. There have been relatively few studies attempting to determine the rates and phenotypes of the headaches that occur in patients with HIV. Patients with HIV are susceptible to a much broader array of secondary headache causes, sometimes with atypical manifestations due to a dampened inflammatory response. The investigation of a headache in the HIV patient should be thorough and focused on making sure that secondary and HIV-specific causes are either ruled out or treated if present. An effective treatment plan should incorporate the use of appropriate pharmacological agents along with the integration of non-pharmacological therapies, such as relaxation and lifestyle regulation. When treating for headaches in patients with HIV, it is important to keep in mind comorbidities and other medications, especially combination antiretroviral therapy. For those with complicated headache histories, referral to a specialized headache center may be appropriate. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  1. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Headaches among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... headache on students' daily physical activity, whether they have seen a doctor on ... Table 3: Comparison of some clinical characteristics by headache .... the prevalence was 3.4% in women and 1.5% in men. The findings of ...

  2. Headache among medical and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-de-Barros, João Eliezer; Alencar, Mauricio José de; Berchielli, Luis Felipe; Castelhano Junior, Luis Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Headaches occur frequently and thus are a key component of sociocentric medical education. To study headaches among students of medicine and psychology in a single university. This was a questionnaire-based survey of a cohort of students of medicine and psychology. The overall lifetime prevalence of headache was 98% and over the last year, 91%. Tensional headache accounted for 59% and migraine 22% in medicine; and 48.5% and 32% respectively in psychology. Forty-five percent reported that headaches had a variable sporadic impact on their productivity. The self-medication rate was 77%. Thirty-six percent reported worsening since admission to the university. The prevalence of headaches was very high. Tension-type headaches predominated in males and migraine in females. Tension-type was more frequent among medical students than among psychology students; migraine was more frequent in psychology (more females) than in medicine. Both kinds of students reported that headaches caused low interference with daily activities. The students reported that their symptoms had worsened since admission to the university.

  3. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  5. Headache, migraine, and structural brain lesions and function: population based Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing-MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, T.; Mohamed, S.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Maillard, P.; Mazoyer, B.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Tzourio, Ch.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Mazoyer, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of overall and specific headaches with volume of white matter hyper-intensities, brain infarcts, and cognition. Design: Population based, cross sectional study. Setting: Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing study, Nantes, France. Participants: 780 participants (mean age 69, 58.5% women) with detailed headache assessment. Main outcome measures: Brain scans were evaluated for volume of white matter hyper-intensities (by fully automated imaging processing) and for classification of infarcts (by visual reading with a standardised assessment grid). Cognitive function was assessed by a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination. Results: 163 (20.9%) participants reported a history of severe headache and 116 had migraine, of whom 17 (14.7%) reported aura symptoms. An association was found between any history of severe headache and increasing volume of white matter hyper-intensities. The adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest third for total volume of white matter hyper-intensities was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.1, P for trend 0.002) for participants with any history of severe headache when compared with participants without severe headache being in the lowest third. The association pattern was similar for all headache types. Migraine with aura was the only headache type strongly associated with volume of deep white matter hyper-intensities (highest third odds ratio 12.4, 1.6 to 99.4, P for trend 0.005) and with brain infarcts (3.4, 1.2 to 9.3). The location of infarcts was predominantly outside the cerebellum and brain stem. Evidence was lacking for cognitive impairment for any headache type with or without brain lesions. Conclusions: In this population based study, any history of severe headache was associated with an increased volume of white matter hyper-intensities. Migraine with aura was the only headache type associated with brain infarcts. Evidence that headache of any type by itself or in

  6. Multimodal manual therapy vs. pharmacological care for management of tension type headache: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Jiménez, Juan A; Lozano-López, Cristina; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; De-la-Hoz-Aizpurua, Jose L; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    Manual therapies are generally requested by patients with tension type headache. To compare the efficacy of multimodal manual therapy vs. pharmacological care for the management of tension type headache pain by conducting a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Collaboration Trials Register, PEDro and SCOPUS were searched from their inception until June 2014. All randomized controlled trials comparing any manual therapy vs. medication care for treating tension type headache adults were included. Data were extracted and methodological quality assessed independently by two reviewers. We pooled headache frequency as the main outcome and also intensity and duration. The weighted mean difference between manual therapy and pharmacological care was used to determine effect sizes. Five randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analyses found that manual therapies were more effective than pharmacological care in reducing frequency (weighted mean difference -0.8036, 95% confidence interval -1.66 to -0.44; three trials), intensity (weighted mean difference -0.5974, 95% confidence interval -0.8875 to -0.3073; five trials) and duration (weighted mean difference -0.5558, 95% confidence interval -0.9124 to -0.1992; three trials) of the headache immediately after treatment. No differences were found at longer follow-up for headache intensity (weighted mean difference -0.3498, 95% confidence interval -1.106 to 0.407; three trials). Manual therapies were associated with moderate effectiveness at short term, but similar effectiveness at longer follow-up for reducing headache frequency, intensity and duration in tension type headache than pharmacological medical drug care. However, due to the heterogeneity of the interventions, these results should be considered with caution at this stage. © International Headache

  7. Neurobiology and sleep disorders in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads Christian Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by unilateral attacks of severe pain accompanied by cranial autonomic features. Apart from these there are also sleep-related complaints and strong chronobiological features. The interaction between sleep and headache is complex at any level and evidence suggests...... that it may be of critical importance in our understanding of primary headache disorders. In cluster headache several interactions between sleep and the severe pain attacks have already been proposed. Supported by endocrinological and radiological findings as well as the chronobiological features, predominant...... involvement of cardiac autonomic control. We conducted a questionnaire survey on 275 cluster headache patients and 145 controls as well an in-patient sleep study including 40 CH-patients and 25 healthy controls. The findings include: A distinct circannual connection between cluster occurrence and the amount...

  8. Harry Potter and the curse of headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftell, Fred; Steiner, Timothy J; Thomas, Hallie

    2007-06-01

    Headache disorders are common in children and adolescents. Even young male Wizards are disabled by them. In this article we review Harry Potter's headaches as described in the biographical series by JK Rowling. Moreover, we attempt to classify them. Regrettably we are not privy to the Wizard system of classifying headache disorders and are therefore limited to the Muggle method, the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Harry's headaches are recurrent. Although conforming to a basic stereotype, and constant in location, throughout the 6 years of his adolescence so far described they have shown a tendency to progression. Later descriptions include a range of accompanying symptoms. Despite some quite unusual features, they meet all but one of the ICHD-II criteria for migraine, so allowing the diagnosis of 1.6 Probable migraine.

  9. Neurostimulation for neck pain and headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jennifer; Ball, Perry A; Fanciullo, Gilbert J

    2014-03-01

    Patients with medically refractory headache disorders are a rare and challenging-to-treat group. The introduction of peripheral neurostimulation (PNS) has offered a new avenue of treatment for patients who are appropriate surgical candidates. The utility of PNS for headache management is actively debated. Preliminary reports suggested that 60-80% of patients with chronic headache who have failed maximum medical therapy respond to PNS. However, complications rates for PNS are high. Recent publication of 2 large randomized clinical trials with conflicting results has underscored the need for further research and careful patient counseling. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for PNS in treatment of chronic migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalagias and occipital neuralgia, and other secondary headache disorders. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  10. Lack of tolerance of headache and radial artery diameter during a 7 hour intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1993-01-01

    . The intensity of the headache was mild to medium (median headache score 3, range 1-7). The mean dilatation of the radial artery was 36%. The dilatation in each individual, was stable over time, both during NTG and placebo, and it did not change with the double infusion rate. The headache score in each......Nitroglycerin-(NTG)-induced headache and dilatation of the radial artery were followed in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 6 healthy volunteers. NTG 0.5 microgram.kg-1 x min-1 or saline were infused i.v. for 7 h, and subsequently the infusion rate was doubled...... individual was more fluctuant. No tolerance either to the NTG-induced headache or arterial dilatation was observed....

  11. Stress and sleep duration predict headache severity in chronic headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy T; Butschek, Ross A; Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the time-series relationships between stress, sleep duration, and headache pain among patients with chronic headaches. Sleep and stress have long been recognized as potential triggers of episodic headache (headache days/month), though prospective evidence is inconsistent and absent in patients diagnosed with chronic headaches (≥15 days/month). We reanalyzed data from a 28-day observational study of chronic migraine (n=33) and chronic tension-type headache (n=22) sufferers. Patients completed the Daily Stress Inventory and recorded headache and sleep variables using a daily sleep/headache diary. Stress ratings, duration of previous nights' sleep, and headache severity were modeled using a series of linear mixed models with random effects to account for individual differences in observed associations. Models were displayed using contour plots. Two consecutive days of either high stress or low sleep were strongly predictive of headache, whereas 2 days of low stress or adequate sleep were protective. When patterns of stress or sleep were divergent across days, headache risk was increased only when the earlier day was characterized by high stress or poor sleep. As predicted, headache activity in the combined model was highest when high stress and low sleep occurred concurrently during the prior 2 days, denoting an additive effect. Future research is needed to expand on current findings among chronic headache patients and to develop individualized models that account for multiple simultaneous influences of headache trigger factors. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data...... using this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques as occipital nerve stimulation or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are recommended as first-line therapy in refractory cluster patients, but they are invasive and maybe associated with complications. Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation with an external...... device has been tried in cluster patients. Results from clinical practice and a single randomized clinical trial have been presented showing a reduction of the number of cluster attacks/week in the patients treated with the device. The rate of adverse events was low and most of them were mild. SUMMARY...

  13. Effect of Pre-treatment method on the Hydrolysis of Corn cob and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawole Ogirima Olanipekun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient pre-treatment has been found to be crucial step before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into fuels or chemicals. As a result various pretreatment methods have been developed to facilitate these bio-conversion processes, and this research focuses on the effect of two pretreatment methods such as liquid hot water and sulphuric acid pre-treatment to remove some of the components like lignin and hemicellulose which form structural barrier to enzymatic accessibility of cellulose in corn cobs and sawdust. The cellulosic materials were first dried in oven at 65 oC for 24 hours,  and using   solid to liquid ratio of 1:10, the two methods were carried out at resident times ranging from 10 - 40 minutes. The liquid hot water method involved heating the cellulosic materials in water at 120 oC and 1atmosphere in a pressure vessel, and for the second method, the dried cellulosic materials were refluxed in 5 % sulphuric acid at a temperature of 120 oC. Pretreated samples were filtered and liquid fractions were analyzed for the presence of reducing sugars, while solid residues were dried in the oven and weighed to measure the mass lost during pretreatment as a pointer to lignin breakdown. It was observed that the mass lost increased with time for both pretreatment methods, but the liquid hot water pretreatment gave higher lignin and hemicellulose removal when compared to the sulphuric acid pre-treatment. The pretreated materials were hydrolyzed with two combinations of commercial enzymes namely cellulase/ hemicellulase and cellulase/β glucosidase. The reducing sugar was measured using Dinitrosalycilic acid (DNSA method and the sugar yields from corn cobs were higher than that of sawdust when subjected to similar process conditions, and the enzyme combination of cellulase/glucosidase gave higher yields of reducing sugars.  A model equation which describes the hydrolysis process was developed from first principles and the experimental data

  14. The association between stress and headache: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Sara H; Moebus, Susanne; Lehmann, Nils; Galli, Ursula; Obermann, Mark; Bock, Eva; Yoon, Min-Suk; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Katsarava, Zaza

    2015-09-01

    We studied the association between stress intensity and headache frequency for tension-type headache (TTH), migraine and migraine with coexisting TTH (MigTTH). We studied a population-based sample of 5159 participants (21-71 years) who were asked quarterly between March 2010 and April 2012 about headache and stress. Log-linear regression in the framework of generalized estimating equations was used to estimate regression coefficients presented as percent changes to describe the association between stress intensity (modified visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100) and headache frequency (days/month) stratified by headache subtypes and age groups and adjusted for sex, age, frequent intake of acute pain drugs, drinking, smoking, BMI and education. TTH was reported in 31% participants (48.1 ± 12.5years, 51.5% women, 2.2 ± 3.9 mean headache days/month, 52.3 ± 26.7 mean stress), migraine in 14% (44.8 ± 11.3years, 73.3%, 4.5 ± 5.2 days/month, 62.4 ± 23.3), MigTTH in 10.6% (43.5 ± 11.5 years, 61.0%, 3.6 ± 4.8 days/month, 58.6 ± 24.1), 23.6% were unclassifiable, and 20.8% had no headache. In participants with TTH an increase of 10 points on VAS was associated with an increase of headaches days/month of 6.0% (adjusted). Higher effects were observed in younger age groups (21-30/31-40/41-50/51-60/61-71 years: 9.8/10.2/7.0/6.5/3.5%). Slightly lower effects were observed for migraine (4.3%, 8.1/5.1/3.4/6.3/0.3%) and MigTTH (4.2%, 5.5/6.8/6.9/5.8/-0.7%). Our study provides evidence for an association between stress intensity and headache frequency. © International Headache Society 2014.

  15. Primary headaches interfere with the efficacy of temporomandibular disorders management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Calderon, Patrícia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the influence of Primary Headache (PH) on efficacy of a Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) conservative therapy and its association with the presence of self-reported parafunctional habits. Sample was composed of 400 medical records, divided into four groups: I) Muscular TMD (n = 64); II) Muscular TMD+PH (n = 48); III) Muscular TMD+Articular TMD (n = 173); IV) Muscular TMD+Articular TMD+PH (n = 115). All groups had undergone a TMD therapy for three months with a stabilization appliance and counseling for habits and behavioral changes, with no specific headache management. Current pain intensity and existence or not of self-reported bruxism were assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA and Chi-Square test followed by Odds were used for statistical analysis, with a significance level of 5%. results of this study showed that: (1) A conservative therapy with stabilization appliance and counseling for habits and behavioral changes was effective in the TMD pain relief; (2) Groups with an additional diagnosis of PH had worsened the pain improvement significantly; and (3) no association between the presence of self-reported bruxism and PH was found. this study could elucidate the important effect that headache may have on the TMD management.

  16. Primary headaches interfere with the efficacy of temporomandibular disorders management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís PORPORATTI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the influence of Primary Headache (PH on efficacy of a Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD conservative therapy and its association with the presence of self-reported parafunctional habits. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Sample was composed of 400 medical records, divided into four groups: I Muscular TMD (n=64; II Muscular TMD+PH (n=48; III Muscular TMD+Articular TMD (n=173; IV Muscular TMD+Articular TMD+PH (n=115. All groups had undergone a TMD therapy for three months with a stabilization appliance and counseling for habits and behavioral changes, with no specific headache management. Current pain intensity and existence or not of self-reported bruxism were assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA and Chi-Square test followed by Odds were used for statistical analysis, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: results of this study showed that: (1 A conservative therapy with stabilization appliance and counseling for habits and behavioral changes was effective in the TMD pain relief; (2 Groups with an additional diagnosis of PH had worsened the pain improvement significantly; and (3 no association between the presence of self-reported bruxism and PH was found. CONCLUSIONS: this study could elucidate the important effect that headache may have on the TMD management.

  17. Factors contributing to migraine headache surgery failure and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelsey; Lee, Michelle; Davis, Janine; Guyuron, Bahman

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to migraine headache surgery failure and success. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who underwent surgery for migraine headaches performed by the senior author (B.G.) and had at least 11 months of follow-up. The study population included three groups: migraine surgery success, improvement, and failure. Thirty-six unique data points were collected for each patient. A total of 169 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 66 patients comprised the migraine surgery success group (S, complete elimination of migraine headaches); 67 comprised the migraine surgery improvement group (I, >50 percent reduction in migraine frequency, intensity, or duration); and 36 comprised the migraine surgery failure group (F, I, p=0.02), migraine frequency (SI, p=0.003; S>F, p=0.04), history of head or neck injury (SI, p=0.02), increased intraoperative bleeding (SF, p=0.0006; I>F, p=0.0004), site II (S>F, p=0.015), single operative site (SI, p=0.05; S>F, p=0.04). Factors associated with migraine surgery failure include increased intraoperative bleeding and surgery on fewer trigger sites. Factors associated with migraine surgery success are older age of migraine onset, higher rate of visual symptoms versus improvement group, surgery at site I or II, and deactivating all four operative sites. Risk, III.

  18. [Preventive treatment of tension headache in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shypilova, E M; Zavadenko, N N; Nesterovskiy, Yu E

    To assess the efficacy of noophen (γ-amino-β-phenylbutyric acid hydrochloride) in the preventive treatment of tension-type headache (TTH) in children and adolescents. The study included 30 patients with TTH, aged from 8 to 16 years, treated with noophen in dose of 15-20 mg/kg per day (2-3 times perorally) during 2 month. Before and during the treatment characteristics of headache, its influence on daily activities were assessed with HIT-6 and PedMIDAS, anxiety disorders were assessed with SCAS, the dynamics of sleep disturbances in children were evaluated. A significant decrease in the frequency, duration and intensity of TTH as well as positive changes in daily life activities and reduction of anxiety and sleep disorders manifestations, which are the risk factors for TTH, were demonstrated during the treatment with noophen. Starting from the first month of treatment, there was a significant decrease in the number of days completely lost because of headache and days with the reduced activity (a decrease in the productivity by >50%).

  19. Changes in Clinical Parameters in Patients with Tension-type Headache Following Massage Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert; Chandler, Clint

    2008-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine approaches to treatment for tension-type headache are increasingly popular among patients, but evidence supporting its efficacy is limited. The objective of this study was to assess short term changes on primary and secondary headache pain measures in patients with tension-type headache (TTH) receiving a structured massage therapy program with a focus on myofascial trigger point therapy. Participants were enrolled in an open label trial using a baseline control with four 3-week phases: baseline, massage (two 3-week phases) and follow-up. Twice weekly, 45-minute massage sessions commenced following the baseline phase. A daily headache diary was maintained throughout the study in which participants recorded headache incidence, intensity, and duration. The Headache Disability Index was administered upon study entry and at 3-week intervals thereafter. 18 subjects were enrolled with 16 completing all headache diary, evaluation, and massage assignments. Study participants reported a median of 7.5 years with TTH. Headache frequency decreased from 4.7±0.7 episodes per week during baseline to 3.7±0.9 during treatment period 2 (Pmassage therapy that targets myofascial trigger points, suggesting the need for more rigorously controlled studies. PMID:19119396

  20. Telemedicine in the management of non-acute headaches: A prospective, open-labelled non-inferiority, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai I; Alstadhaug, Karl B; Bekkelund, Svein I

    2017-08-01

    Objectives We determined headache patients' satisfaction with telemedicine and assessed how telemedicine influenced headache burden, compliance with diagnosis and treatment, and need for follow-up consultations. Methods During 2.5 years, patients from Northern Norway referred with non-acute headaches for a specialist consultation at Tromsø University Hospital were consecutively randomised to either telemedicine or traditional visits. Baseline data were recorded and compared to data from a three-month follow-up questionnaire (see Supplementary material). The following were evaluated: (1) satisfaction with the consultation; (2) headache status; subjective improvement, average pain intensity, treatment, headache days per month, and Headache Impact Test (HIT-6); and (3) treatment compliance and follow-up visits. Results Out of 402 consultations, 348 (86.6%) answered the questionnaire. Satisfaction was similar in the telemedicine and the traditional group (88.8% vs. 92.3%; p = 0.35). Subgroup analyses were not prespecified, but there were no differences in satisfaction among females, migraineurs, rural patients and urban patients. Improvement from baseline after three months was reported equally in the telemedicine and the traditional groups. There were also no differences in treatment compliance, but rural telemedicine patients had less-frequent headache visits at three months' follow-up (28.9% vs. 48.7%, p = 0.002). Conclusion Telemedicine is non-inferior to traditional consultations in patient satisfaction, specialist evaluation, and treatment of non-acute headaches. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02270177.

  1. Longitudinal Study of Headache Trajectories in the Year After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kathryn; Bell, Kathleen R; Ehde, Dawn M; Temkin, Nancy; Dikmen, Sureyya; Williams, Rhonda M; Dillworth, Tiara; Hoffman, Jeanne M

    2015-11-01

    To examine headache trajectories among persons with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the year after injury and the relation of headache trajectory to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 1 year postinjury. Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants were recruited through a university medical center and participated in follow-up assessments by telephone. Prospectively enrolled individuals (N=212) within 1 week of MTBI who were hospitalized for observation or other system injuries. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Not applicable. Participants rated average headache pain intensity using the 0 to 10 numerical rating scale at each assessment period. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version was completed at 12 months postinjury. Latent class growth analysis produced a 4-trajectory group model, with groups labeled resolved, worsening, improving, and chronic. Multivariate regression modeling revealed that younger age and premorbid headache correlated with membership in the worse trajectory groups (worsening and chronic; PHeadache is common in the year after MTBI, with younger people, persons who previously had headaches, and persons with PTSD more likely to report chronic or worsening headache. Further research is needed to examine whether PTSD symptoms exacerbate headaches or whether problematic headache symptoms exacerbate PTSD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of the first 1000 headaches in an outpatient headache clinic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Ángel L; Rojo, Esther; Herrero, Sonia; Neri, María J; Bautista, Lourdes; Peñas, María L; Cortijo, Elisa; Mulero, Patricia; Fernández, Rosa

    2011-02-01

    To analyze the incidence and characteristics of the first 1000 headaches in an outpatient clinic. Headache is a common cause of medical consultation, both in primary care and in specialist neurology outpatient clinics. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICHD-II), enables headaches to be classified in a precise and reproducible manner. In January 2008, an outpatient headache clinic was set up in Hospital Clínico Universitario, a tertiary hospital in Valladolid, Spain. Headaches were classified prospectively in accordance with ICHD-II criteria. In each case we recorded age and sex, duration of headache, ancillary tests required, and previous symptomatic or prophylactic therapies. In January 2010, the registry included 1000 headaches in 682 patients. The women/men ratio was 2.46/1 and the mean age of the patients was 43.19 ± 17.1 years (range: 14-94 years). Patients were referred from primary care (53.4%), general neurology clinics (36.6%), and other specialist clinics (9%). The headaches were grouped (ICHD-II classification) as follows: group 1 (Migraine), 51.4%; group 2 (Tension-type headache), 16%; group 3 (Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias), 2.6%; group 4 (Other primary headaches) and group 13 (Cranial neuralgias), 3.4%. The diagnostic criteria of chronic migraine were satisfied in 8.5% of migraines. Regarding secondary headaches, 1.1% of all cases were included in group 5 (Headaches attributed to trauma) and 8.3% in group 8 (Headaches attributed to a substance or its withdrawal). Only 3.4% of headaches were classified in group 14 (Unspecified or not elsewhere classified), and 5.2% were included in the groups listed in the ICHD-II research appendix. This registry outlines the characteristics of patients seen in an outpatient headache clinic in a tertiary hospital; our results are similar to those previously reported for this type of outpatient clinic. Migraine was the most common diagnosis. Most headaches can be classified using

  3. Serial headache drawings by children with migraine: correlation with clinical headache status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Goldenholz, Shira R; Dulli, Douglas A

    2005-10-01

    Children's artistic self-depictions of headache provide valuable insights into their experience of pain and aid in the diagnostic differentiation of headache types. In a previous study, we compared the clinical diagnosis (gold standard) and artistic diagnosis of headaches in 226 children. In approximately 90% of cases, the drawing predicted the clinical diagnosis of migraine versus nonmigraine headache correctly. In the present study, we explored whether headache drawings correlate with clinical improvement after treatment in children with migraine headaches followed longitudinally. Children seen in the Pediatric Neurology Clinic with the chief complaint of headache were asked to draw a picture of what their headache feels like. On subsequent clinic visits, children with the clinical diagnosis of migraine were asked to draw another picture depicting their current headache. The two drawings were compared to assess whether there was improvement; this "artistic response" was then correlated with the child's clinical status (ie, whether the headaches were improved clinically). One hundred eleven children (66 girls, 45 boys) participated in the study, with a mean interval of 5.3 +/- 2.3 (standard error of the mean) months between the first and second visits. The mean age at the first visit was 11.6 +/- 3.1 years. The raters agreed that serial drawings were both improved or both not improved in 99 of the 111 cases (89%; interrater reliability kappa score of 0.767). Fifty-three children had improvements in their headaches and drawings, 3 children had an improved drawing but no clinical headache improvement, 32 children had no improvement in either their drawing or clinical headaches, and 11 children had improved headaches but no improvement in their drawing. The sensitivity of the drawings for clinical improvement was 0.83, and the specificity was 0.91. The predictive value of an improved headache drawing for an improved clinical response was 0.946. There was no

  4. Occipital Headaches in Children: Are They a Red Flag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genizi, Jacob; Khourieh-Matar, Amal; Assaf, Nurit; Chistyakov, Irena; Srugo, Isaac

    2017-10-01

    Occipital headache is considered a risk factor for serious secondary headache pathology. The purpose of our study was to assess the etiology of occipital headaches among children visiting the emergency department. Subjects were children aged 5 to 18 years who were referred to the emergency department due to headaches during the years 2013 to 2014. A total of 314 patients with headaches were seen at our emergency department. Thirty-nine patients had occipital headaches. Viral infections were the most prevalent final diagnosis (97; 31%), followed by migraine (37; 11.8%). None of our patients had a brain tumor. There was no difference in final diagnosis between the occipital and nonoccipital groups. The most common causes of occipital headaches are viral infections and primary headaches. Serious intracranial disorders presenting solely as occipital headaches and not accompanied by other neurologic signs are uncommon. Thus, occipital headaches should be evaluated in the same manner as other headache locations.

  5. Obesity and headache: part I--a systematic review of the epidemiology of obesity and headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Nu Cindy; Scher, Ann I; Moghekar, Abhay; Bond, Dale S; Peterlin, B Lee

    2014-02-01

    Individually, both obesity and headache are conditions associated with a substantial personal and societal impact. Recent data support that obesity is comorbid with headache in general and migraine specifically, as well as with certain secondary headache conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In the current manuscript, we first briefly review the epidemiology of obesity and common primary and secondary headache disorders individually. This is followed by a systematic review of the general population data evaluating the association between obesity and headache in general, and then obesity and migraine and tension-type headache disorders. Finally, we briefly discuss the data on the association between obesity and a common secondary headache disorder that is associated with obesity, idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Taken together, these data suggest that it is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the headache/migraine-obesity association, given that it is potentially modifiable. Hypotheses for mechanisms of the obesity-migraine association and treatment considerations for overweight and obese headache sufferers are discussed in the companion manuscript, as part II of this topic. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  6. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luiz de Souza Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L-1 sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate.

  7. Functionality of colinergic systems in rats pre-treatment with triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, O.M.S. de.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of experimental hiperthyroidism in the colinergic activity, rats were injected daily, during 1, 5, 19 or 20 days, with triiodothyronine (0 to 100 ug/kg, s.c.). The hiperthyroidism was evaluated by the decrease of the body weight and the increase of the body temperature and serum hormonal levels (T3). After the administration of the cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine and oxotremorine) or a anticholinesterase drug (eserine), the cholinergic behavioural and pharmacologic activity was evaluated recording the rectal temperature, locomotor activity, catalepsy, tremor and cromodacryorrhea. The results suggests that T3 pre-treatment may induce in rats changes in the functionality of the central cholinergic post-sinaptic receptors. However, the administration of this hormone does not seem to induce any alterations in the periferic cholinergic receptors, implicated in cromodacryorrhea effect. (author)

  8. Arsenic adsorption in pre-treatment natural zeolite with magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Z, F.; Valenzuela G, J. L.; Aguayo S, S.; Meza F, D.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology was developed to modify a natural zeolite (chabazite) with magnesium oxide in order to remove arsenic (As +5 ) from water for human consumption. It is proposed a magnesium oxide while regarded as an efficient adsorbent for removing metals in water. X-ray diffraction analyses show significant changes in the chabazite due to the presence of oxides and amorphous hydroxides incorporated during the pre-treatment. Experimental design results show an efficiency greater than 90% of As +5 adsorbed in five minutes. The results indicate that the most significant variables affecting the adsorption of As +5 are the initial concentration of As and the solid/liquid ratio. Experimental data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm with a 20.17 mg/g adsorption capability. (Author)

  9. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Alexandre Luiz de Souza; Silva, Cristiano Nunes da; Afonso, Julio Carlos, E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Mantovano, Jose Luiz [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN/IEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Materiais Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial Ni Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L{sup -1} sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo) during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate. (author)

  10. A review on hydrothermal pre-treatment technologies and environmental profiles of algal biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavish; Guo, Miao; Izadpanah, Arash; Shah, Nilay; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The need for efficient and clean biomass conversion technologies has propelled Hydrothermal (HT) processing as a promising treatment option for biofuel production. This manuscript discussed its application for pre-treatment of microalgae biomass to solid (biochar), liquid (biocrude and biodiesel) and gaseous (hydrogen and methane) products via Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC), Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) as well as the utility of HT water as an extraction medium and HT Hydrotreatment (HDT) of algal biocrude. In addition, the Solar Energy Retained in Fuel (SERF) using HT technologies is calculated and compared with benchmark biofuel. Lastly, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) discusses the limitation of the current state of art as well as introduction to new potential input categories to obtain a detailed environmental profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between pre-treatment quasispecies complexity and treatment outcome in chronic HCV genotype 3a.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moreau, Isabelle

    2012-02-03

    Pre-treatment HCV quasispecies complexity and diversity may predict response to interferon based anti-viral therapy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively (1) examine temporal changes in quasispecies prior to the start of therapy and (2) investigate extensively quasispecies evolution in a group of 10 chronically infected patients with genotype 3a, treated with pegylated alpha2a-Interferon and ribavirin. The degree of sequence heterogeneity within the hypervariable region 1 was assessed by analyzing 20-30 individual clones in serial serum samples. Genetic parameters, including amino acid Shannon entropy, Hamming distance and genetic distance were calculated for each sample. Treatment outcome was divided into (1) sustained virological responders (SVR) and (2) treatment failure (TF). Our results indicate, (1) quasispecies complexity and diversity are lower in the SVR group, (2) quasispecies vary temporally and (3) genetic heterogeneity at baseline can be use to predict treatment outcome. We discuss the results from the perspective of replicative homeostasis.

  12. Targeted pre-treatment of hemp bast fibres for optimal performance in biocomposite materials: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Summerscales, John

    2017-01-01

    . In order to achieve strong NFCs, well separated and cellulose-rich fibres are required. Hemp is taking a center stage in this regard as a source of suitable natural plant cellulose fibres because natural hemp bast fibres are long and inherently possess high strength. Classical field and water retting...... methods have been used for centuries for removal of non-cellulosic components from fibrous plant stems including from hemp, but carries a risk of reducing the mechanical properties of the fibres via damaging the cellulose. For NFCs new targeted fibre pre-treatment methods are needed to selectively...... and effectively remove non-cellulosic components from the plant fibres to produce cellulose rich fibres without introducing any damage to the fibres. A key feature for successful use of natural fibres such as hemp fibres in composite materials is optimal interfacial contact between the fibres and the hydrophobic...

  13. Pre-treatment of desalination feed seawater by Jordanian Tripoli, Pozzolana and Feldspar: batch experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIMAN E. AL-RAWAJFEH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, composites of layered double hydroxide (LDH with three Jordanian natural raw materials: Tripoli (T, Pozzolana (P and Feldspar (F were prepared by co-precipitation and have been used for feed seawater pre-treatment. The data reveals that percent adsorption decreased with increase in initial concentration, but the actual amount of adsorbed ions per unit mass of LDH/T-P-F increased with increase in metal ion concentrations. The values of ΔG were negative and within 21 to 26 kJ/mol, while the values of and ΔS were positive, with ΔH within the range of 0.1 to 25 kJ/mol. The values of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG indicate the favorability of physisorption and show that the LDH/T-P-F composites have a considerable potential as adsorbents for the removal of ions from seawater.

  14. Application of ceramic membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2013-05-30

    Low-pressure (microfiltration/ultrafiltration (MF/UF)) membranes are being increasingly used as pre-treatment, prior to seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The objective of pre-treatment before reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is to remove undesirable and particulate fouling materials (algae, suspended and colloidal particles). Also, a pre-treatment barrier reduces organics and provides better feed water quality for RO membranes. MF and UF pre-treatment prior to SWRO provides Low Silt Density Index (SDI) values recommended for RO operation. Ceramic membranes are more attractive as they made of more chemically resistant materials, which allow for more stable operation and aggressive backwashing (BW) and cleaning. A pilot plant with a monolith ceramic MF membrane (0.1 μm pore size) from METAWATER was used to carry out the study. Red Sea water pumped from a distance of 700 m offshore from Thuwal (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) was used as feed water. The pilot plant was operated automatically at constant flux of 150 LMH that involved BW, air flushing and forward flushing at the end of filtration cycle. Seawater permeates were used for hydraulic BW, while sodium hypochlorite, citric acid and sodium hydroxide were used for chemical cleaning (CIP) to restore the membrane permeability after use. Filtration cycles of 2.5 h were adopted for initial experiments. Aggressive BW flux of 1,800 LMH for 15 s, air flushing of 4 bars for 10 s and forward flushing of 300 LMH for 40 s were applied for regular membrane hydraulic cleaning. The increase of membrane resistances over time was monitored. Further studies were also performed by using Anopore ceramic membranes AAO100 (pore sizes of 0.1 μm) using a constant pressure bench-scale set-up. The feed water and permeate were analysed using an SDI unit, flow cytometre (FCM) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). The results showed that ceramic membrane filtration reduced the SDI15 of seawater from 6.1 to 2.1 which

  15. Posttraumatic Headache: Basic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, Joshua; Charles, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Frequent or continuous headache, often refractory to medical therapy, is a common occurrence after head trauma. In addition to being the most common acute symptom after traumatic brain injury (TBI), headache is also one of the most persistent and disabling symptoms. Different studies indicate that 18-58% of those suffering a TBI will have significant headache at 1 year following the trauma. In addition to being disabling on its own, posttraumatic headache (PTH) is a predictor of overall outcome after concussion. Despite its remarkable prevalence and associated social and economic costs, many fundamental and important questions about PTH remain unanswered. The purpose of this review is to identify key questions regarding the clinical characteristics of posttraumatic headache, its basic mechanisms, and its optimal management. We discuss phenotypic features of PTH, pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI including potential overlaps with those of migraine and other primary headache disorders, and potential novel targets for treatment. We suggest different strategies to finding answers to the questions regarding PTH in order to advance the understanding of the disorder and develop more effective therapies. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  16. Refractory migraine in a headache clinic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Torron Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many migraineurs who seek care in headache clinics are refractory to treatment, despite advances in headache therapies. Epidemiology is poorly characterized, because diagnostic criteria for refractory migraine were not available until recently. We aimed to determine the frequency of refractory migraine in patients attended in the Headache Unit in a tertiary care center, according to recently proposed criteria. Methods The study population consisted of a consecutive sample of 370 patients (60.8% females with a mean age of 43 years (range 14-86 evaluated for the first time in our headache unit over a one-year period (between October 2008 and October 2009. We recorded information on clinical features, previous treatments, Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS, and final diagnosis. Results Overall migraine and tension-type headache were found in 46.4% and 20.5% of patients, respectively. Refractory migraine was found in 5.1% of patients. In refractory migraineurs, the mean MIDAS score was 96, and 36.8% were medication-overusers. Conclusions Refractory migraine is a relatively common and very disabling condition between the patients attended in a headache unit. The proposed operational criteria may be useful in identifying those patients who require care in headache units, the selection of candidates for combinations of prophylactic drugs or invasive treatments such as neurostimulation, but also to facilitate clinical studies in this patient group.

  17. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Mari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC. The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90 with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the abdomen, barium enema (BE and chest radiography (CR were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%: biliary tract stones (n = 11 and other malignant tumors (n = 2. Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%. BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%. Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%: pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1 and cardiomegaly (n = 2. Seventy-nine patients (56% were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information.

  18. Optical monitoring systems for thermal spray processes: droplets behavior and substrate pre-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamagata, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Tanaka, J.; Muraoka, K.

    2017-11-01

    Thermal spray is a technique to form molten droplets using either plasma- or combustion-heating, which impinge upon substrates to form coating layers for various purposes, such as anti-corrosion and anti-wear layers. Although it is an established technique having a history of more than a century, operations of spray guns together with preparing suitable substrate surfaces for obtaining good coating layers still rely on experienced technicians. Because of the necessity of meeting more and more stringent requirements for coating quality and cost from customers, there has been a strong need to try to monitor spray processes, so as to obtain the best possible spray coating layers. The basic requirements for such monitoring systems are *reasonably cheap, *easy operation for laypersons, *easy access to targets to be investigated, and *an in-situ capability. The purpose of the present work is to provide suitable optical monitoring systems for (1) droplets behavior and (2) substrate pre-treatments. For the former (1), the first result was already presented at the 17th laser-aided plasma diagnostics meeting (LAPD17) in 2015 in Sapporo, and the results of its subsequent applications into real spray environments are shown in this article in order to validate the previous proposal. Topic (2) is new in the research program, and the proof-of-principle experiment for the proposed method yielded a favorable result. Based on this positive result, an overall strategy is being planned to fulfill the final objective of the optical monitoring of substrate pre-treatments. Details of these two programs (1) and (2) together with the present status are described.

  19. Eldecalcitol normalizes bone turnover markers regardless of their pre-treatment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Three-year treatment with eldecalcitol has been shown to improve lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), decrease bone turnover markers, and lower the incidences of vertebral and wrist fractures in patients with osteoporosis more than with treatment with alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a risk of eldecalcitol causing severely suppressed bone turnover in osteoporosis patients with low pre-treatment levels of bone turnover markers. Post-hoc analysis was conducted on the data from a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, clinical trial of eldecalcitol versus alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion conducted in Japan. Enrolled patients with baseline measurements of bone turnover markers were stratified into tertiles according to their pre-treatment levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, or urinary collagen-N-telopeptide. Eldecalcitol treatment rapidly reduced bone turnover markers, and kept them within the normal range. However, in the patients whose baseline values for bone turnover were low, eldecalcitol treatment did not further reduce bone turnover markers during the 3-year treatment period. Further long-term observation may be required to reach the conclusion. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER: NCT00144456. Eldecalcitol normalizes, but does not overly suppress, bone turnover regardless of baseline levels of bone turnover markers. Thus, it is unlikely that eldecalcitol treatment will increase the risk of severely suppressed bone turnover and therefore deterioration of bone quality, at least for a treatment duration of 3 years.

  20. Connecting Lignin-Degradation Pathway with Pre-Treatment Inhibitor Sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunsinger, G. B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, P. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, D. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-27

    In order to produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  1. Control of Pre-treatment for Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Proton Ion Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, W. J.

    2008-04-01

    The carbon nanotubes are the next generation material in fuel storage system, the gas sensor, the life science sensor or the nano-size transistor, the stiffener and the heat dissipation field. For use at appropriate position in various field, it must be developed that control technique makes carbon nanotubes with high performance synthesized at appropriate location. The density of the carbon nanotube is 1 - 2g/cm3 with aluminum (2 - 3g/cm3) to be light, the elastic modulus is the level where as many of as 30 - 50 times of iron's elastic modulus and thermal conductivity is similar to the diamond, electric conductivity is high as well above the metal. Generally, many researchers have tried to synthesize the carbon nanotubes of mm length unit using the hydrogen and porous substrate, which play a role of more activating the catalyst. The proton beam which consist of H+ was able to directly inject the hydrogen into target materials such as Ni, Co, Fe as well as transfer high activation energy to them. so we were able to carry out feasibility of controlling the porosity of thin film and substrate to synthesize carbon nanotubes. The pre-treatment method of existing which is used generally heat treatment and the ammonia controls has generated island of catalyst which has increased the surface to react the hydrocarbon. However, pre-treatment method of existing caused the random nuclear creation so it was hard to control the island size of catalyst. It was not enough to understand the porous effect against synthesis of carbon nanotubes deduced from altering various substrates. In this report, it is possible investigate how hydrogen and the porous effect influence on growth of carbon nanotubes through controlling the nuclear creation of catalysts directly and the porosity of them using proton beam

  2. Increased water intake to reduce headache: learning from a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Burls, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Water intake is a cost effective, non-invasive and low-risk intervention to reduce or prevent headache pain. Chronic mild dehydration may trigger headache. Increased water intake could help. A small trial shows modest benefit; however, a larger methodologically sound randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm efficacy. Spigt, M., Weerkamp, N., Troost, J., van Schayck, C. P., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2012). 'A randomized trial on the effects of regular water intake in patients with recurrent headaches.' Family practice, 29(4), 370-5. Doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmr112 CLINICAL SCENARIO: Patients from primary care registered as 'headache', 'tension headache' and/or 'migraine' for more than one year who suffer at least two episodes of moderately intense headache or more than four mildly intense episodes of headache per month with a daily fluid intake of less than 2.5 litres per day. Patient/Problem = Headache > 1 year with 2 moderately intense or 4 mildly intense episodes per month Intervention = 1.5 litres water per day + stress control and sleep hygiene Comparison/Control = stress control and sleep hygiene Outcome = Reduce or eliminate headache Methodology = Therapy RCT Table 1: Final Search Terms TRIP Data Base: hits = 517 used filter Extended Primary research 4 found 1 paper applicable 'Water intake '[MeSH Terms] AND 'Headache '[All Fields]' Best match to PICO, (2012) RCT SELECTION CRITERION AND OVERALL RESULTS: 102 headache patients in16 primary care clinics were randomized into control (n = 50) and intervention groups (n = 52) Inclusion criteria = two > episodes of moderately intense headache or five > mildly intense headaches per month and total fluid intake > 2.5 litres per day, Follow-up @ 3 months. 79% intervention and 66% of controls completed RCT. Drinking more water resulted in a statistically significant improvement of 4.5 (confidence interval: 1.3-7.8) points on Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQOL

  3. A randomized trial of telemedicine efficacy and safety for nonacute headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai I; Alstadhaug, Karl B; Bekkelund, Svein I

    2017-07-11

    To evaluate long-term treatment efficacy and safety of one-time telemedicine consultations for nonacute headaches. We randomized, allocated, and consulted nonacute headache patients via telemedicine (n = 200) or in a traditional manner (n = 202) in a noninferiority trial. Efficacy endpoints, assessed by questionnaires at 3 and 12 months, included change from baseline in Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) (primary endpoint) and pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]) (secondary endpoint). The primary safety endpoint, assessed via patient records, was presence of secondary headache within 12 months after consultation. We found no differences between telemedicine and traditional consultations in HIT-6 ( p = 0.84) or VAS ( p = 0.64) over 3 periods. The absolute difference in HIT-6 from baseline was 0.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.26 to 1.82, p = 0.72) at 3 months and 0.2 (95% CI -1.98 to 1.58, p = 0.83) at 12 months. The absolute change in VAS was 0.4 (95% CI -0.93 to 0.22, p = 0.23) after 3 months and 0.3 (95% CI -0.94 to 0.29, p = 0.30) at 12 months. We found one secondary headache in each group at 12 months. The estimated number of consultations needed to miss one secondary headache with the use of telemedicine was 20,200. Telemedicine consultation for nonacute headache is as efficient and safe as a traditional consultation. NCT02270177. This study provides Class III evidence that a one-time telemedicine consultation for nonacute headache is noninferior to a one-time traditional consultation regarding long-term treatment outcome and safety. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Prediction of distant metastasis in head neck cancer patients: implications for induction chemotherapy and pre-treatment staging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, G.; Glanzmann, C.; Seifert, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined treatment approaches, surgical and radiodiagnostic advances, respectively, lead to improved local-regional control in head neck cancer (HNC). With increasing local-regional control, distant metastases (DM) become more meaningful. In some trials without concomitant chemotherapy, induction chemotherapy (IC) resulted in an absolute reduction of DM by ∝10-15%. In order to define a more efficient selection of patients at risk for DM with respect to IC and M-staging, we analysed our patients treated by contemporary standards. Patients and methods: between 1/2002 to 12/2007, 409 HNC patients were treated with IMRT; 303/409 (74%) underwent definitive, 106 (26%) postoperative IMRT. The mean/median follow-up was 23/20 months (3-72). 70% tolerated 4-7, 9% 1-3 cycles of simultaneous cisplatin. Treatment followed a prospectively designed protocol. In a previous study with 172 HNC IMRT patients, gross tumor volume (GTV) was found the strongest predictor for local-regional control. In the current study, this criterion has been prospectively tested for DM. Numbers needed to treat were calculated for IC. Results: DM developed in 28/399 (7%) patients; 10 presented initially with DM (total 38/409). In 13/28 (46%), DM remained the only manifestation of disease. GTV was the strongest predictor for DM (p 70 cc; only 6 of them (6/73, 8%) developed isolated DM. Conclusion: GTV was the most significant predictor for DM, that could guide selective pre-treatment M-staging. The subgroup with isolated DM in the high risk group, that could benefit from IC, is small. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of headache service quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Zaza; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    that deficiencies in headache care worldwide might be recognized and rectified. These indicators themselves require evaluation and proof of fitness for purpose. This pilot study begins this process. METHODS: We tested the quality indicators in the tertiary headache centres of the University of Duisburg...... of ensuring equal access to the services); and over protocols for reporting serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: This pilot study to assess feasibility of the methods and acceptability of the instruments of headache service quality evaluation was successful. The project is ready to be taken into its next...

  6. Giant arachnoid granulation: differential diagnosis of acute headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.A.; Heyer, C.M.; Frombach, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We present a case of intense, rapidly evolving headache clinically mimicking meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage or venous sinus thrombosis. Clinical examination, standard blood work and central nervous system studies were non-contributory and effectively ruled out these diagnoses. Cranial multidetector CT studies before and after application of intravenous contrast medium performed prior to lumbar tap disclosed a non-enhancing ovoid mass filling the superior sagittal sinus. This lesion posed a differential to venous sinus thrombosis, but ultimately fulfilled the criteria of a giant arachnoid granulation. The imaging characteristics and differential diagnosis of giant arachnoid granulations are discussed

  7. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from co-digestion of wastewater sludges and agricultural wastes: Comparison with microwave pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylin Alagöz, B; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonication and microwave sludge disintegration/pre-treatment techniques on the anaerobic co-digestion efficiency of wastewater sludges with olive and grape pomaces. The effects of both co-digestion and sludge pre-treatment techniques were evaluated in terms of the organic removal efficiency and the biogas production. The "co-digestion" of wastewater sludge with both types of pomaces was revealed to be a much more efficient way for the biogas production compared to the single (mono) sludge digestion. The ultrasonication and microwave pre-treatments applied to the sludge samples caused to a further increase in biogas and methane yields. Based on applied specific energies, ultrasonication pre-treatment was found much more effective than microwave irradiation. The specific energy applied in microwave pre-treatment (87,000kj/kgTS) was almost 9 times higher than that of used in ultrasonication (10,000kj/kgTS), resulting only 10-15% increases in biogas/methane yield. Co-digestion of winery and olive industry residues with pre-treated wastewater sludges appears to be a suitable technique for waste management and energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Furfural is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. This study used a naturally occurring (not GMO) biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model fermentation broth. Pre-treatment involved inoculating and incubating the fermentation broth with strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The Leuconostoc strains converted furfural to furfuryl alcohol without consuming large amounts of dextrose in the process. Coupling this pre-treatment to ethanolic fermentation reduced furfural in the broth and improved growth, dextrose uptake and ethanol formation. Pre-treatment permitted ethanol formation in the presence of 5.2 g L(-1) furfural, which was otherwise inhibitive. The pre-treatment and presence of the Leuconostoc strains in the fermentation broth did not interfere with Z. mobilis ethanolic fermentation or the amounts of ethanol produced. The method suggests a possible technique for reducing the effect that furfural has on the production of ethanol for use as a biofuel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben; Pratt, Steven; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  10. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the physicochemical composition of Agave durangensis leaves and potential enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Hernández, M G; Ochoa-Martínez, L A; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Rocha-Guzmán, N E; Lara-Ceniceros, T E; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Prado Barragán, L A; Rutiaga-Quiñones, O M

    2018-02-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of agave plants are processed annually by the Mexican tequila and mezcal industry, generating vast amounts of agroindustrial solid waste. This type of lignocellulosic biomass is considered to be agroindustrial residue, which can be used to produce enzymes, giving it added value. However, the structure of lignocellulosic biomass makes it highly recalcitrant, and results in relatively low yield when used in its native form. The aim of this study was to investigate an effective pre-treatment method for the production of commercially important hydrolytic enzymes. In this work, the physical and chemical modification of Agave durangensis leaves was analysed using ultrasound and high temperature as pre-treatments, and production of enzymes was evaluated. The pre-treatments resulted in modification of the lignocellulosic structure and composition; the ultrasound pre-treatment improved the production of inulinase by 4 U/mg and cellulase by 0.297 U/mg, and thermal pre-treatment improved β-fructofuranosidase by 30 U/mg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough eGhasemi Naghdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane-ethanol (3:1. Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171% under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  12. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Pratt, Steven [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  13. Importance of Pain Acceptance in Relation to Headache Disability and Pain Interference in Women with Migraine and Overweight/Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Thomas, J. Graham; Seng, Elizabeth K.; Lipton, Richard B.; Pavlovic, Jelena; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Bond, Dale S.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain acceptance involves willingness to experience pain and engaging in valued activities while pain is present. Though pain acceptance could limit both headache-related disability and pain interference in individuals with migraine, few studies have addressed this issue. The current study evaluated whether higher levels of total pain acceptance and it’s 2 subcomponents, pain willingness and activity engagement, were associated with lower levels of headache-related impairment in women who had both migraine and overweight/obesity. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, participants seeking weight loss and headache relief in the Women’s Health and Migraine (WHAM) trial completed baseline measures of pain acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire [CPAQ]), headache-related disability (Headache Impact Test-6 [HIT-6]), and pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Migraine headache frequency and pain intensity were assessed daily via smartphone diary. Using CPAQ total and subcomponent (pain willingness and activity engagement) scores, headache frequency, pain intensity, and BMI as predictors in linear regression, headache-related disability and pain interference were modeled as outcomes. RESULTS On average, participants (n=126; age=38.5±8.2 years; BMI=35.3±6.6 kg/m2) reported 8.4±4.7 migraine days/month and pain intensity of 6.0±1.5 on a 0–10 scale on headache days. After correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted α=.008), pain willingness was independently associated with both lower headache related disability (pheadache related disability (p=.128; β= −.138) and pain interference (p=.042; β= −.154). CPAQ Total Score was not associated with headache related disability (p=.439; β=.066) and pain interference (p=.305; β=.074). Pain intensity was significantly associated with outcomes in all analyses (p’s headache-related disability and general pain interference in treatment-seeking women with migraine and overweight

  14. What do the patients with medication overuse headache expect from treatment and what are the preferred sources of information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, S B; Allena, M; Tassorelli, C

    2011-01-01

    Lack of knowledge on patients' expectations to treatment may lead to misunderstandings and prevent successful outcome. Presently, treatment of medication overuse headache (MOH) leads to improvement in up to 75% of patients, but the relapse rate may exceed 40%. This study aimed to evaluate......% requested effective prevention and fast relief of the headache episodes. 80 and 75%, respectively expected reduction in frequency and intensity. A total of 64% expected information about self-management and 52% expected to receive education on their headaches. The study demonstrates that patients...

  15. Head pain referral during examination of the neck in migraine and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dean H; Drummond, Peter D

    2012-09-01

    To investigate if and to what extent typical head pain can be reproduced in tension-type headache (TTH), migraine without aura sufferers, and controls when sustained pressure was applied to the lateral posterior arch of C1 and the articular pillar of C2, stressing the atlantooccipital and C2-3 segments respectively. Occipital and neck symptoms often accompany primary headache, suggesting involvement of cervical afferents in central pain processing mechanisms in these disorders. Referral of head pain from upper cervical structures is made possible by convergence of cervical and trigeminal nociceptive afferent information in the trigemino-cervical nucleus. Upper cervical segmental and C2-3 zygapophysial joint dysfunction is recognized as a potential source of noxious afferent information and is present in primary headache sufferers. Furthermore, referral of head pain has been demonstrated from symptomatic upper cervical segments and the C2-3 zygapophysial joints, suggesting that head pain referral may be a characteristic of cervical afferent involvement in headache. Thirty-four headache sufferers and 14 controls were examined interictally. Headache patients were diagnosed according the criteria of the International Headache Society and comprised 20 migraine without aura (females n = 18; males n = 2; average age 35.3 years) and 14 TTH sufferers (females n = 11; males n = 3; average age 30.7 years). Two techniques were used specifically to stress the atlantooccipital segments (Technique 1 - C1) and C2-3 zygapophysial joints (Technique 2 - C2). Two techniques were also applied to the arm--the common extensor origin and the mid belly of the biceps brachii. Participants reported reproduction of head pain with "yes" or "no" and rated the intensity of head pain and local pressure of application on a scale of 0 -10, where 0 = no pain and 10 = intolerable pain. None of the subjects reported head pain during application of techniques on the arm. Head pain referral during the

  16. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for treating chronic headache: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anheyer, Dennis; Leach, Matthew J; Klose, Petra; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2018-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy are frequently used for pain-related conditions, but their effects on headache remain uncertain. This review aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy in reducing the symptoms of chronic headache. Data sources and study selection MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and PsychINFO were searched to 16 June 2017. Randomized controlled trials comparing mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy with usual care or active comparators for migraine and/or tension-type headache, which assessed headache frequency, duration or intensity as a primary outcome, were eligible for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Tool. Results Five randomized controlled trials (two on tension-type headache; one on migraine; two with mixed samples) with a total of 185 participants were included. Compared to usual care, mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy did not improve headache frequency (three randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = 0.00; 95% confidence interval = -0.33,0.32) or headache duration (three randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = -0.08; 95% confidence interval = -1.03,0.87). Similarly, no significant difference between groups was found for pain intensity (five randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = -0.78; 95% confidence interval = -1.72,0.16). Conclusions Due to the low number, small scale and often high or unclear risk of bias of included randomized controlled trials, the results are imprecise; this may be consistent with either an important or negligible effect. Therefore, more rigorous trials with larger sample sizes are needed.

  17. Are headache and temporomandibular disorders related? A blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballegaard, V; Thede-Schmidt-Hansen, P; Svensson, P; Jensen, R

    2008-08-01

    To investigate overlaps between headache and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a clinical headache population and to describe the prevalence of TMD in headache patients, 99 patients referred to a specialized headache centre were diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) and classified in headache groups according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition for headache diagnoses in a blinded design. The prevalence of TMD in the headache population was 56.1%. Psychosocial dysfunction caused by TMD pain was observed in 40.4%. No significant differences in TMD prevalence were revealed between headache groups, although TMD prevalence tended to be higher in patients with combined migraine and tension-type headache. Moderate to severe depression was experienced by 54.5% of patients. Patients with coexistent TMD had a significantly higher prevalence of depression-most markedly in patients with combined migraine and tension-type headache. Our studies indicate that a high proportion of headache patients have significant disability because of ongoing chronic TMD pain. The trend to a higher prevalence of TMD in patients with combined migraine and tension-type headache suggests that this could be a risk factor for TMD development. A need for screening procedures and treatment strategies concerning depression in headache patients with coexistent TMD is underlined by the overrepresentation of depression in this group. Our findings emphasize the importance of examination of the masticatory system in headache sufferers and underline the necessity of a multidimensional approach in chronic headache patients.

  18. Selective attention of students suffering from primary headaches in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Headache patients frequently complain about difficulties in attention and concentration, even when they are headache-free and psychometric studies concerning attentional deficits in headache patients between attacks are scarce. Objective: To evaluate selective attention of headache patients in a pain free ...

  19. Presentation of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E L H; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    We studied the presentation of chronic daily headache in 258 patients from a private headache practice, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches, occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Seventy-seven percent of the patients experienced the onset of

  20. Heat stress disorders and headache: a case of new daily persistent headache secondary to heat stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lorenzo, C; Ambrosini, A; Coppola, G; Pierelli, F

    2009-01-01

    Headache is considered as a common symptom of heat stress disorders (HSD), but no forms of secondary headache from heat exposure are reported in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 Edition (ICHD-II). Heat-stroke (HS) is the HSD most severe condition, it may be divided into two forms: classic (due to a long period environmental heat exposure) and exertional (a severe condition caused by strenuous physical exercises in heat environmental conditions). Here we report the case...

  1. FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF HEADACHE IN MEDICAL RESIDENTS AND NON-MEDICAL STUDENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Tandon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Headache is quite prevalent in general population. Few studies have been done on medical residents and comparison between headache prevalence and types in medical and non-medical student groups is quite lacking. This institute having medical residents as well as non-medical students, provides an opportunity to study and compare frequency and pattern of headache in these student groups. The study was aimed at finding out the type and frequency of headache, disability due to headache and treatment practices followed by these two student groups and the effect on the quality of life of our work force resulting from headache. MATERIALS AND METHODS Headache characteristics were studied in 200 medical residents and non-medical students who had at least one episode of headache of at least moderate intensity in the last 1 year using structured questionnaire. RESULTS Headache occurred in 81% students (79.9% of males and 83.9% of females, of whom, 81.82% were medical, 77.14% were non-medical, 79.65% were married and 82.76% were unmarried. Episodic tension-type headache (TTH was most frequent headache type and migraine without aura was uncommon. More males had TTH than females (55.6% versus 39.3% and migraine was more common in females (39.3% versus 20.1%. Common triggers for headache in medical students were stress, lack of sleep and in non-medical students were stress, sunshine and loud noise. Only 10.5% students were on prescription drugs while 69.8% were self-medicating. CONCLUSION Headache is almost as frequent in medical as in non-medical students and it affects the quality of life of our work force

  2. Headache and Vascular Events with Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, performed a retrospective study of 265 children with brain tumors who received cranial irradiation and developed severe recurrent headache.

  3. Neurobiology and sleep disorders in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads Christian Johannes

    2015-01-01

    of daylight, substantially poorer sleep quality in patients compared to controls which was present not only inside the clusters but also outside, affected REM-sleep in patients without a particular temporal connection to nocturnal attacks, equal prevalence of sleep apnea in both patient and control groups......Cluster headache is characterized by unilateral attacks of severe pain accompanied by cranial autonomic features. Apart from these there are also sleep-related complaints and strong chronobiological features. The interaction between sleep and headache is complex at any level and evidence suggests...... that it may be of critical importance in our understanding of primary headache disorders. In cluster headache several interactions between sleep and the severe pain attacks have already been proposed. Supported by endocrinological and radiological findings as well as the chronobiological features, predominant...

  4. Noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine and cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Amaal

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the currently available noninvasive neuromodulation devices for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Over the last decade, several noninvasive devices have undergone development and clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. Based on this body of work, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation, and noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation devices have been cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration and are available for clinical use for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Overall, these novel noninvasive devices appear to be safe, well tolerated, and have demonstrated promising results in clinical trials in both migraine and cluster headache. This narrative review will provide a summary and update of the proposed mechanisms of action, evidence, safety, and future directions of various currently available modalities of noninvasive neuromodulation for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache.

  5. Neurostimulation therapies for primary headache disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magis, Delphine; Jensen, Rigmor; Schoenen, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Most pharmacological treatments of primary headache disorders are partially effective and have cumbersome side effects. Therapies with better efficacy and tolerance are needed. Neurostimulation techniques may have this potential. This is an attempt to summarize the latest clinical trial results...

  6. Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were...... associated with medicine use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n = 595. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of headache...... at least monthly was 45.0%, and 42.5% had used medicines for headache during the past month. 68.2% reported that medicines for headache were always available at home, and 22.2% were allowed to use these without asking for permission. Most pupils received medicine from their parents (73.1%) and physicians...

  7. Sinking Brain: Unusual Cause of Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case presenting with an orthostatic headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed typical pachymeningeal enhancement. CT myelography revealed leakage at the thoracic level. Patient was successfully treated by lumbar epidural blood patch (EBP.

  8. Evaluation and management of "sinus headache" in the otolaryngology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zara M; Setzen, Michael; Poetker, David M; DelGaudio, John M

    2014-04-01

    Patients, primary care doctors, neurologists and otolaryngologists often have differing views on what is truly causing headache in the sinonasal region. This review discusses common primary headache diagnoses that can masquerade as "sinus headache" or "rhinogenic headache," such as migraine, trigeminal neuralgia, tension-type headache, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, giant cell arteritis (also known as temporal arteritis) and medication overuse headache, as well as the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, including cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and hemicrania continua. Diagnostic criteria are discussed and evidence outlined that allows physicians to make better clinical diagnoses and point patients toward better treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Obesity and Headache: Part I – A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Obesity and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Nu Cindy; Scher, Ann I.; Moghekar, Abhay; Bond, Dale S.; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Individually, both obesity and headache are conditions associated with a substantial personal and societal impact. Recent data support that obesity is comorbid with headache in general and migraine specifically, as well as with certain secondary headache conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In the current manuscript, we first briefly review the epidemiology of obesity and common primary and secondary headache disorders individually. This is followed by a systematic review of the general population data evaluating the association between obesity and headache in general, and then obesity and migraine and tension-type headache disorders. Finally, we briefly discuss the data on the association between obesity and a common secondary headache disorder that is associated with obesity, idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Taken together, these data suggest that it is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the headache/migraine-obesity association, given that it is potentially modifiable. Hypotheses for mechanisms of the obesity-migraine association and treatment considerations for overweight and obese headache sufferers are discussed in the companion manuscript, as part II of this topic. PMID:24512574

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa

    2005-05-01

    In patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis because of topical ophthalmic medicaments, patch tests performed with patients' own products are often negative. The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration. Pre-treatment of the skin with SLS 0.5% for 24 h was performed in the sites of patch tests with patients' own products in 15 selected patients. In patients previously negative to their own products tested with conventional patch tests, SLS pre-treatment showed 6 new relevant positive reactions and induced a stronger positive reaction in 1 patient. SLS pre-treatment could be proposed as an alternative promising method, which may increase sensitivity of patch tests with patients' own products.

  11. Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    for ethanol fermentation. The resulting hydrolyzsates contain substances inhibitory to fermentation-depending on both the raw material (biomass) and the pre-treatment applied. An overview of the inhibitory effect on ethanol production by yeast and bacteria is presented. Apart from furans formed by sugar......An overview of the different inhibitors formed by pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials and their inhibition of ethanol production in yeast and bacteria is given. Different high temperature physical pre-treatment methods are available to render the carbohydrates in lignocellulose accessible...... degradation, phenol monomers from lignin degradation are important co-factors in hydrolysate inhibition, and inhibitory effects of these aromatic compounds on different ethanol producing microorganisms is reviewed. The furans and phenols generally inhibited growth and ethanol production rate (Q...

  12. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  13. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  14. Use of principal components analysis (PCA) on estuarine sediment datasets: The effect of data pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.K.; Spencer, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique capable of discerning patterns in large environmental datasets. Although widely used, there is disparity in the literature with respect to data pre-treatment prior to PCA. This research examines the influence of commonly reported data pre-treatment methods on PCA outputs, and hence data interpretation, using a typical environmental dataset comprising sediment geochemical data from an estuary in SE England. This study demonstrated that applying the routinely used log (x + 1) transformation skewed the data and masked important trends. Removing outlying samples and correcting for the influence of grain size had the most significant effect on PCA outputs and data interpretation. Reducing the influence of grain size using granulometric normalisation meant that other factors affecting metal variability, including mineralogy, anthropogenic sources and distance along the salinity transect could be identified and interpreted more clearly. - Data pre-treatment can have a significant influence on the outcome of PCA.

  15. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  17. Therapeutic Strategy for Chronic Headache in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. Lezhenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic efficacy of a combined homeopathic preparation Cefavora, which consists of alcoholic extracts of Ginkgo biloba, hawthorn (Crataegus and white mistletoe (Viscum album, has been studied in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache in children. It has been shown that alongside with elimination of headache manifestations, the use of homeopathic medicine has contributed to the normalization of adaptive mechanisms of autonomic regulation in children indicating its high therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, E.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 16 cranial regions in 23 children and adolescents with frequent headaches using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. Blood flow response to 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) was also determined in 21 patients, while response to 50% oxygen was measured in the two patients with hemoglobinopathy. Included were 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of migraine, 4 with musculoskeletal headaches, and 3 with features of both types. Also studied were 2 patients with primary thrombocythemia, 2 patients with hemoglobinopathy and headaches, 1 patient with polycythemia, and 1 with headaches following trauma. With two exceptions, rCBF determinations were done during an asymptomatic period. Baseline rCBF values tended to be higher in these young patients than in young adults done in our laboratory. Localized reduction in the expected blood flow surge after CO2 inhalation, most often noted posteriorly, was seen in 8 of the 13 vascular headaches, but in none of the musculoskeletal headache group. Both patients with primary thrombocythemia had normal baseline flow values and altered responsiveness to CO2 similar to that seen in migraineurs; thus, the frequently reported headache and transient neurologic signs with primary thrombocythemia are probably not due to microvascular obstruction as previously suggested. These data support the concept of pediatric migraine as a disorder of vasomotor function and also add to our knowledge of normal rCBF values in younger patients. Demonstration of altered vasomotor reactivity to CO2 could prove helpful in children whose headache is atypical

  19. Two reports of flight-related headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Kazuhiko

    2013-07-01

    Airplane headache is flight-related and appears during airplane landing and/or takeoff without accompanying symptoms. Intracranial and paranasal imaging studies reveal no abnormalities. The etiology is still uncertain, although sinus barotrauma has been proposed as a possible mechanism. 1) A 26-yr-old woman presented with recurring headache during each air travel since she was 22 yr old. Severe bursting pain suddenly manifested in the bilateral orbits and temples during airplane descent, with no accompanying additional symptoms. She had no unusual medical history. X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans showed no abnormalities except thickening of the nasal mucosa. Effective pain relief was obtained with over-the-counter nasal decongestant spray. 2) A 49-yr-old man presented with a 3-yr history of flight-related headache that appeared at airplane touchdown, when he had mental stress, or when he was suffering from a lack of sleep. Pain was of a severe jabbing quality, localized over the forehead with no additional accompanying symptoms. He had a past history of episodic tension-type headache. Intracranial and paranasal CT scan revealed no abnormalities. Headache ceased spontaneously within 40 min of the end of the flight and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug premedication did not prevent the headache. Sinus barotrauma was thought to be a plausible explanation for the headache in Case 1. In Case 2, an anxiety disorder could be considered as an underlying etiology. The etiology of so-called airplane headache is probably protean and this should be taken into account when assessing cases of in-flight cephalalgia.

  20. Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Migraine and Tension-Type Headaches among Hospitals Staffs of Shiraz (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatollahi Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a common symptom that constitutes a major health problem to all countries in the world. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of migraine and tension -type headaches(TTH, its associated occupational risk factors among Shiraz hospitals staffs, and to report on clinical characteristics of migraine and TTH with using the International Headache Society (IHS diagnosis criteria. A random sample of 1023 staffs constituting a 20% sample of the hospitals staff population was selected. Sampling method was categorical random sampling. Within each group sampling was carried out systematically. Data were collected by screening questionnaire followed by clinical interviews, general physical and neurological examination, and diagnostic criteria of IHS. Prevalence of migraine, TTH and coexisting migraine and TTH were estimated as 11.2% (115 cases, 19.5% (199 subjects and 3.2% (33 subjects respectively. In this study , clinical characteristics of headache including type, site, number , intensity ,concomitant symptom of headaches had been surveyed. TTH and migraine headaches were significantly associated with self reported abnormal sleep pattern and female gender (P < 0.001. Also TTH was negatively associated with total 24hr duration of sleep and history of involvement in second job significantly (P<0.026. The average of prevalence of migraine and TTH were lower than their counter parts in western countries but higher than previous studies conducted in other Asian countries. Clinical characteristics were almost parallel with IHS criteria, headache- related missed work rates were higher for subjects with migraine headache, and also TTH and migraine were separate disorders and were not as a part of a continuum of headache disorders. Headache disorders deserve more attention, especially concerning strategies leading to adequate primary prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  2. Forecasting Individual Headache Attacks Using Perceived Stress: Development of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Persons With Episodic Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy T; Turner, Dana P; Golding, Adrienne N; Porter, John A H; Martin, Vincent T; Penzien, Donald B; Tegeler, Charles H

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate a prediction model that forecasts future migraine attacks for an individual headache sufferer. Many headache patients and physicians believe that precipitants of headache can be identified and avoided or managed to reduce the frequency of headache attacks. Of the numerous candidate triggers, perceived stress has received considerable attention for its association with the onset of headache in episodic and chronic headache sufferers. However, no evidence is available to support forecasting headache attacks within individuals using any of the candidate headache triggers. This longitudinal cohort with forecasting model development study enrolled 100 participants with episodic migraine with or without aura, and N = 95 contributed 4626 days of electronic diary data and were included in the analysis. Individual headache forecasts were derived from current headache state and current levels of stress using several aspects of the Daily Stress Inventory, a measure of daily hassles that is completed at the end of each day. The primary outcome measure was the presence/absence of any headache attack (head pain > 0 on a numerical rating scale of 0-10) over the next 24 h period. After removing missing data (n = 431 days), participants in the study experienced a headache attack on 1613/4195 (38.5%) days. A generalized linear mixed-effects forecast model using either the frequency of stressful events or the perceived intensity of these events fit the data well. This simple forecasting model possessed promising predictive utility with an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.75) in the training sample and an AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.6-0.67) in a leave-one-out validation sample. This forecasting model had a Brier score of 0.202 and possessed good calibration between forecasted probabilities and observed frequencies but had only low levels of resolution (ie, sharpness). This study demonstrates that future headache attacks can be forecasted for a diverse group of

  3. Comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment use of selenium in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Yazici

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of selenium in rat retinal ischemia reperfusion (IR model and compare pre-treatment and post-treatment use. METHODS: Selenium pre-treatment group (n=8 was treated with intraperitoneal (i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d and terminated 24h after the IR injury. Selenium post-treatment group (n=8 was treated with i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d after the IR injury with termination at the end of the 7d period. Sham group (n=8 received i.p. saline injections identical to the selenium volume for 7d with termination 24h after the IR injury. Control group (n=8 received no intervention. Main outcome measures were retina superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH, total antioxidant status (TAS, malondialdehyde (MDA, DNA fragmentation levels, and immunohistological apoptosis evaluation. RESULTS: Compared to the Sham group, selenium pre-treatment had a statistical difference in all parameters except SOD. Post-treatment selenium also resulted in statistical differences in all parameters except the MDA levels. When comparing selenium groups, the pre-treatment selenium group had a statistically higher success in reduction of markers of cell damage such as MDA and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the post-selenium treatment group had resulted in statistically higher levels of GSH. Histologically both selenium groups succeeded to limit retinal thickening and apoptosis. Pre-treatment use was statistically more successful in decreasing apoptosis in ganglion cell layer compared to post-treatment use. CONCLUSION: Selenium was successful in retinal protection in IR injuries. Pre-treatment efficacy was superior in terms of prevention of tissue damage and apoptosis.

  4. Temporomandibular disorders in adolescents with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Anna; Żarowski, Marcin; Steinborn, Barbara; Hedzelek, Wiesław; Wiśniewska-Spychała, Beata; Dorocka-Bobkowska, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Headache is a common complaint in all age groups and is a frequent cause of medical consultations and hospitalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of bite and non-bite parafunctions as well as the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in adolescents presenting with primary headaches. Parents of adolescents presented with headaches to the Department of Developmental Neurology within a 12-month period were asked to complete a questionnaire developed by the authors of this study. Of the 1000 patients evaluated, 19 females and 21 males, aged 13 to 17 years, met the inclusion criterion - a confirmed clinical diagnosis of migraine or a tension headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. The diagnostic algorithm of the study group consisted of a full medical history, an assessment of the occurrence of bite habits and a physical examination based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Bite and non-bite parafunctions were found in 36 of the study group patients. A significant difference (p = 0.0003) between the number of bite parafunctions and non-bite parafunctions was found in females but not in males. However, bite parafunctions were more frequent in boys compared to girls (p = 0.01). Our findings suggest that it may be useful for pediatricians and neurologists to include TMD dysfunctions as a part of a standard examination of adolescents presenting with persistent headaches.

  5. Headache in Schoolchildren : Epidemiology, Pain Comorbidity and Psychosocial Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Laurell, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    Headache is the most frequently reported pain in children and is associated with missed schooldays, anxiety, depressive symptoms and various physical symptoms. A secular trend of increasing headache prevalence has been suggested. Few studies have focused on tension-type headache among children from the general population. The aims of this thesis were to describe the prevalence, incidence and prognosis of tension-type headache, migraine and overall headache in schoolchildren, to identify medi...

  6. Pathophysiology of Headaches with a Prominent Vascular Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Pareja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular changes, whether preliminary or secondary, seem to accompany most headaches. The literature concerning pathophysiological mechanisms in headaches where vascular phenomena are a major, integral part, ie, migraine and cluster headache syndrome, is reviewed and the most common forms of headache associated with cerebrovascular disease are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the vascular phenomena and on the abundant hypotheses and theories regarding headache mechanisms. This review also presents alternative explanatory models, and compares the available anatomical, physiological and biochemical results.

  7. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70ºC prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, H.N.; Lu, Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    . The present study investigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 degrees C on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C enhanced the removal of organic matter...... and the methane production during the subsequent anaerobic digestion step at 55 degrees C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present in primary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic step suggesting that the same efficiencies in organic...... matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained at lower HRTs....

  8. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  9. Effects of autogenic training on nitroglycerin-induced headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Zsombok, Terezia; Gonda, Xenia; Nagyne, Nora; Modosne, Edit; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the prophylactic and acute effects of autogenic training (AT) during a nitroglycerin-induced migraine attack. Thirty female migraineurs (without aura) and 11 controls participated in the study. Of these, 11 migraineurs and 5 controls practiced AT regularly for at least 6 months prior to and during the sublingual nitroglycerin test. Headache intensity and characteristics were recorded with a standardized method. During the nitroglycerin challenge, blood was collected for plasma cortisol determination and blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded. As a long-term preventive treatment, AT significantly decreased the mean headache frequency and intensity (P = .001) compared to the pretreatment period in the migraineurs who regularly practiced AT (n = 11). During the nitroglycerin challenge, AT successfully attenuated the nitroglycerin-induced acute decrease in blood pressure and pulse rate (P = .013; n = 16 AT subjects vs n = 25 non-AT subjects). However, it was not effective in preventing immediate headache (P = .71), did not decrease the frequency of acute migraine attacks (P = .79), and could not alleviate acute migraine pain (P = .78; n = 16 AT subjects vs n = 25 non-AT subjects). Plasma cortisol concentration significantly increased (P = .003) during the acute migraine attack (n = 22), and migraine intensity correlated with plasma cortisol elevations (P < .001; n = 41) and showed a tendency of negative correlation with morning plasma cortisol concentration (P = .08; n = 41). However, AT did not alter plasma cortisol responses (P = .99; n = 16 AT subjects vs n = 25 non-AT subjects). (1) The long-term AT therapy proved to be a significantly effective preventive intervention in migraine sufferers. We hypothesized that this long-term effect of AT is based on modulation of the pain anticipation system, which is strongly correlated with function of the anterior cingulate cortex. (2) We demonstrated that AT could not alter the nitroglycerin-induced acute

  10. The role of pre-treatment MRI in established cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tins, Bernhard; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; McCall, Iain

    2009-01-01

    Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often results in functional impairment and premature osteoarthritis despite surgical treatment. Treatment decisions are commonly based on the clinical history and radiographic appearance. This study assesses the pre-treatment features of SCFE and correlates them to the clinical history to: (1) define the underlying pathological mechanisms; (2) correlate the morphological hip abnormalities with the clinical classifications; (3) identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that could carry prognostic implications for treatment approach and outcome. Methods: Clinical history and pre- and posttreatment radiographs and pre-treatment MRIs of 14 patients with 15 affected hips were reviewed. Alignment, impingement, fulcrum formation, remodelling, osteopenia, synovitis, joint effusion, bone marrow and soft tissue oedema and status of the physis and the periosteal sleeve were assessed and related to the clinical history, in particular history of trauma, duration of clinical symptoms and ability to bear weight. Results: Bone marrow oedema around the growth plate and joint effusion occurred in all patients. Synovitis occurred in 13/15 patients. 6 patients had a fall before presenting with SCFE. 5/6 had periarticular soft tissue oedema, complete disruption of the physis and partial periosteal sleeve disruption. 9 patients had no fall prior to presentation, physis and periost were intact in 7/9; periarticular oedema was not seen. 14/15 showed evidence of chronic remodelling. Despite an acute clinical history remodelling was present. A fulcrum-like alignment, impingement of the epiphysis on the metaphysis with a small area of physical contact, was seen in 8 patients, 6/8 had a prior fall. There was no case of avascular necrosis. Spontaneous reduction of SCFE occurred in 1 case, the only case without chronic remodelling. With MRI as gold standard radiographs underestimate the severity of SCFE. Conclusion

  11. The role of pre-treatment MRI in established cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, Bernhard [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY 10 7 AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Bernhard.Tins@rjah.nhs.uk; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; McCall, Iain [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY 10 7 AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often results in functional impairment and premature osteoarthritis despite surgical treatment. Treatment decisions are commonly based on the clinical history and radiographic appearance. This study assesses the pre-treatment features of SCFE and correlates them to the clinical history to: (1) define the underlying pathological mechanisms; (2) correlate the morphological hip abnormalities with the clinical classifications; (3) identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that could carry prognostic implications for treatment approach and outcome. Methods: Clinical history and pre- and posttreatment radiographs and pre-treatment MRIs of 14 patients with 15 affected hips were reviewed. Alignment, impingement, fulcrum formation, remodelling, osteopenia, synovitis, joint effusion, bone marrow and soft tissue oedema and status of the physis and the periosteal sleeve were assessed and related to the clinical history, in particular history of trauma, duration of clinical symptoms and ability to bear weight. Results: Bone marrow oedema around the growth plate and joint effusion occurred in all patients. Synovitis occurred in 13/15 patients. 6 patients had a fall before presenting with SCFE. 5/6 had periarticular soft tissue oedema, complete disruption of the physis and partial periosteal sleeve disruption. 9 patients had no fall prior to presentation, physis and periost were intact in 7/9; periarticular oedema was not seen. 14/15 showed evidence of chronic remodelling. Despite an acute clinical history remodelling was present. A fulcrum-like alignment, impingement of the epiphysis on the metaphysis with a small area of physical contact, was seen in 8 patients, 6/8 had a prior fall. There was no case of avascular necrosis. Spontaneous reduction of SCFE occurred in 1 case, the only case without chronic remodelling. With MRI as gold standard radiographs underestimate the severity of SCFE. Conclusion

  12. REMOVE AND RELEASE OF NUTRIENTS AFTER HYBRID PRE-TREATMENT OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in wastewater treatment technologies is the formation of foam/scum on the surface of bioreactors. The foam elimination/destruction can be carried out by various methods among which disintegration is included. Hybrid disintegration (chemical decomposition and hydrodynamic cavitation of the foam microorganisms results in phosphates, ammonium nitrogen, magnesium and potassium transferred from the foam solids into the liquid phase. Application of both methods as a hybrid pre-treatment process caused in an increased concentration of phosphates of about 677 mg PO43- L-1, ammonium nitrogen about 41 mg N-NH4+ L-1. The concentration of Mg2+ and K+ in the solution increased from 6.2 to 31.1 mg Mg2+ L-1 and from 22.4 to 102.0 mg K+ L-1, respectively. The confirmation of physicochemical changes and release of cellular matter as a result of cellular lysis (hybrid disintegration was IR analysis. It was demonstrated that the disintegration of foam permits removal of a part of nutrients in the form of struvite.

  13. Air radon equilibrium factor measurement in a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.E.; Juste, B.; Ortiz, J.; Martorell, S.; Verdu, G.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze in this paper a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant (WWTP) located at the Mediterranean coast with air radon concentration above Spanish action level (600 Bq per cubic meter). This paper presents a method for radon equilibrium determination by gamma spectrometry measuring of the radon progeny concentrations in the air, in order to estimate WWTP workers effective dose more exactly. The method is based on simultaneous sampling of air through a filter paper and alpha spectrometry measurement of radon activity concentration in the air. According to the measured radon activity concentration in the air of 368±45 Bq/m 3 the equilibrium factor between radon and progenies is estimated to be F=0.27, which is in good agreement with expected values. - Highlights: • High levels of Radon in a workplace can increase health risks in the employees. • Using the typical equilibrium factor 0.4 could lead to an error in the estimation of radon doses. • We present a method for radon equilibrium determination. • Equilibrium factor is calculated by gamma spectrometry measuring of radon progeny concentrations in the air.

  14. Impact of the environmental conditions and substrate pre-treatment on whey protein hydrolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2017-01-22

    Proteins in solution are subject to myriad forces stemming from interactions with each other as well as with the solvent media. The role of the environmental conditions, namely pH, temperature, ionic strength remains under-estimated yet it impacts protein conformations and consequently its interaction with, and susceptibility to, the enzyme. Enzymes, being proteins are also amenable to the environmental conditions because they are either activated or denatured depending on the choice of the conditions. Furthermore, enzyme specificity is restricted to a narrow regime of optimal conditions while opportunities outside the optimum conditions remain untapped. In addition, the composition of protein substrate (whether mixed or single purified) have been underestimated in previous studies. In addition, protein pre-treatment methods like heat denaturation prior to hydrolysis is a complex phenomenon whose progression is influenced by the environmental conditions including the presence or absence of sugars like lactose, ionic strength, purity of the protein, and the molecular structure of the mixed proteins particularly presence of free thiol groups. In this review, we revisit protein hydrolysis with a focus on the impact of the hydrolysis environment and show that preference of peptide bonds and/or one protein over another during hydrolysis is driven by the environmental conditions. Likewise, heat-denaturing is a process which is dependent on not only the environment but the presence or absence of other proteins.

  15. Pre-treatment with antibiotics and Escherichia coli to equalize the gut microbiota in conventional mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota can vary widely between individual mice of the same batch and thereby affect the resulting outcome in experimental studies. Therefore, an efficient method is needed to equalize the gut microbiota prior to the start of critical experiments. In order to minimize variations in gut microbiota between animals and provide the animals with a Gram-negative flora exposing lipopolysaccharides in the cell-walls, C57BL/6 mice were given a mixture of ampicillin, metronidazole and clindamycin in the drinking water for 3 days and then Escherichia coli for two additional days. Treatment with antibiotics alone or with antibiotics in combination with E. coli was well tolerated by all animals. Body weight and liver weight were not affected, although higher hepatic fat content was found in treated animals (p antibiotics and antibiotics in combination with E. coli (p < 0.01), without affecting the total amount of bacteria. Cloned and sequenced 16S rRNA genes showed high presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Porphymonadaceae in the treated animals. Analysis with Principal Component Analysis gave a clear separation of the composition in microbiota between different treatment groups. The described treatment efficiently equalized the gut microbiota and provided the animals with a strong abundance of Enterobacteriaceae without changing the total load of bacteria. This is a straightforward, lenient and efficient method of pre-treatment to equalize the gut microbiota of mice as a starting procedure of animal studies.

  16. Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner.

  17. Evaluation of pre-treatment technologies for phosphorous removal from drinking water to mitigate membrane biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, M.; Tihomirova, K.; Mežule, L.; Rubulis, J.; Gruškeviča, K.; Juhna, T.

    2017-10-01

    Membranes are widely used for the treatment of various solutions. However, membrane fouling remains the limiting factor for their usage, setting biofouling as the most severe type of it. Therefore, the production of biologically stable water prior to membranes is important. Since lack of phosphorus may hinder the growth of microorganisms, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of microbially available phosphorus (MAP) removal via affordable water pre-treatment methods (adsorption, biofiltration, electrocoagulation) on bacterial growth. Four cylindrical reactors were installed at an artificially recharged groundwater station. Further temperature influence and carbon limitation were tested for biofiltration technology. The amount of MAP and total cell count was measured by flow cytometry. The results showed that at lower temperatures electrocoagulation performed the best, resulting in complete MAP removal (detection limit 6.27x10-3μg P l-1). Sorbent demonstrated MAP removal of 70-90%. Biomass did not have any noteworthy results at +8°C, however, at +19°C MAP removal of around 80% was achieved. Main conclusions obtained within this study are: (i) tested technologies effectively eliminate MAP levels; (ii) temperature has a significant effect on MAP removal in a bioreactor, (iii) multi-barrier approach might be necessary for better P limitation that might prolong operating time of a membrane.

  18. Effect of copper surface pre-treatment on the properties of CVD grown graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Sik Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the synthesis of high quality monolayer graphene on the pre-treated copper (Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition method. The pre-treatment process, which consists of pre-annealing in a hydrogen ambient, followed by diluted nitric acid etching of Cu foil, helps in removing impurities. These impurities include native copper oxide and rolling lines that act as a nucleation center for multilayer graphene. Raman mapping of our graphene grown on pre-treated Cu foil primarily consisted of ∼98% a monolayer graphene with as compared to 75 % for the graphene grown on untreated Cu foil. A high hydrogen flow rate during the pre-annealing process resulted in an increased I2D/IG ratio of graphene up to 3.55. Uniform monolayer graphene was obtained with a I2D/IG ratio and sheet resistance varying from 1.84 – 3.39 and 1110 – 1290 Ω/□, respectively.

  19. Effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Adukondalu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drug substances along with a variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components interact with the CYP enzyme system.The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across the rat intestine "nMethods: The transport of carbamazepine across different parts of rat intestine was studied by everted and non-everted sac methods. The control and pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for 7 days pre-treated rats were sacrificed and isolated the intestine. The sacs of intestine were prepared, treated with carbamazepine solution and then placed in dulbeccos buffer. Samples were collected periodically and the drug content was estimated using HPLC. Results and conclusion: The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05 difference in the transport of carbamazepine from the intestinal sacs of pretreated with pomegranate juice and control. It seems that pomegranatejuice might have induced CYP3A4enzymes and hence drug is extensively metabolized.

  20. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  1. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Avenue, 4, Simferopol, 95007 (Ukraine); Kotov, V.A. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, 11 Mohovaya Street, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation); Balabanov, D.E. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y. [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine); Vasiliev, M. [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup 6027 (Australia); Golub, V.O., E-mail: v_o_golub@yahoo.com [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment.

  2. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V.; Kotov, V.A.; Balabanov, D.E.; Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y.; Vasiliev, M.; Golub, V.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar + ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment

  3. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy. PMID:23626702

  4. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  5. Migraine headaches in a nutshell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to severe pain intensity, aggravation by movement, and a pulsating feeling. ... This article aims to provide a concise, high-level overview of the classification, management and treatment of migraine. ... hypersensitivity to light, sound and odour.7.

  6. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches: position statement from the European Headache Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even medically intractable. When a definitive lack of responsiveness to conservative treatments is ascertained and medication overuse headache is excluded, neuromodulation options can be considered in selected cases. Here, the various invasive and non-invasive approaches, such as hypothalamic deep brain stimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, stimulation of sphenopalatine ganglion, cervical spinal cord stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are extensively published although proper RCT-based evidence is limited. The European Headache Federation herewith provides a consensus statement on the clinical use of neuromodulation in headache, based on theoretical background, clinical data, and side effect of each method. This international consensus further gives recommendations for future studies on these new approaches. In spite of a growing field of stimulation devices in headaches treatment, further controlled studies to validate, strengthen and disseminate the use of neurostimulation are clearly warranted. Consequently, until these data are available any neurostimulation device should only be used in patients with medically intractable syndromes from tertiary headache centers either as part of a valid study or have shown to be effective in such controlled studies with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24144382

  7. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF EMG BIO-FEEDBACK AND PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION IN TENSION HEADACHE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson′s technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation. PMID:21965970

  9. A comparative study of efficacy of emg bio-feedback and progressive muscular relaxation in tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, M T

    1984-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson's technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation.

  10. [Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of the paracetamol and caffeine combination in the treatment of tension headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, G D; Forte, L V; Galvão, A C

    2000-03-01

    Tension type headache in both its forms, episodic and chronic, is the most common type of headache experienced by the population. The headache attack or the prevention of new crises may be treated with pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological measures. This study included 5,490 patients from out-patient clinics and medical offices covering various regions of Brazil. Approximately 95% of the subjects had episodic tension type headache, while 5% had chronic tension type headache. The majority of the patients presented with crisis of moderate intensity (62.19%). In 5,419 patients a tension type headache crisis was treated with acetaminophen 1000 mg and caffeine 130 mg. In 93.98%, onset of relief occurred within 2 hours of taking the medication. In 77.61%, complete reversion of the crisis occurred within 2 hours. Good/excellent efficacy ratings were achieved in 61.93%/37.80% of the cases according to the physician's assessment and in 48.51%/40.29% according to the patients' assessment. Adverse events, commonly gastrointestinal manifestations, were reported by 5.57% of the patients. This is a Brazilian study of the efficacy and safety of the combined use of acetaminophen-caffeine for the treatment of tension type headache.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaosa, S Santos; Diago, E Bellosta; Calzada, J Navarro; Benito, A Velázquez

    2017-06-01

     Patients with cluster headache tend to have a dysregulation of systemic blood pressure such as increased blood pressure variability and decreased nocturnal dipping. This pattern of nocturnal nondipping is associated with end-organ damage and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.  To determine if cluster headache is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.  Cross-sectional study of 33 cluster headache patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in all subjects. We evaluate anthropometric, hematologic, and structural parameters (carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index).  Of the 33 cluster headache patients, 16 (48.5%) were nondippers, a higher percentage than expected. Most of the cluster headache patients (69.7%) also presented a pathological ankle-brachial index. In terms of the carotid intima-media thickness values, 58.3% of the patients were in the 75th percentile, 25% were in the 90th percentile, and 20% were in the 95th percentile. In the control group, only five of the 30 subjects (16.7%) had a nondipper pattern ( P  =   0.004), with 4.54% in the 90th and 95th percentiles ( P  =   0.012 and 0.015).  Compared with healthy controls, patients with cluster headache presented a high incidence (48.5%) of nondipper pattern, pathological ankle-brachial index (69.7%), and intima-media thickness values above the 75th percentile. These findings support the hypothesis that patients with cluster headache present increased risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Pilot trial of osteopathic manipulative therapy for patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Guido; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Somalvico, Francesco; Ferrarese, Carlo; Bressan, Livio C

    2014-09-01

    Osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) may be used for managing headache pain and related disability, but there is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials to assess the effectiveness of this intervention. To explore the efficacy of OMTh for pain management in frequent episodic tension-type headache (TTH). Single-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients were recruited from 5 primary care settings. Forty-four patients who were affected by frequent episodic TTH and not taking any drugs for prophylactic management of episodic TTH were recruited. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental or control group. The experimental group received corrective OMTh techniques, tailored for each patient; the control group received assessment of the cranial rhythmic impulse (sham therapy). The study included a 1-month baseline period, a 1-month treatment period, and a 3-month follow-up period. The primary outcome was the change in patient-reported headache frequency, and secondary outcomes included changes in headache pain intensity (discrete score, 1 [lowest perceived pain] to 5 [worst perceived pain]), over-the-counter medication use, and Headache Disability Inventory score. Forty patients completed the study (OMTh, n=21; control, n=19). The OMTh group had a significant reduction in headache frequency over time that persisted 1 month (approximate reduction, 40%; Ptreatment. Moreover, there was an absolute difference between the 2 treatment groups at the end of the study, with a 33% lower frequency of headache in the OMTh group (Ptreatment modalities and may benefit patients who have adverse effects to medications or who have difficulty complying with pharmacologic regimens. This protocol may serve as a model for future studies. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  13. Amphibian and reptile response to prescribed burning and thinning in pine-hardwood forests: pre-treatment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of pretreatment data is essential to determine long-term effects of forest management on amphibians and reptiles. We present pre-treatment amphibian and reptile capture data from April 2005 to May 2006 for a long-term study on herpetofaunal response to prescribed burning and tree thinning in the William B. Bankhead National Forest, AL, United States....

  14. Influence of pre-treatment on enzymatic degumming of apocynum venetum bast fibers in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment of apocynum venetum bast fibers in supercritical carbon dioxide can improve the efficiency of enzymatic degumming of apocynum venetum bast fiber. This paper studies experimentally effect of pressure and degumming time on degradation rate, the results can be used for optimal design of degumming.

  15. Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, My; Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact...

  16. Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Aravinthan, Vasantha; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    The application of pulsed mode ultrasound (PMU) as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation was investigated at various alum dosages and pH levels. The effects of the treatments on turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and residual Al were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the operating conditions of the applied treatments. The results showed that PMU pre-treatment increased turbidity and DOC removal percentages from maximum of 96.6% and 43% to 98.8% and 52%, respectively. It also helped decrease the minimum residual Al from 0.100 to 0.094 ppm. The multiple response optimization was carried out using the desirability function. A desirability value of >0.97 estimated respective turbidity removal, DOC removal and Al residual of 89.24%, 45.66% and ∼ 0.1 ppm for coagulation (control) and 90.61%, >55% and ∼ 0 for coagulation preceded by PMU. These figures were validated via confirmatory experiments. PMU pre-treatment increased total coliform removal from 80% to >98% and decreased trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 250 to 200 ppb CH3Cl. Additionally, PMU application prior to coagulation improved the settleability of sludge due to the degassing effects. The results of this study confirms that PMU pre-treatment can significantly improve coagulation performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On the changing electrochemical behaviour of boron-doped diamond surfaces with time after cathodic pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R.; Andrade, Leonardo S.; Nascente, Pedro A.P.; Pizani, Paulo S.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Avaca, Luis A.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical response of the Fe(CN) 6 4-/3- redox couple on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes immediately after a cathodic pre-treatment and as a function of time exposed to atmospheric conditions is reported here. After this pre-treatment the electrode exhibits a changing electrochemical behaviour, i.e., a loss of the reversibility for the Fe(CN) 6 4-/3- redox couple as a function of time. Raman spectra showed that neither important bulk structural differences nor significant changes in the sp 2 /sp 3 content are introduced into the BDD film by the cathodic pre-treatment indicating that H-terminated sites play an important role in the electrochemical response of the electrodes. Thus, the changing behaviour reflected by a progressive decrease of the electron transfer rate with time must be associated to a loss of superficial hydrogen due to oxidation by oxygen from the air, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Moreover, it was also found that this changing electrochemical behaviour is inversely proportional to the doping level, suggesting that the boron content has a stabilizing effect on the H-terminated surface. These results point out the necessity of doing the cathodic pre-treatment just before the electrochemical experiments are carried out in order to ensure reliable and reproducible results

  18. Fungicidal Effects of Plasma and Radio-Wave Pre-treatments on Seeds of Grain Crops and Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Irina; Azharonok, Viktor; Shik, Alexander; Antoniuk, Alexandra; Terletskaya, Natalia

    An influence of RF plasma and RF electromagnetic field pre-treatments on level of fungal infection of some important agricultural plants has been studied. It is shown that pre-sowing plasma and radio-wave seeds treatments contribute to their germination enhancement and plant productivity improvement owing to stimulative and fungicidal effect of plasma and RF electromagnetic field irradiation.

  19. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  20. Post-traumatic headache: is it for real? Crossfire debates on headache: pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Mark; Keidel, Matthias; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is very common in Western societies, affecting approximately 1.8 million individuals in the USA. Even though between 30% and 90% of patients develop post-traumatic headache, post-traumatic headache remains a very controversial disorder. Particularly when it comes to chronic post-traumatic headache following mild closed head injury and headache attributed to whiplash injury. Some experts are disputing its existence as a genuine disorder. Indistinct disease classification, unresolved pathophysiological mechanism, and the role of accident-related legal issues further fuel this controversy. The complex combination of pain and neuropsychological symptoms needs further research in understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the acute headache following trauma but more so the mechanisms associated with the development of chronic pain in some patients. Investigators should refrain from oversimplifying these complex mechanisms as hysteric exaggeration of everyday complains and from implying greed as motivation for this potentially very disabling disease.

  1. The linear trend of headache prevalence and some headache features in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Buğdayci, Resul; Saşmaz, Tayyar; Kaleağasi, Hakan; Kurt, Oner; Karakelle, Ali; Siva, Aksel

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the age and sex dependent linear trend of recurrent headache prevalence in schoolchildren in Mersin. A stratified sample composed of 5562 children; detailed characteristics were previously published. In this study the prevalence distribution of headache by age and sex showed a peak in the female population at the age of 11 (27.2%) with a plateau in the following years. The great stratified random sample results suggested that, in addition to socio-demographic features, detailed linear trend analysis showed headache features of children with headache have some specific characteristics dependent on age, gender and headache type. This study results can constitute a basis for the future epidemiological based studies.

  2. Guidelines for the organization of headache education in Europe: the headache school II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Valade, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    of a similar scientific standard has been developed. To be certified for CME credits, patronage, and financial support from EHF, it is highly recommended to adhere to the suggested teaching strategies. We hereby aim to promote and professionalize the education in headache disorders and endorse the educational......In order to promote education on headache disorders, European Headache Federation (EHF) in conjunction with National Headache Societies organizes educational courses meeting uniform standards according to previous published guidelines. Based on six headache summer schools' experience, an EHF......, a day-to-day program, and a multiple-choice test battery have now been outlined. It is recommended to include practical sessions with patient interviews and hands-on demonstrations of non-pharmacological treatment strategies. For countries that want a 'low cost' education program, a Video School program...

  3. The Case of the Woman Who Did Never Dare to Fly: Headache Attributed to Imbalance Between Intrasinusal and External Air Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Federico; Maggioni, Ferdinando; Zanchin, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    A new form of headache, Headache attributed to aeroplane travel (AH), has been recognized within the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 beta (ICHD-3beta). In 8 out of 85 AH cases we identified the coexistence of a headache with identical features of AH, but appearing during the rapid descent by car from a high mountain. Pain began shortly after the rapid descent from a medium altitude of 1920 m above sea level, the maximum peak of intensity developing within a few minutes. All of the patients reported the disappearance of pain within 20 minutes of the rapid descent. We recently observed a 36-year-old woman who experienced recurrent headache attacks that were constantly triggered by rapid descent from high altitude by car. Negatively shaped by this experience, the patient never dared to fly. Headache attacks sharing the same features and occurring in three distinct conditions of pressure variations (aeroplane travel, rapid altitude mountain descent, snorkelling, or scuba diving) have already been reported, although the last two only anecdotally. If confirmed by further case series, they could be gathered together in a unique heading: Headache attributed to imbalance between intrasinusal and external air pressure within the 10th chapter: Headache attributed to disorders of the homoeostasis. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  4. An individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy for tension-type headache – an experimental single-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderlund A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Söderlund,1 Helena Lagerlöf2 1Physiotherapy, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 2Fysiokliniken Västra Aros AB, Västerås, Sweden Aim: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of an individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy, based on a functional behavioral analysis (FBA, for tension-type headache (TTH. Patients and methods: A single-case study with A1-A2-B-A3 design of two patients with TTH was conducted. Outcome variables were headache frequency, headache index (mean intensity, consumption of analgesics, self-efficacy in headache management (Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale [HMSE], disability, and perceived loss of happiness for ­activities with family and friends. Results: The results showed that headache frequency and headache index decreased for one of the patients. Self-efficacy in headache management increased markedly for both patients. Conclusion: A behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy based on an FBA can be a way for physical therapists to handle patients with TTH. Future investigations should focus on large group studies with longer observation periods. Keywords: headache index, self-efficacy, loss of happiness, functional behavioral analysis

  5. Headache classification and aspects of reproductive life in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, Eliana M; Bigal, Marcelo E; Galego, Andressa R; Galdezzani, João P; Queiroz, Luiz P

    2014-01-01

    To classify headaches as a function of the menstrual cycle and to contrast aspects relating to the reproductive cycle as a function of headache type. Participants responded to a structured questionnaire consisting of 44 questions. Detailed headache information, enabling the classification of headaches, and questions relating to the menstrual cycle were obtained. The sample consisted of 422 students. Menstrual headaches were experienced by 31.8%. Migraine without aura (MO) occurred in 13.3%, migraine with aura (MA) in 7.8%, and probable migraine in 6.4%. Women with MA were significantly more likely to have reached menarche at earlier ages than women without headaches (p=0.03). Use of a hormonal contraceptive was related to the function of having MA headaches or not. Most female college students are affected by menstrual headaches. Although the vast majority experience MO, other headaches also occur. Women with MA are equally likely to receive hormonal contraceptives as others.

  6. Impact of mechanical, chemical and enzymatic pre-treatments on the methane yield from the anaerobic digestion of switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigon, Jean-Claude; Mehta, Punita; Guiot, Serge R.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of cellulosic crops into biofuels, including methane, is receiving a lot of attention lately. Panicum vergatum, or switchgrass, is a warm season perennial grass well adapted to grow in North America. Different pre-treatments were tested in 0.5 l batch reactors, at 35 °C, in order to enhance the methane production from switchgrass, including temperature, sonication, alkalinization and autoclaving. The methane production on the basis of volatile solids (VS) added to the fermentation were 112.4 ± 8.4, 132.5 ± 9.7 and 139.8 ml g −1 after 38 days of incubation for winter harvested switchgrass (WHS) after grinding, grinding with alkalinization, and grinding with alkalinization and autoclaving, respectively. The methane production was higher for fresh summer harvested switchgrass (SHS), with a production of 256.6 ± 8.2 ml g −1 VS after mulching, alkalinization and autoclaving. The methane production from SHS was improved by 29 and 42% when applying lignin (LiP) or manganese peroxidase (MnP), at 202.1 ± 9.8 and 222.9 ± 22.5 ml g −1 VS, respectively. The combination of an alkali pre-treatment with the MnP increased the methane production furthermore at 297.7 ml g −1 VS. The use of pectinases without chemical pre-treatment showed promising yields at 287.4 and 239.5 ml g −1 VS for pectate-lyase and poly-galacturonase, respectively. An estimation of the methane yield per hectare of crop harvested resulted in net energy production of 29.8, 49.7 and 78.1 GJ for winter harvested switchgrass, mulched and pretreated summer harvested switchgrass, respectively. Switchgrass represents an interesting candidate as a lignocellulosic crop for methane production. -- Highlights: ► Switchgrass is a model energy crops for biofuels production. ► This study evaluated different pre-treatments to enhance methane production. ► Pre-treatments increase significantly the methane produced from switchgrass. ► Enzymatic pre-treatments were superior to physical and

  7. The effect of thermal pre-treatment of titanium hydride (TiH2) powder in argon condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciska P., L.; Erryani, Aprilia; Annur, Dhyah; Kartika, Ika

    2018-04-01

    Titanium hydride (TiH2) powders are used to enhance the foaming process in the formation of a highly porous metallic material with a cellular structure. But, the low temperature of hydrogen release is one of its problems. The present study, different thermal pre-treatment temperatures were employed to investigate the decomposition behavior of TiH2 to retard or delay a hydrogen gas release process during foaming. As a foaming agent, TiH2 was subjected to various heat treatments prior at 450 and 500°C during 2 hours in argon condition. To study the formation mechanism, the thermal behavior of titanium hydride and hydrogen release are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The morphology of pre-treated titanium hydride powders were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) while unsure mapping and elemental composition of the pre-treated powders processed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). To study the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). In accordance with the results, an increase in pre-treatment temperature of TiH2 to higher degrees are changing the process of releasing hydrogen from titanium hydride powder. DTA/TGA results showed that thermal pre-treatment TiH2 at 450°C, released the hydrogen gas at 560°C in heat treatment when foaming process. Meanwhile, thermal pre-treatment in TiH2 at 500°C, released the hydrogen gas at 670°C when foaming process. There is plenty of direct evidence for the existence of oxide layers that showed by EDS analysis obtained in SEM. As oxygen is a light element and qualitative proof shows that the higher pre-treatment temperature produces more and thicker oxygen layers on the surface of the TiH2 powder particles. It might the thickness of oxide layer are different from different pre-treatment temperatures, which leading to the differences in the decomposition temperature. But from SEM result that oxidation of the powder does not

  8. Diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; List, Thomas; Anderson, Gary; Jensen, Rigmor; John, Mike T; Nixdorf, Donald; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Kang, Wenjun; Truelove, Ed; Clavel, Al; Fricton, James; Look, John

    2012-07-01

    We assessed and compared the diagnostic accuracy of two sets of diagnostic criteria for headache secondary to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In 373 headache subjects with TMD, a TMD headache reference standard was defined as: self-reported temple headache, consensus diagnosis of painful TMD and replication of the temple headache using TMD-based provocation tests. Revised diagnostic criteria for Headache attributed to TMD were selected using the RPART (recursive partitioning and regression trees) procedure, and refined in half of the data set. Using the remaining half of the data, the diagnostic accuracy of the revised criteria was compared to that of the International Headache Society's International Classification of Headache Diseases (ICHD)-II criteria A to C for Headache or facial pain attributed to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Relative to the TMD headache reference standard, ICHD-II criteria showed sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 33%. The revised criteria for Headache attributed to TMD had sensitivity of 89% with improved specificity of 87% (p headache that is changed with jaw movement, function or parafunction and (2) provocation of that headache by temporalis muscle palpation or jaw movement. Having significantly better specificity than the ICHD-II criteria A to C, the revised criteria are recommended to diagnose headache secondary to TMD.

  9. Treatment of tension-type headache: from old myths to modern concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti, P; Egeo, G; Aurilia, C; Fofi, L

    2014-05-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the second most common human disease, accounting for intense disability, high costs and numerous workdays lost. Tension-type headache is less simple and easy-to-treat than commonly thought. Antidepressants, despite their poor tolerability, are still the first-choice drugs for preventing TTH. The most widely studied non-pharmacological approach to TTH, cognitive-behavioral techniques, effectively relieve pain only in selected patients. The most frequently used and recommended treatments for acute TTH, NSAIDs and paracetamol have scarce efficacy as documented by their low therapeutic gain over placebo in the 2-h pain-free response. Their effectiveness may be increased by a more proper use and by the adjunction of caffeine, antiemetics, myorelaxants or tranquillizers but the risk of medication-overuse headache must be considered. Hence, the need for more effective and tailored treatments in TTH remains.

  10. Outpatient Combined Group and Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Patients With Migraine and Tension-Type Headache in a Routine Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Sandra; Jürgens, Tim P; Klinger, Regine

    2015-09-01

    To test the long-term clinical effectiveness (follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months) of an outpatient combined group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for headache patients following standard medical care. A decrease in headache intensity, frequency, headache-specific impairment, depression, and change of pain-related cognitions was expected. The efficacy of CBT for primary headaches has been confirmed in research, yet the translation into clinical practice has remained untested thus far. In this single-group outcome study, 87 headache patients diagnosed with migraine and/or tension-type headache received (1) headache-specific medication for 10 weeks and (2) a subsequent CBT treatment made up of 13 individual and 12 group sessions consisting of psychoeducation, progressive muscle relaxation, coping strategies for pain and stress, and goal setting skills. Booster group sessions after 3 and 6 months were implemented to stimulate individual goal attainment, and follow-up measures were recorded up to 12 months. A significant decrease was found for all primary and secondary outcome criteria, ie, average headache intensity (prae M: 6.0, standard deviation [SD]: 1.5 vs follow-up [FU] 1 year M: 5.1, SD: 1.9), headache frequency (prae M: 16.0, SD: 9.5 vs FU 1 year M: 13.4, SD: 9.9), and catastrophizing (prae M: 3.4, SD: 1.0 vs FU 1 year M: 2.6, SD: 1.1). Coping strategies were increased (prae M: 3.4, SD: .9 vs FU 1 year M: 4.0, SD: 1.0). CBT treatment is a useful component within a routine clinical setting and can improve standard medical care thereby helping patients in managing their headache pain. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  11. Management of headache disorders in the Emergency Department setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, Elisa; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Gipponi, Stefano; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Liberini, Paolo; Rao, Renata; Padovani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Headache is a common presenting complaint in the Emergency Department. The aim of this study was to delineate the demographic profile of patients presenting a chief complaint of headache and to assess the application of diagnostic algorithms for the management of these patients. We examined patients admitted to the Spedali Civili Hospital ED between January 2005 and December 2009 who complained of headache not related to trauma and all patients hospitalized for headache in Neurological Clinic, from ED, between January 2008 and December 2009. 7495 patients were examined at ED for headaches. 72 % of patients were discharged, 22 % were admitted. From 2005 to 2009, there was a definite decrease in the rate of hospitalization due to headache (15 vs 9.9 % in Department of Neurology and 26 vs 18.9 % in all Departments). Considering the decrease year by year, this reduction was significant from 2007 to 2008, when the algorithms were adopted. The most common diagnosis in the ED was "Non-specific headache" (41 %), followed by "Primary headaches and complications of primary headaches" (20.8 %), "Secondary headaches not associated with risk of serious disease" (20.4 %) and "Secondary headache associated with risk of serious disease" (5 %). Over 2-year period (2008-2009) we found an increase in the diagnosis of "Primary headaches and complications of primary headaches" and "Secondary headaches associated with risk of serious disease" compared with a decrease of "nonspecific headache" and "secondary headaches not associated with risk of serious disease". The use of the diagnostic algorithms and collaborative network between the ED and the Headache Center can improve the management of patients with headache in ED.

  12. The role of fear of pain in headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anna Katherine; Fulwiler, Joshua C; Smitherman, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent headache sufferers are often fearful of pain, which disrupts thought processes, interferes with daily activities, and may maintain headache-related disability through avoidance and associated negative reinforcement. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to (1) examine differences in fear of pain (FOP) between headache sufferers and non-headache controls; (2) examine differences in FOP across primary headache diagnostic groups; (3) assess the extent to which FOP predicts headache variables (eg., severity, frequency, disability); and (4) determine whether FOP mediates the relationship between pain severity and headache-related disability. The sample consisted of 908 young adults (M age = 19.5 years; 64.9% female). Of those, 237 (26.1%) met the diagnostic criteria for episodic tension-type headache (TTH), 232 (25.6%) for episodic migraine (167 [18.4%] without aura and 65 [7.2%] with aura), 38 (4.2%) for chronic migraine, and 19 (2.1%) for chronic TTH; 382 (42.1%) served as non-headache controls. FOP differed among groups, with headache sufferers reporting greater FOP than those without headache; migraineurs typically endorsed greater FOP than those with TTH. Among those with headache, FOP significantly predicted headache severity (R(2)  = 6.1%) and frequency (R(2)  = 4.5%), and accounted for more variance in disability (R(2)  = 17.5%) than gender, anxiety, and depression combined (13.8%). Pain severity and disability were strongly associated (r = 0.61, P headache and plays a significant role in primary headache, particularly in headache-related disability. Findings build upon and extend those from previous chronic pain studies and highlight the need for longitudinal and experimental studies to further explore this construct in headache. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  13. Drivers of microbial community composition in mesophilic and thermophilic temperature-phased anaerobic digestion pre-treatment reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Hasina M; Dennis, Paul G; Lim, Hui J; Tyson, Gene W; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) is an emerging technology that facilitates improved performance and pathogen destruction in anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by optimising conditions for 1) hydrolytic and acidogenic organisms in a first-stage/pre-treatment reactor and then 2) methogenic populations in a second stage reactor. Pre-treatment reactors are typically operated at 55-65 °C and as such select for thermophilic bacterial communities. However, details of key microbial populations in hydrolytic communities and links to functionality are very limited. In this study, experimental thermophilic pre-treatment (TP) and control mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) reactors were operated as first-stages of TPAD systems treating activated sludge for 340 days. The TP system was operated sequentially at 50, 60 and 65 °C, while the MP rector was held at 35 °C for the entire period. The composition of microbial communities associated with the MP and TP pre-treatment reactors was characterised weekly using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) supported by clone library sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The outcomes of this approach were confirmed using 454 pyrosequencing of gene amplicons and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). TP associated bacterial communities were dominated by populations affiliated to the Firmicutes, Thermotogae, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. In particular there was a progression from Thermotogae to Lutispora and Coprothermobacter and diversity decreased as temperature and hydrolysis performance increased. While change in the composition of TP associated bacterial communities was attributable to temperature, that of MP associated bacterial communities was related to the composition of the incoming feed. This study determined processes driving the dynamics of key microbial populations that are correlated with an enhanced hydrolytic functionality of the TPAD system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  15. Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jan; May, Arne

    2018-01-01

    Cluster headache is a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia characterised by extremely painful, strictly unilateral, short-lasting headache attacks accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic symptoms or the sense of restlessness and agitation, or both. The severity of the disorder has major effects on the patient's quality of life and, in some cases, might lead to suicidal ideation. Cluster headache is now thought to involve a synchronised abnormal activity in the hypothalamus, the trigeminovascular system, and the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamus appears to play a fundamental role in the generation of a permissive state that allows the initiation of an episode, whereas the attacks are likely to require the involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Triptans are the most effective drugs to treat an acute cluster headache attack. Monoclonal antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide, a crucial neurotransmitter of the trigeminal system, are under investigation for the preventive treatment of cluster headache. These studies will increase our understanding of the disorder and perhaps reveal other therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BIOFEEDBACK TRAINING AND TENSION-TYPE HEADACHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šecić, Ana; Cvjeticanin, Timon; Kes, Vanja Bašić

    2016-03-01

    Biofeedback is a training method, which connects physiological and psychological processes in a person for the purposes of improving his/her physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health. In biofeedback treatment, an active role of the patient is stressed for him/her to be able to actively control the physiological and emotional processes. The aim of biofeedback is to improve the conscious control of the individual's involuntary physiological activity. Research has shown that biofeedback, either applied alone or in combination with other behavioral therapies (techniques), is an effective treatment for various medical and psychological disorders, from headache and hypertension to temporomandibular and attention deficit disorders. More than 90% of adults experience headache once a year, which makes headache one of the most common symptoms and diagnoses in medicine. Tension-type headaches occur in at least 40% of the population and their impact on the health insurance costs and diminished productivity is significant. Studies have shown that clinical biofeedback training is effective in treating headaches. Moreover, the authors stress the need for additional research and further development of methodology for this kind of research.

  17. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert F.; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type headache (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of subjects with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache pain. Methods Fifty-six subjects with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over six weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release (TPR) massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. Headache pain (frequency, intensity and duration) was recorded in a daily headache diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in headache pain and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and sub-occipital muscles. Results From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in headache frequency (p=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated headache frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (pheadache pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (p=0.002). PPT improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all p'streatment of TTH, and 2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on headache that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention. PMID:25329141

  18. Manual therapy in adults with tension-type headache: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumplido-Trasmonte, C; Fernández-González, P; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F

    2018-03-07

    Tension-type headache is the most common primary headache, with a high prevalence and a considerable socioeconomic impact. Manual physical therapy techniques are widely used in the clinical field to treat the symptoms associated with tension-type headache. This systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of manual and non-invasive therapies in the treatment of patients with tension-type headache. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials in the following databases: Brain, PubMed, Web of Science, PEDro, Scopus, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Ten randomised controlled trials were included for analysis. According to these studies, manual therapy improves symptoms, increasing patients' well-being and improving the outcome measures analysed. Manual therapy has positive effects on pain intensity, pain frequency, disability, overall impact, quality of life, and craniocervical range of motion in adults with tension-type headache. None of the techniques was found to be superior to the others; combining different techniques seems to be the most effective approach. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Possibilities of preventive therapy in frequent episodic tension-type headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabeeva, G R; Fokina, N M

    2016-01-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of tenoten in the preventive treatment of frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETHA) compared to patients treated with pain relievers. A study included 60 patients with FETHA. Patients of the main group (n=30) received tenoten in addition to standard treatment. The study comprised 3 visits: beginning of treatment, after one month and after three months. All patients underwent physical and clinical/neurological examinations. In each visit, treatment efficacy was assessed according the following parameters: VAS scores (0-10) for assessment of pain and tension in pericranial muscles in 6 standard points, mean frequency and duration of the headache episode, quality of life indices, Beck depression scores, Spilberger trait and state anxiety, autonomic symptom severity, parameters of sleep disorders, frequency of adverse effects, CGI scores (0-7). Tenoten as a preventive medication reduced the frequency of headache episodes that allowed to diagnose patients with rare episodic tension-type headache in the end of treatment. At the same time, there was a significant reduction in headache intensity during the episode and decrease in amount of analgesics used by the patients.

  20. Pre-treatments, characteristics, and biogeochemical dynamics of dissolved organic matter in sediments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Hur, Jin

    2015-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sediments, termed here sediment DOM, plays a variety of important roles in global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients as well as in the fate and transport of xenobiotics. Here we reviewed sediment DOM, including pore waters and water extractable organic matter from inland and coastal sediments, based on recent literature (from 1996 to 2014). Sampling, pre-treatment, and characterization methods for sediment DOM were summarized. The characteristics of sediment DOM have been compared along an inland to coastal ecosystems gradient and also with the overlying DOM in water column to distinguish the unique nature of it. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from inland sediment DOM was generally higher than coastal areas, while no notable differences were found for their aromaticity and apparent molecular weight. Fluorescence index (FI) revealed that mixed sources are dominant for inland sediment DOM, but marine end-member prevails for coastal sediment DOM. Many reports showed that sediments operate as a net source of DOC and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) to the water column. Sediment DOM has shown more enrichment of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds in the elemental signature than the overlying DOM. Fluorescent fingerprint investigated by excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) further demonstrated the characteristics of sediment DOM lacking in the photo-oxidized and the intermediate components, which are typically present in the overlying surface water. In addition, the biogeochemical changes in sediment DOM and the subsequent environmental implications were discussed with the focus on the binding and the complexation properties with pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.