WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-post design utilizing

  1. Drug utilization evaluation of albumin in a teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran: an interventional pre-post design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Farzaneh; Ghazanfari, Saba; Elyasi, Sepideh; Iraji, Paria; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Nasser; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2017-08-01

    Background Albumin is a protein colloidal solution with limited availability and high cost. It should be used in such approved indications as paracentesis, extensive burn, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and nephrotic syndrome. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the appropriateness of albumin usage before and after an evidence-based guideline. Setting Four wards of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Method An interventional pre-post design study was performed on 2 groups of patients; in gGroup 1 as a preparation phase group in 6 months from February 2015 to July 2015 and Group 2 as an interventional group from September 2015 to February 2016. A guideline for proper indications of albumin, designed and finalized based on the physicians' comments, was implemented in Group 2. Main outcome measure The pattern of albumin consumption. Results Fifty patients were evaluated in each group. The implementation of the guideline resulted in reduction of improper albumin use from 62 to 57.5%, which was not statistically significant; however., it reduced inappropriate dose and duration of albumin therapy (55.5-16.7%), the number of consumed albumin vial, and the average cost for each patient (317.78 ± 3.15-149.81 ± 1.91 USD) significantly, as well. Conclusion This study illustrated that in this hospital in most cases, albumin was used inappropriately and at an alarming rate. This improved after the introduction of an evidence-based guideline. Moreover, guideline implementation resulted in significant cost reduction.

  2. Effects of Mental Health Parity on High Utilizers of Services: Pre-Post Evidence From a Large, Self-Insured Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Eisenberg, Daniel; Jedele, Jenefer M; Smiley, Mary L

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated utilization of mental health and substance use services among enrollees at a large employee health plan following changes to benefit limits after passage in 2008 of federal mental health parity legislation. This study used a pre-post design. Benefits and claims data for 43,855 enrollees in the health plan in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed for utilization and costs after removal of a 30-visit cap on the number of covered mental health visits. There was a large increase in the proportion of health plan enrollees with more than 30 outpatient visits after the cap's removal, an increase of 255% among subscribers and 176% among dependents (pbenefit limit.

  3. Effects of newly designed hospital buildings on staff perceptions : a pre-post study to validate design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.J.A.; Heel, L. van; Goedhart, R.; Dusseldorp, E.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Burdorf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates effects of the newly built nonpatient-related buildings of a large university medical center on staff perceptions and whether the design objectives were achieved. Background: The medical center is gradually renewing its hospital building area of 200,000 m.(2) This

  4. Does the 'Teddy Bear Hospital' enhance preschool children's knowledge? A pilot study with a pre/post-case control design in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Margraf-Stiksrud, Jutta; Badners, Larissa; Szerencsi, Andrea; Maier, Rolf F

    2014-10-01

    The 'Teddy Bear Hospital' is a medical students' project, which has been increasingly established in many countries. To evaluate this concept, we examined the effects of a German Teddy Bear Hospital on children's knowledge relating to their body, health and disease. Using a quasi-experimental pre/post design, we examined 131 preschool children from 14 German kindergartens with pictorial interview-based scales. The analysis of covariance revealed that the children who visited the Teddy Bear Hospital had a significantly better knowledge concerning their body, health and disease than the children from the control group. This German Teddy Bear Hospital is a good health education vehicle for preschool children. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Three-Year Pre-Post Analysis of EBP Integration in a Magnet-Designated Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joan Insalaco; Montgomery, Kathryn Lothschuetz; Friedmann, Erika

    2016-02-01

    Adoption of evidence-based practices (EBP) by registered nurses (RNs) and nurse leaders continues to be a challenge. Although multiple strategies and substantial resources are being invested to advance nursing practice based on evidence, little is known about the long-term impact of these interventions. This study was undertaken to assess nurse leaders' and clinical RNs' beliefs to use EBP, perceptions about organizational readiness for EBP, and frequency of implementing EBP following implementation of multifaceted interventions to achieve and maintain Magnet designation. This retrospective descriptive study compared data from two previously administered online surveys (2008 and 2012) at a mid-Atlantic Magnet-designated community hospital. Clinical RNs' self-reported attitudes toward EBP were more positive (2008: M = 53.85, standard error of the mean [SEM] = 0.65; 2012: M = 57.07,SEM = 0.58), as well as their perceptions of organizational readiness (2008: M = 50.72, SEM = 1.20; 2012: M = 81.09, SEM = 0.98), between the two survey years. Contrarily, although nurse leader scores were significantly higher for beliefs (2008: M = 61.15, SEM = 1.23; 2012: M = 60.60., SEM = 0.96), readiness (2008: M = 61.28, SEM = 2.16; 2012: M = 85.18, SEM = 1.64), and implementation (2008: M = 21.35, SEM = 1.72; 2012: M = 19.08, SEM = 1.43) little change was observed in the nurse leader scores between the two survey years compared with clinical RNs. Results from this study suggest that the multifaceted interventions have had a positive impact on clinical RNs' beliefs and readiness for EBP, but not for nurse leaders. Albeit low, self-reported implementation of EBP by RNs and nurse leaders has been sustained, but has not improved. Leaders must see their role as not only facilitators of EBP but also as active participants practicing EBP. Actively engaging leaders in EBP by serving on interprofessional EBP teams and role modeling these behaviors to staff is critical to EBP implementation

  6. Effects of Unit Design on Acute Care Nurses' Walking Distances, Energy Expenditure, and Job Satisfaction: A Pre-Post Relocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Darcy; Chambers, Misty

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what differences occurred in steps taken and energy expenditure among acute care nurses when their work environment moved from a hospital with centralized nurses' stations to a hospital with decentralized nurses' stations. Additional goals were to determine design features nurses perceived as contributing to or deterring from their work activities and what changes occurred in reported job satisfaction. Since design features can also affect patient outcomes, patient falls were monitored. The construction of a replacement facility for a 224-bed Level 1 trauma center provided the opportunity to compare the effects of centralized versus decentralized nurses' stations on nurses' experiences of their work environments. A pre-post quasi-experimental design was used. RN participants completed an open-ended questionnaire and recorded pedometer data at the end of each shift, working for 3-month pre-relocation and for 3-month post-relocation. Nine months passed between the move and post-relocation data collection. There were significant reductions in nurses' energy expenditure ( p job satisfaction was high and improved post-relocation, and patient falls decreased by 55%. Post-relocation, a number of the dissatisfiers associated with the physical environment were eliminated, and nurses identified more satisfiers (in general and related to the physical environment). Patients are safer post-relocation as indicated by a decrease in falls. This decrease is even more noteworthy when considering that the numbers of patient beds on each unit is higher post-relocation.

  7. Physiotherapy treatment of the diabetic shoulder: a longitudinal study following patients with diabetes and shoulder pain using a pre-post treatment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyhlbäck, Maria; Schröder Winter, Helena; Thierfelder, Tomas; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate a physiotherapy program targeted to reduce pain intensity and improve the daily functioning of diabetics with shoulder problems. It was hypothesized that patients receiving specific physiotherapy treatment improved more frequently and rapidly than diabetic patients followed up without specific physiotherapeutic intervention. A pre-post treatment design was completed for a group of 10 subjects. The treatment protocol, also applied during the daily activities of the subjects, was aiming at reducing pain intensity and shoulder stiffness and improving impaired functioning in daily activities by muscle relaxation, light-load exercise and enhancing proper shoulder co-ordination. The group analysis showed significant decrease of pain intensity level as well as improved shoulder functioning and sustained level of subject self-efficacy beliefs throughout the study period. The results suggest that it is possible to relieve shoulder pain intensity and improve daily activities of patients with diabetes-related shoulder problems by employing a physiotherapy program focusing on muscle relaxation, light-load exercise and on the enhancement of proper shoulder co-ordination in daily activities. A physiotherapy program can be effective in reducing pain and improving shoulder function in diabetics with shoulder problems. The treatment should focus on muscle relaxation, light-load exercise and on the enhancement of proper shoulder co-ordination in daily activities.

  8. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA during treadmill running: Pre/post 2 treatment experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misic Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Alanine (βA has been shown to improve performance during cycling. This study was the first to examine the effects of βA supplementation on the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA during incremental treadmill running. Methods Seventeen recreationally-active men (mean ± SE 24.9 ± 4.7 yrs, 180.6 ± 8.9 cm, 79.25 ± 9.0 kg participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pre/post test 2-treatment experimental design. Subjects participated in two incremental treadmill tests before and after 28 days of supplementation with either βA (6.0 g·d-1(βA, n = 8 or an equivalent dose of Maltodextrin as the Placebo (PL, n = 9. Heart rate, percent heart rate maximum (%HRmax, %VO2max@OBLA (4.0 mmol.L-1 blood lactate concentration and VO2max (L.min-1 were determined for each treadmill test. Friedman test was used to determine within group differences; and Mann-Whitney was used to determine between group differences for pre and post values (p Results The βA group experienced a significant rightward shift in HR@OBLA beats.min-1 (p 2max@OBLA increased (p 2max (L.min-1 decreased (p Conclusions βA supplementation for 28 days enhanced sub-maximal endurance performance by delaying OBLA. However, βA supplemented individuals had a reduced aerobic capacity as evidenced by the decrease in VO2max values post supplementation.

  9. The impact of individualized interaction on the quality of life of elderly dependent on care as a result of dementia: a study with a pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Hilde M; Hoogeboom, A M G Marcella; van Niekerk, Bob; den Ouden, Marjolein E M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of a one-to-one 30-min individualized interaction per day on the behavior and quality of life of care-dependent residents with dementia. In a pre-/post-test study, 15 care-dependent residents with dementia (mean age 88.8 years, 86.7% women) were included. Resident behavior was measured using video observation and quality of life using Qualidem. Health care professionals (n = 13) and direct relatives (n = 4) were interviewed about the effect of the intervention. The effect of the intervention was analyzed using the Friedman analysis of variance. The video observation showed that maintaining eye contact, touching, responding to speaking, tracking observable stimuli and asking questions about the activity significantly increased during the intervention. These findings were supported by interviews with nurses who described experiences of making human-to-human contact with the residents. No significant overall changes were found in quality of life. These findings were partially supported by interviews with health care professionals and relatives as some perceived effects beyond the 30-min intervention. Interaction offered on a one-to-one basis tailored to individual preferences significantly improved positive interactive behavior of care-dependent residents with dementia during the intervention. Surveys revealed no significant overall effect of the intervention. The interviews indicated there might be effects beyond the intervention for some residents.

  10. Implementation of knowledge-based palliative care in nursing homes and pre-post post evaluation by cross-over design: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Gerd; Nilsen, Per; Benzein, Eva; Behm, Lina; Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Persson, Magnus; Sandgren, Anna

    2018-03-22

    The demography of the world is changing as the population is ageing. Because of this change to a higher proportion of older people, the WHO has called for improved palliative care for older persons. A large number of all deaths in the industrialised world occur while older people are living in nursing homes and therefore a key question becomes how the principles of palliative care can be implemented in that context. The aims of this study are: a) to describe a model of an educational intervention with the goal of implementing knowledge-based palliative care in nursing homes, and b) to describe the design of the evaluation of the effectiveness regarding the implementation of knowledge-based palliative care. A complex intervention is evaluated by means of a cross-over design. An educational intervention concerning palliative care consisting of five seminars during 6 months for staff and managers has been developed and conducted in 20 nursing homes in two counties. Before the intervention started, the feasibility was tested in a pilot study conducted in nursing homes not included in the main study. The intervention is evaluated through a non-randomized experimental design with intervention and control groups and pre- and post-assessments. The evaluation includes older persons living in nursing homes, next-of-kin, staff and managers. Data collection consists of quantitative methods such as questionnaires and register data and qualitative methods in the form of individual interviews, focus-group interviews and participant observations. The research will contribute to new knowledge about how to implement knowledge-based palliative care in a nursing home setting. A strength of this project is that the Medical Research Council framework of complex intervention is applied. The four recommended stages, Development, Feasibility and piloting, Evaluation and Implementation, are combined for the educational intervention, which functions as a strategy to achieve knowledge

  11. An evaluation of the telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular care in remote Australian Indigenous communities: - protocol for the telehealth eye and associated medical services network [TEAMSnet] project, a pre-post study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, Laima; Jenkins, Alicia; Keech, Anthony; Ryan, Chris; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2017-01-05

    Despite substantial investment in detection, early intervention and evidence-based treatments, current management strategies for diabetes-associated retinopathy and cardiovascular disease are largely based on real-time and face-to-face approaches. There are limited data re telehealth facilitation in type 2 diabetes management. Therefore, we aim to investigate efficacy of telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease care in high-risk vulnerable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in remote/very remote Australia. Using a pre-post intervention design, 600 Indigenous Australians with type 2 diabetes will be recruited from three primary-care health-services in the Northern Territory. Diabetes status will be based on clinical records. There will be four technological interventions: 1. Baseline retinal imaging [as a real-time patient education/engagement tool and telehealth screening strategy]. 2. A lifestyle survey tool administered at ≈ 6-months. 3. At ≈ 6- and 18-months, an electronic cardiovascular disease and diabetes decision-support tool based on current guidelines in the Standard Treatment Manual of the Central Australian Rural Practitioner's Association to generate clinical recommendations. 4. Mobile tablet technology developed to enhance participant engagement in self-management. Data will include: Pre-intervention clinical and encounter-history data, baseline retinopathy status, decision-support and survey data/opportunistic mobile tablet encounter data. The primary outcome is increased participant adherence to clinical appointments, a marker of engagement and self-management. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed. Remoteness is a major barrier to provision and uptake of best-practice chronic disease management. Telehealth, beyond videoconferencing of consultations, could facilitate evidence-based management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indigenous Australians and serve as a model for other conditions. Australia

  12. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peglow, S. G.; Molitoris, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  13. Utility impact on STARFIRE design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreece, D.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Woklenhauer, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A primary objective of STARFIRE has been to design a tokamak fusion power plant that was attractive to the utilities. To achieve this goal, several utility representatives were directly involved in the decision-making processes as the design evolved. An initial step was to establish the relative importance to the utilities for an extensive list of economic, performance, safety and environmental issues. The top twenty issues were ranked. Cost of electricity was clearly most important with very little spread in the ratings of individual evaluators. Licensing is a go/no-go factor and must be accomplished for the other factors to have meaning. The top nine factors were judged to be very important by all evaluators, as was shown by the spread of ratings from 5 to 10. There is considerably more spread in the bottom eleven, which reflects a lack of consensus as to the relative importance of the evaluation factors. This evaluation was utilized in establishing the initial design concept

  14. Plant design and beam utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Plant design and beam utilization are two things closely tied together: without a proper plant design, one can never get good beam utilization. When a company decides to build an irradiation facility, there are some major decisions to be made right in the beginning. These decisions can be most important for the long-term success or failure of the irradiation facility, because the company normally will have to live with these decisions during the whole life-time of the irradiation equipment. To start with the decision has to be made whether to select a cobalt-60 irradiation plant or an accelerator irradiation plant. This decision can only be reached after a careful study of the products and the 'weight' and the material of the products the company wants to irradiate. As an old accelerator-man, I tend to personally favor accelerators, although I am very impressed by the newer cobalt-60 pallet irradiation plants from A.E.C.L. I believe that they have a great future in the emerging field of food irradiation. As I have primarily been involved with accelerators during the last 14 years, this paper is only dealing with different design approaches and utilizations of accelerator-plants. (author)

  15. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  16. Analysis of stress intensity factors for surface cracks in pre/post penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Toshiro; Yoshida, Yuichiro

    1988-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the penetration of surface cracks in a Leak-Before-Break analysis. Because the stress intensity factors for surface cracks in pre/post penetration had not yet been analyzed, the authors carried three-dimensional boundary element analyses in order to obtain them. First, the authors developed the technique of nodal breakdown appropriate for cracks with short ligament length in a two-dimensional boundary element analysis. Next, analyses of stress intensity factor for surface cracks in pre/post penetration were carried out using the technique of nodal breakdown for cracks with short ligament length and the three-dimensional boundary element code BEM 3 D which was designed for a supercomputer. (author)

  17. Utilizing the Design Charrette for Teaching Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jason B.; Seymour, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the design charrette as a method for teaching sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a student-based design charrette for the Mississippi Gulf Coast comprising a framework for teaching sustainability. An assessment of the charrette's role in promoting sustainability in higher…

  18. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  19. Utility guidance to advanced LWR designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the process envisioned for the development of advanced reactors for future use by the utility industry. The role of the potential utility customer is gradually evolving from that of an owner-operator of such plants to that of a sponsor-participant in the actual design process. The author discusses development of a set of utility requirements, intended to describe in detail utility needs and expectations relative to the performance of future reactors. The reactor vendors, who participated actively in the preparation of the requirements documents, pledged to make every effort to meet them in their future designs. At that stage, when the requirements have been finalized and agreed to by all parties involved, including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the utilities were expected to move to the sidelines and wait for the reactor vendors to come up with the product

  20. CONCRETE SUPPORT DESIGN FOR MISCELLANEOUS ESF UTILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiak, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to design concrete supports for the miscellaneous utility equipment used at the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Two utility systems are analyzed: (1) the surface collection tanks of the Waste Water System, and (2) the chemical tracer mixing and storage tanks of the Non-Potable Water System. This analysis satisfies design recommended in the Title III Evaluation Reports for the Subsurface Fire Water System and Subsurface Portion of the Non-Potable Water System (CRWMS M andO 1998a) and Waste Water Systems (CRWMS M andO 1998b)

  1. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  2. Design, engineering and utility of biotic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H; Chung, Alice M; Dura, Burak; Hamilton, Andrea L; Lee, Byung C

    2011-01-07

    Games are a significant and defining part of human culture, and their utility beyond pure entertainment has been demonstrated with so-called 'serious games'. Biotechnology--despite its recent advancements--has had no impact on gaming yet. Here we propose the concept of 'biotic games', i.e., games that operate on biological processes. Utilizing a variety of biological processes we designed and tested a collection of games: 'Enlightenment', 'Ciliaball', 'PAC-mecium', 'Microbash', 'Biotic Pinball', 'POND PONG', 'PolymerRace', and 'The Prisoner's Smellemma'. We found that biotic games exhibit unique features compared to existing game modalities, such as utilizing biological noise, providing a real-life experience rather than virtual reality, and integrating the chemical senses into play. Analogous to video games, biotic games could have significant conceptual and cost-reducing effects on biotechnology and eventually healthcare; enable volunteers to participate in crowd-sourcing to support medical research; and educate society at large to support personal medical decisions and the public discourse on bio-related issues.

  3. The pre, post brachytherapy and postoperative CEA serum concentration of 53 rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Danh; Nguyen Kim Luu; Phan Van Dan

    2008-01-01

    CEA serum concentration level of 53 rectal cancer patients was measured at moments pre, post brachytherapy (45 Gy), post surgery one week, 6 months and 12 months. Response to radiation with reduce CEA serum concentration was achieved in 20/53 patients (37,7%), mainly at staging Dukes B, C. Postoperative CEA level of patients significantly decreased, especially in resection group. (author)

  4. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  5. Programmable electronic system design & verification utilizing DFM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtermans, M.J.M.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Brombacher, A.C.; Karydas, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DIM) during the design and verification of programmable electronic safety-related systems. The safety system consists of hardware as well as software. This paper explains and demonstrates the use of DIM to

  6. Effectiveness of training to promote routine enquiry for domestic violence by midwives and nurses: A pre-post evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen M; Saito, Amornrat S; Eustace, Jennifer; Creedy, Debra K

    2017-11-01

    Asking women about experiences of domestic violence in the perinatal period is accepted best practice. However, midwives and nurses may be reluctant to engage with, or effectively respond to disclosures of domestic violence due a lack of knowledge and skills. To evaluate the impact of training on knowledge and preparedness of midwives and nurses to conduct routine enquiry about domestic violence with women during the perinatal period. A pre-post intervention design was used. Midwives and nurses (n=154) attended a full day workshop. Of these, 149 completed pre-post workshop measures of knowledge and preparedness. Additional questions at post-training explored participants' perceptions of organisational barriers to routine enquiry, as well as anticipated impact of training on their practice. Training occurred between July 2015 and October 2016. Using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, all post intervention scores were significantly higher than pre intervention scores. Knowledge scores increased from a pre-training mean of 21.5-25.6 (Z=-9.56, pworkplace allowed adequate time to respond to disclosures of DV. Brief training can improve knowledge, preparedness, and confidence of midwives and nurses to conduct routine enquiry and support women during the perinatal period. Training can assist midwives and nurses to recognise signs of DV, ask women about what would be helpful to them, and address perceived organisational barriers to routine enquiry. Practice guidelines and clear referral pathways following DV disclosure need to be implemented to support gains made through training. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personalized Hypertension Management Using Patient-Generated Health Data Integrated With Electronic Health Records (EMPOWER-H): Six-Month Pre-Post Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Simmons, Martha L; Rosas, Lisa G; Chan, Albert; Entwistle, Martin

    2017-09-19

    EMPOWER-H (Engaging and Motivating Patients Online With Enhanced Resources-Hypertension) is a personalized-care model facilitating engagement in hypertension self-management utilizing an interactive Web-based disease management system integrated with the electronic health record. The model is designed to support timely patient-provider interaction by incorporating decision support technology to individualize care and provide personalized feedback for patients with chronic disease. Central to this process were patient-generated health data, including blood pressure (BP), weight, and lifestyle behaviors, which were uploaded using a smartphone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the program among patients within primary care already under management for hypertension and with uncontrolled BP. Using a 6-month pre-post design, outcome measures included office-measured and home-monitored BP, office-measured weight, intervention contacts, diet, physical activity, smoking, knowledge, and health-related quality of life. At 6 months, 55.9% of participants (N=149) achieved office BP goals (total intervention, behavioral, pharmaceutical contacts had significantly lower odds of achieving home BP goals but higher improvements in office BP (all Pmanagement. The experience gained in this study provides support for the feasibility and value of using carefully managed patient-generated health data in the day-to-day clinical management of patients with chronic conditions. A large-scale, real-world study to evaluate sustained effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and scalability is warranted. ©Nan Lv, Lan Xiao, Martha L Simmons, Lisa G Rosas, Albert Chan, Martin Entwistle. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 19.09.2017.

  8. The conceptual design and economic evaluation of utility scale SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports the result of current Japanese activities in designing and evaluating the economic feasibility of utility Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The 5 GWh/1 GW is proposed as a relevant unit of SMES in the year 2000. More than 20 companies, several universities and two national laboratories joined in a task force to study this technology. After three year's assessment, the conclusion on utility scale SMES is that no unresolvable technologies have been found and commercialization potential exists

  9. Utilities pull together to design latest storm management software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman, T.; Ritchie, I.

    2003-04-01

    Development of Outage Mitigation and Recovery software by the Electric Power Research Institute with the support of cooperating electric utilities is discussed. The software is designed to aid utilities in their resource allocation and mutual assistance activities during recovery from major outages cause by natural or man-made disasters. The software is designed to operate in conjunction with major commercial outage systems, to add significant new functionality not available in existing systems. The new software module, called emPower, was actually developed by LeT Systems, a world leader in the design, development and deployment of mission critical e-business-based, real-time outage, network and workforce management solutions for the utility sector. The software is a real-time, stand-alone, web-based program built around advanced intelligence and robust algorithms, designed to interface easily and cleanly with embedded outage mitigation and recovery systems. emPower provides extensive procedural and logistical support to successfully integrate crews and equipment, and automatically assigns tasks and schedules them in accordance with defined restoration goals and priorities. emPower also tracks all activities and generates proper reports for internal and external agencies, among them utility management, police, government departments, media, medical facilities, and customers.

  10. Stimulus Competition in Pre/Post and Online Ratings in an Evaluative Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Helena M.; Lipp, Ottmar V.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluative learning is said to differ from Pavlovian associative learning in that it reflects stimulus contiguity, not contingency. Thus, evaluative learning should not be subject to stimulus competition, a proposal tested in the current experiments. Participants were presented in elemental and compound training phases with pictures of shapes as…

  11. Self-Esteem Among Potential Greek Members: A Pre-Post Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Lauren Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Mental health is an important part of college studentsâ experiences, and more administrators are paying attention to mental health issues (Cooper, 2000; Kitzrow, 2003). Self-esteem is central to mental health (Kittleson, 1989), and can be attributed to social situations, especially those that deal with rejection (Bednar, Wells, & Peterson, 1989; Caunt, 2003; Eisenberger & Lieberman, 2004; Steffenhagen & Burns, 1987). Sorority recruitment is an event that includes rejection (National Panhell...

  12. Estimating the return on investment in disease management programs using a pre-post analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald; Wennberg, David; Devries, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Disease management programs have become increasingly popular over the past 5-10 years. Recent increases in overall medical costs have precipitated new concerns about the cost-effectiveness of medical management programs that have extended to the program directors for these programs. Initial success of the disease management movement is being challenged on the grounds that reported results have been the result of the application of faulty, if intuitive, methodologies. This paper discusses the use of "pre-post" methodology approaches in the analysis of disease management programs, and areas where application of this approach can result in spurious results and incorrect financial outcome assessments. The paper includes a checklist of these items for use by operational staff working with the programs, and a comprehensive bibliography that addresses many of the issues discussed.

  13. Implementation of transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders in residential eating disorder programs: A preliminary pre-post evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boswell, James F; Espel-Huynh, Hallie; Brooks, Gayle; Lowe, Michael R

    2018-03-19

    Data are lacking from empirically supported therapies implemented in residential programs for eating disorders (EDs). Common elements treatments may be well-suited to address the complex implementation and treatment challenges that characterize these settings. This study assessed the preliminary effect of implementing a common elements therapy on clinician treatment delivery and patient (N = 616) symptom outcomes in two residential ED programs. The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders was adapted to address ED and co-occurring psychopathology and implemented across sites. Therapists' treatment fidelity was rated independently to assess implementation success. Additionally, longitudinal (pre-post) design compared treatment outcomes among patients treated before and after implementation. Patient outcomes included ED and depressive symptoms, experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness. Following training and implementation, clinicians demonstrated adequate to good fidelity. Relative to pre-implementation, post-implementation patients showed significantly greater improvements in experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness at discharge (ps ≤ .04) and more favorable outcomes on ED symptom severity, depression, and experiential avoidance at 6-month follow up (ps ≤ .0001). Preliminary pilot data support the feasibility of implementing transdiagnostic common elements therapy in residential ED treatment, and suggest that implementation may benefit transdiagnostic outcomes for patients.

  14. Learning to Work with Databases in Astronomy: Quantitative Analysis of Science Educators' and Students' Pre-/Post-Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; Burrows, Andrea C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is increasingly moving towards working with large databases, from the state-of-the-art Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10, to the historical Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard. Non-astronomy fields as well tend to work with large datasets, be it in the form of warehouse inventory, health trends, or the stock market. However very few fields explicitly teach students the necessary skills to analyze such data. The authors studied a matched set of 37 participants working with 200-entry databases in astronomy using Google Spreadsheets, with limited information about a random set of quasars drawn from SDSS DR5. Here the authors present the quantitative results from an eight question pre-/post-test, with questions designed to span Bloom's taxonomy, on both the topics of the skills of using spreadsheets, and the content of quasars. Participants included both Astro 101 summer students and professionals including in-service K-12 teachers and science communicators. All groups showed statistically significant gains (as per Hake, 1998), with the greatest difference between women's gains of 0.196 and men's of 0.480.

  15. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Health Care Workers. A Pre-Post Intervention Study in an Italian Paediatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gilardi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite relevant recommendations and evidences on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in health care workers (HCWs, vaccination coverage rates in Europe and Italy currently do not exceed 25%. Aim of the study is to measure the variations in vaccination coverage rates in an Italian pediatric hospital after a promotion campaign performed in the period October–December 2017. The design is a pre-post intervention study. The intervention is based on a wide communication campaign and an expanded offer of easy vaccination on site. The study was carried out at Bambino Gesù Children’s hospital in Rome, Italy, on the whole population of HCWs. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Vaccination coverage rate increased in 2017/18 campaign compared with the 2016/17 one (+95 HCWs vaccinated; +4.4%. The highest increases were detected in males (+45.7%, youngest employees (+142.9%, mean age of employment (+175%, other HCWs (+209.1%, Emergency Area (+151.6% and Imaging Diagnostic Department (+200.0%. At multivariate logistic regression, working in some departments and being nurses represents a higher risk of being unvaccinated. Although the vaccination coverage rate remained low, a continuous increase of the coverage rate and development of a different consciousness in HCWs was highlighted. The study significantly identified the target for future campaigns.

  16. RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN THE DESIGN DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes findings from a national survey of interior design practitioners in the United States (N=366.  The study explored interior design practitioners' current preferences for conducting project research including: activities conducted and sources used, attraction to and recall from sources, and ideas for communicating research findings. Responses suggest that interior designers do value research, yet have little time to utilize research. While cross-tabulation analyses indicate no major differences in research activities between the study’s demographic groups, collectively, only 12% of the sample indicated they utilized academic journals and, at times, even incorrectly identified those sources. Open-ended responses allowed designers to offer ideas for communicating research and four key themes emerged, including: topic selection and relevancy, ideas for new dissemination methods, ideas for presentation style, and perceptions of the written language used.  It is hoped that this study’s findings may help design researchers better communicate their own findings to design practitioners.

  17. Utility Green Pricing Programs: Design, Implementation, and Consumer Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.

    2004-02-01

    The term green pricing refers to programs offered by utilities in traditionally regulated electricity markets, which allow customers to support the development of renewable energy sources by paying a small premium on their electric bills. Since the introduction of the concept in the United States, the number of unique utility green pricing programs has expanded from just a few programs in 1993 to more than 90 in 2002. About 10% of U.S. utilities offered a green pricing option to about 26 million consumers by the end of 2002. This report provides: (1) aggregate industry data on consumer response to utility programs, which indicate the collective impact of green pricing on renewable energy development nationally; and (2) market data that can be used by utilities as a benchmark for gauging the relative success of their green pricing programs. Specifically, the paper presents current data and trends in consumer response to green pricing, as measured by renewable energy sales, participants, participation rates, and new renewable energy capacity supported. It presents data on various aspects of program design and implementation, such as product pricing, ownership of supplies, retention rates, marketing costs, the effectiveness of marketing techniques, and methods of enrolling and providing value to customers.

  18. On-line ethics education for occupational therapy clinician-educators: a single-group pre-/post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderKaay, Sandra; Letts, Lori; Jung, Bonny; Moll, Sandra E

    2018-05-20

    Ethics education is a critical component of training rehabilitation practitioners. There is a need for capacity-building among ethics educators regarding facilitating ethical decision-making among students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an on-line ethics education module for occupational therapy clinician-educators (problem-based learning tutors/clinical placement preceptors/evidence-based practice facilitators). The Knowledge-to-Action Process informed development and evaluation of the module. Clinician-educators (n = 33) viewed the module and reported on its impact on knowledge and facilitation practices via pre, post, and follow-up questionnaires. Pre- and post-test data indicated improvement in self-reported ethics knowledge (t = 8.275, p ethics education module for clinician-educators. Future recommendations include broader consideration of context, adding supplemental knowledge translation components, and further research exploring outcomes with larger samples, longer follow-up and randomized trial methodology. Implications for Rehabilitation The on-line ethics module has potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing the noted gap in knowledge among clinician-educators. Viewing an on-line module regarding approaches to ethics education may not be sufficient to change clinician-educators' teaching practices. More time and opportunities to discuss ethics with student occupational therapists may be required to effect practice change among clinician-educators. Developing ethics education tools for clinician-educators requires ongoing and iterative input from knowledge users to optimize translation of ideas to practice.

  19. The Problem Solver and The Artisan Designer: Strategies for Utilizing Design Idea Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inie, Nanna; Endo, Allison; Dow, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive qualitative study investigating how professional designers utilize personal idea archives. While we know that designers archive creative ideas in different formats and on different platforms, we know little about if and how designers utilize...... these idea archives in their daily practice. Through a series of interviews (n=20) and walkthroughs of design idea archives, we identified two archetypal strategies. The Problem Solver is concerned with the task at hand, keeps relevant ideas around, and discards them when the ideas have served their purpose...

  20. Goal disturbance changes pre/post-renal transplantation are related to changes in distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Alicia M; Schulz, Torben; Westerhuis, Ralf; Navis, Gerjan J; Niesing, Jan; Ranchor, Adelita V; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-09-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) given its association with lower mortality, and improved overall quality of life and psychological functioning compared to dialysis. However, much less is known about which factors underlie these psychological improvements across RTx. Goal theory suggests that experienced disturbances in important goals are related to lower psychological functioning. This study aimed to (1) identify the most disturbed and most important goals for patients before RTx, (2) to examine changes in goal disturbance and goal importance pre/post-RTx, and (3) to examine whether changes in goal disturbance are associated with changes in psychological distress over time, and whether this relationship is mediated by changes in perceived control. In this longitudinal study, 220 patients completed questionnaires before and after RTx, including questionnaires to assess goals (GOALS questionnaire), psychological distress (GHQ-12), and perceived control (Mastery scale). End-stage renal disease affected both general and disease-specific goals. Approximately 30% of the patients indicated to experience high or very high disturbance before transplantation. Goal disturbance generally decreased significantly pre- to post-RTx, whereas goal importance did not change significantly pre- to post-RTx. No mediation effect of perceived control was found. Instead, both changes in goal disturbance and perceived control showed independent effects on changes in distress. Intervention strategies targeting attainable and realistic goal setting, and perceived control in RTx recipients who do not benefit optimally from RTx, might enhance psychological functioning in this population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Kidney transplantation improves patients' psychological functioning. Experienced disturbances in important life goals are related to lower psychological functioning in chronic

  1. Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijawka, W. C.

    1984-08-01

    A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.

  2. Value-based insurance design: benefits beyond cost and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Teresa B; Maclean, Ross J; Chernew, Michael E; Fendrick, A Mark; Baigel, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As value-based insurance design (VBID) programs proliferate, evidence is emerging on the impact of VBID. To date, studies have largely measured VBID impact on utilization, and a few studies have assessed its impact on quality, outcomes, and cost. In this commentary we discuss these domains, summarize evidence, and propose the extension of measurement of VBID impact into areas including workplace productivity and quality of life, employee and patient engagement, and talent attraction and retention. We contend that VBID evaluations should consider a broad variety of programmatic dividends on both humanistic and health-related outcomes.

  3. Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijawka, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.

  4. The association between retrospective outcome evaluations and pre-post-treatment changes in psychodynamic group-psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In the present study of 203 patients in psychodynamic group psychotherapy, we explore associations between patient and therapist global retrospective outcome evaluations (ROE), and pre-post-treatment changes on the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) and non-symptomatic focus of therapy. The......, and associated with personality factors or domains not captured by standard questionnaires....

  5. Design of a portable CAT scanner for utility pole inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Work is under way at the University of Missouri, Columbia (UMC) to design, build, and test a portable computerized axial tomography (CAT) device for the nondestructive, field imaging of wooden utility poles. CAT is a well-established medical technology that has recently been applied to a number of industrial applications. Wooden utility poles are prone to rot and decay at ground level; current techniques to assess this loss of strength are relatively primitive, i.e., tapping the pole (hitting the pole with a hammer) or boring into the pole for samples and then testing inside the bore hole with an electrical pulse device. The accuracy in identifying poles needing replacement using these techniques is ∼ 70%. Since the cost of replacing a pole ranges from hundreds to thousands of dollars, an accurate, nondestructive method is needed. CAT can accurately image a wooden utility pole (since the size, density, and atomic elements of a pole are similar to the human head to torso), as was confirmed by imaging poles using the UMC nuclear engineering EMI-1010 medical scanner. Detailed images have been produced showing the ring structure of the wood and voids due to rot or decay. Images approaching this quality have also been produced on living trees using semiportable systems by other researchers

  6. Pre/post-closure assessment of groundwater pharmaceutical fate in a wastewater‑facility-impacted stream reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Barber, Larry B.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Duris, Joseph W.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Givens, Carrie E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Journey, Celeste A.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical contamination of contiguous groundwater is a substantial concern in wastewater-impacted streams, due to ubiquity in effluent, high aqueous mobility, designed bioactivity, and to effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insights into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The USGS conducted a combined pre/post-closure groundwater assessment adjacent to an effluent-impacted reach of Fourmile Creek, Ankeny, Iowa, USA. Higher surface-water concentrations, consistent surface-water to groundwater concentration gradients, and sustained groundwater detections tens of meters from the stream bank demonstrated the importance of WWTF effluent as the source of groundwater pharmaceuticals as well as the persistence of these contaminants under effluent-driven, pre-closure conditions. The number of analytes (110 total) detected in surface water decreased from 69 prior to closure down to 8 in the first post-closure sampling event approximately 30 d later, with a corresponding 2 order of magnitude decrease in the cumulative concentration of detected analytes. Post-closure cumulative concentrations of detected analytes were approximately 5 times higher in proximal groundwater than in surface water. About 40% of the 21 contaminants detected in a downstream groundwater transect immediately before WWTF closure exhibited rapid attenuation with estimated half-lives on the order of a few days; however, a comparable number exhibited no consistent attenuation during the year-long post-closure assessment. The results demonstrate the potential for effluent-impacted shallow groundwater systems to accumulate pharmaceutical contaminants and serve as long-term residual sources, further increasing the risk of adverse ecological effects in groundwater and the near-stream ecosystem.

  7. Dhruva: Main design features, operational experience and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, S.K. [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: swarajagarwal2000@yahoo.com; Karhadkar, C.G. [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Zope, A.K. [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Kanchhi [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    Dhruva is a product of technological initiatives taken during mid seventies when a need was felt for another research reactor having a high neutron flux to meet the growing demands of research and development in the frontier areas of science and engineering. In addition production of radioisotopes of high specific activity and the diverse requirements of a broad based user community had to be synthesized into a viable system, which could be engineered within the limited means available in the country. This high neutron flux reactor was designed, constructed and commissioned entirely by Indian scientists and engineers and it reflects the country's resolve to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear reactor technology. Dhruva is a 100 MW (thermal) research reactor with metallic natural uranium as fuel, heavy water as moderator, coolant and reflector, giving a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1.8 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Since its first criticality on 8th August 1985, a number of experimental facilities have been added which have proven to be highly attractive for universities and industrial researchers for their scientific merits in various fields. One of the major utilization areas has been the neutron beam research using several neutron spectrometers, all of which were built in-house. A guide tube facility comprising of two neutron guides and another experimental set-up with a multi-instrument beam line have enabled further enhancement of the utilization of this National Facility by the academic institutions in the country. Production of radioisotopes of high specific activity and in increased quantity has fulfilled growing demands for many applications. The write-up provides an overview of the reactor covering its design; layout, safety features, utilization and operating experience along with description of some of the specific experimental facilities.

  8. Nursing care system development for patients with cleft lip-palate and craniofacial deformities in Srinagarind Hospital: pre-post operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsornwan, Darawan; Pattangtanang, Pantamanas; Pikhunthod, Kritsana

    2011-12-01

    Cleft lip and palate are the most common craniofacial anomalies. Srinagarind Hospital has 150-200 cases each year. The operating process of care requires continuity of care involving a multidisciplinary team. When the patients go to hospital to have operation, pain, limited activity and food are very different from normal life. During pre and post operative care nurses who work continuously and closely with the patients should have knowledge, experience and ability to take excellent care of their patients and families. This can prevent complications and help their decision process, decrease parents stress and encourage better co-operation. To develop a nursing care system for patients with cleft lip-palate undergoing operation. This is an action research divided into 3 phases. Phase 1, situation review: review of nursing care process by interview, focus group, observation and nursing documents. Phase 2, nursing system management: developing guidelines, composing nursing manual, handbook for parents, VCD for patients and family and story telling. Following that announcement and implementation. Phase 3: evaluation. The authors found that guidelines, nursing manual, handbook for parents, VCD for patients and family and story telling are appropriate and have good utilization, but the pictures in handbook for parents and storytelling were not clear, too small and not attractive. Nursing manual for giving information about pre-post operative care, handbook for parents, story telling and VCD about pre-post operative care provide optimal care for patients and family with cleft lip and palate, but need to evaluate further the nursing outcome after this nursing system development.

  9. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  10. Intradialytic Laughter Yoga therapy for haemodialysis patients: a pre-post intervention feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Neal, Merv; Weinberg, Melissa K; Gilbert, Karen; Ockerby, Cherene; Rawson, Helen; Herbu, Corinne; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2015-06-09

    Laughter Yoga consists of physical exercise, relaxation techniques and simulated vigorous laughter. It has been associated with physical and psychological benefits for people in diverse clinical and non-clinical settings, but has not yet been tested in a haemodialysis setting. The study had three aims: 1) to examine the feasibility of conducting Laughter Yoga for patients with end stage kidney disease in a dialysis setting; 2) to explore the psychological and physiological impact of Laughter Yoga for these patients; and 3) to estimate the sample size required for future research. Pre/post intervention feasibility study. Eighteen participants were recruited into the study and Laughter Yoga therapists provided a four week intradialytic program (30-min intervention three times per week). Primary outcomes were psychological items measured at the first and last Laughter Yoga session, including: quality of life; subjective wellbeing; mood; optimism; control; self-esteem; depression, anxiety and stress. Secondary outcomes were: blood pressure, intradialytic hypotensive episodes and lung function (forced expiratory volume). Dialysis nurses exposed to the intervention completed a Laughter Yoga attitudes and perceptions survey (n = 11). Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics v22, including descriptive and inferential statistics, and sample size estimates were calculated using G*Power. One participant withdrew from the study for medical reasons that were unrelated to the study during the first week (94 % retention rate). There were non-significant increases in happiness, mood, and optimism and a decrease in stress. Episodes of intradialytic hypotension decreased from 19 pre and 19 during Laughter Yoga to 4 post Laughter Yoga. There was no change in lung function or blood pressure. All nurses agreed or strongly agreed that Laughter Yoga had a positive impact on patients' mood, it was a feasible intervention and they would recommend Laughter Yoga to their patients. Sample

  11. Does journal club membership improve research evidence uptake in different allied health disciplines: a pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarondo Lucylynn M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although allied health is considered to be one 'unit' of healthcare providers, it comprises a range of disciplines which have different training and ways of thinking, and different tasks and methods of patient care. Very few empirical studies on evidence-based practice (EBP have directly compared allied health professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a structured model of journal club (JC, known as iCAHE (International Centre for Allied Health Evidence JC, on the EBP knowledge, skills and behaviour of the different allied health disciplines. Methods A pilot, pre-post study design using maximum variation sampling was undertaken. Recruitment was conducted in groups and practitioners such as physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, social workers, psychologists, nutritionists/dieticians and podiatrists were invited to participate. All participating groups received the iCAHE JC for six months. Quantitative data using the Adapted Fresno Test (McCluskey & Bishop and Evidence-based Practice Questionnaire (Upton & Upton were collected prior to the implementation of the JC, with follow-up measurements six months later. Mean percentage change and confidence intervals were calculated to compare baseline and post JC scores for all outcome measures. Results The results of this study demonstrate variability in EBP outcomes across disciplines after receiving the iCAHE JC. Only physiotherapists showed statistically significant improvements in all outcomes; speech pathologists and occupational therapists demonstrated a statistically significant increase in knowledge but not for attitude and evidence uptake; social workers and dieticians/nutritionists showed statistically significant positive changes in their knowledge, and evidence uptake but not for attitude. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that a JC such as the iCAHE model is an effective method for improving the EBP knowledge

  12. The effectiveness of an Internet support forum for carers of people with dementia: a pre-post cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Vicky; Barker, Chris; Stott, Josh

    2014-02-28

    The well-being of informal carers of people with dementia is an important public health issue. Caring for an elderly relative with dementia may be burdensome and stressful, and can negatively affect the carer's social, family, and professional life. The combination of loss, the physical demands of caregiving, prolonged distress, and biological vulnerabilities of older carers may compromise their physical health, increase social isolation, and increase the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Caregiver stress is also linked to negative outcomes for the recipient of care and costs to society, including increased nursing home and hospital admissions. Consequently, carer support interventions are an important component of dementia care. Computer-mediated carer support offers a range of potential advantages compared to traditional face-to-face support groups, including accessibility and the possibility of tailoring to meet individual needs, but there has been little research on its effectiveness so far. This mixed-methods study examined the impact of a well-respected UK-based online support forum for carers of people with dementia. A total of 61 new forum users completed measures of anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, GAD-7), depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9), and quality of relationship with the person with dementia (Scale for the Quality of the Current Relationship in Caregiving, SQCRC), at baseline and again after 12 weeks of forum usage, within a pre-post design. In addition, 8 participants were interviewed about their experiences with using the forum. There was an improvement in the quality of the relationship with the person with dementia (SQCRC: P=.003). There was no change in users' depression (PHQ-9) or anxiety (GAD-7) over the 12-week study period. Interview participants reported a range of positive experiences and benefits from using the forum. Limited negative experiences were also reported. Many of the reported

  13. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-05-27

    unique conditions encountered at solar facilities. In particular, unlike at wind-power facilities, the unimpeded access to almost all areas within the facilities, the typically flat terrain, and general absence of thick vegetation allow distance-sampling techniques (Buckland and others, 2001, 2004) to be exploited to advantage at industrial solar sites. These protocols build on the work of Nicolai and others (2011), and as our understanding and techniques for monitoring improve, the methods may be further modified to incorporate improvements in the future. We present case studies based on monitoring methods currently implemented at different utility-scale solar facilities to illustrate how distance-sampling techniques may improve overall detectability without substantially increasing costs. Every facility is unique, and the protocols presented may be adapted based on specific monitoring objectives and conditions at each site.We provide guidance for designing monitoring programs whose objective it is to estimate the total number of bird and bat fatalities occurring at a facility over an extended period of time. We address spatial variation in causes of mortality, as well as potential sources of imperfect detection, for example, animals falling in or moving to unsearched areas, carcasses removed by predators, and carcasses missed by searchers. We suggest methods to estimate and account for each source of imperfect detection. This document focuses on monitoring design only and does not discuss approaches for estimating mortality from collected data. The development of statistically sound estimators relevant to the solar context is a current topic of research, although there are already strong foundations for estimation with distance-sampling methods in similar open, arid environments (Anderson and others, 2001; Freilich and others, 2005). Nonetheless, if protocols described in this document are followed, the resulting data will be adequate and sufficient for estimating

  14. Utilizing Design Information in Aspect-Oriented Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, I.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Havinga, W.K.; Aksit, Mehmet; Hirschfeld, Robert; Kowalczyk, Ryszard; Polze, Andreas; Weske, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally in aspect-oriented languages, pointcut designators select joinpoints of a program based on lexical information such as explicit names of program elements. However, this reduces the adaptability of software, since it involves too much information that is hard-coded, and often implementationspecific. We claim that this problem can be reduced by referring to program units through their design intentions. Design intention is represented by annotated design information, which describ...

  15. Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Utility Credit Design for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current trend in funding urban stormwater programs relies on the issuance of stormwater utilities (i.e., fees) based on some measure of impervious surface (e.g., actual, estimated, average), and local programs vary greatly, dependent upon state law, municipal ordinances, and co...

  16. Diffuse Solar System Design and Utilization in Agriculture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse solar radiation is a component of total solar radiation that is good for low temperature grade heating. Since the portion of the scattered radiation from the sun, which consists of short and long waves, that reaches the earth is diffused, its utilization in Agriculture as this paper suggested, has multiple phase change ...

  17. The implications of policy pre-post test scores for street-level bureaucratic discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, Edwina L

    2009-01-01

    Substantial reductions in audit error rates observed over the past few years suggest eligibility workers have moved toward an eligibility compliance culture described by Bane and Ellwood. However, the results of this study indicate that social service caseworkers responded correctly to 49% of the targeted policy items at the pre-test stage and 68% at the post-test stage. Such findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that, in instances when caseworkers lack policy knowledge, they use their own discretion. Such a finding not only supports Lipsky's theory but also supports the notion that administrators should be encouraged to utilize 'mastery learning' procedures whereby caseworkers are retained in new-hire and follow-up training classes until they have mastered 100% of targeted policy information. Retention of caseworkers may also reduce federal and local audit errors and errors in crediting the reduction of caseloads to social service policies when in fact significant components of them have not been implemented (learned or utilized). And, most importantly, retention in training classes may increase the appropriate provision of services to the needy.

  18. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  19. Synthesis and Design of a Sustainable CO2 Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    In response to increasing regulations and concern about the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are targeted for reduction. One method is the conversion of CO2 to useful compounds via chemical reactions. However, conversion is still in its infancy...... and requires work for implementation at an industrial level. One aspect of this is the development of a methodology for the formulation and optimization of sustainable conversion processes. This methodology follows three stages for the process synthesis, design and more sustainable design. Using...

  20. Pulse design for multilevel systems by utilizing Lie transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-03-01

    We put forward a scheme to design pulses to manipulate multilevel systems with Lie transforms. A formula to reverse construct a control Hamiltonian is given and is applied in pulse design in the three- and four-level systems as examples. To demonstrate the validity of the scheme, we perform numerical simulations, which show the population transfers for cascaded three-level and N -type four-level Rydberg atoms can be completed successfully with high fidelities. Therefore, the scheme may benefit quantum information tasks based on multilevel systems.

  1. Experimental Design: Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

    2015-01-01

    The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

  2. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  3. An observational pre-post study of re-structuring Medicine inpatient teaching service: Improved continuity of care within constraint of 2011 duty hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Mueller, Daniel; Blum, Marissa; Ravreby, Hannah; Williams, Paul; Moyer, Darilyn; Caroline, Malka; Zack, Chad; Fisher, Susan G; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-09-01

    Implementation of more stringent regulations on duty hours and supervision by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in July 2011 makes it challenging to design inpatient Medicine teaching service that complies with the duty hour restrictions while optimizing continuity of patient care. To prospectively compare two inpatient Medicine teaching service structures with respect to residents' impression of continuity of patient care (primary outcome), time available for teaching, resident satisfaction and length-of-stay (secondary endpoints). Observational pre-post study. Surveys were conducted both before and after Conventional Medicine teaching service was changed to a novel model (MegaTeam). Academic General Medicine inpatient teaching service. Surveys before and after MegaTeam implementation were completed by 68.5% and 72.2% of internal medicine residents, respectively. Comparing conventional with MegaTeam, the % of residents who agreed or strongly agreed that the (i) ability to care for majority of patients from admission to discharge increased from 29.7% to 86.6% (pcare, decreases number of handoffs, provides adequate supervision and teaching of interns and medical students, increases resident overall satisfaction and decreases length-of-stay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilizing Mass Customization Methods for Modular Manufacturing System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Jacobsen, Alexia; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Markets today have become dynamic and demand rapid product changes, product variety, and customized products. In order to operate under and taking advantages of such conditions requires, amongst other aspects, manufacturing processes robust to product changes - a contradiction to traditional...... manufacturing systems developed as dedicated engineer-to-order solutions, tailored to production of a specific product or a limited product assortment. In response, modular manufacturing concepts are evolving, which are aimed at possessing the needed responsiveness and aimed at being the manufacturing paradigm...... of Mass Customization (MC). Research focus has been on the basic principles and enabling technologies, while modular architectures and system design have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying selected design theories and methods of MC have been seen. Based on a communality...

  5. Design guides for cell atmosphere controls, utilities and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.J. Jr.; Peishel, F.L.; Slattery, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Facilities for handling radioactive and toxic materials must be designed not only for efficient operation, but also for protection of the operating personnel and the public. The ventilation system is of primary importance in maintaining containment of any airborne radioactivity. The type, number, and location of in-cell services must be adequate for planned operations, but also must allow flexibility to accommodate expansion in the scope of operations or changes in programs. Fire protection systems and operational controls are mandatory to maintain containment of radioactivity in the event of an operating error or process accident that may result in a fire

  6. Utilizing occupational exposure data to improve system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.

    1980-01-01

    Designers of nuclear fuel cycle facilities are now faced with the difficult task of complying with the ICRP recommendation that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. This recommendation has parallels in English factory law, in which obligations are frequently qualified by the phrase ''so far as reasonably practicable'', and there is extensive experience of determining what is reasonably practicable in particular circumstances. This experience is summarized and observations made of the application of the concept ''reasonably practicable'' as a basis for understanding how the ALARA concept might be applied. The view is expressed that, in the greater part, optimization is a matter for observation and comparison rather than for theoretical calculation. If this view is accepted, it will be necessary for health physicists to consider how their attempts to keep doses as low as reasonably achievable might be presented for use by designers of the next generation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Also, international agreement should be reached on a common approach to data presentation and retrieval. (author)

  7. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

    2012-04-01

    Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  8. Mammography Screening Trends: The Perspective of African American Women Born Pre/Post World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Lo, Yun-Jia; Penner, Louis A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have traditionally combined aging women (aged ≥50 years) when reporting their mammography use. This may inadvertently mask important cohort effects in mammography use, which are likely to result from distinct personal life experiences and generational differences. Using the Health and Retirement Study samples of 1998, 2000, and 2004, we examined cohort differences in mammography use between African American women born before 1946 (non–baby boomers) and those born in 1946 to 1953 (baby boomers). Between 1998 and 2004, screening rates for non–baby boomers declined, while those for baby boomers remained relatively steady. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses suggest that while screening rates decreased with age (OR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.947–0.968) cohort effects may have partially reversed the age effect, with non–baby boomers having an increased likelihood of receiving a mammogram compared to baby boomers (OR, 1.697; 95% CI, 1.278–2.254). Because African American women are diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer, documentation of cohort differences in mammography use among older African American women is important as health care professionals design intervention programs that are maximally effective for women from different cohorts. This is particularly critical as more African American women in the baby boomer cohort become part of the aging population. PMID:20575209

  9. BOT3P - Bologna Transport Analysis Pre-Post-Processors Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsi, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    BOT3P is a set of standard FORTRAN 77 language programs developed at the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Centre. BOT3P Version 1.0 was originally conceived to give the users of the DORT and TORT deterministic transport codes some useful diagnostic tools to prepare and to check their input data files. BOT3P Version 3.0 contains some important additions in the input geometrical model description, such as 'rod' and 'hexagonal' geometrical objects, respecting the exact cross-sectional area value and very suitable to describe a reactor lattice in detail. Moreover, it has extended the possibility to produce the geometrical, material distribution, and fixed neutron source data for the deterministic transport codes TWODANT and THREEDANT of the DANTSYS system and for the PARTISN code too, starting from the same input to BOT3P. When users require X-Y-Z TORT/THREEDANT/PARTISN mesh grids to be generated, BOT3P Version 3.0 produces a geometrical input for the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code also, where the MCNP cells correspond to the X-Y-Z bodies created for TORT.BOT3P Version 3.0 lets users specify areas/volumes of the model where the zone/material distribution can be defined not only by a combinatorial geometry but also by an external source, such as one originated from computerized tomography scan data (only for three-dimensional applications) and from one or more external DORT/TORT input files. BOT3P was developed on a DIGITAL UNIX ALPHA 500/333 workstation and successfully used in some complex neutron shielding and criticality benchmarks. It was also tested on Red Hat Linux 7.1 and is designed to run on most UNIX platforms. All BOT3P versions are publicly available from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (NEA-1627, NEA-1678)

  10. Mastery learning improves students skills in inserting intravenous access: a pre-post-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederichs, Hendrik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inserting peripheral venous catheters (PVCs has been identified as a core competency for medical students. Because the performance – even of hygienic standards – of both students and novice physicians is frequently inadequate, medical faculties must focus on competence-based learning objectives and deliberate practice, features that are combined in mastery learning. Our aim was to determine the competency of students in inserting PVCs before and after an educational intervention. Design: This study comprised a skills assessment with pre- and post-tests of a group of third-year students who received a simulation-based intervention. A newly established curriculum involved one hour of practice at inserting PVCs on simulators. Students were required to pass a test (total 21 points, pass mark 20 points developed on the concept of mastery learning. An unannounced follow-up test was performed one week (8 days after the intervention.Setting: The simulation center of the medical faculty in Muenster.Participants: Third-year students who received the intervention.Results: One hundred and nine complete data sets were obtained from 133 students (82.5%. Most students (97.2% passed the test after the intervention (mean score increase from 15.56 to 20.50, <0.001. There was a significant decrease in students’ performance after one week (8 days: only 74.5% of participants passed this retest (mean score reduction from 20.50 to 20.06, <0.001. Conclusion: Mastery learning is an effective form of teaching practical skills to medical students, allowing a thorough preparation for the challenges of daily clinical practice.

  11. Utilizing Nested Normal Form to Design Redundancy Free JSON Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yin Mok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available JSON (JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweight data-interchange format for the Internet. JSON is built on two structures: (1 a collection of name/value pairs and (2 an ordered list of values (http://www.json.org/. Because of this simple approach, JSON is easy to use and it has the potential to be the data interchange format of choice for the Internet. Similar to XML, JSON schemas allow nested structures to model hierarchical data. As data interchange over the Internet increases exponentially due to cloud computing or otherwise, redundancy free JSON data are an attractive form of communication because they improve the quality of data communication through eliminating update anomaly. Nested Normal Form, a normal form for hierarchical data, is a precise characterization of redundancy. A nested table, or a hierarchical schema, is in Nested Normal Form if and only if it is free of redundancy caused by multivalued and functional dependencies. Using Nested Normal Form as a guide, this paper introduces a JSON schema design methodology that begins with UML use case diagrams, communication diagrams and class diagrams that model a system under study. Based on the use cases’ execution frequencies and the data passed between involved parties in the communication diagrams, the proposed methodology selects classes from the class diagrams to be the roots of JSON scheme trees and repeatedly adds classes from the class diagram to the scheme trees as long as the schemas satisfy Nested Normal Form. This process continues until all of the classes in the class diagram have been added to some JSON scheme trees.

  12. Uncertainty analysis in raw material and utility cost of biorefinery synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    are characterized by considerable uncertainty. These uncertainties might have significant impact on the results of the design problem, and therefore need to be carefully evaluated and managed, in order to generate candidates for robust design. In this contribution, we study the effect of data uncertainty (raw...... material price and utility cost) on the design of a biorefinery process network....

  13. High degree utilization of computers for design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Takao; Sawada, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are the huge technology in which various technologies are compounded, and the high safety is demanded. Therefore, in the design of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to carry out the design by sufficiently grasping the behavior of the plants, and to confirm the safety by carrying out the accurate design evaluation supposing the various operational conditions, and as the indispensable tool for these analysis and evaluation, the most advanced computers in that age have been utilized. As to the utilization for the design, there are the fields of design, analysis and evaluation and another fields of the application to the support of design. Also in the field of the application to operation control, computers are utilized. The utilization of computers for the core design, hydrothermal design, core structure design, safety analysis and structural analysis of PWR plants, and for the nuclear design, safety analysis and heat flow analysis of FBR plants, the application to the support of design and the application to operation control are explained. (K.I.)

  14. Reducing child abuse amongst adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A pre-post trial in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Yakubovich, Alexa; Doubt, Jenny; Redfern, Alice; Ward, Catherine; Salah, Nasteha; De Stone, Sachin; Petersen, Tshiamo; Mpimpilashe, Phelisa; Romero, Rocio Herrero; Ncobo, Lulu; Lachman, Jamie; Tsoanyane, Sibongile; Shenderovich, Yulia; Loening, Heidi; Byrne, Jasmina; Sherr, Lorraine; Kaplan, Lauren; Gardner, Frances

    2016-07-13

    No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations. Two hundred thirty participants (adolescents and their primary caregivers) were recruited from schools, welfare services and community-sampling in rural, high-poverty South Africa (no exclusion criteria). All participated in a 12-week parenting programme, implemented by local NGO childcare workers to ensure real-world external validity. Standardised pre-post measures with adolescents and caregivers were used, and paired t-tests were conducted for primary outcomes: abuse (physical, emotional abuse and neglect), adolescent behaviour problems and parenting (positive and involved parenting, poor monitoring and inconsistent discipline), and secondary outcomes: mental health, social support and substance use. Participants reported high levels of socio-economic deprivation, e.g. 60 % of adolescents had either an HIV-positive caregiver or were orphaned by AIDS, and 50 % of caregivers experienced intimate partner violence. i) indicative effects: Primary outcomes comparing pre-test and post-test assessments showed reductions reported by adolescents and caregivers in child abuse (adolescent report 63.0 % pre-test to 29.5 % post-test, caregiver report 75.5 % pre-test to 36.5 % post-test, both p child abuse and improved caregiver and adolescent outcomes. It showed high acceptability and unexpected community-level diffusion. Findings indicate needs for adaptations, and

  15. Summary of the function and the safety design of the Tokai Reprocessing Utility Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Chisato; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Tomita, Tsuneo; Horii, Shinichi; Uryu, Mituru; Ishiguro, Nobuharu; Kobayashi, Kentarou

    1998-01-01

    The Tokai Reprocessing Utility Center is a new facility to replace the utilities to the Tokai Reprocessing Plant such as the emergency power supply, compressed air, etc. which are scattered about the site and have became superannuated. The Facility building has a base-isolation system that is a strongly resistant to earthquake. After completion, the center will supply utilities to the Main Plant, the Central Building, the Auxiliary Active Facility, etc. of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. This document outlines the function and the safety design of the Tokai Reprocessing Utility Center. (author)

  16. Analyses of Public Utility Building - Students Designs, Aimed at their Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Marek Adam

    2017-10-01

    Public utility buildings are formally, structurally and functionally complex entities. Frequently, the process of their design involves the retroactive reconsideration of energy engineering issues, once a building concept has already been completed. At that stage, minor formal corrections are made along with the design of the external layer of the building in order to satisfy applicable standards. Architecture students do the same when designing assigned public utility buildings. In order to demonstrate energy-related defects of building designs developed by students, the conduct of analyses was proposed. The completed designs of public utility buildings were examined with regard to energy efficiency of the solutions they feature through the application of the following programs: Ecotect, Vasari, and in case of simpler analyses ArchiCad program extensions were sufficient.

  17. Coaching in self-efficacy improves care responses, health and well-being in dementia carers: a pre/post-test/follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Lynn; Stein-Parbury, Jane; White, Danielle; McNeill, Georgene; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Zaratan, Beverley

    2016-05-04

    Maintaining the health and well-being of family carers of people with dementia is vital, given their potential for experiencing burden associated with the role. The study aimed to help dementia carers develop self-efficacy, be less hassled by the caring role and improve their health and well-being with goal-directed behaviour, by participating in an eight module carer coaching program. The study used mixed methods in a pre/post-test/follow-up design over 24 months, with assignment of consented dementia carers to either individualised (n = 16) or group coaching (n = 32), or usual carer support services (n = 43), depending on preference. Care-giving self-efficacy and hassles, carer health, well-being and goal-directed behaviours were assessed over time. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare changes over time and the effects of coaching on carer self-efficacy, hassles and health, using the Univariate General Linear Model (GLM). All carers were hassled by many aspects of caring at baseline. Participants receiving coaching reported non-significant improvements in most areas of self-efficacy for caring, hassles associated with caring and self-reported health at post-test and follow-up, than did carers receiving usual carer support. Group coaching had greater success in helping carers to achieve their goals and to seek help from informal and formal support networks and services. The study outcomes were generally positive, but need to be interpreted cautiously, given some methodological limitations. It has been shown, however, that health staff can assist dementia carers to develop self-efficacy in better managing their family member's limitations and behaviour, seek help from others and attend to their health. Teaching carers to use goal-directed behaviour may help them achieve these outcomes.

  18. A structured framework improves clinical patient assessment and nontechnical skills of early career emergency nurses: a pre-post study using full immersion simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Belinda; Curtis, Kate; Murphy, Margaret; Strachan, Luke; Considine, Julie; Hardy, Jennifer; Wilson, Mark; Ruperto, Kate; Fethney, Judith; Buckley, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the new evidence-informed nursing assessment framework HIRAID (History, Identify Red flags, Assessment, Interventions, Diagnostics, reassessment and communication) on the quality of patient assessment and fundamental nontechnical skills including communication, decision making, task management and situational awareness. Assessment is a core component of nursing practice and underpins clinical decisions and the safe delivery of patient care. Yet there is no universal or validated system used to teach emergency nurses how to comprehensively assess and care for patients. A pre-post design was used. The performance of thirty eight emergency nurses from five Australian hospitals was evaluated before and after undertaking education in the application of the HIRAID assessment framework. Video recordings of participant performance in immersive simulations of common presentations to the emergency department were evaluated, as well as participant documentation during the simulations. Paired parametric and nonparametric tests were used to compare changes from pre to postintervention. From pre to postintervention, participant performance increases were observed in the percentage of patient history elements collected, critical indicators of urgency collected and reported to medical officers, and patient reassessments performed. Participants also demonstrated improvement in each of the four nontechnical skills categories: communication, decision making, task management and situational awareness. The HIRAID assessment framework improves clinical patient assessments performed by emergency nurses and has the potential to enhance patient care. HIRAID should be considered for integration into clinical practice to provide nurses with a systematic approach to patient assessment and potentially improve the delivery of safe patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A German e-learning-training in the context of early preventive intervention and child protection: preliminary findings of a pre-post evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressem, Kristina; Ziegenhain, Ute; Doelitzsch, Claudia; Hofer, Alexandra; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Joerg M; Kuenster, Anne K

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of government-sponsored initiatives have been implemented in Germany that are focused on early preventive intervention in child protection. In response to the need for interdisciplinary training in this area, the internet-based e-learning program "Early Preventive Intervention and Child Protection" was developed for professionals in the child welfare and health care systems working with families with infants and toddlers. The program is currently undergoing evaluation for effectiveness and user satisfaction. In a pre-post design, users are requested to complete questionnaires that assess three measures of expertise: theoretical knowledge of relevant fields, the ability to correctly identify subtle signals of infant communication, and the ability to assess maternal sensitivity. This article presents the contents of the program and the pre-training results (N = 1.294 participants). Descriptive analyses as well as Pearson correlations and Bonferroni corrections of error were conducted using the statistical program SPSS v. 21.0. The findings show that a wide range of professionals are making use of the program, and that their existing theoretical knowledge about early preventive intervention, as well as their ability to identify subtle signals of infant communication, is relatively good. However, their ability to assess maternal sensitivity, which is considered a crucial indicator for the risk of child abuse, was low. The outcome of the pre-training results indicates that professionals working in the area of child protection need to develop more capability in recognizing maternal sensitivity, in order to ensure early detection of families who are at risk and thus in need of support. Finally, the number of years of professional experience did not correlate with the scores on any of the three measures, which emphasizes the importance of providing interdisciplinary training in this area for all those working in child and family services

  20. Increasing use of mental health services in remote areas using mobile technology: a pre-post evaluation of the SMART Mental Health project in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Pallab K; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Vadlamani, Vamsi Krishna; Jha, Vivekanand; Patel, Anushka

    2017-06-01

    About 25% of the Indian population experience common mental disorders (CMD) but only 15-25% of them receive any mental health care. Stigma, lack of adequate mental health professionals and mental health services account for this treatment gap, which is worse in rural areas. Our project evaluated task shifting and mobile-technology based electronic decision support systems to enhance the ability of primary care health workers to provide evidence-based mental health care for stress, depression, and suicidal risk in 30 remote villages in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project between May 2014 and April 2016 trained lay village health workers (Accredited Social Health Activists - ASHAs) and primary care doctors to screen, diagnose and manage individuals with common mental disorders using an electronic decision support system. An anti-stigma campaign using multi-media approaches was conducted across the villages at the outset of the project. A pre-post evaluation using mixed methods assessed the change in mental health service utilization by screen positive individuals. This paper reports on the quantitative aspects of that evaluation. Training was imparted to 21 ASHAs and 2 primary care doctors. 5007 of 5167 eligible individuals were screened, and 238 were identified as being positive for common mental disorders and referred to the primary care doctors for further management. Out of them, 2 (0.8%) had previously utilized mental health services. During the intervention period, 30 (12.6%) visited the primary care doctor for further diagnosis and treatment, as advised. There was a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores between start and end of the intervention among those who had screened positive at the beginning. Stigma and mental health awareness in the broader community improved during the project. The intervention led to individuals being screened for common mental

  1. Utilization of MCNP code in the research and design for China advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng

    2006-01-01

    MCNP, which is the internationalized neutronics code, is used for nuclear research and design in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). MCNP is an important neutronics code in the research and design for CARR since many calculation tasks could be undertaken by it. Many nuclear parameters on reactor core, the design and optimization research for many reactor utilizations, much verification for other nuclear calculation code and so on are conducted with help of MCNP. (author)

  2. An operating nuclear utility's experience with the ALARA design of a new nuclear unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This talk presents a review of how operating experience at Northeast Utilities has been factored into the design of a new nuclear unit and the development and management of the radiation protection program. Their operational experience has indicated that there are two facets to keeping radiation exposures ALARA. The first is the proper ALARA design of the unit. The other facet is the design of a comprehensive radiation protection program. The author discusses these facets in some detail

  3. Reducing child abuse amongst adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A pre-post trial in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cluver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. ‘Parenting for Lifelong Health’ ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii to identify potential adaptations. Methods Two hundred thirty participants (adolescents and their primary caregivers were recruited from schools, welfare services and community-sampling in rural, high-poverty South Africa (no exclusion criteria. All participated in a 12-week parenting programme, implemented by local NGO childcare workers to ensure real-world external validity. Standardised pre-post measures with adolescents and caregivers were used, and paired t-tests were conducted for primary outcomes: abuse (physical, emotional abuse and neglect, adolescent behaviour problems and parenting (positive and involved parenting, poor monitoring and inconsistent discipline, and secondary outcomes: mental health, social support and substance use. Results Participants reported high levels of socio-economic deprivation, e.g. 60 % of adolescents had either an HIV-positive caregiver or were orphaned by AIDS, and 50 % of caregivers experienced intimate partner violence. i indicative effects: Primary outcomes comparing pre-test and post-test assessments showed reductions reported by adolescents and caregivers in child abuse (adolescent report 63.0 % pre-test to 29.5 % post-test, caregiver report 75.5 % pre-test to 36.5 % post-test, both p < 0.001 poor monitoring/inconsistent discipline (p < .001, adolescent delinquency/aggressive behaviour (both p < .001, and

  4. The psychenet public health intervention for anorexia nervosa: a pre-post-evaluation study in a female patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Antje; Weigel, Angelika; Wegscheider, Karl; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Aim This non-randomized pre-post-intervention study investigated the effect of a systemic public health intervention on the length of time between anorexia nervosa symptom onset and contact with the health care system as well as the initiation of treatment. Although systemic public health interventions have successfully been implemented in physical and mental health fields, their effect on the early treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa remains unclear. In total, 59 anorexia nervosa patients (mean age=21.5 years, SD=7.2) were recruited before a systemic public health intervention, and 18 patients (mean age=22.2 years, SD=8.9) were recruited afterwards. Using validated self-report measures and a semi-structured interview, the duration of untreated anorexia nervosa and the duration until first contact with the health care system were investigated. Findings At the beginning of the individual treatment initiation process, participants in both samples most frequently consulted their general practitioner or paediatrician about their eating disorder-related symptoms. Neither the mean duration of untreated anorexia nervosa, that is, the time between illness onset and the initiation of a recommended treatment, nor the duration until first contact with the health care system significantly decreased after the implementation of the systemic public health intervention. The mean duration of untreated anorexia nervosa was 36.5 months (SD=68.2) before the systemic public health intervention and 40.1 months (SD=89.4) after the implementation of the systemic public health intervention. The mean duration until first contact with the health care system was 25.0 months (SD=53.0) before the intervention and 32.8 months (SD=86.5) after the intervention. Primary care providers are crucial to the treatment initiation process and should be involved in future interventions to improve early detection and treatment commencement amongst patients with anorexia nervosa.

  5. The impact of evidence-based sepsis guidelines on emergency department clinical practice: a pre-post medical record audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Bernadine; Fry, Margaret; Roche, Michael

    2017-11-01

    To explore the number of patients presenting with sepsis before and after guideline implementation; the impact of sepsis guidelines on triage assessment, emergency department management and time to antibiotics. Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity within hospitals. Globally, strategies have been implemented to reduce morbidity and mortality rates, which rely on the early recognition and management of sepsis. To improve patient outcomes, the New South Wales government in Australia introduced sepsis guidelines into emergency departments. However, the impact of the guidelines on clinical practice remains unclear. A 12-month pre-post retrospective randomised medical record audit of adult patients with a sepsis diagnosis. Data were extracted from the emergency department database and paper medical record. Data included patient demographic (age, gender), clinical information (time of arrival, triage code, seen by time, disposition, time to antibiotic, pathology, time to intravenous fluids) and patient assessment data (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturations, medication). This study demonstrated a statistically significant 230-minute reduction in time to antibiotics post implementation of the guidelines. The post group (n = 165) received more urgent triage categories (n = 81; 49·1%), a 758-minute reduction in mean time to second litre of intravenous fluids and an improvement in collection of lactate (n = 112, 67·9%), also statistically significant. The findings highlight the impact the guidelines can have on clinician decision-making and behaviour that support best practice and positive patient outcomes. The sepsis guidelines improved the early assessment, recognition and management of patients presenting with sepsis in one tertiary referral emergency department. The use of evidenced-based guidelines can impact clinical decision-making and behaviour, resulting in the translation and support of

  6. A Systems Approach to Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure Design for Utility Management Automation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fereidunian; H. Lesani; C. Lucas; M. Lehtonen; M. M. Nordman

    2006-01-01

    Almost all of electric utility companies are planning to improve their management automation system, in order to meet the changing requirements of new liberalized energy market and to benefit from the innovations in information and communication technology (ICT or IT). Architectural design of the utility management automation (UMA) systems for their IT-enabling requires proper selection of IT choices for UMA system, which leads to multi-criteria decision-makings (MCDM). In resp...

  7. A generic methodology for the design of sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes using superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    , including as an extractive agent or raw material. Chemical conversion, an important element of utilization, involves the use of carbon dioxide as a reactant in the production of chemical compounds [2]. However, for feasible implementation, a systematic methodology is needed for the design of the utilization......, especially chemical conversion, processes. To achieve this, a generic methodology has been developed, which adopts a three-stage approach consisting in (i) process synthesis, (ii) process design, and (iii) innovative and sustainable design [3]. This methodology, with the individual steps and associated...... methods and tools, has been developed and applied to carbon dioxide utilization networks. This work will focus on the first stage, process synthesis, of this three-stage methodology; process synthesis is important in determining the appropriate processing route to produce products from a selection...

  8. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowicz, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to `foster the exchange of scientific and technical information`, and `encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world`. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  9. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, I.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to 'foster the exchange of scientific and technical information', and 'encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world'. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  10. Evaluation of Embedded System Component Utilized in Delivery Integrated Design Project Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Hussaini, Yusnira; Nazmie Osman, Fairul; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of the embedded system component utilized in delivering the integrated electronic engineering design project course. The evaluation is conducted based on the report project submitted as to fulfil the assessment criteria for the integrated electronic engineering design project course named; engineering system design. Six projects were assessed in this evaluation. The evaluation covers the type of controller, programming language and the number of embedded component utilization as well. From the evaluation, the C-programming based language is the best solution preferred by the students which provide them flexibility in the programming. Moreover, the Analog to Digital converter is intensively used in the projects which include sensors in their proposed design. As a conclusion, in delivering the integrated design project course, the knowledge over the embedded system solution is very important since the high density of the knowledge acquired in accomplishing the project assigned.

  11. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. Actual component design, fabrication, testing, and inspection will be performed by various DOE laboratories, industry, and academia. This document augments WHC-SD-TD-FRD-003, 'Functions and Requirements for the Light Duty Utility Arm Integrated System' (F). All requirements dictated in the F shall also be applicable in this document. Whenever conflicts arise between this document and the F, this document shall take precedence

  12. Application of a systematic methodology for sustainable carbon dioxide utilization process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    than carbon capture and storage. To achieve this a methodology is developed to design sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes. First, the information on the possible utilization alternatives is collected, including the economic potential of the process and the carbon dioxide emissions...... emission are desired in order to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. Using this estimated preliminary evaluation, the top processes, with the most negative carbon dioxide emission are investigated by rigorous detailed simulation to evaluate the net carbon dioxide emissions. Once the base case design...

  13. Co-Emulation of Scan-Chain Based Designs Utilizing SCE-MI Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas, Bill Jason; Jiang, Yingtao; Yang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    As the complexity of the scan algorithm is dependent on the number of design registers, large SoC scan designs can no longer be verified in RTL simulation unless partitioned into smaller sub - blocks. This paper proposes a meth odology to decrease scan - chain verification time utilizing SCE - MI, a widely used communication protocol for emulation, and an FPGA - based emulation platform. A high - level (SystemC) testbench and FPGA synthesizable har...

  14. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  15. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  16. Utilizing Uncertainty Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Conceptual Design of Space Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Guo, J.; Chen, X.; Van Tooren, M.

    2010-01-01

    With progress of space technology and increase of space mission demand, requirements for robustness and reliability of space systems are ever-increasing. For the whole space mission life cycle, the most important decisions are made in the conceptual design phase, so it is very crucial to take

  17. Implementation of utilities operation and maintenance experience into the European pressurized water reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Lallier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992 Electricite de France EDF and German Utilities GU work together with Nuclear Power International NPI, a subsidiary of Framatome and Siemens, in the development of the future European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR. The EPR is an evolutionary concept, based on the French N4 plants and the German KONVOI plants. From the beginning, experienced operation and maintenance people from the precursor plants participate at the design process. Their experience will lead to a plant, which is not only characterised by low investment costs, but also by good operability, high availability and low operation and maintenance costs. No expensive back-fittings should be necessary after commissioning, to reach these availability and maintenance targets. The utility specialists give design requirements for outage performance, system design, and layout. These design requirements are really determining the system performances, and not what was design basis before. It does not necessarily lead to system increases. Mainly it is a shifting of the emphasis to other items. There are even cases, where the system performances can be reduced. Mostly very small modifications, which are nearly cost neutral when implemented early in the design, have big impact on the further operation. If there are big cost influences, a sound balance between investment and gained availability is made together with the designers. There is very fruitful discussion between designers and operators, which is highly estimated by both sides. In this frame also new, revolutionary ideas are coming up, which are going mostly in the direction of investment cost reduction, without loosing operation freedom. It is the first time in Europe, that designers and operators are working so close together. It is also the first time, that the management and the decision making is dominated by the utilities. (author)

  18. Has India's national rural health mission reduced inequities in maternal health services? A pre-post repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Gupta, Adyya; Khan, Zaky; Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Ebrahim, Shah; Bowling, Ann; Doyle, Pat

    2017-02-01

    In 2005, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to strengthen the primary healthcare system. NRHM also aims to encourage pregnant women, particularly of low socioeconomic backgrounds, to use institutional maternal healthcare. We evaluated the impacts of NRHM on socioeconomic inequities in the uptake of institutional delivery and antenatal care (ANC) across high-focus (deprived) Indian states. Data from District Level Household and Facility Surveys (DLHS) Rounds 1 (1995-99) and 2 (2000-04) from the pre-NRHM period, and Round 3 (2007-08), Round 4 and Annual Health Survey (2011-12) from post-NRHM period were used. Wealth-related and education-related relative indexes of inequality, and pre-post difference-in-differences models for wealth and education tertiles, adjusted for maternal age, rural-urban, caste, parity and state-level fixed effects, were estimated. Inequities in institutional delivery declined between pre-NRHM Period 1 (1995-99) and pre-NRHM Period 2 (2000-04), but thereafter demonstrated steeper decline in post-NRHM periods. Uptake of institutional delivery increased among all socioeconomic groups, with (1) greater effects among the lowest and middle wealth and education tertiles than highest tertile, and (2) larger equity impacts in the late post-NRHM period 2011-12 than in the early post-NRHM period 2007-08. No positive impact on the uptake of ANC was found in the early post-NRHM period 2007-08; however, there was considerable increase in the uptake of, and decline in inequity, in uptake of ANC in most states in the late post-NRHM period 2011-12. In high-focus states, NRHM resulted in increased uptake of maternal healthcare, and decline in its socioeconomic inequity. Our study suggests that public health programs in developing country settings will have larger equity impacts after its almost full implementation and widest outreach. Targeting deprived populations and designing public health programs by linking maternal and child

  19. Advanced reactor design study. Assessing nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, R.M.; Goldsmith, S.; Newman, D.F.; Trapp, T.J.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of the Advanced Reactor Design Study (ARDS) is to identify and evaluate nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors (LWRs). The results of this study provide a basis for selecting and demonstrating specific nonbackfittable concepts that have good potential for implementation. Lead responsibility for managing the study was assigned to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in LWRs on the once-through fuel cycle were selected separately for PWRs and BWRs due to basic differences in the way specific concepts apply to those plants. Nonbackfittable concepts are those that are too costly to incorporate in existing plants, and thus, could only be economically incorporated in new reactor designs or plants in very early stages of construction. Essential results of the Advanced Reactor Design Study are summarized

  20. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  1. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  2. Health insurance benefit design and healthcare utilization in northern rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poverty due to illness has become a substantial social problem in rural China since the collapse of the rural Cooperative Medical System in the early 1980s. Although the Chinese government introduced the New Rural Cooperative Medical Schemes (NRCMS in 2003, the associations between different health insurance benefit package designs and healthcare utilization remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we sought to examine the impact of health insurance benefit design on health care utilization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a household survey of 15,698 members of 4,209 randomly-selected households in 7 provinces, which were representative of the provinces along the north side of the Yellow River. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and in Mandarin. Our analytic sample included 9,762 respondents from 2,642 households. In each household, respondents indicated the type of health insurance benefit that the household had (coverage for inpatient care only or coverage for both inpatient and outpatient care and the number of outpatient visits in the 30 days preceding the interview and the number of hospitalizations in the 365 days preceding the household interview. People who had both outpatient and inpatient coverage compared with inpatient coverage only had significantly more village-level outpatient visits, township-level outpatient visits, and total outpatient visits. Furthermore, the increased utilization of township and village-level outpatient care was experienced disproportionately by people who were poorer, whereas the increased inpatient utilization overall and at the county level was experienced disproportionately by people who were richer. CONCLUSION: The evidence from this study indicates that the design of health insurance benefits is an important policy tool that can affect the health services utilization and socioeconomic equity in service use at different levels. Without careful

  3. Health insurance benefit design and healthcare utilization in northern rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Yan; Xue, Lei; Dale, Martha; Sipsma, Heather; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Poverty due to illness has become a substantial social problem in rural China since the collapse of the rural Cooperative Medical System in the early 1980s. Although the Chinese government introduced the New Rural Cooperative Medical Schemes (NRCMS) in 2003, the associations between different health insurance benefit package designs and healthcare utilization remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we sought to examine the impact of health insurance benefit design on health care utilization. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a household survey of 15,698 members of 4,209 randomly-selected households in 7 provinces, which were representative of the provinces along the north side of the Yellow River. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and in Mandarin. Our analytic sample included 9,762 respondents from 2,642 households. In each household, respondents indicated the type of health insurance benefit that the household had (coverage for inpatient care only or coverage for both inpatient and outpatient care) and the number of outpatient visits in the 30 days preceding the interview and the number of hospitalizations in the 365 days preceding the household interview. People who had both outpatient and inpatient coverage compared with inpatient coverage only had significantly more village-level outpatient visits, township-level outpatient visits, and total outpatient visits. Furthermore, the increased utilization of township and village-level outpatient care was experienced disproportionately by people who were poorer, whereas the increased inpatient utilization overall and at the county level was experienced disproportionately by people who were richer. The evidence from this study indicates that the design of health insurance benefits is an important policy tool that can affect the health services utilization and socioeconomic equity in service use at different levels. Without careful design, health insurance may not benefit those who are most in need

  4. On the utility of within-participant research design when working with patients with neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrimsdottir, Hanna Steinunn; Arntzen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Within-participant research designs are frequently used within the field of behavior analysis to document changes in behavior before, during, and after treatment. The purpose of the present article is to show the utility of within-participant research designs when working with older adults with neurocognitive disorders. The reason for advocating for these types of experimental designs is that they provide valid information about whether the changes that are observed in the dependent variable are caused by manipulations of the independent variable, or whether the change may be due to other variables. We provide examples from published papers where within-participant research design has been used with patients with neurocognitive disorders. The examples vary somewhat, demonstrating possible applications. It is our suggestion that the within-participant research design may be used more often with the targeted client group than is documented in the literature at the current date.

  5. Utilization of design data on conventional system to building information modeling (BIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Boyke M.; Z. R., Dewi Larasati

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays infrastructure development becomes one of the main priorities in the developed country such as Indonesia. The use of conventional design system is considered no longer effectively support the infrastructure projects, especially for the high complexity building design, due to its fragmented system issues. BIM comes as one of the solutions in managing projects in an integrated manner. Despite of the all known BIM benefits, there are some obstacles on the migration process to BIM. The two main of the obstacles are; the BIM implementation unpreparedness of some project parties and a concerns to leave behind the existing database and create a new one on the BIM system. This paper discusses the utilization probabilities of the existing CAD data from the conventional design system for BIM system. The existing conventional CAD data's and BIM design system output was studied to examine compatibility issues between two subject and followed by an utilization scheme-strategy probabilities. The goal of this study is to add project parties' eagerness in migrating to BIM by maximizing the existing data utilization and hopefully could also increase BIM based project workflow quality.

  6. The european passive plant (EPP) design: compliance with the european utilities requirements (EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.; Oyarzabal, M.

    1996-01-01

    Back 1986, most of the European firms have participated to the American program called the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) including the development of the Utilities Requirements as well as four projects as for instance AP600. Later, in the year 1990, seven European firms have begun to develop the European Utilities Requirements. This development is justified by the fact that the lessons learned by the nuclear power plants designs programs of the years 1980 can be incorporated and the European specific conditions can be taken into consideration. Thus, in 1994, eight European firms - Westinghouse and their industrial partners - have decided to launch a multiphase program in order to check the AP600 compliance with the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) and to develop the required alterations. Today, the phase I of the EPP (European Passive Plant) program has been completed. In this phase, the main important objectives have been reached. (O.M.)

  7. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  8. Design principles for CANDU control centres in response to evolving utility business needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear generation operators are facing a challenging business environment at the beginning of the new millennium. Evolving changes in business context, competitive commercial pressures, and changes in technology have dictated recurring evaluation of operational practices and the adequacy of supporting tools, and the pursuit of opportunities for operational improvement. A key area of utility operations that has been impacted by these changes is the nuclear plant control centre. Changes to workspace layout, equipment provisions, staffing, and work organization are examples of some of the adjustments being introduced to improve operational and safety effectiveness. This paper discusses some of the key factors influencing these changes and identifies additional design principles for CANDU control centres that will enable new control centre designs and retrofits of existing control centres to remain relevant and responsive to utility needs. (author)

  9. Design study of wind turbines, 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary designs of low power (50 to 500 kW) and high power (500 to 3000 kW) wind generator systems (WGS) for electric utility applications were developed. These designs provide the bases for detail design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration testing of these units at selected utility sites. Several feasible WGS configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. The selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration.

  10. Sodium-water reaction data needed by a utility for design assessment purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, P R [Fast Reactor Engineering, Barnwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

    1978-10-01

    Worldwide LMFBR experience has shown that LMFBR steam generator water/steam leakage into sodium can severely reduce steam generator availability and cause lengthy plant outages. Utility assessment LMFBR designs prior to placing an order to construct are likely to give emphasis to matters that can affect steam generator integrity, reliability and total operating cost. The data needed in carrying out such assessments is described. (author)

  11. Sodium-water reaction data needed by a utility for design assessment purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Worldwide LMFBR experience has shown that LMFBR steam generator water/steam leakage into sodium can severely reduce steam generator availability and cause lengthy plant outages. Utility assessment LMFBR designs prior to placing an order to construct are likely to give emphasis to matters that can affect steam generator integrity, reliability and total operating cost. The data needed in carrying out such assessments is described. (author)

  12. A methodology for the sustainable design and implementation strategy of CO2 utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Nguyen, Tuan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    design and analysis is discussed as only limited amounts of process data is available for determining the optimal processing path and in the third stage the issue of implementation strategy is considered. As examples, two CO2 utilization methods for methanol production, combined reforming and direct...... synthesis are considered. Methanol plants employing such methods are developed using synthesis-design and simulation tools and their evaluation indicators are calculated under various implementation strategies. It is demonstrated that integrating or replacing an existing conventional methanol plant...

  13. Systematic methods and tools for design of sustainable chemical processes for CO2 utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongpanna, Pichayapan; Babi, Deenesh K.; Pavarajarn, Varong

    2016-01-01

    A systematic computer-aided framework for sustainable process design is presented together with its application to the synthesis and generation of processing networks for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production with CO2 utilization. The framework integrated with various methods, tools, algorithms......-stage involves selection and analysis of the identified networks as a base case design in terms of operational feasibility, economics, life cycle assessment factors and sustainability measures, which are employed to establish targets for improvement in the next-stage. The innovation-stage involves generation...

  14. Simulation-Optimization Framework for Synthesis and Design of Natural Gas Downstream Utilization Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad A. Al-Sobhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many potential diversification and conversion options are available for utilization of natural gas resources, and several design configurations and technology choices exist for conversion of natural gas to value-added products. Therefore, a detailed mathematical model is desirable for selection of optimal configuration and operating mode among the various options available. In this study, we present a simulation-optimization framework for the optimal selection of economic and environmentally sustainable pathways for natural gas downstream utilization networks by optimizing process design and operational decisions. The main processes (e.g., LNG, GTL, and methanol production, along with different design alternatives in terms of flow-sheeting for each main processing unit (namely syngas preparation, liquefaction, N2 rejection, hydrogen, FT synthesis, methanol synthesis, FT upgrade, and methanol upgrade units, are used for superstructure development. These processes are simulated using ASPEN Plus V7.3 to determine the yields of different processing units under various operating modes. The model has been applied to maximize total profit of the natural gas utilization system with penalties for environmental impact, represented by CO2eq emission obtained using ASPEN Plus for each flowsheet configuration and operating mode options. The performance of the proposed modeling framework is demonstrated using a case study.

  15. Development of the spent fuel disassembling process by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. K.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yun, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    For developing the spent fuel disassembling process, the 3D graphic simulation has been established by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology which is widely used in the industry. The spent fuel disassembling process consists of a downender, a rod extraction device, a rod cutting device, a pellet extracting device and a skeleton compaction device. In this study, the 3D graphical design model of these devices is implemented by conceptual design and established the virtual workcell within kinematics to motion of each device. By implementing this graphic simulation, all the unit process involved in the spent fuel disassembling processes are analyzed and optimized. The 3D graphical model and the 3D graphic simulation can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process

  16. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  17. Time-Resolved Nucleic Acid Hybridization Beacons Utilizing Unimolecular and Toehold-Mediated Strand Displacement Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Melissa; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L; Algar, W Russ

    2015-12-01

    Nucleic acid hybridization probes are sought after for numerous assay and imaging applications. These probes are often limited by the properties of fluorescent dyes, prompting the development of new probes where dyes are paired with novel or nontraditional luminescent materials. Luminescent terbium complexes are an example of such a material, and these complexes offer several unique spectroscopic advantages. Here, we demonstrate two nonstem-loop designs for light-up nucleic acid hybridization beacons that utilize time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) between a luminescent Lumi4-Tb cryptate (Tb) donor and a fluorescent reporter dye, where time-resolved emission from the dye provides an analytical signal. Both designs are based on probe oligonucleotides that are labeled at their opposite termini with Tb and a fluorescent reporter dye. In one design, a probe is partially blocked with a quencher dye-labeled oligonucleotide, and target hybridization is signaled through toehold-mediated strand displacement and loss of a competitive FRET pathway. In the other design, the intrinsic folding properties of an unblocked probe are utilized in combination with a temporal mechanism for signaling target hybridization. This temporal mechanism is based on a recently elucidated "sweet spot" for TR-FRET measurements and exploits distance control over FRET efficiencies to shift the Tb lifetime within or outside the time-gated detection window for measurements. Both the blocked and unblocked beacons offer nanomolar (femtomole) detection limits, response times on the order of minutes, multiplexing through the use of different reporter dyes, and detection in complex matrices such as serum and blood. The blocked beacons offer better mismatch selectivity, whereas the unblocked beacons are simpler in design. The temporal mechanism of signaling utilized with the unblocked beacons also plays a significant role with the blocked beacons and represents a new and effective

  18. Design considerations to improve cognitive ergonomic issues of unmanned vehicle interfaces utilizing video game controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design.

  19. Improving fuel utilization in SmAHTR with spectral shift control design: Proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyar, D.; Lindley, B.A.; Mohamed, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving the fuel utilization in a graphite moderated reactor by adopting the ‘spectral shift’ concept. • The feasibility of this concept was tested in the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor. • At BOL, the reactor is under-moderated, with excess neutrons being primarily breeding 239 Pu. • Graphite is continuously inserted thermalizing the neutron spectrum and increasing reactivity. • The extra 239 Pu bred during the cycle is then burned, allowing the cycle to be extended. - Abstract: This paper presents a spectral shift design based approach to improve the fuel utilization factor or alternatively to increase the cycle length in a graphite moderated reactor. The feasibility of this concept was tested in the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR). This is a small sized Fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) that uses tri-isotropic (TRISO)-coated particle fuels and graphite moderator materials. A major benefit of the TRISO particles is the ability to mitigate fission product release in the case of an accident. However, the fabrication costs associated with TRISO particles are expected to be significantly higher than the traditional UO 2 fuel. The preliminary studies presented in the paper are focused on extending the achievable irradiation period without increasing the value of the enrichment. In order to increase the discharge burnup, the design includes graphite structures that are initially removed from the core. This imposes a harder spectrum, which enhances the breeding of 239 Pu. Then, the graphite structures are gradually and continuously inserted into the core to sustain criticality. This procedure shifts the hard spectrum into a more thermal one and enables a more efficient utilization of 239 Pu. The preliminary results indicate that this design achieves considerably longer irradiation periods and hence lower fuel cycle costs than the reference design.

  20. Transient performance and design aspects of low boron PWR cores with increased utilization of burnable absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papukchiev, Angel; Schaefer, Anselm

    2008-01-01

    In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, soluble boron is used for reactivity control over core fuel cycle. As high boron concentrations have significant impact on reactivity feedback properties and core transient behaviour, design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest in view of improving PWR inherent safety. In order to assess the potential advantages of such strategies in current PWRs, two low boron core configurations based on fuel with increased utilization of gadolinium and erbium burnable absorbers have been developed. The new PWR designs permit to reduce the natural boron concentration in reactor coolant at begin of cycle to 518 (Gd) and 805 (Er) ppm. An innovative low boron core design methodology was implemented combining a simplified reactivity balance search procedure with a core design approach based on detailed 3D diffusion calculations. Fuel cross sections needed for nuclear libraries were generated using the 2D lattice code HELIOS [2] and full core configurations were modelled with the 3D diffusion code QUABOX/CUBBOX [3]. For dynamic 3D calculations, the coupled code system ATHLET - QUABOX/CUBBOX was used [4]. The new cores meet German acceptance criteria regarding stuck rod, departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR), shutdown margin, and maximal linear power. For the assessment of potential safety advantages of the new cores, comparative analyses were performed for three PWR core designs: the already mentioned two low boron designs and a standard design. The improved safety performance of the low boron cores in anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), boron dilution scenarios and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA) has already been reported in [1, 2 and 3]. This paper gives a short reminder on the results obtained. Moreover, it deals not only with the potential advantages, but also addresses the drawbacks of the new PWR configurations - complex core design, increased power

  1. Nutritive utilization of protein and digestive utilization of fat in two commercial diets designed for clinical enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alférez, M J; Campos, M S; Barrionuevo, M; López-Aliaga, I

    1990-01-01

    The digestive and metabolic utilization of protein (50% lactoalbumin + 50% casein) and fat (43.0% butter, 29.5% olive oil, 14.7% soy oil, 9.8% MCT and 3.0% lecithin) provided by two commercial diets used in clinical enteral nutrition (normoproteic, 16.1% protein and 20.8% fat, and hyperproteic, 23.1% protein and 14.9% fat), was studied in adult rats (mean body weight 180 g). The diet containing the greater amount of protein improved the digestive utilization of nitrogen, and although nitrogen retention was optimal, it failed to rise further when the dietary protein supply was increased. The digestive utilization of fat in both diets was excellent.

  2. Integrated design and optimization of technologies for utilizing low grade heat in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a

  3. Design fractures and commercial potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, energy storage in the United States has been provided by a few pumped hydroelectric plants, but siting constraints and high cost severely limit the use of this option. Two other options which will soon be in use are batteries and compressed air energy storage. A fourth option, currently being developed for load leveling is Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). This paper reports the design features and estimated costs of utility scale SMES plants. For moderate discharge duration, SMES is projected to have substantially lower revenue requirements and better availability than other load leveling options. The Electric Power Research Institute has prepared a plan for commercialization which could, if aggressively pursued, lead to a demonstrated SMES technology that is available for utility commitment by the late 1990's

  4. Expanding the printable design space for lithography processes utilizing a cut mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, Jerome; Salama, Mohamed; Wilkinson, William; Curtice, Mark; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Gao, Shao Wen; Asthana, Abhishek

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of a cut-mask in semiconductor patterning processes has been in practice for logic devices since the inception of 32nm-node devices, notably with unidirectional gate level printing. However, the microprocessor applications where cut-mask patterning methods are used are expanding as Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) processes become mainstream for 22/14nm fin diffusion, and sub-14nm metal levels. One common weakness for these types of lithography processes is that the initial pattern requiring the follow-up cut-mask typically uses an extreme off-axis imaging source such as dipole to enhance the resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) for critical dense patterns. This source condition suffers from poor process margin in the semi-dense (forbidden pitch) realm and wrong-way directional design spaces. Common pattern failures in these limited design regions include bridging and extra-printing defects that are difficult to resolve with traditional mask improvement means. This forces the device maker to limit the allowable geometries that a designer may use on a device layer. This paper will demonstrate methods to expand the usable design space on dipole-like processes such as unidirectional gate and SADP processes by utilizing the follow-up cut mask to improve the process window. Traditional mask enhancement means for improving the process window in this design realm will be compared to this new cut-mask approach. The unique advantages and disadvantages of the cut-mask solution will be discussed in contrast to those customary methods.

  5. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory

  6. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  7. Architecture and design of optical path networks utilizing waveband virtual links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusaku; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    We propose a novel optical network architecture that uses waveband virtual links, each of which can carry several optical paths, to directly bridge distant node pairs. Future photonic networks should not only transparently cover extended areas but also expand fiber capacity. However, the traversal of many ROADM nodes impairs the optical signal due to spectrum narrowing. To suppress the degradation, the bandwidth of guard bands needs to be increased, which degrades fiber frequency utilization. Waveband granular switching allows us to apply broader pass-band filtering at ROADMs and to insert sufficient guard bands between wavebands with minimum frequency utilization offset. The scheme resolves the severe spectrum narrowing effect. Moreover, the guard band between optical channels in a waveband can be minimized, which increases the number of paths that can be accommodated per fiber. In the network, wavelength path granular routing is done without utilizing waveband virtual links, and it still suffers from spectrum narrowing. A novel network design algorithm that can bound the spectrum narrowing effect by limiting the number of hops (traversed nodes that need wavelength path level routing) is proposed in this paper. This algorithm dynamically changes the waveband virtual link configuration according to the traffic distribution variation, where optical paths that need many node hops are effectively carried by virtual links. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the number of necessary fibers is reduced by 23% compared with conventional optical path networks.

  8. Utilization of building information modeling in infrastructure’s design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Josef; Macadam, Helen

    2017-09-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a concept that has gained its place in the design, construction and maintenance of buildings in Czech Republic during recent years. This paper deals with description of usage, applications and potential benefits and disadvantages connected with implementation of BIM principles in the preparation and construction of infrastructure projects. Part of the paper describes the status of BIM implementation in Czech Republic, and there is a review of several virtual design and construction practices in Czech Republic. Examples of best practice are presented from current infrastructure projects. The paper further summarizes experiences with new technologies gained from the application of BIM related workflows. The focus is on the BIM model utilization for the machine control systems on site, quality assurance, quality management and construction management.

  9. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  10. Design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) which improve fuel utilization in light water reactors (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, H.C.; Freeman, L.B.

    1981-08-01

    This report surveys reactor core design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor which make possible improved fuel utilization in light water reactor systems and breeding with the uranium-thorium fuel cycle. The impact of developing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle on utilization of nuclear fuel resources is discussed. The specific core design features related to improved fuel utilization and breeding which have been implemented in the Shippingport LWBR core are presented. These design features include a seed-blanket module with movable fuel for reactivity control, radial and axial reflcetor regions, low hafnium Zircaloy for fuel element cladding and structurals, and a closely spaced fuel rod lattice. Also included is a discussion of several design modifications which could further improve fuel utilization in future light water reactor systems. These include further development of movable fuel control, use of Zircaloy fuel rod support grids, and fuel element design modifications

  11. A Quantitative Human Spacecraft Design Evaluation Model for Assessing Crew Accommodation and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, Christine

    Crew performance, including both accommodation and utilization factors, is an integral part of every human spaceflight mission from commercial space tourism, to the demanding journey to Mars and beyond. Spacecraft were historically built by engineers and technologists trying to adapt the vehicle into cutting edge rocketry with the assumption that the astronauts could be trained and will adapt to the design. By and large, that is still the current state of the art. It is recognized, however, that poor human-machine design integration can lead to catastrophic and deadly mishaps. The premise of this work relies on the idea that if an accurate predictive model exists to forecast crew performance issues as a result of spacecraft design and operations, it can help designers and managers make better decisions throughout the design process, and ensure that the crewmembers are well-integrated with the system from the very start. The result should be a high-quality, user-friendly spacecraft that optimizes the utilization of the crew while keeping them alive, healthy, and happy during the course of the mission. Therefore, the goal of this work was to develop an integrative framework to quantitatively evaluate a spacecraft design from the crew performance perspective. The approach presented here is done at a very fundamental level starting with identifying and defining basic terminology, and then builds up important axioms of human spaceflight that lay the foundation for how such a framework can be developed. With the framework established, a methodology for characterizing the outcome using a mathematical model was developed by pulling from existing metrics and data collected on human performance in space. Representative test scenarios were run to show what information could be garnered and how it could be applied as a useful, understandable metric for future spacecraft design. While the model is the primary tangible product from this research, the more interesting outcome of

  12. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    In the conceptual design task, several feasible wind generator systems (WGS) configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. In the optimization task, the selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. In the preliminary design task, the optimized selected concept was designed and analyzed in detail. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational, and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration. The optimization task results led to the selection of a 500 kW rating for the low power WGS and a 1500 kW rating for the high power WGS.

  13. Optimizing Mass Spectrometry Analyses: A Tailored Review on the Utility of Design of Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Elizabeth S; Oberg, Ann L; Muddiman, David C

    2016-05-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a tool that can analyze nearly all classes of molecules, with its scope rapidly expanding in the areas of post-translational modifications, MS instrumentation, and many others. Yet integration of novel analyte preparatory and purification methods with existing or novel mass spectrometers can introduce new challenges for MS sensitivity. The mechanisms that govern detection by MS are particularly complex and interdependent, including ionization efficiency, ion suppression, and transmission. Performance of both off-line and MS methods can be optimized separately or, when appropriate, simultaneously through statistical designs, broadly referred to as "design of experiments" (DOE). The following review provides a tutorial-like guide into the selection of DOE for MS experiments, the practices for modeling and optimization of response variables, and the available software tools that support DOE implementation in any laboratory. This review comes 3 years after the latest DOE review (Hibbert DB, 2012), which provided a comprehensive overview on the types of designs available and their statistical construction. Since that time, new classes of DOE, such as the definitive screening design, have emerged and new calls have been made for mass spectrometrists to adopt the practice. Rather than exhaustively cover all possible designs, we have highlighted the three most practical DOE classes available to mass spectrometrists. This review further differentiates itself by providing expert recommendations for experimental setup and defining DOE entirely in the context of three case-studies that highlight the utility of different designs to achieve different goals. A step-by-step tutorial is also provided.

  14. Pressurization Risk Assessment of CO2 Reservoirs Utilizing Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Park, E.; Han, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring of pressure buildup can provide explicit information on reservoir integrity and is an appealing tool, however pressure variation is dependent on a variety of factors causing high uncertainty in pressure predictions. This work evaluated pressurization of a reservoir system in the presence of leakage pathways as well as exploring the effects of compartmentalization of the reservoir utilizing design of experiments (Definitive Screening, Box Behnken, Central Composite, and Latin Hypercube designs) and response surface methods. Two models were developed, 1) an idealized injection scenario in order to evaluate the performance of multiple designs, and 2) a complex injection scenario implementing the best performing design to investigate pressurization of the reservoir system. A holistic evaluation of scenario 1, determined that the Central Composite design would be used for the complex injection scenario. The complex scenario evaluated 5 risk factors: reservoir, seal, leakage pathway and fault permeabilities, and horizontal position of the pathway. A total of 60 response surface models (RSM) were developed for the complex scenario with an average R2 of 0.95 and a NRMSE of 0.067. Sensitivity to the input factors was dynamic through space and time; at the earliest time (0.05 years) the reservoir permeability was dominant, and for later times (>0.5 years) the fault permeability became dominant for all locations. The RSM's were then used to conduct a Monte Carlo Analysis to further analyze pressurization risks, identifying the P10, P50, P90 values. This identified the in zone (lower) P90 values as 2.16, 1.77, and 1.53 MPa and above zone values of 1.35, 1.23, 1.09 MPa for monitoring locations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In summary, the design of experiments and response surface methods allowed for an efficient sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to be conducted permitting a complete evaluation of the pressurization across the entire parameter space.

  15. 10 CFR 170.21 - Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design approvals, special projects, inspections and import and export... AMENDED Schedule of Fees § 170.21 Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of...

  16. Information Exchange among COG Member Stations, Utility/AECL Design and External Nuclear Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Dave

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the COG Information Exchange Program the mandate of which reads: 'To promote the safety reliability and excellence of CANDU plants worldwide by facilitating the sharing of operating experience amongst the members of COG'. To fulfill its mandate the COG operates Information Exchange Program which: 1. Provides a user-friendly facility, COGNET, for staff of COG member organizations to communicate with each other and with external stations, utilities and organizations on topics applicable to CANDU operation, safety, maintenance, design and performance; 2. Offers one-stop shopping for information applicable to the design, operation, maintenance, safety and performance of CANDU's; 3. Reports and compares the performance of all CANDU stations; 4. Organizes opportunities for individuals involved with the operation of CANDU's to meet with their peers and with CANDU industry experts to share operating experience; 5. Facilitates the identification of generic CANDU problems which leads to the addressing of these problems by others through co-operative projects, designer feedback and R and D programs. The paper has the following content: 1. COGNET; 1.1. COGNET Message Forums; 1.2. COGNET Operations Forums; 1.3. COGNET Private Messages; 2. Report Databases and Library; 2.1. REPEX (Technical Reports); 2.2. PCN (CANDU Plant Modifications); 2.3. SEREX (CANDU Station Events); 2.4. INPO (International Events); 3. CANDU Performance; 3.1. COG NEWSLETTERS; 3.2. Performance Indicators; 4. Workshops; 4.1. COG Workshops

  17. Modeling and design of light powered biomimicry micropump utilizing transporter proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Sze, Tsun-Kay Jackie; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-11-01

    The creation of compact micropumps to provide steady flow has been an on-going challenge in the field of microfluidics. We present a mathematical model for a micropump utilizing Bacteriorhodopsin and sugar transporter proteins. This micropump utilizes transporter proteins as method to drive fluid flow by converting light energy into chemical potential. The fluid flow through a microchannel is simulated using the Nernst-Planck, Navier-Stokes, and continuity equations. Numerical results show that the micropump is capable of generating usable pressure. Designing parameters influencing the performance of the micropump are investigated including membrane fraction, lipid proton permeability, illumination, and channel height. The results show that there is a substantial membrane fraction region at which fluid flow is maximized. The use of lipids with low membrane proton permeability allows illumination to be used as a method to turn the pump on and off. This capability allows the micropump to be activated and shut off remotely without bulky support equipment. This modeling work provides new insights on mechanisms potentially useful for fluidic pumping in self-sustained bio-mimic microfluidic pumps. This work is supported in part by the National Science Fundation Grant CBET-1250107.

  18. The Design Features of the Double-Banked AMBIDEXTER Utilizing DUPIC Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Tae Kyu [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Joon; Hong, Sung Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Myung Hwan [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae An [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Kee [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Since the on-site spent fuel storage capabilities at reactors in Korea are expected to be saturated in a few years, the government has been pressed to find a solution for the spent nuclear fuel. So far one of workable means for reducing the load would be utilizing DUPIC fuel cycle technology. The technology was developed through Korea-Canada-U.S. collaboration to utilize the LWR spent fuel for the CANDU reactor. However, by various sociopolitical reasons, the DUPIC technology has not been yet commercialized. As the other alternatives to use the DUPIC technology, Gen-IV reactors would be pertinent. In the following session, the design features of a molten salt reactor system that can burn DUPIC fuel are explained. The followings are derived as conclusions after considering all the factors; The AMDEC, compared to ORIGEN2 simulations, can calculate the nuclides concentration changes within 1% deviation in various core zones and reactor system components by using different library sets which are weighted with each neutron spectrum; Fuel-flow effects coupled with nuclear reactions is well reflected in the AMDEC.

  19. User oriented design features of Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor and its utilization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byungkoo; Jun, Byungjin

    1994-01-01

    Construction of a 30 MW class Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor (KMRR) is near its completion and expected to reach initial criticality by the end of 1994 at KAERI Taejon site. As Korea will become one of developed countries during the lifetime of this reactor and many worldwide high performance research reactors of the first generation are reaching end of life, it is believed that KMRR will meet the increasing domestic needs to utilize high performance research reactor and its worldwide role will be important as well. In reactor design, effort has been focused on optimization which can satisfy various future utilization demands as much as possible with enhanced safety as a basic requirement. Light water cooled and heavy water reflected compact core using low enriched and high uranium loaded fuel, computer controlled operation, etc. are expected to provide truly multi-purpose user environments with stable high quality neutron flux. High level experimental facilities and equipment for reactor fuel and material test, various studies using neutron beam, radioisotope production, semiconductor doping, neutron activation analysis, etc., will be completed in parallel with the reactor or gradually depending on users' needs. When KMRR becomes fully operational, it will not only serve the domestic users but also be a valuable tool for a worldwide research community using a research reactor

  20. Occupational therapists' perceptions about the clinical utility of the 3D interior design software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwa, Anita; Money, Arthur G; Spiliotopoulou, Georgia; Mcintyre, Anne

    2013-07-01

    The 3D interior design software (3DIDS) is a technology, which primarily allows users to simulate their homes and visualize any changes prior to implementing them. This feasibility study aimed to examine occupational therapists' perceptions about the clinical utility of the 3DIDS. A secondary aim was to explore the attitudes of occupational therapists towards technology in general. Three focus groups were conducted with 25 occupational therapists working with older people in the UK. The qualitative data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The three main themes that were identified were usage and attitudes of technology, opportunities for realistic application of the 3DIDS and related threats and benefits for the occupational therapy profession. Occupational therapists had a positive attitude towards technology. They suggested that the 3DIDS could be used in discharge planning and in rehabilitation. They viewed it as a tool that could enhance their status within the health care profession and improve communication, but not as a tool that should replace the role of the occupational therapist. This research offers new and important findings about the utilization of the 3DIDS by occupational therapists and provides information as to where this technology should be trialled.

  1. Utilizing subcooled, superfluid He-II in the design of a 12-Tesla tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Baldi, R.W.; Taylor, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    A design study of 12-T yin-yang coils for a conceptual Tandem Mirror Next Step facility has been recently performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Convair Division of General Dynamics. The large magnets have major and mirror radii of 3.7 and 1.5 m, 0.70 x 3.75 m 2 cross section, 46.3 MA turns, and an overall current density of 1765 A/cm 2 , obtained by the use of Nb 3 Sn and Nb-Ti superconductors. Each coil is composed of several subcoils separated by internal strengthening substructure to react the enormous electromagnetic forces. The size of the yin-yang coils, and hence the current density, was reduced by utilizing subcooled, superfluid He-II at 1.8 K for the coolant. This paper reviews the design study, with emphasis on He-II heat transport and conductor stability. Methods are also presented which allow the extension of Gorter-Mellink-channel calculations to encompass multiple, interconnecting coolant channels

  2. Designing management strategies for carbon dioxide storage and utilization under uncertainty using inexact modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Jie; Xu, Ye; Sun, Wei; Chen, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Effective application of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) systems could help to alleviate the influence of climate change by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The research objective of this study is to develop an equilibrium chance-constrained programming model with bi-random variables (ECCP model) for supporting the CCUS management system under random circumstances. The major advantage of the ECCP model is that it tackles random variables as bi-random variables with a normal distribution, where the mean values follow a normal distribution. This could avoid irrational assumptions and oversimplifications in the process of parameter design and enrich the theory of stochastic optimization. The ECCP model is solved by an equilibrium change-constrained programming algorithm, which provides convenience for decision makers to rank the solution set using the natural order of real numbers. The ECCP model is applied to a CCUS management problem, and the solutions could be useful in helping managers to design and generate rational CO2-allocation patterns under complexities and uncertainties.

  3. Effective utilization of maintenance staff in design and implementation of major project work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, D.; Dingle, J.; Brown, R.

    1995-01-01

    The reorganization of Pickering Nuclear Division some 2 years ago resulted in the formation of the Projects and Modifications department. This department takes an integrated approach to manage all aspects of large projects at Pickering. The integration of Design, Drafting, Procurement, Construction and Operations functions into project teams represents a fundamental change to project management at Pickering. The development of integrated teams has great potential for reducing both the time and cost associated with project implementation, while at the same time improving the quality, and maintainability of the commissioned in service project. The Pickering Rehab organization 1989-1993, established to perform the rehab / retube of Units 3 and 4 had proven that a team environment will produce effective results. The outcome was astounding, critical categories such as Safety, Quality of Work, and Timeliness, had proven the team's effectiveness. The integration of operations maintenance staff into the project work activities is still evolving, and has probably required the most adaptation to change for both the former Construction and Operations organizations. Maximizing the utilization of the maintenance staff in the design and implementation of major project work will prove to be a key to a long term operating success of these projects. This paper will focus in on the effective usage of Maintenance staff in the design and implementation phases of major project work at Pickering, and on the benefits realized using this approach. It will be divided into 5 sections as indicated. 1. Past Project Shortfalls. 2. Benefits of the inclusion of Maintenance staff in the Calandria Vault Rehab Project. 3. Maintenance involvement in the Pickering 'A' Shutdown System Enhancement (SDSE) Project. 4. Challenges resulting from the inclusion of Maintenance staff project teams. 5. Summary. (author)

  4. OPEN COURSEWARE IN DESIGN AND PLANNING EDUCATION AND UTILIZATION OF DISTANCE EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY: Anadolu University Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicran Hanım HALAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the evolving technological possibilities, distance and online education applications have gradually gained more significance in the education system. Regarding the issues, such as advancements in the server services, disc capacity, cloud computing opportunities resulting from the increase in the number of the broadband internet users, web design applications; and increase in the number of mobile device and social media users and the time spent on the internet, traditional reading and working habits as well as the preferred information resources of man have considerably changed. In accordance with these changes, it has become an inevitable necessity to improve the higher education courses and learning materials. Any higher education system, which fails to keep up with these requirements, will inevitably have difficulties in providing the students with the necessary knowledge and skills within an appropriate workload frame. Within this context, one of the fields to benefit from distance and online education opportunities is undoubtedly “architecture and design education”. Although the use of computer technologies is inevasible and highly intensive in this field, the speed of conformance with the rapid technological changes and the adoption of the advancements is considerably slow compared to others. However, it is still among the fields where the technological opportunities are utilized at most. Thereby, distance and online education technologies present an essential potential to help students achieve the required planning and architectural knowledge and skills. In this respect, this article evaluates the distance and online education opportunities for design and planning education through the experience of Anadolu University.

  5. Choosing the Energy Sources Needed for Utilities in the Design and Refurbishment of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Atănăsoae

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for choosing the energy sources that are needed for the following building utilities following building: lighting, domestic hot water, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The novelty of this paper consists of applying the concept of the energy hub and considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions when selecting the available energy sources in the building’s location. The criterion for selecting the energy sources is the minimum overall cost of all forms of energy that are consumed in the building over its estimated lifetime. In order to estimate the overall costs, it is necessary to know the power that is installed and provided by the energy production technologies that are inside the building, as well as the capacity of energy that is required from outside energy sources. An office building that was proposed for refurbishment has been investigated as a case study. In the paper, we have analysed four scenarios. The results indicate that more favourable alternative solutions can be obtained compared to the traditional scenario (Scenario 4—heat and electricity by public utility networks. The overall costs are 46.17% (212,671 EUR lower in Scenario 1, 25.35% (116,770 EUR lower in Scenario 2, and 10.89% (50,150 EUR lower in Scenario 3. Additionally, the carbon dioxide emissions are 22.98% (49 tonnes CO2/year lower in Scenario 1 and 8.91% (19 tonnes CO2/year lower in Scenario 2. Thus, renewable energy sources can occupy a growing share of the total energy consumption of the building. The proposed algorithm can be used for both the refurbishment of existing buildings and the design of new buildings.

  6. The effect of simulation courseware on critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students: multi-site pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsook; Ma, Hyunhee; Park, Jiyoung; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Dong Hee

    2015-04-01

    The use of simulations has been considered as opportunities for students to enhance their critical thinking (CT), but previous studies were limited because they did not provide in-depth information on the working dynamics of simulation or on the effects of the number of simulation exposures on CT. This study examined the effect of an integrated pediatric nursing simulation used in a nursing practicum on students' CT abilities and identified the effects of differing numbers of simulation exposures on CT in a multi-site environment. The study used a multi-site, pre-test, post-test design. A total of 237 nursing students at three universities enrolled in a pediatric practicum participated in this study from February to December 2013. All three schools used the same simulation courseware, including the same simulation scenarios, evaluation tools, and simulation equipment. The courseware incorporated high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients. Students at school A completed one simulation session, whereas students at schools B and C completed two and three simulation sessions, respectively. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition tool (2008) was used to measure students' CT abilities. The gains in students' CT scores varied according to their numbers of exposures to the simulation courseware. With a single exposure, there were no statistically significant gains in CT, whereas three exposures to the courseware produced significant gains in CT. In seven subcategories of critical thinking, three exposures to the simulation courseware produced CT gains in the prudence and intellectual eagerness subcategories, and the overall simulation experience produced CT gains in the prudence, systematicity, healthy skepticism, and intellectual eagerness subcategories. Simulation courseware may produce positive learning outcomes for prudence in nursing education. In addition, the findings from the multi-site comparative study may contribute to greater understanding of how patient

  7. A Smartphone App (BlueIce) for Young People Who Self-Harm: Open Phase 1 Pre-Post Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Joanna; Grist, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a significant increase in the availability of smartphone apps for mental health problems. Despite their proliferation, few apps have been specifically developed for young people, and almost none have been subject to any form of evaluation. Objective This study aimed to undertake a preliminary evaluation of a smartphone app (BlueIce), coproduced with young people and designed to help young people manage distress and urges to self-harm. We aimed to assess the acceptability, safety, and use of BlueIce and to explore the effects on the primary outcome of self-harm and the secondary outcomes of psychological functioning. Methods We undertook an open trial where we recruited young people aged 12 to 17 years attending specialist child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) who were currently self-harming or had a history of self-harm. Eligible participants were assessed at baseline and then given BlueIce. They were assessed 2 weeks later (post familiarization) and again at 12 weeks (post use). A behavior-screening questionnaire (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) was completed along with standardized measures of depression (Mood and Feelings Questionnaire or MFQ) and anxiety (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale or RCADS), taking into account self-reports of self-harm, app helpfulness, and safety. Results All core CAMHS professional groups referred at least 1 young person. Out of 40 young people recruited, 37 (93%) elected to use BlueIce after familiarization, with 29 out of 33 (88%) wanting to keep it at the end of the study. No young person called the emergency numbers during the 12-week trial, and no one was withdrawn by his or her clinician due to increased risk of suicide. Almost three-quarters (73%) of those who had recently self-harmed reported reductions in self-harm after using BlueIce for 12 weeks. There was a statistically significant mean difference of 4.91 (t31=2.11; P=.04; 95% CI 0.17-9.64) on postuse

  8. Aeroelastic analysis of an offshore wind turbine: Design and Fatigue Performance of Large Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Fossum, Peter Kalsaas

    2012-01-01

    Aeroelastic design and fatigue analysis of large utility-scale wind turbine blades are performed. The applied fatigue model is based on established methods and is incorporated in an iterative numerical design tool for realistic wind turbine blades. All aerodynamic and structural design properties are available in literature. The software tool FAST is used for advanced aero-servo-elastic load calculations and stress-histories are calculated with elementary beam theory.According to wind energy ...

  9. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  10. Novel design and sensitivity analysis of displacement measurement system utilizing knife edge diffraction for nanopositioning stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, ChaBum; Lee, Sun-Kyu; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and sensitivity analysis of a knife edge-based optical displacement sensor that can be embedded with nanopositioning stages. The measurement system consists of a laser, two knife edge locations, two photodetectors, and axillary optics components in a simple configuration. The knife edge is installed on the stage parallel to its moving direction and two separated laser beams are incident on knife edges. While the stage is in motion, the direct transverse and diffracted light at each knife edge is superposed producing interference at the detector. The interference is measured with two photodetectors in a differential amplification configuration. The performance of the proposed sensor was mathematically modeled, and the effect of the optical and mechanical parameters, wavelength, beam diameter, distances from laser to knife edge to photodetector, and knife edge topography, on sensor outputs was investigated to obtain a novel analytical method to predict linearity and sensitivity. From the model, all parameters except for the beam diameter have a significant influence on measurement range and sensitivity of the proposed sensing system. To validate the model, two types of knife edges with different edge topography were used for the experiment. By utilizing a shorter wavelength, smaller sensor distance and higher edge quality increased measurement sensitivity can be obtained. The model was experimentally validated and the results showed a good agreement with the theoretically estimated results. This sensor is expected to be easily implemented into nanopositioning stage applications at a low cost and mathematical model introduced here can be used for design and performance estimation of the knife edge-based sensor as a tool.

  11. Generation and utilization of knowledge concerning state change propagation using plant design information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Yukio; Sato, Takao; Matsuki, Tsutomu.

    1992-01-01

    A method of knowledge generation and utilization using design information is described. This method is used to generate rules concerned with propagation of state change in a plant due to equipment manipulation or anomaly. The rules describe macroscopic behavior of plant subsystems consisting of many devices, and are used for high speed information processing in expert systems for plant diagnosis, maintenance, etc. Knowledge generation is comprised of two steps. In the first step, the changes of state values are propagated according to connectivity between devices and the input-output relationships of the devices. In the second step, the input change, output change of plant subsystems, and other information are edited according to the results of state change propagation, and rules for state change propagation are generated. By using these rules, the simulation of state change propagation can be accelerated about 10 times compared with the case of device level propagation. The method of knowledge generation has been applied to the inference system in a maintenance work scheduling system and a new-type expert system was realized. It grows by generating rules for problem solving and by expanding its knowledge base by itself. (author)

  12. Design and process integration of organic Rankine cycle utilizing biomass for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ependi, S.; Nur, T. B.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has high potential biomass energy sources from palm oil mill industry activities. The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used for generating electricity from rejected waste heat to the environment in industrial processes. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, and wood chip have been used as fuel for biomass to generate electricity based ORC with combustion processes. The heat from combustion burner was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC unit. Appropriate designs integration from biomass combustion unit to ORC unit have been analyzed and proposed to generate expander shaft-work. Moreover, the effect of recuperator on the total system efficiency has also been investigated. It was observed that the fuel consumption was increased when the ORC unit equipped recuperator operated until certain pressure and decreased when operated at high pressure.

  13. Omah displacement and utilization from rural to urban areas, as green design lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajarwati, Ade Ariyani Sari

    2017-11-01

    Building a house in urban area is very costly and also leaving a bunch amount of construction waste. Many efforts were made to reduce the load of this waste. However, the high demand of residences in metropolitan makes the waste problem needs to be solved together. Based on this problem, author chooses Omah, - a Javanese traditional house, which is built, based on the traditional system of life of Javanese people - displacement from rural to urban area as the alternative solution, as it uses selected materials from nature by considering the sustainability and preservation for future generation. The wooden building is built based on traditional construction system that follows Javanese principles and traditional calculation, based on philosophy and cosmology in the community. This paper will covers utilization of Omah in urban area as an implementation of green design, which refers to the concepts of reuse, reduce, recycle and responsibility. Through expert interviews and field surveys in urban and rural areas, author collected data needed for this paper. Although the functionality of the building is different from rural to urban requirements, the phenomenon of Omah displacement from Javanese habitat to urban living area is well accepted and becomes an interesting trend.

  14. Design for a sustainable society utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) - proposal: a new EcoDesign method and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, J. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, the Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, M. [Fundamental and Environment Labs., NEC Corp. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    We discuss a new EcoDesign method, with a goal of improving the economy, and its application to a sustainable networked society. The new EcoDesign method differs from conventional EcoDesign in three respects: it utilizes a top-down approach, project-style research, and fact-finding and benchmarking. We systematize EcoDesign for a networked society from the viewpoint of technology and divide it into four components. Feasibility studies of the individual components reveal that if we promote ICT diffusion with EcoDesign in mind, we can suppress CO2 emissions and move towards a more sustainable society. (orig.)

  15. An informatics approach to assess pediatric pharmacotherapy: design and implementation of a hospital drug utilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppa, Athena; Vijayakumar, Sundararajan; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Patel, Dimple; Narayan, Mahesh; Vijayakumar, Kalpana; Mondick, John T; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2007-09-01

    Drug utilization in the inpatient setting can provide a mechanism to assess drug prescribing trends, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of hospital formularies and examine subpopulations for which prescribing habits may be different. Such data can be used to correlate trends with time-dependent or seasonal changes in clinical event rates or the introduction of new pharmaceuticals. It is now possible to provide a robust, dynamic analysis of drug utilization in a large pediatric inpatient setting through the creation of a Web-based hospital drug utilization system that retrieves source data from our accounting database. The production implementation provides a dynamic and historical account of drug utilization at the authors' institution. The existing application can easily be extended to accommodate a multi-institution environment. The creation of a national or even global drug utilization network would facilitate the examination of geographical and/or socioeconomic influences in drug utilization and prescribing practices in general.

  16. Enhancement of collaboration activities utilizing 21st century learning design rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Dave D.; Gargar, Clare V., Lady; Nallano, Gerlett Grace D.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.

    2018-01-01

    Twenty first century learners have incredibly diverse learning interests, needs, and aspirations. Engaging middle school students and sculpting successful, confident, and creative learners is a constant endeavor for educators [4]. In the 21st century classroom environments in which students can develop the skills they need in workplace. Collaboration occurs when students work together to create, discuss challenge and develop deeper critical thinking. In today's workplace, collaboration is essential as only few tasks are completed alone (Calgary and Park, 2016). The collaborative project-based curriculum used in this classroom develops the higher order thinking skills, effective communication skills, and knowledge of technology that students will need in the 21st century workplace. The study therefore aims to promote collaboration skills among learners as it is deemed as one of the top 21st century skills. Collaborative learning unleashes a unique intellectual and social synergy. This study aims to enhance the collaborative skills of students through conducting collaboration activities in learning the Ecosystem. This research utilizes pretest-posttest and employs descriptive research designs. It uses modified activities about the lesson on Ecosystem and utilizes a Collaboration Rubric to rate the modified activities. The activities were rated by ten In-Service teachers and there are 105 students who participated in doing the activities. The paired t-test is then used to analyze the data. The In-Service teachers evaluated the 1st and 2nd adapted activity and are rated as fair. Thus, the modified activities were enhanced since the ratings of each activity did not meet the criterion of the collaboration rubric. As for the 3rd adapted activity is rated as excellent and is ready for implementation. The evaluators provided comments and suggestions such as producing colored pictures on the activities, omitting some questions, and making the words simpler to enhance the

  17. Accidents and Incidents Related to Intravenous Drug Administration: A Pre-Post Study Following Implementation of Smart Pumps in a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Aurélie; Tourel, Julien; Delage, Emmanuelle; Duval, Stéphanie; David, Marie-Johanne; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Smart pumps are expected to prevent and reduce medication errors. The implementation of smart pumps requires a significant effort and collaboration of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other stakeholders. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of new smart pumps on reported drug-related accidents and incidents (AIs). This is a descriptive retrospective pre-post study conducted at a women's and pediatric hospital with 500 beds. A strong multidisciplinary team (nurse, pharmacist, pharmacy resident, physician, biomedical technician, information technology technician, patient safety officer, manager) was involved in the planning, implementation, and monitoring technology implementation. A total of 1045 smart pumps were implemented in 2011 in our hospital. The reported number of AIs related to intravenous drug administration (AIIV) before and after the implementation of 1045 smart pumps were collected. A total of 2911 AI events related to medications, devices, and equipment were self-reported by clinical staff in the pre-phase (Y0), 3523 in the post-phase (Y1), and 2788 in the post-phase (Y2). The total AIIV increased from 1432 in Y0 to 1834 in Y1 and decreased to 1389 in Y2. We observed no risk reduction associated with the implementation of smart pumps in a 500 bed mother-child hospital. Further studies are required to explore the details of the potential risk reduction associated with the use of smart pumps.

  18. Evaluation of Quality Indicators of Integrated Care in a Regional Psychiatry Budget – A Pre-Post Comparison by Secondary Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Berghöfer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Psychiatry Budget (RPB, as a special arrangement within the German Federal Hospital Refund Regulation, is based on the capitation principle. A lump sum is allocated to a major inpatient care provider in a large region on a yearly basis. Under this model, the provider is free to offer all forms of treatment and to construct individual models of integrated care that specifically suit the region and the needs of community members. The present study aimed to evaluate selected aspects that represent a change in the psychiatric health status of patients in the covered region under the conditions of the RPB. We performed a secondary data analysis of administrative data of 19,913 cases generated by the hospital in a pre-post comparison of the periods before and under RPB conditions.  The average length of an inpatient stay was reduced by approximately 22 % and could be partially replaced by day care. Selected indicators suggest equal or higher quality of care with stable cost in the population in need of psychiatric care in the district.

  19. On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Briel, Annemarie; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-03-15

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km(2) catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The utility of screening in the design of trials for symptom management in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangchoon; Given, Charles W; Sikorskii, Alla; Given, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Clinical trials that test interventions for symptom management must target patients whose symptoms are severe and can benefit from participation. Screening symptoms for their severity prior to trial entry may be an important element of trial design. This research describes the utility of screening for severity of symptoms prior to entry into clinical trials for symptom management in cancer. To accomplish this, 601 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were assessed at screening and at the initial intervention contact, using the 0-10 rating scale for severity of nine symptoms. Post-test probabilities and likelihood ratios (LRs) were estimated across cut-offs in screening severity scores. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for reaching threshold of four at the initial intervention contact were estimated by a nonparametric method. It was found that screening severity scores were good predictors for identifying patients who would not reach threshold but did not always accurately predict patients who would. The cut-offs between 2 and 4 on a 0-10 scale could be used to identify patients that might benefit from receipt of interventions. For all symptoms, the LRs were greater than one across possible screening cut-offs. The findings indicate that decision rules based on screening prior to entry into cancer symptom management trials can provide reasonable discriminative accuracy by differentiating among patients who are likely to reach higher levels of severity later in the trial from those who are not. Optimal severity cut-offs can be established based on LRs and desired sensitivity and specificity.

  1. The impact of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia on parent preferences for harsh discipline practices: a quasi-experimental, pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric; Chase, Rhea M; Zayzay, John; Finnegan, Amy; Puffer, Eve S

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses data from a cohort of parents and guardians of young children living in Monrovia, Liberia collected before and after the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) to estimate the impact of EVD exposure on implicit preferences for harsh discipline. We hypothesized that parents exposed to EVD-related sickness or death would exhibit a stronger preference for harsh discipline practices compared with non-exposed parents. The data for this analysis come from two survey rounds conducted in Liberia as part of an intervention trial of a behavioral parenting skills intervention. Following a baseline assessment of 201 enrolled parents in July 2014, all program and study activities were halted due to the outbreak of EVD. Following the EVD crisis, we conducted a tracking survey with parents who completed the baseline survey 12 months prior. In both rounds, we presented parents with 12 digital comic strips of a child misbehaving and asked them to indicate how they would react if they were the parent in the stories. Parents from households with reported EVD sickness or death became more 'harsh' (Glass's delta = 1.41) in their hypothetical decision-making compared with non-exposed parents, t (167)=-2.3, p   <  0.05. Parents from households that experienced EVD-related sickness or death not only reported significantly more household conflict and anxiety, but also reported that their child exhibited fewer difficulties. Results support the need for family-based interventions, including strategies to help parents learn alternatives to harsh punishment.

  2. Using films as a psychoeducation tool for patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study using a quasi-experimental pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maffei, Christian; Görges, Frauke; Kissling, Werner; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2015-04-30

    Relapses and, subsequently, readmissions are common in patients with schizophrenia. Psychoeducation has been shown to reduce the number and duration of readmissions. Yet, only little more than 20% of psychiatric patients in German speaking countries receive psychoeducation. Among other reasons, costs may be considered too high by hospitals. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of a new cost-efficient approach in the psychoeducation of patients with schizophrenia. In this study, films were used to impart knowledge about the illness to inpatients. A total of 113 participants were initially included in the study, eleven of which were not included in the final analyses. Six films about the symptoms, diagnosis, causes, warning signs, treatment of schizophrenia and about the influence of family members and friends were shown in a group setting in the presence of nursing staff. All films combined facts, expert opinions, and personal experiences of peers. As the main outcome criterion of this feasibility pilot study, we measured the effects on knowledge. Secondary outcome measures included compliance, insight into illness, side effects, and quality of life. Data were collected directly after the intervention and about half a year afterwards. The number and the duration of readmissions to the hospital were recorded and compared to the number and duration of prior admissions. Patients were also asked to state their subjective opinion about the films. Main data analyses were done using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Secondary analyses also involved ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. One hundred and two inpatients were included in the data analyses. Showing the films in the tested setting was shown to be feasible. Knowledge about schizophrenia (p < .001), compliance (ps < .01), insight into illness (p < .01), and quality of life (p < .001) all increased significantly after patients had watched the films and remained stable for at least half a year. A vast majority (84.9%) of the patients found the films to be interesting and informative. Using films to educate inpatients about schizophrenia is a feasible method that is cost- and time-efficient and well received by the patients.

  3. Conceptual engineering design studies of 1985-era commercial VTOL and STOL transports that utilize rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Widdison, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are summarized of tandem-rotor helicopter and tilt-rotor aircraft for a short haul transport mission in the 1985 time frame. Vertical takeoff designs of both configurations are discussed, and the impact of external noise criteria on the vehicle designs, performance, and costs are shown. A STOL design for the tilt-rotor configuration is reported, and the effect of removing the vertical takeoff design constraints on the design parameters, fuel economy, and operating cost is discussed.

  4. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  5. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-05-25

    As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.

  6. Putative and unique gene sequence utilization for the design of species specific probes as modeled by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of utilizing putative and unique gene sequences for the design of species specific probes was tested. The abundance profile of assigned functions within the Lactobacillus plantarum genome was used for the identification of the putative and unique gene sequence, csh. The targeted gene (cs...

  7. Preliminary design of steam reformer in out-pile demonstration test facility for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yosiyuki; Hata, Kazuhiko; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Yamada, Seiya

    1996-11-01

    One of the key objectives of HTTR is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization system. Prior to connecting a heat utilization system to HTTR, an out-pile demonstration test is indispensable for the development of experimental apparatuses, operational control and safety technology, and verification of the analysis code of safety assessment. For the first heat utilization system of HTTR, design of the hydrogen production system by steam reforming is going on. We have proposed the out-pile demonstration test plan of the heat utilization system and conducted preliminary design of the test facility. In this report, design of the steam reformer, which is the principal component of the test facility, is described. In the course of the design, two types of reformers are considered. The one reformer contains three reactor tubes and the other contains one reactor tube to reduce the construction cost of the test facility. We have selected the steam reformer operational conditions and structural specifications by analyzing the steam reforming characteristics and component structural strength for each type of reformer. (author)

  8. The design of a comprehensive microsimulator of household vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The report describes a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution : simulator that can be used to forecast household vehicle ownership and mileage by type of : vehicle over time. The components of the simulator are developed ...

  9. A utilization of fuzzy control for design automation of nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinobu; Yagawa, Genki; Mochizuki, Yoshihiko

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an automated design of nuclear structures by means of some artificial intelligence techniques. The 'generate and test' strategy is adopted as a basic strategy of design. An empirical approach with the fuzzy control is introduced for efficient design modification. This system is applied to the design of some 2D models of the fusion first wall. (author)

  10. Sustainable process design with process intensification - Development and implementation of a framework for sustainable carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca

    . The developed framework adopts a 3-stage approach for sustainable design, which is comprised of: (1) synthesis, (2) design, and (3) innovation. In the first stage, the optimal processing route is obtained from a network via a superstructure-based approach. This stage incorporates a structured database...... and are designed and simulated in detail: 1. Dimethyl ether from methanol via combined reforming 2. Dimethyl ether from methanol via direct hydrogenation 3. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from combined reforming 4. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from direct...... hydrogenation. Through the analysis of the processes, it can be seen that the methanol distillation and the dimethyl carbonate downstream separation contribute to largeamounts of the utility consumption and therefore costs. Therefore, the reductionof the utility consumption of the methanol distillation...

  11. Preliminary design and analysis of aluminum-air cells providing for continuous feed and full utilization of anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1981-08-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, and engineering problem areas of the wedge shaped cells in anodes utilization are reviewed. The importance of solution side current collection to the practicality of this approach when used with alkaline electrolytes is identified. The relationship between cell height and total anode mass is derived for this and corresponding cells of the M1 design. It is concluded that the M1-CF design may provide the basis for an automotive battery of greater simplicity, reliability, and economy than earlier designs.

  12. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications. Volume 2: Analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    All possible overall system configurations, operating modes, and subsystem concepts for a wind turbine configuration for cost effective generation of electrical power were evaluated for both technical feasibility and compatibility with utility networks, as well as for economic attractiveness. A design optimization computer code was developed to determine the cost sensitivity of the various design features, and thus establish the configuration and design conditions that would minimize the generated energy costs. The preliminary designs of both a 500 kW unit and a 1500 kW unit operating in a 12 mph and 18 mph median wind speed respectively, were developed. The various design features and components evaluated are described, and the rationale employed to select the final design configuration is given. All pertinent technical performance data and component cost data is included. The costs of all major subassemblies are estimated and the resultant energy costs for both the 500 kW and 1500 kW units are calculated.

  13. Pre/post evaluation of a pilot prevention with positives training program for healthcare providers in North West Province, Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Christopher G; de Kadt, Julia; Pillay, Erushka; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Naidoo, Evasen; Grignon, Jessica; Weaver, Marcia R

    2017-05-02

    Prevention interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS are an important component of HIV programs. We report the results of a pilot evaluation of a four-hour, clinic-based training for healthcare providers in South Africa on HIV prevention assessments and messages. This pre/post pilot evaluation examined whether the training was associated with providers delivering more prevention messages. Seventy providers were trained at four public primary care clinics with a high volume of HIV patients. Pre- and post-training patient exit surveys were conducted using Audio-Computer Assisted Structured Interviews. Seven provider appropriate messaging outcomes and one summary provider outcome were compared pre- and post-training using Poisson regression. Four hundred fifty-nine patients pre-training and 405 post-training with known HIV status were interviewed, including 175 and 176 HIV positive patients respectively. Among HIV positive patients, delivery of all appropriate messages by providers declined post-training. The summary outcome decreased from 56 to 50%; adjusted rate ratio 0.92 (95% CI = 0.87-0.97). Sensitivity analyses adjusting for training coverage and time since training detected fewer declines. Among HIV negative patients the summary score was stable at 32% pre- and post-training; adjusted rate ratio 1.05 (95% CI = 0.98-1.12). Surprisingly, this training was associated with a decrease in prevention messages delivered to HIV positive patients by providers. Limited training coverage and delays between training and post-training survey may partially account for this apparent decrease. A more targeted approach to prevention messages may be more effective.

  14. Impact of implementing electronic clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, control and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: A pre-post controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Eva; Catalan-Ramos, Arantxa; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; Grau, Maria; Del Val, Jose Luis; Consola, Alicia; Amado, Ester; Pons, Angels; Mata-Cases, Manel; Franzi, Alicia; Ciurana, Ramon; Frigola, Eva; Cos, Xavier; Davins, Josep; Verdu-Rotellar, Jose M

    To evaluate the impact of computerized clinical practice guidelines on the management, diagnosis, treatment, control, and follow-up of the main cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pre-post controlled study. Catalonia, autonomous community located in north-eastern Spain. Individuals aged 35-74 years assigned to general practitioners of the Catalan Health Institute. The intervention group consisted of individuals whose general practitioners had accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines at least twice a day, while the control group consisted of individuals whose general practitioner had never accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines platform. The Chi-squared test was used to detect significant differences in the follow-up, control, and treatment variables for all three disorders (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus) between individuals assigned to users and non-users of the computerized clinical practice guidelines, respectively. A total of 189,067 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 56 years (standard deviation 12), and 55.5% of whom were women. Significant differences were observed in hypertension management, treatment and control; type 2 diabetes mellitus management, treatment and diagnoses, and the management and control of hypercholesterolaemia in both sexes. Computerized clinical practice guidelines are an effective tool for the control and follow-up of patients diagnosed with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia. The usefulness of computerized clinical practice guidelines to diagnose and adequately treat individuals with these disorders remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A pre-post test evaluation of the impact of the PELICAN MDT-TME Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cath; Sippitt, Joanna M; Collins, Gary; McManus, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Dawson, Jeremy; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2010-06-29

    The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and team performance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction and job stress. Both job stress and satisfaction decreased after participating in the Programme for all team members. There was a small improvement in team performance. Participation in the Development Programme had a mixed impact on the working lives of team members in the immediate aftermath of attending. The decrease in team members' job stress may reflect the improved knowledge and skills conferred by the Programme. The decrease in job satisfaction may be the consequence of being unable to apply these skills immediately in clinical practice because of a lack of required infrastructure and/or equipment. In addition, whilst the Programme raised awareness of the challenges of teamworking, a greater focus on tackling these issues may have improved working lives further.

  16. Insomnia symptoms and their association with workplace productivity: cross-sectional and pre-post intervention analyses from a large multinational manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Colin A; Pawlecki, Brent; Waterfield, Dickon; Fitton, Kit; Radocchia, Michael; Luik, Annemarie I

    2018-06-01

    Symptoms of insomnia are common and might impact work productivity. We investigated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and workplace productivity in a global manufacturing company. Within an uncontrolled, cross-sectional study, employees from a US-based company were invited to participate in an online evaluation comprising the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) measuring symptoms of insomnia (high score indicating better sleep), 2 items of the Work Productivity and Impairment Index (WPAI) measuring 'presenteeism' and 'absenteeism' (high score indicating loss of work productivity) and 1 item of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) from January 2015 onwards. Pre-post, within-subject data were collected to preliminary test effects of 'sleep tips' and digital cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT). In 2798 employees [72% male; mean age 46.3(SD11.8) yrs] sleep was poorest in plant staff [SCI = 3.70(2.73)], then retail staff [4.34(3.02)], then office staff [4.95(2.83): overall F(2,2786) = 43.7, P work-related productivity, with stress only contributing a further 9%. A regression model for 'absenteeism' was statistically significant but of limited predictive value (R 2 = 3.4%). In a sample of 214 employees with pre- and post-intervention data, the SCI of those exposed to sleep tips significantly increased from 5.36(3.28) to 6.01(3.22), [t(123) = -3.02, P = .003] and from 3.08(2.24) to 6.03(2.97) for those who accessed dCBT [t(89) = -8.40, P work productivity. Additionally, targeted insomnia interventions may offer potential to improve sleep and work productivity. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pending studies at hospital discharge: a pre-post analysis of an electronic medical record tool to improve communication at hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Molly A; Evans, Kambria H; Shieh, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Achieving safe transitions of care at hospital discharge requires accurate and timely communication. Both the presence of and follow-up plan for diagnostic studies that are pending at hospital discharge are expected to be accurately conveyed during these transitions, but this remains a challenge. To determine the prevalence, characteristics, and communication of studies pending at hospital discharge before and after the implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) tool that automatically generates a list of pending studies. Pre-post analysis. 260 consecutive patients discharged from inpatient general medicine services from July to August 2013. Development of an EMR-based tool that automatically generates a list of studies pending at discharge. The main outcomes were prevalence and characteristics of pending studies and communication of studies pending at hospital discharge. We also surveyed internal medicine house staff on their attitudes about communication of pending studies. Pre-intervention, 70% of patients had at least one pending study at discharge, but only 18% of these were communicated in the discharge summary. Most studies were microbiology cultures (68%), laboratory studies (16%), or microbiology serologies (10%). The majority of study results were ultimately normal (83%), but 9% were newly abnormal. Post-intervention, communication of studies pending increased to 43% (p pending studies, but in usual practice, the presence of these studies has rarely been communicated to outpatient providers in the discharge summary. Communication significantly increased with the implementation of an EMR-based tool that automatically generated a list of pending studies from the EMR and allowed users to import this list into the discharge summary. This is the first study to our knowledge to introduce an automated EMR-based tool to communicate pending studies.

  18. Salud mental en reclusos: un análisis pre-post intervención psicosocial con grupo control de comparación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Jesús Bascón Díaz

    Full Text Available La literatura científica advierte de la elevada presencia de trastornos mentales en el medio penitenciario. Por ello, en este trabajo nos planteamos evaluar la salud psicosocial y la autorregulación de reclusos en relación a un grupo control de participantes no reclusos; adicionalmente tratamos de conocer la incidencia de la variable tiempo de reclusión y analizar el efecto intragrupo pre-post entrenamiento en habilidades sociales y comunicativas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 20 varones, 10 reclusos (cinco con más de un año de condena y cinco con menos y 10 participantes sin antecedentes delictivos, a los que se les administró el cuestionario de salud GHQ-28 y la escala de autorregulación MAPA. Se aplicó la prueba no paramétrica Mann-Whitney (U para el cálculo de probabilidades y el test de Cramer (V como indicador del tamaño de efecto. Los resultados indicaron que la reclusión no implicó necesariamente peor salud y autorregulación, que el tiempo de condena no ejerció excesiva influencia sobre estas dos dimensiones y que el taller de habilidades sociales no pareció, según el análisis pre-postest, haber producido efectos sobre la salud y la autorregulación de los reclusos. Finalmente, se discuten algunas reflexiones generales así como nuevas propuestas para mejorar actuaciones futuras.

  19. Development of a Deterministic Optimization Model for Design of an Integrated Utility and Hydrogen Supply Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, Soonho; Lee, In-Beum; Han, Jeehoon

    2014-01-01

    Lots of networks are constructed in a large scale industrial complex. Each network meet their demands through production or transportation of materials which are needed to companies in a network. Network directly produces materials for satisfying demands in a company or purchase form outside due to demand uncertainty, financial factor, and so on. Especially utility network and hydrogen network are typical and major networks in a large scale industrial complex. Many studies have been done mainly with focusing on minimizing the total cost or optimizing the network structure. But, few research tries to make an integrated network model by connecting utility network and hydrogen network. In this study, deterministic mixed integer linear programming model is developed for integrating utility network and hydrogen network. Steam Methane Reforming process is necessary for combining two networks. After producing hydrogen from Steam-Methane Reforming process whose raw material is steam vents from utility network, produced hydrogen go into hydrogen network and fulfill own needs. Proposed model can suggest optimized case in integrated network model, optimized blueprint, and calculate optimal total cost. The capability of the proposed model is tested by applying it to Yeosu industrial complex in Korea. Yeosu industrial complex has the one of the biggest petrochemical complex and various papers are based in data of Yeosu industrial complex. From a case study, the integrated network model suggests more optimal conclusions compared with previous results obtained by individually researching utility network and hydrogen network

  20. Utilization of cross-section covariance data in FBR core nuclear design and cross-section adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    In the core design of large fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essentially important to improve the prediction accuracy of nuclear characteristics from the viewpoint of both reducing cost and insuring reliability of the plant. The cross-section errors, that is, covariance data are one of the most dominant sources for the prediction uncertainty of the core parameters, therefore, quantitative evaluation of covariance data is indispensable for FBR core design. The first objective of the present paper is to introduce how the cross-section covariance data are utilized in the FBR core nuclear design works. The second is to delineate the cross-section adjustment study and its application to an FBR design, because this improved design method markedly enhances the needs and importance of the cross-section covariance data. (author)

  1. The effect of a translating research into practice intervention to promote use of evidence-based fall prevention interventions in hospitalized adults: A prospective pre-post implementation study in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, Marita G; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret A; Ripley, Robert; Tsodikov, Alex; Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Falls are a major public health problem internationally. Many hospitals have implemented fall risk assessment tools, but few have implemented interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Little research has been done to examine the effect of implementing evidence-based fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors in hospitalized adults. To evaluate the impact of implementing, in 3 U.S. hospitals, evidence-based fall prevention interventions targeted to patient-specific fall risk factors (Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle). Fall rates, fall injury rates, types of fall injuries and adoption of the Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle were compared prior to and following implementation. A prospective pre-post implementation cohort design. Thirteen adult medical-surgical units from three community hospitals in the Midwest region of the U.S. Nurses who were employed at least 20hours/week, provided direct patient care, and licensed as an RN (n=157 pre; 140 post); and medical records of patients 21years of age or older, who received care on the study unit for more than 24hours during the designated data collection period (n=390 pre and post). A multi-faceted Translating Research Into Practice Intervention was used to implement the Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle composed of evidence-based fall prevention interventions designed to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Dependent variables (fall rates, fall injury rates, fall injury type, use of Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle) were collected at baseline, and following completion of the 15month implementation phase. Nurse questionnaires included the Stage of Adoption Scale, and the Use of Research Findings in Practice Scale to measure adoption of evidence-based fall prevention practices. A Medical Record Abstract Form was used to abstract data about use of targeted risk-specific fall prevention interventions. Number of falls, and number and

  2. The use of forests to mitigate global warming - designing programs that work for utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of forests as carbon sinks by utilities to offset carbon dioxide production by fossil-fueled power plants. The topics of the paper include greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect, why trees are carbon sinks, planning a carbon sequestering program based on trees and forests, and descriptions of specific types of programs

  3. PEP cooling water systems and underground piped utilities design criteria report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.; Robbins, D.

    1975-10-01

    This paper discusses the cooling systems required by the PEP Storage Ring. Particular topics discussed are: Cooling tower systems, RF cavity and vacuum chamber LCW cooling systems, klystron and ring magnet LLW cooling systems, Injection magnet LCW Cooling Systems; PEP interaction area detector LCW Cooling Systems; and underground piped utilities. 1 ref., 20 figs

  4. Utilizing Arc Marine Concepts for Designing a Geospatially Enabled Database to Support Rapid Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    system and the utilization of open-source software provides cost -benefit gains. As well, the developed data model could easily be transferred to an...into the PDB, we provide the capability to use the products without the enhancement and maintenance costs associated with direct storage inside the...ellipsoid to a known location, such as the centre of mass of the Earth. This method of fitting is referred to as geocentric . As well, the z axis of the

  5. Occupants’ Utilization of Natural Ventilation: A Study of Selected Terrace House Designs in Hot-humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiyeye AI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With increased time spent indoors and demand for enhanced comfort levels, energy consumption in homes is rising mostly for cooling, particularly in hot-humid regions. Natural ventilation is seen as an alternative to mechanical cooling as it is totally independent on energy and has been reported to be of high potential. However, little information is available on the utilization of natural ventilation in individual living spaces in different house designs. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate occupants’ utilization of natural ventilation in living spaces under different terrace house designs in hot-humid climate and also the relationship between the openings and occupants’ satisfaction with natural ventilation. Five (5 different terrace house types in Putrajaya, Malaysia with different opening design characteristics were selected for the study. A total of 298 households from these house types were surveyed and results show that occupants mostly open their windows during the daytime to capture breeze from outside despite the fact that they owned air-conditioners. In terms of occupants’ level of satisfaction with indoor ventilation when utilizing natural ventilation, majority rated neither satisfied nor unsatisfied. Further regression analysis reveals that this level of satisfaction is significantly related to opening sizes that are in accordance with the law, duration of opening windows and AC ownership. Findings from this study will shed more light on behavioural pattern of occupants of residential buildings towards natural ventilation provisions and highlight the importance of conforming to the law governing them.

  6. Performance-based seismic design of steel frames utilizing colliding bodies algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veladi, H

    2014-01-01

    A pushover analysis method based on semirigid connection concept is developed and the colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed to find optimum seismic design of frame structures. Two numerical examples from the literature are studied. The results of the new algorithm are compared to the conventional design methods to show the power or weakness of the algorithm.

  7. High Dephosphorylated-Uncarboxylated MGP in Hemodialysis patients: risk factors and response to vitamin K2, A pre-post intervention clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Mabel; Makki, Maha; Azar, Hiba; Matta, Hiam; Chelala, Dania Nehme

    2017-06-07

    Vascular calcifications are highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients. Dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) was found to increase in vitamin K-deficient patients and may be associated with vascular calcifications. Supplementation of hemodialysis patients with vitamin K 2 (menaquinone-7) has been studied in Europe with a maximum 61% drop of dp-ucMGP levels. The aim of this study is to assess first the drop of dp-ucMGP in an Eastern Mediterranean cohort after vitamin K 2 treatment and second the correlation between baseline dp-ucMGP and vascular calcification score. This is a prospective, pre-post intervention clinical trial involving 50 hemodialysis patients who received daily 360 μg of menaquinone-7 for 4 weeks. At baseline they were assessed for plasma dp-ucMGP levels and vascular calcification scores (AC-24) as well as for other demographic, clinical and biological variables. Dp-ucMGP levels were measured a second time at 4 weeks. At baseline, dp-ucMGP levels were extremely elevated with a median of 3179.15 (1825.25; 4339.50) pM and correlated significantly with AC-24 (Spearman's rho = 0.43, P = 0.002). Using a bivariate regression analysis, the association between dp-ucMGP levels and AC-24 was most significant when comparing dp-ucMGP levels less than 1000 to those more than 1000 pM (P = 0.02). Dp-ucMGP levels higher than 5000 pM were significantly associated with females, patients with recent fracture and patients with lower serum albumin (respectively P = 0.02, 0.004 and 0.046). The average drop of dp-ucMGP at 4 weeks of treatment was found to be 86% with diabetics having the lowest drop rate (P = 0.01). Vitamin K deficiency, as assessed by high dp-ucMGP levels, is profound in hemodialysis patients from the Eastern Mediterranean region and it is significantly correlated with vascular calcifications. Daily 360 μg of menaquinone-7, given for 4 weeks, effectively reduces dp-ucMGP in this population. Future studies are needed to assess

  8. Steps on a journey to TB control in Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional, mixed methods pre-post evaluation of a local language DVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Peter D; Asugeni, Rowena; Wakageni, John; Kekeubata, Esau; Maena'aadi, John; Laete'esafi, John; Waneagea, Jackson; Asugeni, Vunivesi; MacLaren, David; Speare, Richard

    2015-02-03

    In Solomon Islands many people with Tuberculosis (TB) have challenges in accessing services because of socio-cultural, geographic and health service reasons, resulting in delays in TB treatment and low detection rates. The purpose of this project was to (i) develop a local language audio-visual resource (DVD) about TB (ii) share this resource with people in remote villages and (iii) evaluate the process and outcomes. The project involved the development and evaluation of a DVD in local Kwaio language. The DVD included five short videos based on the Australian Respiratory Council TB Education Flipchart. The DVD also included short videos of: traditional music/chanting (ai'imae); drama that presented an allegory of TB; and a short documentary on the redevelopment of the local TB Ward. A mixed-methods approach evaluated changes in TB knowledge and investigated the impact of the DVD. The DVD was recorded and produced in March-June 2013 and screened in 41 villages and hamlets. The pre-post DVD survey was completed by 64% (255/400) of people who viewed the DVD in the villages. Pre-DVD survey responses showed a moderate to high knowledge about TB signs, symptoms and treatment but 76/255 (30%) stated TB was caused by sorcery and 85/255 (33%) incorrectly stated that TB medication should be stopped when a patient feels better. The post-DVD survey showed a significant increase in people in coastal villages reporting (i) a 3-week cough would trigger a medical assessment and (ii) TB is mainly spread through the air. Statements that TB is not caused by sorcery increased post-DVD in both coastal and mountain villages, however belief in sorcery in mountain villages remained high at 20/70 (29%). The local DVD resource was developed within local cultural understandings and oral traditions of Kwaio people. Using modern but accessible DVD technology generated a lot of interest about the disease and the stories. The project evaluation indicates that current delays in seeking treatment

  9. Design of a high-temperature superconductor current lead for electric utility SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R.; Rey, C.M.; Dixon, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Current leads that rely on high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to deliver power to devices operating at liquid helium temperature have the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements to levels significantly below those achievable with conventional leads. The design of HTS current leads suitable for use in near-term superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is in progress. The SMES system has an 0.5 MWh energy capacity and a discharge power of 30 MW. Lead-design considerations include safety and reliability, electrical and thermal performance, structural integrity, manufacturability, and cost. Available details of the design, including materials, configuration, and performance predictions, are presented

  10. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  11. Design of a Binocular Pupil and Gaze Point Detection System Utilizing High Definition Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Durna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel binocular pupil and gaze detection system utilizing a remote full high definition (full HD camera and employing LabVIEW. LabVIEW is inherently parallel and has fewer time-consuming algorithms. Many eye tracker applications are monocular and use low resolution cameras due to real-time image processing difficulties. We utilized the computer’s direct access memory channel for rapid data transmission and processed full HD images with LabVIEW. Full HD images make easier determinations of center coordinates/sizes of pupil and corneal reflection. We modified the camera so that the camera sensor passed only infrared (IR images. Glints were taken as reference points for region of interest (ROI area selection of the eye region in the face image. A morphologic filter was applied for erosion of noise, and a weighted average technique was used for center detection. To test system accuracy with 11 participants, we produced a visual stimulus set up to analyze each eye’s movement. Nonlinear mapping function was utilized for gaze estimation. Pupil size, pupil position, glint position and gaze point coordinates were obtained with free natural head movements in our system. This system also works at 2046 × 1086 resolution at 40 frames per second. It is assumed that 280 frames per second for 640 × 480 pixel images is the case. Experimental results show that the average gaze detection error for 11 participants was 0.76° for the left eye, 0.89° for right eye and 0.83° for the mean of two eyes.

  12. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  13. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Safety Features for NPP by Utilizing Solar Updraft Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sub Lee [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Yong Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyo Chan; Park, Youn Won [BEES, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, hybrid safety features for NPP with solar updraft tower (SUT) is conceptually suggested to cope with loss of ultimate heat sink accident. The hybrid safety features utilizing SUT target NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf. Usually NPPs are constructed near seashore to utilize sea water as an ultimate heat sink. Residual heat or decay heat of nuclear reactor will diffuse into the ocean through the condenser. NPPs in Middle East are expected to be placed in seashore of Arabian Gulf. The NPP site of Barakah is an actual example. For NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf, an additional safety concern should be considered. Arabian Gulf is the largest oil transporting route in the world. The oil spill risk in Arabian Gulf will be the largest simultaneously. Unfortunately, not like other oceans, Arabian Gulf is a kind of closed ocean which does not have strong ocean currents connected to out of the gulf. If once oil spill is occurred, its influence can be propagated more than our expectation. The spilled oil also can affect to NPPs in seashore by covering surfaces of condenser. It will directly cause loss of ultimate heat sink. The hybrid safety features of SUT system are expected to aid normal operation of safety system and mitigate consequence of severe accident. Detail analysis and technology development is ongoing now.

  14. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Safety Features for NPP by Utilizing Solar Updraft Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sub Lee; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Yong Jin; Park, Hyo Chan; Park, Youn Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hybrid safety features for NPP with solar updraft tower (SUT) is conceptually suggested to cope with loss of ultimate heat sink accident. The hybrid safety features utilizing SUT target NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf. Usually NPPs are constructed near seashore to utilize sea water as an ultimate heat sink. Residual heat or decay heat of nuclear reactor will diffuse into the ocean through the condenser. NPPs in Middle East are expected to be placed in seashore of Arabian Gulf. The NPP site of Barakah is an actual example. For NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf, an additional safety concern should be considered. Arabian Gulf is the largest oil transporting route in the world. The oil spill risk in Arabian Gulf will be the largest simultaneously. Unfortunately, not like other oceans, Arabian Gulf is a kind of closed ocean which does not have strong ocean currents connected to out of the gulf. If once oil spill is occurred, its influence can be propagated more than our expectation. The spilled oil also can affect to NPPs in seashore by covering surfaces of condenser. It will directly cause loss of ultimate heat sink. The hybrid safety features of SUT system are expected to aid normal operation of safety system and mitigate consequence of severe accident. Detail analysis and technology development is ongoing now

  15. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The primary focus of this CRP was to perform detailed investigation of the high temperature industrial processes that are attainable through incorporation of an HTGR, and for their possible demonstration in the HTTR. The HTGR has the capability to achieve a core outlet temperature approaching 1,000 deg. C in a safe and effective manner. These attributes, coupled with the offer by JAERI to utilize the HTTR, resulted in the initiation of this CRP by the IAEA. High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) utilizes a 30 MW(th) HTGR comprised of 30 fuel columns of hexagonal pin-in-pin graphite block type fuel elements. The fuel consists of UO 2 TRISO coated particles with an enrichment of ∼ 6% wt. Relative to the demonstration of high temperature heat applications, the HTTR will be capable of producing 10 MW(th) of heat at 950 deg. C. However, the thermal power for these applications has the potential to be increased up to 30 MW(th) in the future, which may be required for demonstration of gas turbine system components. The HTTR reached initial criticality in November 1998. Initial operational plans includes a series of rise to power tests followed by tests to demonstrate the safety and operational characteristics of the HTTR. In addition to completion of the HTTR demonstration tests, it was recommended that the R and D be performed within the HTTR project. JAERI is encouraged to publicize the results of the HTTR tests and 'lessons learned' from their experiences including potential capabilities of the HTGR for heat applications. The next priority application was determined to be the generation of electricity through the use of the gas turbine. Application of the Brayton Cycle utilizing high temperature helium from a modular HTGR was chosen for development because of its projected benefits as an economic and efficient means for the production of electricity. Evaluation of the remaining high temperature heat utilization applications chosen for investigation resulted

  16. Design of helium-gas supplying facility of out-of-pile demonstration test for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-09-01

    One of the objectives of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature heat utilization. Prior to connect a heat utilization system to the HTTR, a series of out-of-pile demonstration test is indispensable to improve components` performance, to demonstrate operation, control and safety technologies and to verify analysis codes for design and safety evaluation. After critical review and discussion on the out-of-pile demonstration test, a test facility have been designed. In this report, a helium-gas supplying facility simulated the HTTR system was described in detail, which supplies High-temperature helium-gas of 900degC to a steam reforming facility mocking-up the HTTR heat utilization system. Components of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) were selected to reuse in the helium-gas supplying facility in order to decrease construction cost. Structures and specifications of new components such as a high-temperature heater and a preheater were decided after evaluation of thermal and hydraulic performance and strength. (author)

  17. Optical CAD Utilization for the Design and Testing of a LED Streetlamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafrancesco, David; Mercatelli, Luca; Fontani, Daniela; Sansoni, Paola

    2017-08-24

    The design and testing of LED lamps are vital steps toward broader use of LED lighting for outdoor illumination and traffic signalling. The characteristics of LED sources, in combination with the need to limit light pollution and power consumption, require a precise optical design. In particular, in every step of the process, it is important to closely compare theoretical or simulated results with measured data (obtained from a prototype). This work examines the various possibilities for using an optical CAD (Lambda Research TracePro ) to design and check a LED lamp for outdoor use. This analysis includes the simulations and testing on a prototype as an example; data acquired by measurement are inserted into the same simulation software, making it easy to compare theoretical and actual results.

  18. Design, modeling and utilization of thermoelectrical materials and devices in energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    Thermoelectric generators can convert waste heat that abounds in modern societies into electricity in an environmentally-friendly and reliable manner, and many applications of thermoelectric devices can be envisaged. The research of this PhD dissertation focuses thermoelectric generator modeling...... at a device level as well as its applications in energy systems. The purpose is to introduce the use of thermoelectric generator into energy systems, and to indicate the impact of implementing thermoelectric generator on the design and operation of energy systems. For this purpose, this dissertation produces...... numerical models as versatile simulation tools to identify speci c optimum design criteria for thermoelectric generators used in various associated thermal and electrical systems, so that the generation performance can be improved due to the optimum system design....

  19. Optical CAD Utilization for the Design and Testing of a LED Streetlamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jafrancesco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The design and testing of LED lamps are vital steps toward broader use of LED lighting for outdoor illumination and traffic signalling. The characteristics of LED sources, in combination with the need to limit light pollution and power consumption, require a precise optical design. In particular, in every step of the process, it is important to closely compare theoretical or simulated results with measured data (obtained from a prototype. This work examines the various possibilities for using an optical CAD (Lambda Research TracePro to design and check a LED lamp for outdoor use. This analysis includes the simulations and testing on a prototype as an example; data acquired by measurement are inserted into the same simulation software, making it easy to compare theoretical and actual results.

  20. Design and fabrication of the PDX poloidal field solenoid utilizing fiberglass reinforced epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.S.C.

    1975-11-01

    This paper discusses the basic design of the Poloidal Field Solenoid Coil. It will be mainly concerned with the more unique features of the Solenoid such as the copper coil windings and the design of the epoxy-glass structural support mandrels. The center solenoid coil of the PDX machine consists of five different coil systems (OH No. 8, No. 9; NF No. 11; DF No. 7; EF Solenoid and CF No. 9). Three concentric fiberglass reinforced epoxy cylinders fabricated in-house will act as mandrels to support and to house the coils that will result as an integral unit

  1. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and utilization is a vital element of carbon dioxide emission reduction to address global warming. An integrated, computer-aided framework has been developed to achieve this. This framework adopts a three-stage approach to sustainable process synthesis-design: (i) process...... synthesis, (ii) process design and (iii) innovative design. In the first stage, reaction path synthesis is used to determine the reactions and products that are considered in processing route selection and/or generation. Various scenarios are then considered for the superstructure optimization. The selected...... steps. Then, the superstructure optimization is performed on a network containing 13 likely products giving 30 feasible processing routes, considering different scenarios and objectives. Stages 2 and 3 have been applied to the optimal solution of the first scenario, which selects the production...

  2. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  3. Design implications for task-specific search utilities for retrieval and re-engineering of code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Rahat; Grzywaczewski, Adam; Halloran, John; Doctor, Faiyaz; Iqbal, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    The importance of information retrieval systems is unquestionable in the modern society and both individuals as well as enterprises recognise the benefits of being able to find information effectively. Current code-focused information retrieval systems such as Google Code Search, Codeplex or Koders produce results based on specific keywords. However, these systems do not take into account developers' context such as development language, technology framework, goal of the project, project complexity and developer's domain expertise. They also impose additional cognitive burden on users in switching between different interfaces and clicking through to find the relevant code. Hence, they are not used by software developers. In this paper, we discuss how software engineers interact with information and general-purpose information retrieval systems (e.g. Google, Yahoo!) and investigate to what extent domain-specific search and recommendation utilities can be developed in order to support their work-related activities. In order to investigate this, we conducted a user study and found that software engineers followed many identifiable and repeatable work tasks and behaviours. These behaviours can be used to develop implicit relevance feedback-based systems based on the observed retention actions. Moreover, we discuss the implications for the development of task-specific search and collaborative recommendation utilities embedded with the Google standard search engine and Microsoft IntelliSense for retrieval and re-engineering of code. Based on implicit relevance feedback, we have implemented a prototype of the proposed collaborative recommendation system, which was evaluated in a controlled environment simulating the real-world situation of professional software engineers. The evaluation has achieved promising initial results on the precision and recall performance of the system.

  4. Instructional design in mathematics for undergraduate students based on learning by mistakes approach utilizing scilab assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartika, H.

    2018-03-01

    The issue related to making mistake while learning such as negative emotion is found while students learn mathematics with the aid of a computer. When the computer output showed a mistake message, the students considered it as a computer software malfunction. Based on this issue, the writer designs an instructional model based on learning by mistake approach and which is Scilab assisted. The method used in this research is research design involving undergraduate students in matrix algebra courses. The data collected throught survey with questionnaire to gain feedback about the approach implemented. The data analyzed using quantitative descriptive. The instructional design proposed is the student act as a mistake corrector while the teacher acts as a mistake maker. Teacher deliberately makes mistakes with the help of Scilab software. On the other hand, students correct, analyze and explain errors resulting from Scilab software. The result of this research is an ICT based instructional design which is expected to be applicable as an alternative learning in directing students to think positively about mistakes in learning. Furthermore, students are also expected to improve their ability in understanding and thinking critically while solving problems and improving themselves in learning mathematics.

  5. Formulation and Design of a CO2 Utilization Network Detailed Through a Conceptual Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Fjellerup, Kasper; Gani, Rafiqul

    information is available to describe the network mathematically, the most promising paths based on known technologies are designed and analyzed first. This makes the stages iterative rather than purely sequential. As part of this, the network is analyzed in the conceptual example of methanol synthesis via CO2...

  6. Design Optimization utilizing dynamic substructuring and artificial intelligence techniques (CD ROM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcay-Perdahcioglu, Didem; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; van der Hoogt, Peter; de Boer, Andries

    2008-01-01

    In mechanical and structural systems, resonance may cause large strains and stresses which can lead to the failure of the system. Since it is often not possible to change the frequency content of the external load excitation, the phenomenon can only be avoided by updating the design of the

  7. Utility view on QA/QC of WWER-440 fuel design and manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the legislation implements in the Czech Republic, QA/QC system at CEZ, demonstration and development program (purchaser point of view), audit of QA/QC system for fuel design and manufacturing as well as QA/QC records are discussed

  8. 76 FR 17047 - Authority To Designate Financial Market Utilities as Systemically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... functioning is integral to the soundness of the financial system and the overall economy. The importance of... Council to apply a transparent and clear communication strategy surrounding all designation decisions. The..., Better Markets, The Clearing House, Debevoise & Plimpton, The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation...

  9. An experimental investigation on productivity and performance of a new improved design portable asymmetrical solar still utilizing thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Nader; Esfahani, Javad Abolfazli; Asadi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel asymmetrical solar still utilizing thermoelectric cooler has been designed. • The productivity on TEC was 3.2 times greater than that of the glass. • Using TEC causes the greater temperature difference compared to glass–water. • The start point of distillation on TEC was earlier than that of the glass. • Maximum daily productivity of the studied solar still was approximately 500 ml. - Abstract: The present study is a continuation of the authors’ previous investigations on productivity estimation of portable solar stills utilizing thermoelectric modules (Esfahani et al., 2011; Rahbar and Esfahani, 2012). In this study, a new improved design portable asymmetrical solar still has been designed, fabricated and tested over six typical summer days (between 27/08/2014 and 07/09/2014) under the real climatic conditions of Semnan (35°33′N, 53°23′E), Iran. The effect of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) on productivity and performance of the still has been experimentally investigated. The results declared that although the surface of TEC is approximately 2.8 times smaller than that of the glass, its productivity is 3.2 times greater. Furthermore, the start point of distillation on TEC was earlier than that of the glass by 3 h due to its lower temperature. The minimum and maximum daily productivity of the studied solar still was approximately 225 and 500 ml in the solar intensity of 20,500 and 25,500 J/m"2, respectively.

  10. Nonlinear Power Flow Control Design Utilizing Exergy, Entropy, Static and Dynamic Stability, and Lyapunov Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robinett III, Rush D

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear Powerflow Control Design presents an innovative control system design process motivated by renewable energy electric grid integration problems. The concepts developed result from the convergence of three research and development goals: • to create a unifying metric to compare the value of different energy sources – coal-burning power plant, wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, etc. – to be integrated into the electric power grid and to replace the typical metric of costs/profit; • to develop a new nonlinear control tool that applies power flow control, thermodynamics, and complex adaptive systems theory to the energy grid in a consistent way; and • to apply collective robotics theories to the creation of high-performance teams of people and key individuals in order to account for human factors in controlling and selling power into a distributed, decentralized electric power grid. All three of these goals have important concepts in common: exergy flow, limit cycles, and balance between compe...

  11. A Parametric Geometry Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Study Utilizing Design of Experiments (DOE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Design of Experiments (DOE) was applied to the LAS geometric parameter study to efficiently identify and rank primary contributors to integrated drag over the vehicles ascent trajectory in an order of magnitude fewer CFD configurations thereby reducing computational resources and solution time. SME s were able to gain a better understanding on the underlying flowphysics of different geometric parameter configurations through the identification of interaction effects. An interaction effect, which describes how the effect of one factor changes with respect to the levels of other factors, is often the key to product optimization. A DOE approach emphasizes a sequential approach to learning through successive experimentation to continuously build on previous knowledge. These studies represent a starting point for expanded experimental activities that will eventually cover the entire design space of the vehicle and flight trajectory.

  12. Experience in the review of utility control room design review and safety parameter display system programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Detailed Control Room Design Review (DCRDR) and the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) had their origins in the studies and investigations conducted as the result of the TMI-2 accident. The President's Commission (Kemeny Commission) critized NRC for not examining the man-machine interface, over-emphasizing equipment, ignoring human beings, and tolerating outdated technology in control rooms. The Commission's Special Inquiry Group (Rogovin Report) recommended greater application of human factors engineering including better instrumentation displays and improved control room design. The NRC Lessons Learned Task Force concluded that licensees should review and improve control rooms using NRC Human engineering guidelines, and install safety parameter display systems (then called the safety staff vector). The TMI Action Plan Item I.D.1 and I.D.2 were based on these recommendations

  13. Small break loss of coolant accident analysis of advanced PWR plant designs utilizing DVI line venturis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Robert M.; Gagnon, Andre F.; McNamee, Kevin; Cheung, Augustine C.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Advanced Passive and evolutionary Pressurizer Water Reactors (i.e. AP600 and APWR) incorporate direct vessel injection (DVI) of emergency core coolant as a means of minimizing the potential spilling of emergency core cooling water during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). As a result, the most limiting small break LOCA (SBLOCA) event for these designs, with respect core inventory makeup capability, is a postulated double ended rupture of one of the DVI lines. This paper presents the results of a design optimization study that examines the installation of a venturi in the DVI line as a means of limiting the reactor coolant lost from the reactor vessel. The comparison results demonstrate that by incorporating a properly sized venturi in the DVI line, core uncovery concerns as a result of a DVI line break can be eliminated for both the AP600 and APWR plants. (author)

  14. Exploring the utility of quantitative network design in evaluating Arctic sea ice thickness sampling strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, T.; Kauker, F.; Eicken, H.; Karcher, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative network design (QND) study of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system using a software tool that can evaluate hypothetical observational networks in a variational data assimilation system. For a demonstration, we evaluate two idealised flight transects derived from NASA's Operation IceBridge airborne ice surveys in terms of their potential to improve ten-day to five-month sea-ice forecasts. As target regions for the forecasts we select the Chukchi Sea, a...

  15. Increasing spelling achievement: an analysis of treatment procedures utilizing an alternating treatments design.

    OpenAIRE

    Ollendick, T H; Matson, J L; Esveldt-Dawson, K; Shapiro, E S

    1980-01-01

    Two studies which examine the effectiveness of spelling remediation procedures are reported. In both studies, an alternating treatment design was employed. In the first study, positive practice overcorrection plus positive reinforcement was compared to positive practice alone and a no-remediation control condition. In the second study, positive practice plus positive reinforcement was compared to a traditional corrective procedure plus positive reinforcement and a traditional procedure when u...

  16. The Swedish Utilities joint approach to form common basis for design requirements for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Owners of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants have decided to form a document that should state the design principals and requirement for cost-effective and continuous development of the reactor safety in the future. The development of this document will be a part of the modernization and development of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The basis for this document is an evaluation of Swedish and International standards and regulations as IAEA/INSAG, US-regulations, EUR etc. (author)

  17. Computer utilization for design and operation of the SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.B.; Spence, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    The in-house constructed computer codes at the SuperHILAC can be divided into three main categories: (1) accelerator and component design; (2) control and operation; and (3) performance and diagnostics. The first category includes design programs of rf cavities, magnets, and beam optics. The second group contains programs for administration and logbook entries, machine parameter specifications, and openloop parameter control. Programs in the third category are those which directly or indirectly test the mechanical design and geometry of the machine, such as magnet testing, drift-tube-alignment, beam behavior and diagnostics. The present conversion of the SuperHILAC to computer control and a dual-ion time-sharing mode of operation is outlined in context with the complexities of operating this multi-ion, variable energy accelerator. Routines are discussed from the user's standpoint, covering such topics as on-line/off-line implementation, expected gain, actual results, and differences in characteristics which determine the method of computation. (U.S.)

  18. An Improved Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for PV Inverters Utilizing Differential Search Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Hussein Mutlag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive fuzzy logic controller (FLC design technique for photovoltaic (PV inverters using differential search algorithm (DSA. This technique avoids the exhaustive traditional trial and error procedure in obtaining membership functions (MFs used in conventional FLCs. This technique is implemented during the inverter design phase by generating adaptive MFs based on the evaluation results of the objective function formulated by the DSA. In this work, the mean square error (MSE of the inverter output voltage is used as an objective function. The DSA optimizes the MFs such that the inverter provides the lowest MSE for output voltage and improves the performance of the PV inverter output in terms of amplitude and frequency. The design procedure and accuracy of the optimum FLC are illustrated and investigated using simulations conducted for a 3 kW three-phase inverter in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Results show that the proposed controller can successfully obtain the desired output when different linear and nonlinear loads are connected to the system. Furthermore, the inverter has reasonably low steady state error and fast response to reference variation.

  19. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    , and (3) innovation, has been developed. In order to facilitate the implementation and ensure sustainability, this framework integrates a number of computer-aided methods and tools, that are important for carbon dioxide capture and utilization. Applying this framework helps to address the questions about...... opportunities and products are explored. Second, the selected processing route is designed and analyzed by using simulation software and sustainability (economic, environmental and LCA) analysis tools. From this stage, hot spotsand areas for improvement are also generated. Third, the targets for improvement...

  20. Pre-post, mixed-methods feasibility study of the WorkingWell mobile support tool for individuals with serious mental illness in the USA: a pilot study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joanne; Wright, Spenser M; Carlisle, Alyssa M

    2018-02-06

    Successful competitive employment has been found to be related to enhanced self-esteem, higher quality of life and reduced mental health service use for individuals living with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The effectiveness of the individual placement and support model has been demonstrated in multiple randomised controlled trials in many countries. The management of stress, depression and anxiety in the workplace may be effectively enhanced through digital mental health interventions. The WorkingWell mobile support tool ('app') is specifically designed to meet the need for illness management support for individuals with SMI in the workplace, as an adjunct to professional treatment. The WorkingWell app, grounded in evidence-based supported employment, is informed by user experience design. It will be tested in a pre-post design, mixed-methods pilot study to explore issues of feasibility, acceptability and usefulness, and to provide preliminary data on the impact of use. Putative mediators of improved job tenure and psychological well-being, including postintervention changes in social support, self-efficacy and work-related motivation, will be investigated. Forty individuals at least 18 years of age, meeting the eligibility requirements for supported employment services (ie, diagnosed with a mental illness meeting the criteria for severity, duration and treatment), working a minimum of 10 hours per week at study enrolment, and speaking, reading and writing in English will be recruited for the pilot study. Research staff will recruit individuals at community-based mental health agencies; provide orientation to the study, the study smartphones and the WorkingWell app; conduct research interviews including standardised measures as well as semistructured items; and provide technical assistance in telephone calls and inperson meetings. A sample of 10 agency staff will be recruited to obtain further

  1. Design and evaluation of noise suppression sheet for GHz band utilizing magneto-elastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Koichi; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2017-12-01

    Feasibility of realizing a noise suppression sheet (NSS) coping with the low SHF band such as the 5 GHz band was investigated, which was composed of soft magnetic metal flakes dispersed in a polymer. For suppressing noises, the higher frequency one of the bimodal frequency dispersion (lower frequency one: Dispersion DII, higher frequency one: Dispersion DIII) seen in the imaginary permeability (μ″; magnetic loss component) spectrum of the NSS was aimed to utilize. Referring to the previous finding that Dispersion DIII is originated from a magneto-elastic effect, several magnetic composite sheets were prepared using various alloy flakes with different saturation magnetostriction (λs), and their frequency (fr(DIII)) and magnitude (μ″(DIII)) of Dispersion DIII were investigated. It was found that the NSS containing flakes with higher λs exhibited higher fr(DIII) and higher μ″(DIII)/μ″(DII), which was ratio of μ″(DIII) to the magnitude of Dispersion DII (μ″(DII)). The fr(DIII) for the NSS having the highest λs containing Fe-Co alloy flake reached 7.45 GHz and μ″ in the 5 GHz band was approximately twice as high as the conventional NSS containing Fe-Si-Al alloy flake. For transmission attenuation power ratio (Rtp) when an NSS was placed on a microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, NSS with larger fr(DIII)2 · μ″(DIII) ∝ Ms2 (Ms: saturation magnetization), which theoretically gave the frequency limit of imaginary permeability for a thin film, exhibited larger Rtp in the low SHF band. These results suggested that an NSS containing a magnetic flake material with both large λs and Ms was suitable for suppressing low SHF band noises.

  2. Modified fuel assembly design for pressurized water reactors with improved fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ronen, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A method for reactivity control through variation of the moderator content in the reactor core was proposed. The main idea is to adjust the amount of water in the core from a low value at beginning of cycle to a high value at end of cycle, so as to compensate for fissile material burnup and buildup of fission products. The possible implementation of this idea may be carried out by introducing a number of hollow tubes into the fuel assembly between the fuel rods. Then variation of the moderator content in the core may be managed through a change of the water level in these tubes. cated a potential savings in the fuel cycle requirements and costs. Preliminary steady-state thermal-hydraulic calculations indicate the possibility of implementing the proposed method in the existing pressurized water reactor plants. Feasibility of the proposed design may be finally established after rigorous thermal hydraulics as well as safety analysis calculations. Furthermore, there is need to elaborate the mechanical design of the pressure vessel internals together with cost benefit analysis

  3. Efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks: the role of catalysis and process design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Regina; Delidovich, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Renewable carbon feedstocks such as biomass and CO2 present an important element of future circular economy. Especially biomass as highly functionalized feedstock provides manifold opportunities for the transformation into attractive platform chemicals. However, this change of the resources requires a paradigm shift in refinery design. Fossil feedstocks are processed in gas phase at elevated temperature. In contrast, biorefineries are based on processes in polar solvents at moderate conditions to selectively deoxygenate the polar, often thermally instable and high-boiling molecules. Here, challenges of catalytic deoxygenation, novel strategies for separation and opportunities provided at the interface to biotechnology are discussed in form of showcases. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'.

  4. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life VHTR Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2009-01-01

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  5. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  6. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  7. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  8. Enhancement of knowledge construction activities utilizing 21st century learning design rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoche, Margarette Anne U.; Taladua, Janica Mae M.; Panal, Geicky Pearl C.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.; Myrna, H. Lahoylahoy

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to enhance knowledge construction activities on its design particularly the objectives, support materials, student activities and assessment tools. Activities from the 2nd Quarter of Science Learners Material were the basis in the adaptation of activities. The adapted activities were evaluated by the In-service Science teachers and undergone modification by the researchers based on the teacher's comments and suggestions. It was then evaluated, revised, and validated, tried-out using the 21st CLD Rubric. Subjects of the study were 110 students from Grade 7-B, Grade 7-D, Grade 7-F in Geronima Cabrera National High School, Kolambugan, Lanao del Norte during the academic year 2016-2017, the study to determine their learning capabilities investigated by the use of Knowledge Construction Activities in the 21st Century Classroom, to investigate how the lessons were understood and appreciated by students, to stimulate interpretation, analysis, synthesizing, or evaluating ideas and develop critical thinking. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained from the students' scores in three activities. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of students. Mean scores between the pretest and posttest showed a mean difference of 3.35, thus the null hypothesis was rejected. It could be concluded with sufficient evidence to show that the students had basically low prior knowledge about the topic ecosystem. A significant difference was seen in the pretest and posttest, scores of the activities and Ecosystem model results after the implementation phase that a knowledge construction type of activity was better than the traditional one for it promoted meaningful learning and active engagement of students. Based on the results, it was clear that the use of knowledge construction activities had an effect on student's achievement in comparison to traditional teaching method. Thus, it was

  9. The utility of twins in developmental cognitive neuroscience research: How twins strengthen the ABCD research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, William G; Heath, Andrew C; Hewitt, John K; Neale, Michael C; Banich, Marie T; Luciana, Monica M; Madden, Pamela A; Barch, Deanna M; Bjork, James M

    2018-08-01

    The ABCD twin study will elucidate the genetic and environmental contributions to a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes in children, including substance use, brain and behavioral development, and their interrelationship. Comparisons within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, further powered by multiple assessments, provide information about genetic and environmental contributions to developmental associations, and enable stronger tests of causal hypotheses, than do comparisons involving unrelated children. Thus a sub-study of 800 pairs of same-sex twins was embedded within the overall Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) design. The ABCD Twin Hub comprises four leading centers for twin research in Minnesota, Colorado, Virginia, and Missouri. Each site is enrolling 200 twin pairs, as well as singletons. The twins are recruited from registries of all twin births in each State during 2006-2008. Singletons at each site are recruited following the same school-based procedures as the rest of the ABCD study. This paper describes the background and rationale for the ABCD twin study, the ascertainment of twin pairs and implementation strategy at each site, and the details of the proposed analytic strategies to quantify genetic and environmental influences and test hypotheses critical to the aims of the ABCD study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. 02A. Design, Methods, and Outcomes for Recent Clinical Trials Utilizing Ayurvedic Medicine, Yoga, and Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Robert; Vinjamury, Sivarama; Elder, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Focus Area: Integrative Approaches to Care The panel discussants will present on the outcomes of four recent pragmatic trials covering the spectrum of Ayurvedic medicine, yoga, and meditation as therapeutic approaches for both acute and chronic conditions. The presenters will discuss: (1) a pilot study of a whole-systems Ayurveda and Yoga Therapy intervention for obesity; (2) a comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial of hatha yoga, physical therapy, and education for non-specific chronic low back pain in low-income minority populations; (3) an investigation of the therapeutic usefulness of Shirodhara (Ayurvedic oil dripping therapy) as a treatment for insomnia; and (4) a discussion of the evidence base supporting implementation of meditation interventions in schools and workplace settings. Discussants will present information on study designs, research methodology, and outcome measure selection to highlight special considerations in conducting research on whole medical systems that use multi-target therapies and focus on patient-centered outcomes. Ayurvedic medicine and yoga are characterized by low-cost, noninvasive interventions that can be usefully offered as part of an integrative medicine therapeutic approach.

  11. Design and construction of safety devices utilizing methods of measurement and control engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, B; Weidlich, S

    1982-08-01

    This article considers a proposed concept for the design and construction of measurement and control devices for the safety of chemical plants with the aim of preventing danger to persons and the environment and damage. Such measurement and control devices are generally employed when primary measures adopted for plant safety, such as safety valves, collection vessels, etc. are not applicable or insufficient by themselves. The concept regards the new sheet no. 3 of the VDI/VDE code draft 2180 ''Safety of chemical engineering plant'' and proposes a further subdivision of class A into safety classes A0, A1, and A2. Overall, it is possible, on the basis of the measures for raising the availability of measurement and control equipment which are presented in this article, to make selection appropriate to the potential danger involved. The proposed procedure should not, however, be regarded as a rigid scheme but rather as leading to a systematic view and supporting decisions resting on sound operating experience.

  12. DC Thermal Plasma Design and Utilization for the Low Density Polyethylene to Diesel Oil Pyrolysis Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr, benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO, 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods.

  13. Comparing The Effects Of Reference Pricing And Centers-Of-Excellence Approaches To Value-Based Benefit Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Cowling, David W; Facer, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Various health insurance benefit designs based on value-based purchasing have been promoted to steer patients to high-value providers, but little is known about the designs' relative effectiveness and underlying mechanisms. We compared the impact of two designs implemented by the California Public Employees' Retirement System on inpatient hospital total hip or knee replacement: a reference-based pricing design for preferred provider organizations (PPOs) and a centers-of-excellence design for health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Payment and utilization data for the procedures in the period 2008-13 were evaluated using pre-post and quasi-experimental designs at the system and health plan levels, adjusting for demographic characteristics, case-mix, and other confounders. We found that both designs prompted higher use of designated low-price high-quality facilities and reduced average replacement expenses per member at the plan and system levels. However, the designs used different routes: The reference-based pricing design reduced average replacement payments per case in PPOs by 26.7 percent in the first year, compared to HMOs, but did not lower PPO members' utilization rates. In contrast, the centers-of-excellence design lowered HMO members' utilization rates by 29.2 percent in the first year, compared to PPOs, but did not reduce HMO average replacement payments per case. The reference-based pricing design appears more suitable for reducing price variation, and the centers-of-excellence design for addressing variation in use.

  14. Utility of Social Cognitive Theory in Intervention Design for Promoting Physical Activity among African-American Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Mathis, LaTanya; Hooker, Steven P; Keller, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    We examined the cultural relevance of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) in the design of a physical activity intervention for African-American women. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty-five African-American women (Mean age = 38.5 years, Mean BMI = 39.4 kg·m2) were enrolled in a series of focus groups (N = 9) to elucidate how 5 SCT constructs (ie, Behavioral Capability, Outcome Expectations, Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Social Support) can be culturally tailored in the design of a physical activity program for African-American women. For the construct of Behavioral Capability, participants were generally unaware of the amount, intensity, and types of physical activity needed for health benefits. Outcome Expectations associated with physical activity included increased energy, improved health, weight loss, and positive role modeling behaviors. Constructs of Self-efficacy and Self-regulation were elicited through the women perceiving themselves as a primary barrier to physical activity. Participants endorsed the need of a strong social support component and identified a variety of acceptable sources to include in a physical activity program (ie, family, friends, other program participants). Findings explicate the utility of SCT as a behavioral change theoretical basis for tailoring physical activity programs to African-American women.

  15. Design of a Class of Antennas Utilizing MEMS, EBG and Septum Polarizers including Near-field Coupling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkyu

    Recent developments in mobile communications have led to an increased appearance of short-range communications and high data-rate signal transmission. New technologies provides the need for an accurate near-field coupling analysis and novel antenna designs. An ability to effectively estimate the coupling within the near-field region is required to realize short-range communications. Currently, two common techniques that are applicable to the near-field coupling problem are 1) integral form of coupling formula and 2) generalized Friis formula. These formulas are investigated with an emphasis on straightforward calculation and accuracy for various distances between the two antennas. The coupling formulas are computed for a variety of antennas, and several antenna configurations are evaluated through full-wave simulation and indoor measurement in order to validate these techniques. In addition, this research aims to design multi-functional and high performance antennas based on MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) switches, EBG (Electromagnetic Bandgap) structures, and septum polarizers. A MEMS switch is incorporated into a slot loaded patch antenna to attain frequency reconfigurability. The resonant frequency of the patch antenna can be shifted using the MEM switch, which is actuated by the integrated bias networks. Furthermore, a high gain base-station antenna utilizing beam-tilting is designed to maximize gain for tilted beam applications. To realize this base-station antenna, an array of four dipole-EBG elements is constructed to implement a fixed down-tilt main beam with application in base station arrays. An improvement of the operating range with the EBG-dipole array is evaluated using a simple linkbudget analysis. The septum polarizer has been widely used in circularly polarized antenna systems due to its simple and compact design and high quality of circularity. In this research, the sigmoid function is used to smoothen the edge in the septum design, which

  16. The Impact of Regression to the Mean on Economic Evaluation in Quasi-Experimental Pre-Post Studies: The Example of Total Knee Replacement Using Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Chris; Petrie, Dennis; Dowsey, Michelle M; Choong, Peter F; Clarke, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Many treatments are evaluated using quasi-experimental pre-post studies susceptible to regression to the mean (RTM). Ignoring RTM could bias the economic evaluation. We investigated this issue using the contemporary example of total knee replacement (TKR), a common treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. Data (n = 4796) were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database, a longitudinal observational study of osteoarthritis. TKR patients (n = 184) were matched to non-TKR patients, using propensity score matching on the predicted hazard of TKR and exact matching on osteoarthritis severity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). The economic evaluation using the matched control group was compared to the standard method of using the pre-surgery score as the control. Matched controls were identified for 56% of the primary TKRs. The matched control HrQoL trajectory showed evidence of RTM accounting for a third of the estimated QALY gains from surgery using the pre-surgery HrQoL as the control. Incorporating RTM into the economic evaluation significantly reduced the estimated cost effectiveness of TKR and increased the uncertainty. A generalized ICER bias correction factor was derived to account for RTM in cost-effectiveness analysis. RTM should be considered in economic evaluations based on quasi-experimental pre-post studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR A RADICALLY SMALLER, HIGHLY ADAPTIVE AND APPLICATION-FLEXIBLE MINING MACHINE FOR UTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew H. Stern

    2004-12-20

    The aim of this research project was to develop a preliminary ''conceptual design'' for a radically smaller, highly adaptive and application-flexible underground coal mining machine, for performing non-production utility work and/or also undertake limited production mining for the recovery of reserves that would otherwise be lost. Whereas historically, mining philosophies have reflected a shift to increasing larger mechanized systems [such as the continuous miner (CM)], specific mining operations that do not benefit from the economy of the large mining equipment are often ignored or addressed with significant inefficiencies. Developing this prototype concept will create a new class of equipment that can provide opportunities to re-think the very structure of the mining system across a broad range of possibilities, not able to be met by existing machinery. The approach involved pooling the collective input from mining professionals, using a structured listing of desired inputs in the form of a questionnaire, which was used to define the range of desired design specifications. From these inputs, a conceptual specification was blended, by the author, to embody the general concurrence of mission concepts for this machine.

  18. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  19. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  20. Improvements in anatomy knowledge when utilizing a novel cyclical "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S; Keenan, Iain D

    2017-01-01

    Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on processes of critical observation, reflection and drawing in anatomy learning. ORDER was initially investigated in the context of a compulsory first year surface anatomy practical (ORDER-SAP) at a United Kingdom medical school in which a cross-over trial with pre-post anatomy knowledge testing was utilized and student perceptions were identified. Despite positive perceptions of ORDER-SAP, medical student (n = 154) pre-post knowledge test scores were significantly greater (P learning methods (3.26, SD = ±2.25) than with ORDER-SAP (2.17, ±2.30). Based on these findings, ORDER was modified and evaluated in the context of an optional self-directed gross anatomy online interactive tutorial (ORDER-IT) for participating first year medical students (n = 55). Student performance was significantly greater (P  0.05) to those students without these characteristics. These findings will be of value to anatomy instructors seeking to engage students from diverse learning backgrounds in a research-led, innovative, time and cost-effective learning method, in the context of contrasting learning environments. Anat Sci Educ 10: 7-22. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Embedding Evidence-based Practice Education into a Post-graduate Physiotherapy Program: Eight Years of pre-Post Course Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, L; Machotka, Z; Grimmer, K; Gibbs, C; Mahar, C; Kennedy, K

    2017-04-01

    Little has been published about the effectiveness of training postgraduate physiotherapy coursework students in research methods and evidence-based practice (EBP) theory. Graduate qualities in most universities include lifelong learning. Inclusion of EBP in post-graduate coursework students' training is one way for students to develop the knowledge and skills needed to implement current best evidence in their clinical practice after graduation, thereby facilitating lifelong learning. This paper reports on change in confidence and anxiety in knowledge of statistical terminology and concepts related to research design and EBP in eight consecutive years of post-graduate physiotherapy students at one Australian university. Pre-survey/post-survey instruments were administered to students in an intensive 3-week post-graduate course, which taught health research methods, biostatistics and EBP. This course was embedded into a post-graduate physiotherapy programme from 2007 to 2014. The organization and delivery of the course was based on best pedagogical evidence for effectively teaching adult physiotherapists. The course was first delivered each year in the programme, and no other course was delivered concurrently. There were significant improvements in confidence, significantly decreased anxiety and improvements in knowledge of statistical terminology and concepts related to research design and EBP, at course completion. Age, gender and country of origin were not confounders on learning outcomes, although there was a (non-significant) trend that years of practice negatively impacted on learning outcomes (p = 0.09). There was a greater improvement in confidence in statistical terminology than in concepts related to research design and EBP. An intensive teaching programme in health research methods and biostatistics and EBP, based on best practice adult physiotherapy learning principles, is effective immediately post-course, in decreasing anxiety and increasing

  2. Measurable Changes in Pre-Post Test Scores in Iraqi 4-H Leader’s Knowledge of Animal Science Production Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H volunteer program is a new concept to the people of Iraq, for decades the country has been closed to western ideas. Iraqi culture and the Arabic customs have not embraced the volunteer concept and even more the concept of scientific animal production technologies designed to increase profitability for producers. In 2011 the USAID-Inma Agribusiness program teamed with the Iraq 4-H program to create youth and community entrepreneurship opportunities for widowed families. Iraq 4-H provided the youth members and adult volunteers and Inma provided the financial capital (livestock and the animal science training program for the volunteers. The purpose of this study was to measure the knowledge level gained through intensive animal science training for Iraqi 4-H volunteers. Researchers designed and implemented a pre and post test to measure the knowledge of fifteen volunteers who participated in the three day course. The pretest exposed a general lack of animal science knowledge of all volunteers; over 80% of the participants incorrectly answered the questions. However, the post-test indicated positive change in the participants understanding of animal science production principles.

  3. A Pre-Post Evaluation of OpenMinds: a Sustainable, Peer-Led Mental Health Literacy Programme in Universities and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Annis, Jennifer; Sharpe, Helen; Newman, Robbie; Main, Dominic; Ragunathan, Thivvia; Parkes, Mary; Clarke, Kelly

    2017-11-01

    Engaging young people in the design and delivery of mental health education could lead to more effective interventions; however, few of these interventions have been evaluated. This study aimed to gain preliminary evidence with regards to the efficacy and acceptability of OpenMinds: a peer-designed and facilitated mental health literacy programme for university and secondary school students. The programme involves a structured programme of education and training for university medical students, who then deliver workshops in secondary schools. Pre- and post-surveys were completed by 234 school students who received two workshops and 40 university medical students who completed the OpenMinds programme and delivered the workshops. The main outcomes in both groups were components of mental health literacy (non-stigmatising attitudes, knowledge, social distance and helping attitudes). Perceived teaching efficacy and interest in mental health careers (university medical students) and workshop acceptability (school students) were also examined. University and school student participation in OpenMinds was associated with significant improvements in three of four mental health literacy elements in both samples. Knowledge and attitudes improved in both samples, social distance improved only in the university sample and knowledge of helping behaviours increased in the school sample. University students' perceived teaching efficacy improved but there was no change in their reported interest in pursuing psychiatry in their career. Acceptability was high; over 70% of the school students agreed that they enjoyed the workshops and liked being taught by a university student. This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability and efficacy of OpenMinds as a sustainable peer-led model of mental health education for young people. The OpenMinds programme is ready for efficacy testing in a randomised trial.

  4. Metabolome analysis-based design and engineering of a metabolic pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum to match rates of simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2018-05-17

    L-Arabinose is the second most abundant component of hemicellulose in lignocellulosic biomass, next to D-xylose. However, few microorganisms are capable of utilizing pentoses, and catabolic genes and operons enabling bacterial utilization of pentoses are typically subject to carbon catabolite repression by more-preferred carbon sources, such as D-glucose, leading to a preferential utilization of D-glucose over pentoses. In order to simultaneously utilize both D-glucose and L-arabinose at the same rate, a modified metabolic pathway was rationally designed based on metabolome analysis. Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831 utilized D-glucose and L-arabinose simultaneously at a low concentration (3.6 g/L each) but preferentially utilized D-glucose over L-arabinose at a high concentration (15 g/L each), although L-arabinose and D-glucose were consumed at comparable rates in the absence of the second carbon source. Metabolome analysis revealed that phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were major bottlenecks for D-glucose and L-arabinose metabolism, respectively. Based on the results of metabolome analysis, a metabolic pathway was engineered by overexpressing pyruvate kinase in combination with deletion of araR, which encodes a repressor of L-arabinose uptake and catabolism. The recombinant strain utilized high concentrations of D-glucose and L-arabinose (15 g/L each) at the same consumption rate. During simultaneous utilization of both carbon sources at high concentrations, intracellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate declined and acetyl-CoA levels increased significantly as compared with the wild-type strain that preferentially utilized D-glucose. These results suggest that overexpression of pyruvate kinase in the araR deletion strain increased the specific consumption rate of L-arabinose and that citrate synthase activity becomes a new bottleneck in the engineered pathway during the simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose. Metabolome analysis

  5. Utility of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) Validity Scales in Detecting Malingering in a Criminal Forensic Setting: A Known-Groups Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Toomey, Joseph A.; Wygant, Dustin B.; Kucharski, L. Thomas; Duncan, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the utility of the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) validity scales to detect feigned psychopathology in a criminal forensic setting. We used a known-groups design with the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS;…

  6. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Marion; Chukwu, Emeka; Ojo, Oluwayemisi; Shekhar, Navendu; Gill, Christopher J; Salami, Habeeb; Jega, Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs) are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre. Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care. Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (pmobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  7. Streamlining and integrating right-of-way and utility processes with planning, environmental, and design processes in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Many transportation projects require acquisition of land and accommodation of utility facilities in the : right-of-way. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and : Transportation Officials, and National Cooperative...

  8. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  9. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion McNabb

    Full Text Available Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre.Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care.Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001, out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling, technical services provided, and quality of health education.These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  10. Value of information methods to design a clinical trial in a small population to optimise a health economic utility function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Posch, Martin; Day, Simon; Miller, Frank; Zohar, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel

    2018-02-08

    Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided test. Approval of the experimental treatment by regulatory agencies is then based on the result of such a significance test with other information to balance the risk of adverse events against the benefit of the treatment to future patients. In the setting of a rare disease, recruiting sufficient patients to achieve conventional error rates for clinically reasonable effect sizes may be infeasible, suggesting that the decision-making process should reflect the size of the target population. We considered the use of a decision-theoretic value of information (VOI) method to obtain the optimal sample size and significance level for confirmatory RCTs in a range of settings. We assume the decision maker represents society. For simplicity we assume the primary endpoint to be normally distributed with unknown mean following some normal prior distribution representing information on the anticipated effectiveness of the therapy available before the trial. The method is illustrated by an application in an RCT in haemophilia A. We explicitly specify the utility in terms of improvement in primary outcome and compare this with the costs of treating patients, both financial and in terms of potential harm, during the trial and in the future. The optimal sample size for the clinical trial decreases as the size of the population decreases. For non-zero cost of treating future patients, either monetary or in terms of potential harmful effects, stronger evidence is required for approval as the population size increases, though this is not the case if the costs of treating future patients are ignored. Decision-theoretic VOI methods offer a flexible approach with both type I error rate and power (or equivalently trial sample size) depending on the size of the future population for

  11. Value of information methods to design a clinical trial in a small population to optimise a health economic utility function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pearce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided test. Approval of the experimental treatment by regulatory agencies is then based on the result of such a significance test with other information to balance the risk of adverse events against the benefit of the treatment to future patients. In the setting of a rare disease, recruiting sufficient patients to achieve conventional error rates for clinically reasonable effect sizes may be infeasible, suggesting that the decision-making process should reflect the size of the target population. Methods We considered the use of a decision-theoretic value of information (VOI method to obtain the optimal sample size and significance level for confirmatory RCTs in a range of settings. We assume the decision maker represents society. For simplicity we assume the primary endpoint to be normally distributed with unknown mean following some normal prior distribution representing information on the anticipated effectiveness of the therapy available before the trial. The method is illustrated by an application in an RCT in haemophilia A. We explicitly specify the utility in terms of improvement in primary outcome and compare this with the costs of treating patients, both financial and in terms of potential harm, during the trial and in the future. Results The optimal sample size for the clinical trial decreases as the size of the population decreases. For non-zero cost of treating future patients, either monetary or in terms of potential harmful effects, stronger evidence is required for approval as the population size increases, though this is not the case if the costs of treating future patients are ignored. Conclusions Decision-theoretic VOI methods offer a flexible approach with both type I error rate and power (or equivalently

  12. Integrated management model. Methodology and software-enabled tood designed to assist a utility in developing a station-wide optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovet, R.; Ibanez, R.; Woodcock, J.

    2005-01-01

    A key concern for utilities today is optimizing station aging and realibility management activities in a manner that maximizes the value of those activities withing an affordable budget. The Westinghouse Proactive Asset Management Model is a methodology and software-enabled tood designed to assist a utility in developing a station-wide optimization of those activities. The process and tool support the development of an optimized, station-wide plan for inspection, testing, maintenance, repaor and replacement of aging components. The optimization identifies the benefit and optimal timing of those activities based on minimizing unplanned outage costs (avoided costs) and maximizing station Net Present Value. (Author)

  13. Design of conveyor utilization monitoring system: a case study of powder coating line in sheet metal fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Hoedi; Sugiarto, Yohanes; Nur Rosyidi, Cucuk

    2018-03-01

    Conveyor is a very useful equipment to replace manpower in transporting the goods. It highly influences the productivity, production capacity utilization and eventually the production cost. This paper proposes a system to monitor the utilization of conveyor at a low cost through a case study at powder coating process line in a sheet metal fabrication. Preliminary observation was conducted to identify the problems. The monitoring system was then built and executed. The system consists of two sub systems. First is sub system for collecting and transmitting the required data and the second is sub system for displaying the data. The system utilizes sensors, wireless data transfer and windows-based application. The test results showed that the whole system works properly. By this system, the productivity and status of the conveyor can be monitored in real time. This research enriches the development of conveyor monitoring system especially for implementation in small and medium enterprises.

  14. Institutional design and utilization of evaluation: a contribution to a theory of evaluation influence based on Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthasar, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Growing interest in the institutionalization of evaluation in the public administration raises the question as to which institutional arrangement offers optimal conditions for the utilization of evaluations. Institutional arrangement denotes the formal organization of processes and competencies, together with procedural rules, that are applicable independently of individual evaluation projects. It reflects the evaluation practice of an institution and defines the distance between evaluators and evaluees. This article outlines the results of a broad-based study of all 300 or so evaluations that the Swiss Federal Administration completed from 1999 to 2002. On this basis, it derives a theory of the influence of institutional factors on the utilization of evaluations.

  15. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications. Volume 3: Supplementary design and analysis tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Additional design and analysis data are provided to supplement the results of the two parallel design study efforts. The key results of the three supplemental tasks investigated are: (1) The velocity duration profile has a significant effect in determining the optimum wind turbine design parameters and the energy generation cost. (2) Modest increases in capacity factor can be achieved with small increases in energy generation costs and capital costs. (3) Reinforced concrete towers that are esthetically attractive can be designed and built at a cost comparable to those for steel truss towers. The approach used, method of analysis, assumptions made, design requirements, and the results for each task are discussed in detail.

  16. Using EPA Tools and Data Services to Inform Changes to Design Storm Definitions for Wastewater Utilities based on Climate Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryby, M.; Fries, J. S.; Baranowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events can cause significant impacts to drinking water and wastewater utilities, including facility damage, water quality impacts, service interruptions and potential risks to human health and the environment due to localized flooding and combined sewer overflows (CSOs). These impacts will become more pronounced with the projected increases in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events due to climate change. To model the impacts of extreme precipitation events, wastewater utilities often develop Intensity, Duration, and Frequency (IDF) rainfall curves and "design storms" for use in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Wastewater utilities use SWMM for planning, analysis, and facility design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban and non-urban areas. SWMM tracks (1) the quantity and quality of runoff made within each sub-catchment; and (2) the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period made up of multiple time steps. In its current format, EPA SWMM does not consider climate change projection data. Climate change may affect the relationship between intensity, duration, and frequency described by past rainfall events. Therefore, EPA is integrating climate projection data available in the Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT) into SWMM. CREAT is a climate risk assessment tool for utilities that provides downscaled climate change projection data for changes in the amount of rainfall in a 24-hour period for various extreme precipitation events (e.g., from 5-year to 100-year storm events). Incorporating climate change projections into SWMM will provide wastewater utilities with more comprehensive data they can use in planning for future storm events, thereby reducing the impacts to the utility and customers served from flooding and stormwater issues.

  17. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  18. Increased utilization of health care services after psychotherapy: a register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    services for patients referred to psychotherapeutic treatment in 2004 and 2005. Method The study was a matched control study, which included 716 consecutive patients and 15,220 matched controls. Data from a comprehensive set of health care services were collected from central registries for an observation...... period of four years before intake and four years after ended treatment. Changes in utilization of health care services in eight health parameters were analyzed with t-test and with ANCOVA one and four year pre-post treatment. Results Of the 761 patients, 216 patients did not show up for treatment, while...... 545 patients completed treatment; 228 responded and 201 did not respond to treatment. Data on treatment response was missing for the remaining 116 patients. Completer patients increased their use of all health care services with 296% (ES=0.58) in the four year pre-post comparison, while the control...

  19. Rational design of SnO2@C nanocomposites for lithium ion batteries by utilizing adsorption properties of MOFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihui; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Xianlong; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Zhen; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-14

    A facile synthetic strategy is developed to prepare mono-dispersed SnO2 particles within three-dimensional porous carbon frameworks by utilizing the adsorption properties of metal-organic frameworks. This composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 900 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles, with a stable capacity retention of 880 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) even after 200 cycles.

  20. Constructible Authentic Representations: Designing Video Games That Enable Players to Utilize Knowledge Developed In-Game to Reason about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Nathan R.; Wilensky, Uri

    2014-01-01

    While video games have become a source of excitement for educational designers, creating informal game experiences that players can draw on when thinking and reasoning in non-game contexts has proved challenging. In this paper we present a design principle for creating educational video games that enables players to draw on knowledge resources…

  1. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Wind turbine configurations that would lead to generation of electrical power in a cost effective manner were considered. All possible overall system configurationss, operating modes, and sybsystem concepts were evaluated for both technical feasibility and compatibility with utility networks, as well as for economic attractiveness. A design optimization computer code was developed to determine the cost sensitivity of the various design features, and thus establish the configuration and design conditions that would minimize the generated energy costs. The preliminary designs of both a 500 kW unit and a 1500 kW unit operating in a 12 mph and 18 mph median wind speed respectively, were developed. The rationale employed and the key findings are summarized.

  2. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  3. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  4. Development of a Measurement Instrument for Website Design Utilizing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Multi-Attribute Decision Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Cheek; Martha L. Sale; Colleen Schwarz

    2015-01-01

    For many organizations their websites are the first impression customers have of their companies. The impact and importance of web design on organizations continues to dramatically increase. Yet many organizations continue to struggle to find tools to strategically analyze their websites and overall online presence. While there have been numerous studies offering “best practices†for website design, most of these are dated and do not take into consideration new applications and social medi...

  5. Utility boiler computer modeling experience in the USA for practical furnace air port and low NOx burner field design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.P.; Urich, J.A.; Krippene, B.C. [ESA, Inc. (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents several examples of where effective furnace and low NOx burner modeling has produced substantial advantages to the low NOx combustion system designer. Using practical boiler furnace air injection port and low NOx burner maths modeling as an integral part of the design process has often made the difference between a successful low NOx combustion system field conversion project and an unsuccessful one.

  6. Robust Optimization Approach for Design for a Dynamic Cell Formation Considering Labor Utilization: Bi-objective Mathematical Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, robust optimization of a bi-objective mathematical model in a dynamic cell formation problem considering labor utilization with uncertain data is carried out. The robust approach is used to reduce the effects of fluctuations of the uncertain parameters with regards to all the possible future scenarios. In this research, cost parameters of the cell formation and demand fluctuations are subject to uncertainty and a mixed-integer programming (MIP model is developed to formulate the related robust dynamic cell formation problem. Then the problem is transformed into a bi-objective linear one. The first objective function seeks to minimize relevant costs of the problem including machine procurement and relocation costs, machine variable cost, inter-cell movement and intra-cell movement costs, overtime cost and labor shifting cost between cells, machine maintenance cost, inventory, holding part cost. The second objective function seeks to minimize total man-hour deviations between cells or indeed labor utilization of the modeled.

  7. Design, performance and cost of energy from high concentration and flat-plate utility-scale PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent study to assess the near-term cost of power in central station applications. Three PV technologies were evaluated: Fresnel-lens high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV), central receiver HCPV, and flat-plate PV using thin-film copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. Baseline assumptions included PV cell designs and performances projected for the 1995 timeframe, 25 and 100 MW/year cell manufacturing rates, 50 MW power plant size, and mature technology cost and performance estimates. The plant design characteristics are highlighted. Potential sites were evaluated and selected for the PV power plants (Carrisa Plains, CA and Apalachicola, FL) and cell manufacturing plants (Dallas-Fort Worth, TX). Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for the plants and their components. Plant performance was modeled and the designs were optimized to minimize levelized energy costs. Overall, the flat plate design exhibited the lowest energy costs among the designs evaluated. Its levelized energy costs at the Carrisa Plains site were estimated to be 11.8 and 10.8 cents/kWh (1990 $) for 25 and 100 MW/year module production rates, respectively. This meets the 12 cents/kWh DOE near-term goal. The energy cost of the Fresnel lens plant (at Carrisa Plains and a 100 MW/year cell production rate) was estimated to be 12.4 cents/kWh and the corresponding central receiver energy cost was estimated to be 13.1 cents/kWh, both of which are very close to the DOE goal. Further design optimization efforts are still warranted and can be expected to reduce plant capital costs

  8. Design Study of Modular Nuclear Power Plant with Small Long Life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors Utilizing MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Muhammad; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Growing energy needed due to increasing of the world’s population encourages development of technology and science of nuclear power plant in its safety and security. In this research, it will be explained about design study of modular fast reactor with helium gas cooling (GCFR) small long life reactor, which can be operated over 20 years. It had been conducted about neutronic design GCFR with Mixed Oxide (UO2-PuO2) fuel in range of 100-200 MWth NPPs of power and 50-60% of fuel fraction variation with cylindrical pin cell and cylindrical balance of reactor core geometry. Calculation method used SRAC-CITATION code. The obtained results are the effective multiplication factor and density value of core reactor power (with geometry optimalization) to obtain optimum design core reactor power, whereas the obtained of optimum core reactor power is 200 MWth with 55% of fuel fraction and 9-13% of percentages.

  9. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Lydersen, Stian; Åsheim, Merethe; Fossum, Sturla

    2016-10-26

    Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1 st - 3 rd grade (age 6-8 years) assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls). Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  10. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Kirkhaug

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1st – 3rd grade (age 6–8 years assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter–Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls. Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. Results In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. Conclusion The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  11. Scaled Facility Design Approach for Pool-Type Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Small Modular Reactor Utilizing Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sangrok; Shin, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In low carbon era, nuclear energy is the most prominent energy source of electricity. For steady ecofriendly nuclear energy supply, Generation IV reactors which are future nuclear reactor require safety, sustainability, economics and non-proliferation as four criteria. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of these reactor type and Generation IV international forum (GIF) adapted three reference LFR systems which are a small and movable systems with long life without refueling, intermediate size and huge electricity generation system for power grid. NUTRECK (Nuclear Transmutation Energy Center of Korea) has been designed reactor called URANUS (Ubiquitous, Rugged, Accident-forgiving, Non-proliferating, and Ultra-lasting Sustainer) which is small modular reactor and using lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. To prove natural circulation capability of URANUS and analyze design based accidents, scaling mock-up experiment facility will be constructed. In this paper, simple specifications of URANUS will be presented. Then based on this feature, scaling law and scaled facility design results are presented. To validate safety feature and thermodynamics characteristic of URANUS, scaled mockup facility of URANUS is designed based on the scaling law. This mockup adapts two area scale factors, core and lower parts of mock-up are scaled for 3D flow experiment. Upper parts are scaled different size to reduce electricity power and LBE tonnage. This hybrid scaling method could distort some thermal-hydraulic parameters, however, key parameters for experiment will be matched for up-scaling. Detailed design of mock-up will be determined through iteration for design optimization.

  12. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  13. Seismic PSA implementation standards by AESJ and the utilization of the advanced safety examination guideline for seismic design for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsumi; Hibino, Kenta

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Safety Examination Guideline for Seismic Design for Nuclear Power Plant (the advanced safety examination guideline) was worked out on September 19, 2006. In this paper, a summary of the method of probability theory in the advanced safety examination guideline and the Seismic PSA Implementation Standards is stated. On utilization of the probability theory for the advanced safety examination guideline, the uncertainty resulting from the process of the decision of the basic design earthquake ground motion (Ss) is stated to be considered using the proper method. The references of the extra probability for evaluation of earthquake hazard and combination of the working load and the earthquake load are stated. Definition, evaluation method and effort to lower the 'residual risks', and relation between the residual risks and the extra probability of Ss are described. A summary of the earthquake-resistant design for nuclear power facilities is explained by the old guideline. (S.Y.)

  14. Effects of the conditions imposed by the environment and by utilities on the design of process engineering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernecker, G

    1976-09-01

    Conditions of environment and utilities have a great influence on the investment and operation costs of process engineering plants. If these conditions are taken into consideration in preliminary process engineering, the considerable amount of time spent in planning subsequent modifications could be saved. This publication from the seminar held with the topic 'planning and construction of process engineering systems' by the VDI-Bildungswerk shows how to facilitate problems of waste products already 'in statu nascendi'. The second part which will be published in the next edition will summarize the possibilities and the determining restrictions in the use of the available media for heating and cooling. Both essays are extended presentations of a chapter from a book in preparation by the VDI with the same title as the seminar.

  15. Effects of a pain education program in Complementary and Alternative Medicine treatment utilization at a VA medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, David; Lin, Erica H

    2015-06-01

    Past studies have shown that U.S. Veterans are consumers of CAM. However, more than 75% of Veteran non-users report they would utilize these treatment options if made available. Thus, Veterans may not be fully aware of the CAM options currently available to them in the current U.S. VA health care system. The current study tested the hypothesis that Veterans would report an increase in CAM utilization after completing a formal pain education program in a VA medical center. The study used a quasi-experimental, one-group, pre/post-test design. Midwestern, U.S. VA Medical Center. The responses from 103 Veterans who elected to participate in the program and the assessment measures were included in the outcome analyses. "Pain Education School" is a 12-week, educational program that is open to all Veterans and their families. It is a comprehensive program that introduces patients to 23 different disciplines at the VA Medical Center that deal with chronic, non-cancer pain. An adaptation of the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire(©), SECTION A: Use of Alternative Health Care Providers. There was a significant difference found in overall utilization of CAM after completing the pain education program. The most utilized CAM modality was the chiropractor; the least utilized were hypnosis and aromatherapy. Not all health care systems or providers may have access to an education-focused, professionally driven program as an amenity. However, lessons can be learned from this study in terms of what pain providers may be able to accomplish in their practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  17. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design

  18. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Sheehan, J.; Ibsen, K.; Majdeski, H.; Galvez, A.

    1999-07-20

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol enzymatic based process. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment lignin burner and boiler--turbogenerator, and utilities--are included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation to assist in the process design evaluation, equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design and costing for the lignin burner and boiler turbogenerator has been reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. and the wastewater treatment by Merrick and Company. An overview of both reviews is included here. The purpose of this update was to ensure that the process design and equipment costs were reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type using available technical data. This work has resulted in an economic model that can be used to predict the cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic biomass using this technology if a plant were to be built in the next few years. The model was also extended using technology improvements that are expected to be developed based on the current DOE research plan. Future process designs and cost estimates are given for the years 2005, 2010, and 2015.

  19. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  20. Optimization of Heterogeneous Fuel Designs for Utilization of Thorium In PWRs To Enhance Proliferation Resistance and Reduce Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todosow, M.; Galperin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first stage of the project aimed to examine heterogeneous core design options for the implementation of the thorium- 233 U fuel cycle in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and to identify the core design and fuel management strategies that will maximize the benefits from inclusion of thorium in the fuel. The project is carried out within a framework of Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) supported by the US Department of Energy (1). Principal investigators are M. Todosow from Brookhaven National Laboratory and M. Kazimi from Massachusetts Institute of Technology with contributions from Kurchatov Institute (Russia) and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). The fuel cycle assessment concentrates on key measures of performance in several important areas including proliferation characteristics of the spent fuel, reliability, safety, cost, environmental impact, and licensing issues

  1. Utilizing food effects to overcome challenges in delivery of lipophilic bioactives: structural design of medical and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2013-12-01

    The oral bioavailability of many lipophilic bioactives, such as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, is relatively low due to their poor solubility, permeability and/or chemical stability within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives can be improved by designing food matrices that control their release, solubilization, transport and absorption within the GIT. This article discusses the challenges associated with delivering lipophilic bioactive components, the impact of food composition and structure on oral bioavailability and the design of functional and medical foods for improving the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. Food-based delivery systems can be used to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. There are a number of potential advantages to delivering lipophilic bioactives using functional or medical foods: greater compliance than conventional delivery forms; increased bioavailability and efficacy; and reduced variability in biological effects. However, food matrices are structurally complex multicomponent materials and research is still needed to identify optimum structures and compositions for particular bioactives.

  2. Development of Design Standards and Guidelines for Electromagnetic Compatibility and Lightning Protection for Spacecraft Utilizing Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    This final report presents information concerning technical accomplishments by Tec-Masters, Inc. (TMI) for this contract effort. This effort included the accomplishment and/or submission by TMI of the following items: (1) Literature Survey Report, Electrical Properties of Non-Metallic Composites by Mr. Hugh W. Denny; (2) Interim Report, Composite Materials - Conductivity, Shielding Effectiveness, and Current Carrying Capability by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (3) Fault Current Test Plan by Mr. Ross W. Evans (4) Fault Current Test Procedure by Mr. Ross W. Evans (5) Test Report, Fault Current Through Graphite Filament Reinforced Plastic, NASA CR-4774, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, September 1996, by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (6) Test Plan, Lightning Effects on Composite Materials by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (7) Test Report, Lightning Effects on Composite Materials, NASA CR-4783, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, February 1997, by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (8) Design Guidelines for Shielding Effectiveness, Current Carrying Capability, and the Enhancement of Conductivity of Composite Materials, NASA CR-4784, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, September 1996, by Mr. Ross W. Evans. These items are not attached but are considered to be a part of this final report. Efforts on two additional items were accomplished at no increase in cost to NASA/MSFC. These items consisted of updating the 'MSFC EMC Design and Interference Control Handbook,' and revising the 'Design Guidelines for Shielding Effectiveness, Current Carrying Capability, and the Enhancement of Conductivity of Composite Materials.'

  3. Layout designs of surface barrier coatings for boosting the capability of oxygen/vapor obstruction utilized in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Chen; He, Jing-Yan

    2018-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diode-based flexible and rollable displays have become a promising candidate for next-generation flexible electronics. For this reason, the design of surface multi-layered barriers should be optimized to enhance the long-term mechanical reliability of a flexible encapsulation that prevents the penetration of oxygen and vapor. In this study, finite element-based stress simulation was proposed to estimate the mechanical reliability of gas/vapor barrier design with low-k/silicon nitride (low-k/SiNx) stacking architecture. Consequently, stress-induced failure of critical thin films within the flexible display under various bending conditions must be considered. The feasibility of one pair SiO2/SiNx barrier design, which overcomes the complex lamination process, and the critical bending radius, which is decreased to 1.22 mm, were also examined. In addition, the influence of distance between neutral axes to the concerned layer surface dominated the induced-stress magnitude rather than the stress compliant mechanism provided from stacked low-k films.

  4. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume I. Scope and design criteria and project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The information in this document is the result of an intensive engineering effort to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass-fueled boilers in cogeneration applications. This design package is based upon a specific site in the State of Maine. However, the design is generic in nature and could serve as a model for other biomass conversion facilities located anywhere biomass is abundant. The project's purpose and summary information are presented: the plant, its concept of operation; and other overall information are described. The capital cost estimate for the plant, and the basis upon which it was obtained are given; a schedule of key milestones and activities required to construct the plant and put it into operation is presented; and the general findings in areas that affect the viability of the project are discussed. The technical design, biomass study, environmental impact, commercialization, and economic factors are addressed. Each major plant area and the equipment and facilities that each includes are discussed in depth. Some overall plant requirements, including noise control, reliability, maintainability, and safety, are detailed. The results of each study relating to alternatives considered for optimizing plant operation parameters and specific system process schemes are briefly presented. All economic factors that affect the feasibility and viability of the biomass project are defined and evaluated.

  5. The utilization of websites for fundraising by NCI-designated cancer centers: Examining the capacity for dialogic communication with prospective donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cathleen O; Dias, Ashley M

    2016-01-01

    The study employs a dialogic public relations framework to explore the utilization of the Internet for fundraising by nonprofit health care organizations-specifically, NCI-designated cancer centers. Cancer centers have been noted for effective websites and for being highly engaged in fundraising, which is characterized as relationship marketing. Results indicate all but one cancer center use websites and social media for fundraising but are limited in capacity for two-way symmetrical dialogue. Results are discussed and recommendations are made for future research.

  6. Utilizing the Total Design Method in medicine: maximizing response rates in long, non-incentivized, personal questionnaire postal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Haggie, Rebecca; Forouhi, Parto; Kazzazi, Nazar; Malata, Charles M

    2018-01-01

    Maximizing response rates in questionnaires can improve their validity and quality by reducing non-response bias. A comprehensive analysis is essential for producing reasonable conclusions in patient-reported outcome research particularly for topics of a sensitive nature. This often makes long (≥7 pages) questionnaires necessary but these have been shown to reduce response rates in mail surveys. Our work adapted the "Total Design Method," initially produced for commercial markets, to raise response rates in a long (total: 11 pages, 116 questions), non-incentivized, very personal postal survey sent to almost 350 women. A total of 346 women who had undergone mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction from 2008-2014 (inclusive) at Addenbrooke's University Hospital were sent our study pack (Breast-Q satisfaction questionnaire and support documents) using our modified "Total Design Method." Participants were sent packs and reminders according to our designed schedule. Of the 346 participants, we received 258 responses, an overall response rate of 74.5% with a useable response rate of 72.3%. One hundred and six responses were received before the week 1 reminder (30.6%), 120 before week 3 (34.6%), 225 before the week 7 reminder (64.6%) and the remainder within 3 weeks of the final pack being sent. The median age of patients that the survey was sent to, and the median age of the respondents, was 54 years. In this study, we have demonstrated the successful implementation of a novel approach to postal surveys. Despite the length of the questionnaire (nine pages, 116 questions) and limitations of expenses to mail a survey to ~350 women, we were able to attain a response rate of 74.6%.

  7. Design of shared instruments to utilize simulated gravities generated by a large-gradient, high-field superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yin, D C; Liu, Y M; Shi, J Z; Lu, H M; Shi, Z H; Qian, A R; Shang, P

    2011-03-01

    A high-field superconducting magnet can provide both high-magnetic fields and large-field gradients, which can be used as a special environment for research or practical applications in materials processing, life science studies, physical and chemical reactions, etc. To make full use of a superconducting magnet, shared instruments (the operating platform, sample holders, temperature controller, and observation system) must be prepared as prerequisites. This paper introduces the design of a set of sample holders and a temperature controller in detail with an emphasis on validating the performance of the force and temperature sensors in the high-magnetic field.

  8. Design and utilization of a Flight Test Engineering Database Management System at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Donna L.

    1992-01-01

    A Flight Test Engineering Database Management System (FTE DBMS) was designed and implemented at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The X-29 Forward Swept Wing Advanced Technology Demonstrator flight research program was chosen for the initial system development and implementation. The FTE DBMS greatly assisted in planning and 'mass production' card preparation for an accelerated X-29 research program. Improved Test Plan tracking and maneuver management for a high flight-rate program were proven, and flight rates of up to three flights per day, two times per week were maintained.

  9. A utility viewpoint on R and D needs to support design, construction and operation of generation 3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The author underscored the importance of harmonizing design and licensing methodology for new reactors. He addressed the use of probabilistic approaches, the adoption of advanced man-system interface systems to facilitate plant operation and maintenance, better inspections methods and the progress on numerical simulation. New fuels and new fuel cycle technologies can be applied to improve efficiency and to close the fuel cycle. Regarding research, he saw it also as an opportunity to close issues that have been sufficiently investigated. He concluded that international programmes enable to share costs and build consensus, and the OECD NEA should play a major role to support international co-operation. (author)

  10. Using Robotics and Game Design to Enhance Children's Self-Efficacy, STEM Attitudes, and Computational Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Buss, Alan; Gamboa, Ruben; Mitchell, Monica; Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Hubert, Tarcia; Almughyirah, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a pilot study that used robotics and game design to develop middle school students' computational thinking strategies. One hundred and twenty-four students engaged in LEGO® EV3 robotics and created games using Scalable Game Design software. The results of the study revealed students' pre-post self-efficacy…

  11. Utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an online test system designed to monitor changes in cognitive function in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Brooker, Helen; Ballard, Clive; McCambridge, Laura; Stenton, Robert; Corbett, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The advent of long-term remotely conducted clinical trials requires assessments which can be administered online. This paper considers the utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an internet-based system for measuring changes in cognitive function which is being used in one such trial. The Platform for Research Online to investigate Genetics and Cognition in Ageing is a 10-year longitudinal and entirely remote study launched in November 2015. The CogTrack TM System is being used to monitor changes in important aspects of cognitive function using tests of attention, information processing and episodic memory. On study entry, the participants performed CogTrack TM up to three times over seven days, and these data are evaluated in this paper. During the first six months of the study, 14 531 individuals aged 50 to 94 years enrolled and performed the CogTrack TM System, 8627 of whom completed three test sessions. On the first administration, 99.4% of the study tasks were successfully completed. Repeated testing showed training/familiarisation effects on four of the ten measures which had largely stabilised by the third test session. The factor structure of the various measures was found to be robust. Evaluation of the influence of age identified clinically relevant declines over the age range of the population on one or more measures from all tasks. The results of these analyses identify CogTrack TM to be a practical and valid method to reliably, sensitively, remotely and repeatedly collect cognitive data from large samples of individuals aged 50 and over. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Two Main-rotor Blade Designs for a Utility-Class Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to evaluate an advanced main rotor designed for use on a utility class helicopter, specifically the U.S. Army UH-60A Blackhawk. This rotor design incorporated advanced twist, airfoil cross sections, and geometric planform. For evaluation purposes, the current UH-60A main rotor was also tested and is referred to as the baseline blade set. A total of four blade sets were tested. One set of both the baseline and the advanced rotors were dynamically scaled to represent a full scale helicopter rotor blade design. The remaining advanced and baseline blade sets were not dynamically scaled so as to isolate the effects of structural elasticity. The investigation was conducted in hover and at rotor advance ratios ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 at a range of nominal test medium densities from 0.00238 to 0.009 slugs/cu ft. This range of densities, coupled with varying rotor lift and propulsive force, allowed for the simulation of several vehicle gross weight and density altitude combinations. Performance data are presented for all blade sets without analysis; however, cross referencing of data with flight condition may be useful to the analyst for validating aeroelastic theories and design methodologies as well as for evaluating advanced design parameters.

  13. Reducing the impact of unplanned urbanization on a riparian ecosystem: a case study on designing a plan for sustainable utilization of flood plains on river Ravi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.U.

    2005-01-01

    This work emphasizes that utilization of flood plain must be preceded by a study that shows the extent of the flood plain with the primary objective to management and maintaining the integrity of riparian areas for their multiple values. One such design is presented here where the riparian land is used for designing a municipal waste water treatment plant in order to provide a reward feedback to river Ravi. Since the space is becoming expensive for setting up of a treatment plant, this high risk piece of land instead of being used for land filling and housing schemes should be used for designing multipurpose environmentally sustainable projects. The treatment plant is designed to mimic the functional properties of riparian corridor flood plains. This design is based on integrated series of interconnected basins including a sedimentation basin, infiltration basin and a created wetland. This system would promote ground water recharge and passively remove pollutants through a combination of filtering, settling and biological treatment mechanisms and providing an attractive recreation and learning environment for the community at large. Additionally, benefits of such treatment will allow a direct recycling of water and nutrients for beneficial use; the sewage becomes a valuable natural resource that is not simply disposed of untreated. (author)

  14. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  15. A scanning probe microscope for magnetoresistive cantilevers utilizing a nested scanner design for large-area scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Meier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an atomic force microscope (AFM for the characterization of self-sensing tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR cantilevers. Furthermore, we achieve a large scan-range with a nested scanner design of two independent piezo scanners: a small high resolution scanner with a scan range of 5 × 5 × 5 μm3 is mounted on a large-area scanner with a scan range of 800 × 800 × 35 μm3. In order to characterize TMR sensors on AFM cantilevers as deflection sensors, the AFM is equipped with a laser beam deflection setup to measure the deflection of the cantilevers independently. The instrument is based on a commercial AFM controller and capable to perform large-area scanning directly without stitching of images. Images obtained on different samples such as calibration standard, optical grating, EPROM chip, self-assembled monolayers and atomic step-edges of gold demonstrate the high stability of the nested scanner design and the performance of self-sensing TMR cantilevers.

  16. Design, manufacture and spin test of high contact ratio helicopter transmission utilizing Self-Aligning Bearingless Planetary (SABP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folenta, Dezi; Lebo, William

    1988-01-01

    A 450 hp high ratio Self-Aligning Bearingless Planetary (SABP) for a helicopter application was designed, manufactured, and spin tested under NASA contract NAS3-24539. The objective of the program was to conduct research and development work on a high contact ratio helical gear SABP to reduce weight and noise and to improve efficiency. The results accomplished include the design, manufacturing, and no-load spin testing of two prototype helicopter transmissions, rated at 450 hp with an input speed of 35,000 rpm and an output speed of 350 rpm. The weight power density ratio of these gear units is 0.33 lb hp. The measured airborne noise at 35,000 rpm input speed and light load is 94 dB at 5 ft. The high speed, high contact ratio SABP transmission appears to be significantly lighter and quieter than comtemporary helicopter transmissions. The concept of the SABP is applicable not only to high ratio helicopter type transmissions but also to other rotorcraft and aircraft propulsion systems.

  17. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Gulati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a sialic acid (Sia abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH, an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance". We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac, to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While all NulOs except Pse5Ac7Ac were incorporated into the LNnT-LOS, only Neu5Gc incorporation yielded high-level serum-resistance and FH binding that was comparable to Neu5Ac, whereas Neu5Ac9Az and Leg5Ac7Ac incorporation left bacteria fully serum-sensitive and did not enhance FH binding. Neu5Ac9Ac and Neu5Gc8Me rendered bacteria resistant only to low serum concentrations. While serum-resistance mediated by Neu5Ac was associated with classical pathway inhibition (decreased IgG binding and C4 deposition, Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac9Az incorporation did not inhibit the classical pathway. Remarkably, CMP-Neu5Ac9Az and CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac each prevented serum-resistance despite a 100-fold molar excess of CMP-Neu5Ac in growth media. The concomitant presence of Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac on LOS resulted in uninhibited classical pathway activation. Surprisingly, despite near-maximal FH binding in this instance, the alternative pathway was not regulated and factor Bb remained associated with bacteria. Intravaginal administration of CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac to BALB/c mice infected with gonorrhea (including a multidrug-resistant isolate reduced clearance times and infection burden. Bacteria recovered

  18. Safety and efficacy of at-home robotic locomotion therapy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Rupp

    Full Text Available The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern.Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI.Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD years sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II: Interquartile range 9 to 16 completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks. Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy.After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100% for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD. One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe occurred in over 800 training sessions.Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor function beyond in-patient rehabilitation

  19. Design of a titering assay for lentiviral vectors utilizing direct extraction of DNA from transduced cells in microtiter plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele E Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using lentiviral vector products in clinical applications requires an accurate method for measuring transduction titer. For vectors lacking a marker gene, quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to evaluate the number of vector DNA copies in transduced target cells, from which a transduction titer is calculated. Immune Design previously described an integration-deficient lentiviral vector pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis virus envelope for use in cancer immunotherapy (VP02, of the ZVex platform. Standard protocols for titering integration-competent lentiviral vectors employ commercial spin columns to purify vector DNA from transduced cells, but such columns are not optimized for isolation of extrachromosomal (nonintegrated DNA. Here, we describe a 96-well transduction titer assay in which DNA extraction is performed in situ in the transduction plate, yielding quantitative recovery of extrachromosomal DNA. Vector titers measured by this method were higher than when commercial spin columns were used for DNA isolation. Evaluation of the method's specificity, linear range, and precision demonstrate that it is suitable for use as a lot release assay to support clinical trials with VP02. Finally, the method is compatible with titering both integrating and nonintegrating lentiviral vectors, suggesting that it may be used to evaluate the transduction titer for any lentiviral vector.

  20. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a commercial applicator system for intra-operative electron beam therapy utilizing ELEKTA Precise accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Bernstein, Zvi; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Kuten, Abraham; Orion, Itzhak

    2010-07-19

    The design concept and dosimetric characteristics of a new applicator system for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) are presented in this work. A new hard-docking commercial system includes polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) applicators with different diameters and applicator end angles and a set of secondary lead collimators. A telescopic device allows changing of source-to-surface distance (SSD). All measurements were performed for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron energies. Output factors and percentage depth doses (PDD) were measured in a water phantom using a plane-parallel ion chamber. Isodose contours and radiation leakage were measured using a solid water phantom and radiographic films. The dependence of PDD on SSD was checked for the applicators with the smallest and the biggest diameters. SSD dependence of the output factors was measured. Hardcopies of PDD and isodose contours were prepared to help the team during the procedure on deciding applicator size and energy to be chosen. Applicator output factors are a function of energy, applicator size and applicator type. Dependence of SSD correction factors on applicator size and applicator type was found to be weak. The same SSD correction will be applied for all applicators in use for each energy. The radiation leakage through the applicators is clinically acceptable. The applicator system enables effective collimation of electron beams for IORT. The data presented are sufficient for applicator, energy and monitor unit selection for IORT treatment of a patient.

  1. Design Improvements of the Capsule Components and the Handling Tools for an Effective Utilization of the Capsule Assembly Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, Jong Kium; Youm, Ki Un; Yoon, Ki Byung; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Bong Gu

    2006-01-01

    Various in-pile test programs for the development of new fuels and materials are planned for the HANARO reactor. To meet the demands for the required tests in the HANARO reactor, new capsule assembling technology is required in the HANARO reactor. For this reason, a series of analyses and experiments was performed in 2005. For the assembly workability tests of the capsule components, three different kinds of protection tubes and two different shapes of the locking bolt heads were proposed and tested. It was confirmed that the newly designed protection tube and bolts worked quite well without any problems. Since the new structure is quite similar to that of the currently used capsule, it was assumed that an additional vibration tests and seismic analysis would not be needed. Through the stress analysis of the three proposed structures by using ANSYS code, it showed that the maximum displacement and stress intensity for the tube reducer were 1.57mm and 21MPa, respectively. To improve the workability and handling capability of the bolting and clamping tools of stainless steel 304, Al6061/T6 was selected as one of the candidates and thus new tools were manufactured and tested. The assembly test results showed that the new tools were found to be useful for executing key tasks such as a bolting and a clamping and they were much faster than the old tools made of stainless steel, thereby increasing the workability rate and lowering the manufacturing costs

  2. Effectiveness of community based Safe Motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, Declare; Mpembeni, Rose; Jahn, Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%), only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs). Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (rho utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  3. P-1139 - Increased utilization of health care services after psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with significant reduction of symptoms in patients, and it is generally assumed that treatment improves health and decreases the need for additional health care. The present study investigates the long-term changes in utilization of health care...... services for patients referred to psychotherapeutic treatment in 2004 and 2005. Method The study was a matched control study, which included 716 consecutive patients and 15,220 matched controls. Data from a comprehensive set of health care services were collected from central registries for an observation...... period of four years before intake and four years after ended treatment. Changes in utilization of health care services in eight health parameters were analyzed with t-test and with ANCOVA one and four year pre-post treatment. Results Of the 761 patients, 216 patients did not show up for treatment, while...

  4. Cross-Continuum Tool Is Associated with Reduced Utilization and Cost for Frequent High-Need Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Lauran; Kilian, Adam; Muller, Leslie; Callison, Kevin; Olgren, Michael

    2017-02-01

    High-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients can over-use acute care services, a pattern of behavior associated with many poor outcomes that disproportionately contributes to increased U.S. healthcare cost. Our objective was to reduce healthcare cost and improve outcomes by optimizing the system of care. We targeted HNHC patients and identified root causes of frequent healthcare utilization. We developed a cross-continuum intervention process and a succinct tool called a Complex Care Map (CCM)© that addresses fragmentation in the system and links providers to a comprehensive individualized analysis of the patient story and causes for frequent access to health services. Using a pre-/post-test design in which each subject served as his/her own historical control, this quality improvement project focused on determining if the interdisciplinary intervention called CCM© had an impact on healthcare utilization and costs for HNHC patients. We conducted the analysis between November 2012 and December 2015 at Mercy Health Saint Mary's, a Midwestern urban hospital with greater than 80,000 annual emergency department (ED) visits. All referred patients with three or more hospital visits (ED or inpatient [IP]) in the 12 months prior to initiation of a CCM© (n=339) were included in the study. Individualized CCMs© were created and made available in the electronic medical record (EMR) to all healthcare providers. We compared utilization, cost, social, and healthcare access variables from the EMR and cost-accounting system for 12 months before and after CCMs© implementation. We used both descriptive and limited inferential statistics. ED mean visits decreased 43% (pcost of care.

  5. Ideal Point Design and Operation of CO2-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC System Based on High Utilization of Engine’s Waste Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.

  6. Designing a Smart Car Parking System (PoC Prototype Utilizing CCTV Nodes: A vision of an IoT parking system via UCD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muftah Fraifer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using smart parking systems has become very important, and particularly so for metropolitan areas, because of the benefits for drivers in many aspects, such as time, frustration, stress, and anger, in addition to the increased consumption of fuel while searching for a vacant parking space. This paper proposes a review of recent advances in sensing and communication technology concerning smart parking systems. It includes a brief study of the selected topics and provides an implementation process of those selected systems. Moreover, this work proposes a design approach for a smart car parking system prototype based on utilizing CCTVs (nodes, it is also illustrates the algorithms used for computer vision detection through simulation and real environments, as the system has been deployed in both these environments. Furthermore, the system has been tested and evaluated by stakeholders via a user-centred design process by applying a qualitative research; the promising results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype. Finally, this paper discusses the benefits of engaging the stakeholders to develop the prototype.

  7. Defining the effect and mediators of two knowledge translation strategies designed to alter knowledge, intent and clinical utilization of rehabilitation outcome measures: a study protocol [NCT00298727

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Mary

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of valid outcome measures have been developed to measure health in adult musculoskeletal and childhood disability. Regrettably, national initiatives have merely resulted in changes in attitude, while utilization remains unacceptably low. This study will compare the effectiveness and mediators of two different knowledge transfer (KT interventions in terms of their impact on changing knowledge and behavior (utilization and clinical reasoning related to health outcome measures. Method/Design Physical and occupational therapists (n = 144 will be recruited in partnership with the national professional associations to evaluate two different KT interventions with the same curriculum: 1 Stakeholder-Hosted Interactive Problem-Based Seminar (SHIPS, and 2 Online Problem-Based course (e-PBL. SHIPS will consist of face-to-face problem-based learning (PBL for 2 1/2 days with outcome measure developers as facilitators, using six problems generated in consultation with participants. The e-PBL will consist of a 6-week web-based course with six generic problems developed by content experts. SHIPS will be conducted in three urban centers in Canada. Participants will be block-allocated by a minimization procedure to either of the two interventions to minimize any prognostic differences. Trained evaluators at each site will conduct chart audits and chart-stimulated recall. Trained interviewers will conduct semi-structured interviews focused on identifying critical elements in KT and implementing practice changes. Interviews will be transcribed verbatim. Baseline predictors including demographics, knowledge, attitudes/barriers regarding outcome measures, and Readiness to Change will be assessed by self-report. Immediately post-intervention and 6 months later, these will be re-administered. Primary qualitative and quantitative evaluations will be conducted 6-months post-intervention to assess the relative effectiveness of KT

  8. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  9. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  10. Hydrological similarity approach and rainfall satellite utilization for mini hydro power dam basic design (case study on the ungauged catchment at West Borneo, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, W. G.; Murtilaksono, K.; Tarigan, S. D.; Purwanto, Y. J.

    2018-05-01

    An approach on flow duration and flood design estimation on the ungauged catchment with no rainfall and discharge data availability was been being develop with hydrological modelling including rainfall run off model implemented with watershed characteristic dataset. Near real time Rainfall data from multi satellite platform e.g. TRMM can be utilized for regionalization approach on the ungauged catchment. Watershed hydrologically similarity analysis were conducted including all of the major watershed in Borneo which was predicted to be similar with the Nanga Raun Watershed. It was found that a satisfactory hydrological model calibration could be achieved using catchment weighted time series of TRMM daily rainfall data, performed on nearby catchment deemed to be sufficiently similar to Nanga Raun catchment in hydrological terms. Based on this calibration, rainfall runoff parameters were then transferred to a model. Relatively reliable flow duration curve and extreme discharge value estimation were produced with reasonable several limitation. Further approach may be performed in order to deal with the primary limitations inherent in the hydrological and statistical analysis, especially to give prolongation to the availability of the rainfall and climate data with some novel approach like downscaling of global climate model.

  11. Design and functionality of a segmented heat-storage prototype utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate in a solar heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Moser, Christoph; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    acetate trihydrate composites to conserve the latent heat of fusion for long-term heat storage. A control strategy directed heat from a solar collector array to either the PCM storage or a water buffer storage. Several PCM units had to be charged in parallel when the solar collector output peaked at 16 k......A solar heating system with 22.4m2 of solar collectors, a heat storage prototype consisting of four 200 kg phase-change material (PCM) storage units, and a 735 L water tank was designed to improve solar heat supply in single-family houses. The PCM storage utilized stable supercooling of sodium......W. A single unit was charged with 27.4 kWh of heat within four hours on a sunny day, and the PCM temperature increased from 20 °C to 80 °C. The sensible heat from a single PCM unit was transferred to the water tank starting with about 32 kW of thermal power after it had fully melted at 80 °C. A mechanical...

  12. Compact and Light-Weight Solar Spaceflight Instrument Designs Utilizing Newly Developed Miniature Free-Standing Zone Plates: EUV Radiometer and Limb-Scanning Monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; McMullin, D. R.; Bremer, J.; Chang, C.; Sakdinawat, A.; Jones, A. R.; Vest, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two solar instrument designs are presented that utilize newly developed miniature free-standing zone plates having interconnected Au opaque bars and no support membrane resulting in excellent long-term stability in space. Both instruments are based on a zone plate having 4 mm outer diameter and 1 to 2 degree field of view. The zone plate collects EUV radiation and focuses a narrow bandpass through a pinhole aperture and onto a silicon photodiode detector. As a miniature radiometer, EUV irradiance is accurately determined from the zone plate efficiency and the photodiode responsivity that are calibrated at the NIST SURF synchrotron facility. The EUV radiometer is pointed to the Sun and measures the absolute solar EUV irradiance in high time cadence suitable for solar physics and space weather applications. As a limb-scanning instrument in low earth orbit, a miniature zone-plate monochromator measures the extinction of solar EUV radiation by scattering through the upper atmosphere which is a measure of the variability of the ionosphere. Both instruments are compact and light-weight and are attractive for CubeSats and other missions where resources are extremely limited.

  13. Translating access into utilization: lessons from the design and evaluation of a health insurance Web site to promote reproductive health care for young women in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Foster, Angel M

    2013-12-01

    Following state-level health care reform in Massachusetts, young women reported confusion over coverage of contraception and other sexual and reproductive health services under newly available health insurance products. To address this gap, a plain-language Web site titled "My Little Black Book for Sexual Health" was developed by a statewide network of reproductive health stakeholders. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the health literacy demands and usability of the site among its target audience, women ages 18-26 years. We performed an evaluation of the literacy demands of the Web site's written content and tested the Web site's usability in a health communications laboratory. Participants found the Web site visually appealing and its overall design concept accessible. However, the Web site's literacy demands were high, and all participants encountered problems navigating through the Web site. Following this evaluation, the Web site was modified to be more usable and more comprehensible to women of all health literacy levels. To avail themselves of sexual and reproductive health services newly available under expanded health insurance coverage, young women require customized educational resources that are rigorously evaluated to ensure accessibility. To maximize utilization of reproductive health services under expanded health insurance coverage, US women require customized educational resources commensurate with their literacy skills. The application of established research methods from the field of health communications will enable advocates to evaluate and adapt these resources to best serve their targeted audiences. © 2013.

  14. Conceptual and empirical themes regarding the design of technology transfer programs : a review of wood utilization research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2011-01-01

    Transfer of technologies produced by research is critical to innovation within all organizations. The intent of this paper is to take stock of the conceptual underpinnings of technology transfer processes as they relate to wood utilization research and to identify conditions that promote the successful transfer of research results. Conceptually, research utilization...

  15. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  16. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  17. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  18. Development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system in fiscal 1998. Pt. 3. Research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology (Research on design technology for optimal system); 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 3. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes achievements during fiscal 1998 on researching part of the energy transportation and storage technologies, energy supply and utilization technologies, environmental load reducing technologies, and optimal system design in the 'research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology'. With regard to energy transportation and storage technologies, researches and developments were performed on a vacuum adiabatic transportation piping system, surfactants used for high-density heat transportation and high-density latent heat transportation technologies. In the field of energy supply and utilization technologies, researches and developments were carried out on a heat supply system using high-performance heat pumps capable of using multiple kinds of fuels, and a compression and absorption type hybrid heat utilization system. For the environmental load reducing technologies, research and development were performed on a power saving heat pump system utilizing natural coolant. In researching the optimal system design technologies, overall adjustment was made on the element technologies, whereas technological discussions and site surveys were executed by the committees at the same time. The latest achievements accomplished to date was published in a book. (NEDO)

  19. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  20. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  1. The Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT): A Discipline-Specific Rubric for Utilizing Bloom's Taxonomy in the Design and Evaluation of Assessments in the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy is a resource commonly used to assess the cognitive level associated with course assignments and examination questions. Although widely utilized in educational research, Bloom's taxonomy has received limited attention as an analytical tool in the anatomical sciences. Building on previous research, the Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT)…

  2. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig...... by providing ideas about future research for investigating mobilities in situ as a kind of “staging,” which he notes is influenced by the “material turn” in social sciences....... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  3. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  4. The System Design of a Global Communications System for Military and Commercial use Utilizing High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    This thesis proposes the design of the UAV-LMDS communication system for military and commercial use. The UAV-LMDS system is a digital, wireless communication system that provides service using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flying at 60,000 ft. acting as communication hubs. This thesis provides background information on UAV-LMDS system elements, a financial analysis, theory, link budgets, system component design and implementation issues. To begin the design, we develop link budgets t...

  5. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  6. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  7. Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%, only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. Method This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs. Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Results Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ Conclusion The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  8. Utilizing 3D-visualization to apply compulsory ALARA principles in nuclear power plant design and day-to-day operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R. L.; Lake, J. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Computational Sciences and Engineering Div., Mail Stop 6085, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The development of an advanced visualization and simulation tool to support both design as well as day-to-day operation is presented. This tool exploits cutting edge computer graphics, physics-based effects modeling, virtual reality, and gaming technologies to establish a system that can eventually be used for the administrative planning and training of plant operators and design engineers. (authors)

  9. Utilizing 3D-visualization to apply compulsory ALARA principles in nuclear power plant design and day-to-day operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R. L.; Lake, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    The development of an advanced visualization and simulation tool to support both design as well as day-to-day operation is presented. This tool exploits cutting edge computer graphics, physics-based effects modeling, virtual reality, and gaming technologies to establish a system that can eventually be used for the administrative planning and training of plant operators and design engineers. (authors)

  10. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  11. Development of a Premium Quality Plasma-derived IVIg (IQYMUNE®) Utilizing the Principles of Quality by Design-A Worked-through Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantonacci, Philippe; Appourchaux, Philippe; Claudel, Béatrice; Ollivier, Monique; Dennett, Richard; Siret, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Polyvalent human normal immunoglobulins for intravenous use (IVIg), indicated for rare and often severe diseases, are complex plasma-derived protein preparations. A quality by design approach has been used to develop the Laboratoire Français du Fractionnement et des Biotechnologies new-generation IVIg, targeting a high level of purity to generate an enhanced safety profile while maintaining a high level of efficacy. A modular approach of quality by design was implemented consisting of five consecutive steps to cover all the stages from the product design to the final product control strategy.A well-defined target product profile was translated into 27 product quality attributes that formed the basis of the process design. In parallel, a product risk analysis was conducted and identified 19 critical quality attributes among the product quality attributes. Process risk analysis was carried out to establish the links between process parameters and critical quality attributes. Twelve critical steps were identified, and for each of these steps a risk mitigation plan was established.Among the different process risk mitigation exercises, five process robustness studies were conducted at qualified small scale with a design of experiment approach. For each process step, critical process parameters were identified and, for each critical process parameter, proven acceptable ranges were established. The quality risk management and risk mitigation outputs, including verification of proven acceptable ranges, were used to design the process verification exercise at industrial scale.Finally, the control strategy was established using a mix, or hybrid, of the traditional approach plus elements of the quality by design enhanced approach, as illustrated, to more robustly assign material and process controls and in order to securely meet product specifications.The advantages of this quality by design approach were improved process knowledge for industrial design and process

  12. Variation in Research Designs Used to Test the Effectiveness of Dissemination and Implementation Strategies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucca, Stephanie; Tabak, Rachel G; Pilar, Meagan; Ramsey, Alex T; Baumann, Ana A; Kryzer, Emily; Lewis, Ericka M; Padek, Margaret; Powell, Byron J; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-01-01

    The need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions. We reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017. Eligible studies tested the efficacy or effectiveness of D&I strategies (i.e., not effectiveness of the underlying clinical or public health intervention); had a comparison by group and/or time; and used ≥1 quantitative measure. Several design elements were extracted: design category (e.g., randomized); design type [e.g., cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT)]; data type (e.g., quantitative); D&I theoretical framework; levels of treatment assignment, intervention, and measurement; and country in which the research was conducted. Each protocol was double-coded, and discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Of the 404 protocols reviewed, 212 (52%) studies tested one or more implementation strategy across 208 manuscripts, therefore meeting inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 77% utilized randomized designs, primarily cluster RCTs. The use of alternative designs (e.g., stepped wedge) increased over time. Fewer studies were quasi-experimental (17%) or observational (6%). Many study design categories (e.g., controlled pre-post, matched pair cluster design) were represented by only one or two studies. Most articles proposed quantitative and qualitative methods (61%), with the remaining 39% proposing only quantitative. Half of protocols (52%) reported using a theoretical framework to guide the study. The four most frequently reported frameworks were Consolidated Framework for Implementing Research and RE-AIM ( n  = 16 each), followed by

  13. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  14. Design and Evaluation of a Turbojet Exhaust Simulator, Utilizing a Solid-Propellant Rocket Motor, for use in Free-Flight Aerodynamic Research Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMoraes, Carlos A.; Hagginbothom, William K., Jr.; Falanga, Ralph A.

    1954-01-01

    A method has been developed for modifying a rocket motor so that its exhaust characteristics simulate those of a turbojet engine. The analysis necessary to the design is presented along with tests from which the designs are evaluated. Simulation was found to be best if the exhaust characteristics to be duplicated were those of a turbojet engine at high altitudes and with the afterburner operative.

  15. An Instagram is worth a thousand words. : The utilization of Instagram as a key social media marketing strategy. Case: Valona Design.

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, My

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis presents a project, which is commissioned by Valona Design, a Finnish-based design company in arts and crafts. The main outcome of this thesis is to familiarize the reader with the fast-changing social media branding, which is applied to the commissioning company. The final objective of this thesis is to produce a customized content marketing calendar for the commissioning company which is based on the social media branding’s framework. The content marketing calendar...

  16. The Utility of Rural and Underserved Designations in Geospatial Assessments of Distance Traveled to Healthcare Services: Implications for Public Health Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1 review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2 identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3 describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4 examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  17. The utility of rural and underserved designations in geospatial assessments of distance traveled to healthcare services: implications for public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Wendel, Monica L; Ahn, Sangnam; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Drake, Kelly N; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1) review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2) identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3) describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4) examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage) in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  18. Conceptual and Empirical Themes regarding the Design of Technology Transfer Programs: A Review of Wood Utilization Research in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Ellefson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of technologies produced by research is critical to innovation within all organizations. The intent of this paper is to take stock of the conceptual underpinnings of technology transfer processes as they relate to wood utilization research and to identify conditions that promote the successful transfer of research results. Conceptually, research utilization can be viewed from multiple perspectives, including the haphazard diffusion of knowledge in response to vague and imprecise demands for information, scanning of multiple information sources by individuals and organizations searching for useful scientific knowledge, engagement of third parties to organize research results and communicate them to potential users, and ongoing and active collaboration between researchers and potential users of research. Empirical evidence suggests that various types of programs can promote technology transfer (venture capital, angel investors, business incubators, extension services, tax incentives, and in-house entities, the fundamental effectiveness of which depends on research results that are scientifically valid and consistent with the information needs of potential users. Furthermore, evidence suggests preference toward programs that are appropriately organized and governed, suitably led and creatively administered, and periodically evaluated in accordance with clear standards of success.

  19. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 3); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the (techniques for transportation and storage of energy (continued), energy supply and utilization, reducing environmental loads, and designing the optimum systems). The R and D on heat transfer system through the vacuum heat insulation pipes involves fabrication, on a trial basis, the vacuum insulation covers for the vacuum insulation tubes, joints, flanges and valves for the 80A pipes, and the heat loss evaluation test for each item. The R and D on the energy supply and utilization techniques involves the heat transfer systems for a variety of fuels by the highly functional heat pump, and compression/absorption hybrid type heat-utilization system. The hybrid type heat-utilization system simulation results suggest possibility of achieving exergy efficiency of 56% as the development target by use of the new medium. The R and D on the environmental load reduction involves the power-saving type heat pump systems which use a natural coolant. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 2. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the R and D of the high efficiency energy effective utilization technology, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the energy transportation/storage technology, the R and D were made on the following: methanol/energy system, non-equilibrium high efficiency methanol decomposition reaction technology, development of multiple functions of catalyst, high efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen storage alloys, heat-hydrogen recovery/transportation/utilization technology, vacuum insulated heat transport piping system, surfactant used for high density heat transport, high density latent heat transportation technology, etc. Concerning the energy supply/utilization technology, the R and D were made of the heat supply system using high efficient heat pump corresponding to multiple fuels. Relating to the environmental load reduction technology, the energy conserved heat pump system using natural coolant. As to the optimum system design technology, the comprehensive preparation of element technology, etc. (NEDO)

  1. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  2. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  3. High School Student Perceptions of the Utility of the Engineering Design Process: Creating Opportunities to Engage in Engineering Practices and Apply Math and Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Leema; Steingut, Rebecca; Ko, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Research and policy documents increasingly advocate for incorporating engineering design into K-12 classrooms in order to accomplish two goals: (1) provide an opportunity to engage with science content in a motivating real-world context; and (2) introduce students to the field of engineering. The present study uses multiple qualitative data…

  4. Reconsidering the Utility of Case Study Designs for Researching School Reform in a Neo-Scientific Era: Insights from a Multiyear, Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmoyer, Robert; Galloway, Fred

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, policy makers and researchers once again have embraced the traditional idea that quasi-experimental research designs (or reasonable facsimiles) can provide the sort of valid and generalizable knowledge about "what works" that educational researchers had promised--but never really produced--during the previous century. Although…

  5. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  6. Utilization of Monte Carlo Calculations in Radiation Transport Analyses to Support the Design of the U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has given the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project approval to begin Title I design of the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and construction is scheduled to commence in FY01 . The SNS initially will consist of an accelerator system capable of delivering an ∼0.5 microsecond pulse of 1 GeV protons, at a 60 Hz frequency, with 1 MW of beam power, into a single target station. The SNS will eventually be upgraded to a 2 MW facility with two target stations (a 60 Hz station and a 10 Hz station). The radiation transport analysis, which includes the neutronic, shielding, activation, and safety analyses, is critical to the design of an intense high-energy accelerator facility like the proposed SNS, and the Monte Carlo method is the cornerstone of the radiation transport analyses

  7. Utilization of simulation tools in the HL-20 conceptual design process. [passenger-carrying lifting body portion of Personnel Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. B.; Powell, Richard W.; Ragsdale, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of simulations in the design of the HL-20, the crew-carrying unpowered lifting-body component of the NASA Personnel Launch System, is reviewed and illustrated with drawings and diagrams. Detailed consideration is given to the overall implementation of a real-time simulation of the HL-20 approach and landing phase, the baseline and experimental control laws used in the flight-control system, autoland guidance and control laws (vertical and lateral steering), the control-surface mixer and actuator model, and simulation results. The simulations allowed identification and correction of design problems with respect to the position of the landing gear and the original maximum L/D ratio of 3.2.

  8. Cross-Continuum Tool Is Associated with Reduced Utilization and Cost for Frequent High-Need Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran Hardin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High-need, high-cost (HNHC patients can over-use acute care services, a pattern of behavior associated with many poor outcomes that disproportionately contributes to increased U.S. healthcare cost. Our objective was to reduce healthcare cost and improve outcomes by optimizing the system of care. We targeted HNHC patients and identified root causes of frequent healthcare utilization. We developed a crosscontinuum intervention process and a succinct tool called a Complex Care Map (CCM© that addresses fragmentation in the system and links providers to a comprehensive individualized analysis of the patient story and causes for frequent access to health services. Methods: Using a pre-/post-test design in which each subject served as his/her own historical control, this quality improvement project focused on determining if the interdisciplinary intervention called CCM© had an impact on healthcare utilization and costs for HNHC patients. We conducted the analysis between November 2012 and December 2015 at Mercy Health Saint Mary’s, a Midwestern urban hospital with greater than 80,000 annual emergency department (ED visits. All referred patients with three or more hospital visits (ED or inpatient [IP] in the 12 months prior to initiation of a CCM© (n=339 were included in the study. Individualized CCMs© were created and made available in the electronic medical record (EMR to all healthcare providers. We compared utilization, cost, social, and healthcare access variables from the EMR and cost-accounting system for 12 months before and after CCMs© implementation. We used both descriptive and limited inferential statistics. Results: ED mean visits decreased 43% (p<0.001, inpatient mean admissions decreased 44% (p<0.001, outpatient mean visits decreased 17% (p<0.001, computed tomography mean scans decreased 62% (p<0.001, and OBS/IP length of stay mean days decreased 41% (p<0.001. Gross charges decreased 45% (p<0.001, direct expenses

  9. Broader utilization of programmable automation equipment in French nuclear power plants: Reflections on the choices made by Electricite de France and French designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, Y.; Varaldi, G.

    1983-01-01

    More than 1000 microprocessors and more than 10,000 data memories in each of the twenty or so 1300 MW units in the French nuclear programme: that was the decision taken by Electricite de France (EDF) in conjunction with the designers in 1974, with the intention of introducing programmable automata on a wide scale in French nuclear power plants. This programme was carried out with the assistance of advanced research services such as the universities, the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA), EDF's design and research service and the designers, most of whom were already EDF suppliers for the 900 MW range. Having used computers for linking sequences (themselves carried out with electromagnetic technology) for its latest natural-uranium gas-cooled graphite-moderated power plants, EDF decided to call a temporary halt, in the case of its 900 MW light-water range, to the use of digital techniques for the control and automation of power plants although it continued to employ such techniques widely in data processing. Thus, the widespread introduction of programmable automata, which was decided upon in 1974/75 at a time when no equivalent existed at the international level, led EDF and French designers to undertake a major development effort in order to meet the requirements - particularly safety and reliability requirements - for such automata to be incorporated into the nuclear field. How does this choice fit in with the logical evolution of the digitalization of French nuclear power plants. What problems has it caused for EDF and French industry. How have these problems been tackled. How have they been overcome. These are the questions dealt with in this paper. (author)

  10. Development and utilization of irradiational capsule - Mechanical and thermal performance analysis and development of design program on the cylindrical structures with multi-holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Shin; Choi, M. H.; Shin, D. S. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Irradiation tests in the research reactor are used with the specially designed capsules for irradiation test and loop. Accordingly, suitable instrumented capsule for HANARO must be designed and manufactured. To satisfy the requirements of users and to conduct irradiation test effectively, the accurate informations on the thermal and mechanical characteristics of capsule should be understood. The structural analysis results show that stress characteristics of the cylinder with multi-holes is not significantly effected by the sizes of specimen hole, numbers of specimen and eccentric characteristics. The thermal and structural analysis of the capsule with multi-holes under thermal loading shows that the peak temperature in the circular cylinder is occurred in the specimens inserted in the center or specimen holes and is significantly effected by gap size between the holder and the external tube. In this study, CAPSYS program is developed by interfacing finite element analysis program, ANSYS with graphic user interface program, VISUAL C++. This program will be useful on the design and safety analysis of the capsule for material irradiation test. 20 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  11. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and implementing a diffuse controller that, intervenes the electronic injection of fuel in a vehicle, for the utilization HHO as a supplementary fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchilla Vargas, Erick Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    A study was performed on the behavior of an internal combustion engine of a vehicle when has added oxyhydrogen (HHO) as a supplementary fuel, produced from a modified alkaline type electrolyser called HHO generator. The first stage is consisted of a theoretical and experimental analysis of the happened in the internal combustion engine by adding oxyhydrogen. The experimental part has performed road tests and equipment available were used in the engine test laboratories of RECOPE, as a roller dynamometer and a gas analyzer. The result from this first stage has found a slight increase in fuel performance and an unstable idling speed in the engine, this latest product in the vehicle's computer has been without design for the engine had operate with the addition of HHO. The second stage has designed one controller based in the diffuse logic with it is achieved in fuel performance and the flaws found are annulled. The third stage has involved the implementation of controller in the vehicle, which has involved taking the sensor signals of airflow and oxygen, pass by the controller, to be assigned new parameters and then deliver again to the vehicle computer without this notice the change. The performance of the designed controller is verified in the fourth stage, the same tests were made as in the first stage, in this way it was possible to verify and validate the data. Finally, a further increase is obtained in vehicle fuel efficiency, coupled with improved engine performance in different driving conditions without sacrificing power and torque. (author) [es

  13. Development and field testing of an alternative latrine design utilizing basic oxygen furnace slag as a treatment media for pathogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, J.; Suhogusoff, A. V.; Blowes, D. W.; Hirata, R. A.; Ptacek, C. J.; Robertson, W. D.; Emelko, M. B.

    2009-05-01

    In densely-populated communities in developing countries, appropriate setback distances for pit latrines often cannot be met. An alternative latrine was designed that incorporates two permeable reactive media to treat pathogens and nitrate from effluent. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag in contact with wastewater effluent elevates pH to levels (> 11) that inactivate pathogens. Saturated woodchip creates reducing conditions that encourage the growth of denitrifying bacteria which remove NO3-. The field application was constructed in Santo Antônio, a peri-urban community located 25 km south of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A 2-m diameter pit was excavated to a depth of 4 m into the sandy-clay unsaturated zone. A geotextile liner was emplaced to create saturated conditions in the 0.5-m thick woodchip barrier. Above the woodchip barrier, a 1-m thick layer of BOF slag mixed with pea gravel and sand was emplaced. A series of filter layers, grading upward from coarse sand to fine gravel, where placed above the BOF layer, and gravel was also infilled around the outer perimeter of the excavation, to ensure O2 diffusion into the design, the formation of biofilm, and degradation of organic material. A control latrine, constructed with similar hydraulic characteristics and nonreactive materials, was constructed at a locality 100 m away, in the same geological materials. Total coliform, thermotolerant coliform, and E. coli are removed by approximately 4-5 log concentration units in less than one meter of vertical transport through the BOF slag media. In the control latrine, comparable reductions in these pathogenic indicators are observed over three meters of vertical transport. Removal of sulphur-reducing Clostridia, Clostridium perfrigens and somatic coliphage are also achieved in the alternative design, but initial concentrations in effluent are low. Some measurable concentrations of pathogen indicators are measured in lysimeters below the BOF layer, but are associated

  14. Development Challenges of Utilizing a Corner Cube Mechanism Design with Successful IASI Flight Heritage for the Infrared Sounder (IRS) on MTG: Recurrent Mechanical Design not Correlated to Recurrent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Schwab, Philippe; Kiener, Lionel; Saudan, Herve; Perruchoud, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    The Corner Cube Mechanism (CCM) design for the Infra-Red Sounder (IRS) on MTG is based on the successful mechanism currently in orbit on the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometers (IASI) on the Metop satellites. The overall CCM performance is described with attention given to the specific design developments for the MTG project. A description is presented of the modifications introduced and challenges encountered to adapt the IASI space heritage design (which is only 15 years old) to meet the MTG specifications. A detailed account is provided regarding the tests performed on the adapted components for the new programme. The major issues encountered and solutions proposed are illustrated concerning the voice- coil actuator development, optical switch design, fatigue life of the flexure components and the adaptation of the launch locking device. Nevertheless, an Engineering Qualification Model was rapidly manufactured and now undergoing a qualification test campaign.

  15. Electromechanical systems of micro-engineering and mechatronics. Dynamical design. Fundamentals and utilization. 2. ed.; Elektromechanische Systeme der Mikrotechnik und Mechatronik. Dynamischer Entwurf. Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballas, Ruediger G. [KARL MAYER Textilmaschinenfabrik GmbH, Obertshausen (Germany). Kompetenzbereich Piezoaktorik und Antriebstechnik; Pfeifer, Guenther [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik; Werthschuetzky, Roland [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektromechanische Konstruktionen

    2009-07-01

    Electromechanical systems comprising electric, mechanical and acoustic subsystems are widely used in pricision apparatus construction, sensor and actuator techniques, electroacoustics and medical technique. The textbook presents a clear engineering design method for these systems on the basis of a circuiting diagram. It provides quick access to the mechanical, acoustic, hydraulic and thermal problems by applying basic knowledge on circuiting. The second edition is a revised and didactically improved version. The network description method was extended to finite network elements and to a combination with FEA in order to combine the advantages of the two description methods and to achieve new solutions especially for higher frequencies. The book contains many new examples of how to design sensors, actuators, and direct-coupled sensor-actuator systems. There is an appendix with fundamentals of signal description and a compilation of important material data. (orig.) [German] Elektromechanische Systeme aus elektrischen, mechanischen und akustischen Teilsystemen haben im Praezisionsgeraetebau, in der Sensor- und Aktortechnik, der Elektroakustik sowie in der Medizintechnik eine grosse Bedeutung. Die Vermittlung einer anschaulichen, ingenieurmaessigen Entwurfsmethode fuer diese Systeme auf der Grundlage einer schaltungstechnischen Darstellung ist das Hauptanliegen des Lehrbuchs. Es ermoeglicht einen raschen Einstieg in die mechanischen, akustischen, hydraulischen und thermischen Problemstellungen durch die Anwendung des schaltungstechnischen Grundwissens. Die 2. Auflage wurde neu bearbeitet und didaktisch verbessert. Die Netzwerkbeschreibungsmethodik wurde auf finite Netzwerkelemente und die Kombination mit der Finite-Elemente-Beschreibung (FEM) erweitert: aus der Kombination der Vorteile beider Beschreibungsmethoden ergeben sich neuartige Loesungsansaetze vor allem im hoeheren Frequenzbereich. Das Buch bietet zahlreiche aktuelle Beispiele zum Entwurf von Sensoren und

  16. Value-Based Benefit Design to Improve Medication Adherence for Employees with Anxiety or Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kimberly J; Aguilar, Kathleen M; Thompson, Eric; Miller, Ross M

    2015-01-01

    Through reduced out-of-pocket costs and wellness offerings, value-based benefit design (VBBD) is a promising strategy to improve medication adherence and other health-related outcomes across populations. There is limited evidence, however, of the effectiveness of these policy-level changes among individuals with anxiety or depression. To assess the impact of a multifaceted VBBD policy that incorporates waived copayments, wellness offerings, and on-site services on medication adherence among plan members with anxiety or depression, and to explore how this intervention and its resulting improved adherence affects other health-related outcomes. A retrospective longitudinal pre/post design was utilized to measure outcomes before and after the VBBD policy change. Repeated measures statistical regression models with correlated error terms were utilized to evaluate outcomes among employees of a self-insured global health company and their spouses (N = 529) who had anxiety or depression after the VBBD policy change. A multivariable linear regression model was chosen as the best fit to evaluate a change in medication possession ratio (MPR) after comparing parameters for several distributions. The repeated measures multivariable regression models were adjusted for baseline MPR and potential confounders, including continuous age, sex, continuous modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the continuous number of prescriptions filled that year. The outcomes were assessed for the 1 year before the policy change (January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011) and for 2 years after the change (January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was a change in MPR. The secondary outcomes included healthcare utilization, medical or pharmacy costs, the initiation of medication, generic medication use, and employee absenteeism (the total number of sick days). The implementation of the VBBD strategy was associated with a significant increase in average MPR (0.65 vs 0.61 in

  17. Comprehensive Support for Family Caregivers of Post-9/11 Veterans Increases Veteran Utilization of Long-term Services and Supports: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Smith, Valerie A.; Stechuchak, Karen M.; Miller, Katherine E. M.; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Wieland, Gilbert Darryl; Olsen, Maren K.; Kabat, Margaret; Henius, Jennifer; Campbell-Kotler, Margaret; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2018-01-01

    Family caregivers are an important component of the long-term services and supports (LTSS) system. However, caregiving may have negative consequences for caregiver physical and emotional health. Connecting caregivers to formal short-term home- and community-based services (HCBS), through information resources and referrals, might alleviate family caregiver burden and delay nursing home entry for the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early impact of the Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers (PCAFC) (established by P.L. 111-163 for family caregivers of seriously injured post-9/11 Veterans) on Veteran use of LTSS. A two-cohort pre-post design with a nonequivalent comparison group (treated n = 15 650; comparison n = 8339) was used to (1) examine the association between caregiver enrollment in PCAFC and any VA-purchased or VA-provided LTSS use among Veterans and (2) describe program-related trends in HCBS and institutional LTSS use. The comparison group was an inverse-propensity-score weighted sample of Veterans whose caregivers applied for, but were not accepted into, the program. From baseline through 24 months post application, use of any LTSS ranged from 13.1% to 17.8% for Veterans whose caregivers were enrolled in PCAFC versus from 3.8% to 5.3% for Veterans in the comparison group. Participation in PCAFC was associated with a statistically significant increased use of any LTSS from 1 to 24 months post application (over time odds ratios ranged from 2.71 [95% confidence interval: 2.31-3.17] to 4.86 [3.93-6.02]). Support for family caregivers may enhance utilization of LTSS for Veterans with physical, emotional, and/or cognitive conditions. PMID:29591540

  18. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2010-10-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most

  19. Simulation model of the F/A-18 high angle-of-attack research vehicle utilized for the design of advanced control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Mark E.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Messina, Michael D.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The 'f18harv' six degree-of-freedom nonlinear batch simulation used to support research in advanced control laws and flight dynamics issues as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program is described in this report. This simulation models an F/A-18 airplane modified to incorporate a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and actuated forebody strakes for enhanced aerodynamic yaw control power. The modified configuration is known as the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The 'f18harv' simulation was an outgrowth of the 'f18bas' simulation which modeled the basic F/A-18 with a preliminary version of a thrust-vectoring system designed for the HARV. The preliminary version consisted of two thrust-vectoring vanes per engine nozzle compared with the three vanes per engine actually employed on the F/A-18 HARV. The modeled flight envelope is extensive in that the aerodynamic database covers an angle-of-attack range of -10 degrees to +90 degrees, sideslip range of -20 degrees to +20 degrees, a Mach Number range between 0.0 and 2.0, and an altitude range between 0 and 60,000 feet.

  20. Identifiers for the 21st century: How to design, provision, and reuse persistent identifiers to maximize utility and impact of life science data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A McMurry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In many disciplines, data are highly decentralized across thousands of online databases (repositories, registries, and knowledgebases. Wringing value from such databases depends on the discipline of data science and on the humble bricks and mortar that make integration possible; identifiers are a core component of this integration infrastructure. Drawing on our experience and on work by other groups, we outline 10 lessons we have learned about the identifier qualities and best practices that facilitate large-scale data integration. Specifically, we propose actions that identifier practitioners (database providers should take in the design, provision and reuse of identifiers. We also outline the important considerations for those referencing identifiers in various circumstances, including by authors and data generators. While the importance and relevance of each lesson will vary by context, there is a need for increased awareness about how to avoid and manage common identifier problems, especially those related to persistence and web-accessibility/resolvability. We focus strongly on web-based identifiers in the life sciences; however, the principles are broadly relevant to other disciplines.

  1. Identifiers for the 21st century: How to design, provision, and reuse persistent identifiers to maximize utility and impact of life science data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Julie A; Juty, Nick; Blomberg, Niklas; Burdett, Tony; Conlin, Tom; Conte, Nathalie; Courtot, Mélanie; Deck, John; Dumontier, Michel; Fellows, Donal K; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Gormanns, Philipp; Grethe, Jeffrey; Hastings, Janna; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Hermjakob, Henning; Ison, Jon C; Jimenez, Rafael C; Jupp, Simon; Kunze, John; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas; Malone, James; Martin, Maria Jesus; McEntyre, Johanna R; Morris, Chris; Muilu, Juha; Müller, Wolfgang; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Sariyar, Murat; Snoep, Jacky L; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Stanford, Natalie J; Swainston, Neil; Washington, Nicole; Williams, Alan R; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Winfree, Lilly M; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Goble, Carole; Mungall, Christopher J; Haendel, Melissa A; Parkinson, Helen

    2017-06-01

    In many disciplines, data are highly decentralized across thousands of online databases (repositories, registries, and knowledgebases). Wringing value from such databases depends on the discipline of data science and on the humble bricks and mortar that make integration possible; identifiers are a core component of this integration infrastructure. Drawing on our experience and on work by other groups, we outline 10 lessons we have learned about the identifier qualities and best practices that facilitate large-scale data integration. Specifically, we propose actions that identifier practitioners (database providers) should take in the design, provision and reuse of identifiers. We also outline the important considerations for those referencing identifiers in various circumstances, including by authors and data generators. While the importance and relevance of each lesson will vary by context, there is a need for increased awareness about how to avoid and manage common identifier problems, especially those related to persistence and web-accessibility/resolvability. We focus strongly on web-based identifiers in the life sciences; however, the principles are broadly relevant to other disciplines.

  2. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate utilization of physical activity recommendations among patients of cardiovascular healthcare centres in Eastern Slovakia: study design and rationale of the AWATAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelko, Aurel; Bukova, Alena; Kolarcik, Peter; Bakalar, Peter; Majercak, Ivan; Potocnikova, Jana; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2018-04-04

    Guidelines on modifiable risk factors regarding cardiological patients are poorly implemented in clinical practice perhaps due to low health literacy. Several digital tools for improving lifestyle and behavioural intervention were developed. Our primary aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a digital exercise prescription tool on the adherence to physical activity recommendations among patients with cardiovascular diseases. A randomized controlled trial will be realized in cooperation with Cardiovascular Health Centres in Eastern Slovakia. Patients recruited through their cardiologists, will be randomised at 1:1 ratio to the three-months' experimental condition or control condition. The experimental group will receive standard lifestyle consultation leading to individually optimized prescription of physical activity. The control group will receive standard, usual-cardio-care lifestyle counselling, also in the domain of physical activity. The digital system will be used for optimized exercise prescription. The primary outcome is a change in the patient's adherence to exercise recommendations. Data will be collected in both groups prior to consultation and after 3 months. This study protocol presents background and design of a randomized control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a digital system-provide exercise prescription tool on the adherence to physical activity recommendations. An optimized exercise prescription that better reflects patient's diagnosis, comorbidities and medication can have a significant impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This trial can provide important evidence about the effectiveness of digital exercise guidance in everyday practice of cardiovascular healthcare. The study was registered on 1st November, 2017 and is available online at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03329053 ).

  3. A solution for the integration of finite element analysis in a ship design environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finifter, D.; Wyniecki, P.; Castel, J. de

    1982-01-01

    The DEMAIN system for the pre- and post-processing of finite element analyses of ship structures is presented. It is shown that this new modelling concept, although being self-contained and specialized, has features which relate it to computer-aided design applications of a more general nature. Thus, compared to other finite element pre/post-processors, it allows a more natural occurrence of the structural analysis task in the design flow and can be considered a major step towards an integrated design and analysis system. (orig.)

  4. Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Kuan Leong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available 8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Incubation with SOD-Like Supreme (0.5–3% (v/v was shown to protect against menadione-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AML12 cells, as evidenced by increases in cell viability. The ability of SOD-Like Supreme to protect against menadione cytotoxicity was associated with an elevation in the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG ratio in menadione-challenged cells. Consistent with the cell-based studies, pre-/post-treatment with SOD-Like Supreme (0.69 and 2.06 mL/kg, three intermittent doses per day for two consecutive days was found to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. The cardio/hepatoprotection afforded by SOD-Like Supreme was also paralleled by increases in myocardial/hepatic mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratios in the SOD-Like Supreme-treated/oxidant-challenged mice. In conclusion, incubation/treatment with SOD-Like Supreme was found to protect against oxidant-induced injury in vitro and in vivo, presumably by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity.

  5. Multiservice utility plug for remote fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Jensen, D.A.

    1979-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a multiservice utility plug and drive system to be used for reliably engaging and disengaging all utility connections automatically that serve large portable equipment modules. The modules are arranged into a fuel processing production line within the Fuels and Materials Examination Laboratory. The utility plugs allow the modules to be easily replaced, rearranged or removed for maintenance

  6. Dealing with the difficult utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, D.E.; Sundquist, M.J.; Cross, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  7. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 2); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the (techniques for transportation and storage of energy). The R and D on methanol energy systems involves the R and D on decomposition and synthesis catalyst of methanol and methyl formate for the waste heat sources of relatively low temperature. The R and D on high-efficiency techniques using hydrogen-occluding alloys involves development of heat exchangers of low sensible heat ratio, fabrication of double-effect type MH heat pump cycle devices, and demonstration tests for the system operation. It is found that the heat output of the hydrogen-occluding alloy for high temperature use is 0.18kW/kg at 90 degrees C, and that the alloy can be massively produced. A thermal utilization efficiency COP of 0.68 is obtained for the double-effect type MH heat pump cycles. The R and D on the heat-hydrogen recovery, transportation and utilization techniques involves designs and fabrication on a trial basis of a sensible heat recovery unit. (NEDO)

  8. Development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system in fiscal 1998. Pt. 1. Research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology (Research on design technology for optimal system); 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes achievements of the researches during fiscal 1998 on researching a highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology. With regard to technologies to recover and convert unutilized energies, a process simulator was developed, basic internal structure was discussed by experiments and simulation, and substance migrating and heat exchanging characteristics were identified by using partial testing devices. These researches and developments were performed for the waste heat reforming and recovering systems used in chemical plants. In developing a thermoelectric generation system using low calorie exhaust gases, thermoelectric power generating materials were developed, a powder manufacturing technology was developed, a thermoelectric conversion element bulking technology was developed, a thermoelectric power generation system using porous structures was simulated, development and concept design were carried out on system element technologies. In the research and development of the thermoelectric generation system using low calorie exhaust gases, advanced materials and modules were manufactured, the modules were evaluated, and power generation systems were researched. In addition, researches were performed on energy transportation, supply and utilization technologies, and on environmental load reducing technologies. (NEDO)

  9. Metabolism and resistance of Fusarium spp. to the manzamine alkaloids via a putative retro pictet-spengler reaction and utility of the rational design of antimalarial and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanah, Noer; Farr, Lorelei Lucas; Gholipour, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Hamann, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    As a part of our continuing investigation of the manzamine alkaloids we studied the in vitro activity of the β-carboline containing manzamine alkaloids against Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporium, and Fusarium proliferatum by employing several bioassay techniques including one-dimensional direct bioautography, dilution, and plate susceptibility, and microtiter broth assays. In addition, we also studied the metabolism of the manzamine alkaloids by Fusarium spp. in order to facilitate the redesign of the compounds to prevent resistance of Fusarium spp. through metabolism. The present research reveals that the manzamine alkaloids are inactive against Fusarium spp. and the fungi transform manzamines via hydrolysis, reduction, and a retro Pictet-Spengler reaction. This is the first report to demonstrate an enzymatically retro Pictet-Spengler reaction. The results of this study reveal the utility of the rational design of metabolically stable antifungal agents from this class and the development of manzamine alkaloids as antimalarial drugs through the utilization of Fusarium's metabolic products to reconstruct the molecule.

  10. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  11. [Architecture and design of mental health institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dirk; Hoffmann, Holger

    2014-04-01

    The physical environment of mental health institutions is regarded as a therapeutic agent within the treatment. There is only little scientific evidence on the consequences of architecture and design on psychiatric patients available. A systematic review was conducted on studies from adult mental health institutions. 25 studies were included into the review. Pre-post-studies and control group conditions were predominant study designs. Randomized controlled trials were not available. Interventions reached from art installations up to entire ward renovations. Outcome indicators were rather heterogeneous, including psychopathology, behavioural observations and aggression incidents. Overwhelmingly, the studies revealed positive results of interventions into the physical environment. We found positive outcomes independent from the intervention in detail. This result should be interpreted in the light of the generally low study quality and further methodological problems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Villa Design and Solar Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper goes through solar energy and what uses it has. It is also a guide in the choice of solar collectors for the real estate that I have drawn for the thesis work. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy from the Sun's light. Energy can be used to produce both heat and electricity through solar collectors and solar cells. Some of the benefits of solar energy is that it is completely free to extract, environmentally friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Disadvantages are that th...

  13. MVP utilization for PWR design code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Tahara, Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    MHI studies the method of the spatially dependent resonance cross sections so as to predict the power distribution in a fuel pellet accurately. For this purpose, the multiband method and the Stoker/Weiss method were implemented to the 2 dimensional transport code PHOENIX-P, and the methods were validated by comparing them with MVP code. Although the appropriate reference was not obtain from the deterministic codes on the resonance cross section study, now the Monte Carlo code MVP result is available and useful as reference. It is shown here how MVP is used to develop the multiband method and the Stoker/Weiss method, and how effective the result of MVP is on the study of the resonance cross sections. (author)

  14. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  15. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  16. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  17. TWRS LDUA utilization study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tank Waste Remediation Systems functional requirements were reviewed. The Light Duty Utility Arm capabilities were considered as a means to support completion of these functional requirements. The recommendation is made to continue to develop the LDUA, integrating TWRS functional needs into the design to better support completion of TWRS mission needs

  18. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  19. Microwave reactor for utilizing waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a designed and manufactured, semi-industrial microwave reactor for thermal utilization of asbestos-bearing wastes. Presented are also semi-industrial tests of utilizing such wastes. It was found that microwave heating can be applied for utilizing asbestos with use of suitable wetting agents. The wetting agents should ensure continuous heating process above 600 °C, as well as uniform heat distribution in the whole volume of the utilized material. Analysis of the neutralization process indicates a possibility of presenting specific, efficient and effective process parameters of utilizing some asbestos-bearing industrial wastes.

  20. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  1. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  2. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  3. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  4. Calculating utility prudency issue costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

  5. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  6. Drug utilization research and risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Mol, Peter G. M.; Elseviers, Monique; Wettermark, Björn; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Andersen, Morten; Benko, Ria; Bennie, Marion; Eriksson, Irene; Godman, Brian; Krska, Janet; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Taxis, Katja; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Stichele, Robert Vander

    2016-01-01

    Good risk management requires continuous evaluation and improvement of planned activities. The evaluation impact of risk management activities requires robust study designs and carefully selected outcome measures. Key learnings and caveats from drug utilization research should be applied to the

  7. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Goodin

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches

  8. 76 FR 18445 - Financial Market Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ..., the risk of significant liquidity or credit problems spreading among financial institutions or markets..., and settlement activities of certain financial market utilities (``FMUs'') that are designated as.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: [[Page 18446

  9. FFTF utilization for irradiation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles

  10. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  11. National Information Utility Seeks to Serve Schools Nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the pros and cons of the National Information Utility Program, which is designed to provide current updatable courseware to schools nationwide. The information is broadcast over FM radio and television signals to facilities subscribing to the utility. (MD)

  12. Process for assembly and transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a synthetic yeast artificial chromosome containing a multigene cassette to express enzymes that enhance xylose utilization designed for an automated pla

    Science.gov (United States)

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system ...

  13. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Research on energy system design technology (Research on Eco-Energy City systematization); Eco ene toshi no system ka kenkyu 1999 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Efforts are being exerted to develop systems for effectively utilizing various kinds of waste heat in presence in cities and their neighborhood. In fiscal 1999, investigations were conducted into cases of low temperature waste heat utilization at 16 locations in Japan and into trends of heat utilization in five European countries, with a visit paid to European District Heating Association. There are 128 district heat supplying sites in service in Japan, of which 25 handles low temperature waste heat. As for their types of utilization, 12 are of the temperature difference energy utilization type while 13 are of the heat recovery type. When it comes to the system details, the importance of proper selection of structures and materials for heat accumulating systems and heat exchangers on the secondary side should be emphasized although it is the heat pump that assumes the key role. In Europe, indications are that district systems are developing into wide-area networks and that they are growing increasingly marketable. In the northern and eastern parts of Europe, 30-70% of demand for heat is met by district heating. Waste heat from power generation is the heat source, and this occupies 30-80% of the whole. Thanks to the introduction of the environmental tax, in addition, environments are now complete under which recoverable energy utilization will enjoy an advantageous position. (NEDO)

  14. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  15. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or other industries are interested in lignin as a potential fuel or feedstock but need more information on properties.

  16. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  17. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  18. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  19. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  20. Utilizing an Artificial Outcrop to Scaffold Learning Between Laboratory and Field Experiences in a College-Level Introductory Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meredith

    Geologic field trips are among the most beneficial learning experiences for students as they engage the topic of geology, but they are also difficult environments to maximize learning. This action research study explored one facet of the problems associated with teaching geology in the field by attempting to improve the transition of undergraduate students from a traditional laboratory setting to an authentic field environment. Utilizing an artificial outcrop, called the GeoScene, during an introductory college-level non-majors geology course, the transition was studied. The GeoScene was utilized in this study as an intermediary between laboratory and authentic field based experiences, allowing students to apply traditional laboratory learning in an outdoor environment. The GeoScene represented a faux field environment; outside, more complex and tangible than a laboratory, but also simplified geologically and located safely within the confines of an educational setting. This exploratory study employed a mixed-methods action research design. The action research design allowed for systematic inquiry by the teacher/researcher into how the students learned. The mixed-methods approach garnered several types of qualitative and quantitative data to explore phenomena and support conclusions. Several types of data were collected and analyzed, including: visual recordings of the intervention, interviews, analytic memos, student reflections, field practical exams, and a pre/post knowledge and skills survey, to determine whether the intervention affected student comprehension and interpretation of geologic phenomena in an authentic field environment, and if so, how. Students enrolled in two different sections of the same laboratory course, sharing a common lecture, participated in laboratory exercises implementing experiential learning and constructivist pedagogies that focused on learning the basic geological skills necessary for work in a field environment. These laboratory

  1. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  2. Future product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    This paper (in form of overheads) formulate new challenges and possibilities for engineering design, utilizing rationalization effect from modularisation, re-use and transparaency.......This paper (in form of overheads) formulate new challenges and possibilities for engineering design, utilizing rationalization effect from modularisation, re-use and transparaency....

  3. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  4. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  5. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  6. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, systems designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  7. Utility machinery vibration monitoring guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.T.; Thomas, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Section I of this guide presents a methodology for developing machinery vibration monitoring programs specifically designed for application within the utility industry. The methodology is designed to enhance a monitoring program and can be used at the outset of program development or as a reference after programs have been started. Section I evaluates all aspects of the monitoring program, including Objectives and Goals, Information Type, Timing and Format, Data Analysis, Data Acquisition, Measurement and Transducer Selection, Personnel and Organization, Program Instrumentation, Program Costs, Program Justification, and Implementation of a Monitoring Program. The methodology is then applied to two host utility plants in Section II, which contains the monitoring programs developed by Gulf States Utilities and Philadelphia Electric Company using this guide. Section III contains the histories of several different types of existing utility monitoring programs. Some of the lessons learned, including the recommendations of these ''mature'' programs for persons starting new programs, are included

  8. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  9. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  10. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  11. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  12. Are American utilities sorry they went nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in the U.S. will be determined in large measure by what the electric utilities decide to do. Very few electric utilities are planning to build more nuclear power plants. Most utilities feel the 12 to 14 years it takes to build a nuclear plant is simply too long, especially when construction money must be borrowed at record interest rates. Also, there are too many uncertainties regarding what an acceptable plant design is. On the other hand, these utilities also strongly believe that the U.S. needs nuclear power and that it would be imprudent for a utility to put all its energy eggs in one basket, coal

  13. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization plan....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA must prepare and submit to HUD a preliminary tax incentives utilization plan for achieving the State...

  14. Utility requirements for advanced LWR passive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    LWR Passive Plants are becoming an increasingly attractive and prominent option for future electric generating capacity for U.S. utilities. Conceptual designs for ALWR Passive Plants are currently being developed by U.S. suppliers. EPRI-sponsored work beginning in 1985 developed preliminary conceptual designs for a passive BWR and PWR. DOE-sponsored work from 1986 to the present in conjunction with further EPRI-sponsored studies has continued this development to the point of mature conceptual designs. The success to date in developing the ALWR Passive Plant concepts has substantially increased utility interest. The EPRI ALWR Program has responded by augmenting its initial scope to develop a Utility Requirements Document for ALWR Passive Plants. These requirements will be largely based on the ALWR Utility Requirements Document for Evolutionary Plants, but with significant changes in areas related to the passive safety functions and system configurations. This work was begun in late 1988, and the thirteen-chapter Passive Plant Utility Requirements Document will be completed in 1990. This paper discusses the progress to date in developing the Passive Plant requirements, reviews the top-level requirements, and discusses key issues related to adaptation of the utility requirements to passive safety functions and system configurations. (orig.)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of environmentally friendly high-efficiency energy utilization system. 2. Research of technology of effectively utilizing high-efficiency energy / research of optimum system designing technology; 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu, saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This 2nd volume deals with the transportation and storage of energy in the above-named research. In search of technologies for transporting exhausted heat from the industrial area to the urban section for consumers to utilize the heat for driving their air-conditioners and hot water supply systems, the decomposition and composition reactions of methanol are utilized for a long-range transportation system. The subjects taken up in this connection include the research and development of a methanol energy system, non-equilibrium high-efficiency methanol decomposition technology, multifunctional catalysts, and highly active/selective catalysts capable of promoting reversible endoergic/exoergic reactions. Research and development is also conducted of a high-efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen-absorbing alloys, and such a pump will realize an air-conditioning system not dependent on chlorofluorocarbon. In the research and development of a long-range heat transportation system using hydrogen-absorbing alloys, a study is made of technologies of heat/hydrogen recovery, transportation, and utilization. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 1. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of element technology and comprehensive adjustment which are related to the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the study of the high efficiency energy utilization technology, and the results of FY 2000, the final fiscal year, were summed up. As to the R and D of the exhaust heat reforming/recovery system, the internal heat exchange type distillation tower was developed which has a good energy conservation effect and enables the heat supply outside. Concerning the R and D of the cogeneration system using low calorie exhaust gas, the following were conducted for further improvement of the performance of electrothermic elements: evaluation of the thermoelectric performance using bulk elements, development of new elements and evaluation of the energy balance at the time of combustion, etc. Relating to the R and D of the low temperature exhaust heat utilization cogeneration system, conducted were the development of thermoelectric materials and the fabrication/evaluation study of module. Moreover, WATT20A equipped with the original power generation module developed in this study was fabricated, and the data on the operation at the temperature of 150 degrees C were obtained by WATT-20HT. (NEDO)

  17. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  18. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  19. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  20. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  1. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  2. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  3. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  4. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  5. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  6. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  7. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Report on the basic design of a hydrogen transportation system utilizing metal hydrides and the evaluation thereon; Kinzoku suisokabutsu wo riyoshita suiso yuso system no kihon sekkei to sono hyoka ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-26

    This paper describes a hydrogen transportation system utilizing metal hydrides. For a storage method for moving, metal hydrides having high hydrogen containing performance like Mg-based hydrides would have high portability, less weight disadvantage, and high economic performance. In the fixed location storage, metal hydrides are superior in safety and maintenance cost to the conventional high-pressure gas holder and liquefied hydrogen storage. Because of their high dependence on equilibrium pressure and temperature, the significance of development thereof is large as the source of high-pressure hydrogen generation and motive force. More effective utilization of low-level heat, and separation and refining of hydrogen may also be expected. With regard to fuel supply for hydrogen fueled automobiles, metal hydrides are better in safety and total energy cost than liquefied hydrogen, but have a number of disadvantageous points in weight demerit. Eliminating the weight demerit would be the central issue of the development. Accompanying the development of hydrogen fueled automobiles, there are a number of technological elements to be developed on fuel supply system, such as storage, moving and transportation in hydrogen manufacturing sites, and filling and storage at using sites. Arranging the related infrastructures would be the issue. (NEDO)

  9. Utility industry evaluation of the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; DelGeorge, L.O.; Tramm, T.R.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; Neils, G.H.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Wells, J.T.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor plant design, a current liquid metal reactor design created by an industrial team led by Rockwell International under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility industry team concluded that the plant design offers several attractive characteristics, especially in the safety arena, as well as preserving the traditional attraction of liquid metal reactors, very high fuel utilization. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards improving an already attractive plant design. 18 refs

  10. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  11. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  12. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  13. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  14. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  15. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  16. Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Intestinal Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal environment of weaned rabbits fed diets supplemented with organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid) were investigated with 24 (6-week old) rabbits in a completely randomized design. The control diet was not supplemented while others were supplemented ...

  17. Utilization of Community Institutional and Organizational Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of the utilization of community institutional and community organizational resources on the implementation of adult basic literacy and functional literacy programmes in Cross River State. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested. The survey research design was adopted for the study.

  18. Not business as usual for water utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article addresses the implementation of the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986 and their economic impacts to water utilities, financiers, stockholders and consumers. The author looks at various funding schemes, rate structure changes and potential mergers all designed to finance the compliance with new EPA standards

  19. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  20. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  1. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  2. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  3. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  4. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  5. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  6. The Role of a PMI-Prediction Model in Evaluating Forensic Entomology Experimental Design, the Importance of Covariates, and the Utility of Response Variables for Estimating Time Since Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Wells

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common forensic entomological application is the estimation of some portion of the time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI. To our knowledge, a PMI estimate is almost never accompanied by an associated probability. Statistical methods are now available for calculating confidence limits for an insect-based prediction of PMI for both succession and development data. In addition to it now being possible to employ these approaches in validation experiments and casework, it is also now possible to use the criterion of prediction performance to guide training experiments, i.e., to modify carrion insect development or succession experiment design in ways likely to improve the performance of PMI predictions using the resulting data. In this paper, we provide examples, derived from our research program on calculating PMI estimate probabilities, of how training data experiment design can influence the performance of a statistical model for PMI prediction.

  7. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  8. Design of a pilot plant to study wastewater treatability. Utilization to nitrification-denitrification treatment of urban wastewater; Diseno de una plant pilot para estudios de tratabilidad de aguas residuales. Aplicacion a la nitrificacion/desnitrificaciond e aguas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, E.; Vilches, L. F.; Pineda, D.; Garcia, A.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.

    2002-07-01

    The conventional design and the operation of secondary treatment of urban wastewater treatment plants presents different problems such as bulking foaming, the removal of nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus, and the excess of sludge. to prevent these problems the use of selectors was initially proposed to selects the floc-formers bacteria against the filamentous microorganisms. In addition, these configurations removed nitrogen by the nitrification-denitrification mechanism and some of them removed both nitrogen and phosphors. In the last years, new systems have been developed to remove nitrogen, reducing the consumption of oxygen and the production of sludge by the use of different microorganisms, and by modifying environmental and operational conditions. To study the treatment urban wastewater in conditions similar to those existing in wastewater treatment plants and to improve the design and operational parameters of a large scale wastewater treatment plant, a versatile pilot plant has been designed. The main components of the plant are described in this paper. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    are often still not engaged with in a sufficiently manner. Often social sciences keep distance to the physical and material as if the social was still to be understood as a realm separate of technology, architecture, and design (for a critique of this see; Latour 2005 and Urry 2000). This paper takes point......Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities...... of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices...

  10. Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials

  11. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  12. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  13. Utility requirements for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiels, A.; Gray, S.; Mulford, T.; Rodwell, E.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is actively engaged in developing advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs for the next century. The new designs take advantage of the thousands of reactor-years of experience that have been accumulated by operating over 400 plants worldwide. The EPRI effort began in the early 1980's, when a survey of utility executives was conducted to determine their prerequisites for ordering nuclear power plants. The results were clear: new plants had to be simpler and safer, and have greater design margins, i.e., be more forgiving. The utility executives also supported making improvements to the established light water reactor technology, rather than trying to develop new reactor concepts. Finally, they wanted the option to build mid-size plants (∼600 MWe) in addition to full-size plants of more than 1200 MWe. 4 refs

  14. Utilization of structural steel in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C; Allwood, Julian M

    2014-08-08

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is 'rationalization'-providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in 'embodied' carbon emissions.

  15. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  16. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  17. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  18. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  19. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  20. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  1. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  2. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  3. The utility of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in systems-oriented obesity intervention projects: the selection of comparable study sites for a quasi-experimental intervention design--TX CORD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Byars, Allison; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Sharma, Shreela V; Durand, Casey; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-02-01

    The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project (TX CORD) uses a systems-oriented approach to address obesity that includes individual and family interventions, community-level action, as well as environmental and policy initiatives. Given that randomization is seldom possible in community-level intervention studies, TX CORD uses a quasi-experimental design. Comparable intervention and comparison study sites are needed to address internal validity bias. TX CORD was designed to be implemented in low-income, ethnically diverse communities in Austin and Houston, Texas. A three-stage Geographical Information System (GIS) methodology was used to establish and ascertain the comparability of the intervention and comparison study sites. Census tract (stage 1) and school (stage 2) data were used to identify spatially exclusive geographic areas that were comparable. In stage 3, study sites were compared on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), food assets, and physical activity (PA) assets. Student's t-test was used to examine significant differences between the selected sites. The methodology that was used resulted in the selection of catchment areas with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics that fit the target population: ethnically diverse population; lower-median household income; and lower home ownership rates. Additionally, the intervention and comparison sites were statistically comparable on demographic and SES variables, as well as food assets and PA assets. This GIS approach can provide researchers, program evaluators, and policy makers with useful tools for both research and practice. Area-level information that allows for robust understanding of communities can enhance analytical procedures in community health research and offer significant contributions in terms of community assessment and engagement.

  4. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  5. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  6. Utility prudency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  7. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  8. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  9. SU-D-201-07: Exploring the Utility of 4D FDG-PET/CT Scans in Design of Radiation Therapy Planning Compared with 3D PET/CT: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y [Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Provice (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A method using four-dimensional(4D) PET/CT in design of radiation treatment planning was proposed and the target volume and radiation dose distribution changes relative to standard three-dimensional (3D) PET/CT were examined. Methods: A target deformable registration method was used by which the whole patient’s respiration process was considered and the effect of respiration motion was minimized when designing radiotherapy planning. The gross tumor volume of a non-small-cell lung cancer was contoured on the 4D FDG-PET/CT and 3D PET/CT scans by use of two different techniques: manual contouring by an experienced radiation oncologist using a predetermined protocol; another technique using a constant threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5. The target volume and radiotherapy dose distribution between VOL3D and VOL4D were analyzed. Results: For all phases, the average automatic and manually GTV volume was 18.61 cm3 (range, 16.39–22.03 cm3) and 31.29 cm3 (range, 30.11–35.55 cm3), respectively. The automatic and manually volume of merged IGTV were 27.82 cm3 and 49.37 cm3, respectively. For the manual contour, compared to 3D plan the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung of 4D plan have an average decrease 21.55%, 15.17% and 15.86%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 2.35%. For the automatic contour, the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung have an average decrease 23.48%, 16.84% and 17.44%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 1.68%. Conclusion: In comparison to 3D PET/CT, 4D PET/CT may better define the extent of moving tumors and reduce the contouring tumor volume thereby optimize radiation treatment planning for lung tumors.

  10. SU-D-201-07: Exploring the Utility of 4D FDG-PET/CT Scans in Design of Radiation Therapy Planning Compared with 3D PET/CT: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A method using four-dimensional(4D) PET/CT in design of radiation treatment planning was proposed and the target volume and radiation dose distribution changes relative to standard three-dimensional (3D) PET/CT were examined. Methods: A target deformable registration method was used by which the whole patient’s respiration process was considered and the effect of respiration motion was minimized when designing radiotherapy planning. The gross tumor volume of a non-small-cell lung cancer was contoured on the 4D FDG-PET/CT and 3D PET/CT scans by use of two different techniques: manual contouring by an experienced radiation oncologist using a predetermined protocol; another technique using a constant threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5. The target volume and radiotherapy dose distribution between VOL3D and VOL4D were analyzed. Results: For all phases, the average automatic and manually GTV volume was 18.61 cm3 (range, 16.39–22.03 cm3) and 31.29 cm3 (range, 30.11–35.55 cm3), respectively. The automatic and manually volume of merged IGTV were 27.82 cm3 and 49.37 cm3, respectively. For the manual contour, compared to 3D plan the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung of 4D plan have an average decrease 21.55%, 15.17% and 15.86%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 2.35%. For the automatic contour, the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung have an average decrease 23.48%, 16.84% and 17.44%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 1.68%. Conclusion: In comparison to 3D PET/CT, 4D PET/CT may better define the extent of moving tumors and reduce the contouring tumor volume thereby optimize radiation treatment planning for lung tumors

  11. Metabolic Engineering for Substrate Co-utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawand, Pratish

    Production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals is being increasingly pursued by chemical industry to reduce its dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an abundant source of sugars that can be used for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals using fermentation. Hydrolysis of LCB results in a mixture of sugars mainly composed of glucose and xylose. Fermentation of such a sugar mixture presents multiple technical challenges at industrial scale. Most industrial microorganisms utilize sugars in a sequential manner due to the regulatory phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Due to sequential utilization of sugars, the LCB-based fermentation processes suffer low productivities and complicated operation. Performance of fermentation processes can be improved by metabolic engineering of microorganisms to obtain superior characteristics such as high product yield. With increased computational power and availability of complete genomes of microorganisms, use of model-based metabolic engineering is now a common practice. The problem of sequential sugar utilization, however, is a regulatory problem, and metabolic models have never been used to solve such regulatory problems. The focus of this thesis is to use model-guided metabolic engineering to construct industrial strains capable of co-utilizing sugars. First, we develop a novel bilevel optimization algorithm SimUp, that uses metabolic models to identify reaction deletion strategies to force co-utilization of two sugars. We then use SimUp to identify reaction deletion strategies to force glucose-xylose co-utilization in Escherichia coli. To validate SimUp predictions, we construct three mutants with multiple gene knockouts and test them for glucose-xylose utilization characteristics. Two mutants, designated as LMSE2 and LMSE5, are shown to co-utilize glucose and xylose in agreement with SimUp predictions. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in glucose-xylose co-utilization of the

  12. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  13. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  14. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 1); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1 Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the 'techniques for recovery and conversion of unutilized energy'. The R and D on waste heat recovery and conversion for chemical plants designs an internal structure of the 'wetted wall column for shell side as the stripping section' for increasing quantity of heat exchanged inside, and stably operates the bench plant for 100 hours or more. The R and D on thermoelectric power generating systems using low calorie exhaust gases involves development of materials, production of fine particle materials and sinters, and evaluation of their functions, among others. The program for application of the techniques to commercial plants confirms applicability of a 3kg thermoelectric power generating system to automobile coating process. The R and D on systems for thermoelectric recovery of low-temperature waste heat finds cracks on the ceramic plate for the power generating system WATT100, disassembled for repair. (NEDO)

  15. The impact of computers on the nuclear utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The applications of computer technology to the nuclear utility industry are discussed in light of recent phenomenal growth of computer hardware and software. Computer applications in existence in the power plants are presented, as well as potential future development for plant design, construction, operation, maintenance and retrofit. Utility concerns are addressed. The study concludes that the applications of computer technology to the nuclear utility industry are highly promising and evolutionary in nature

  16. MO-FG-303-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION and BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY): Automating LINAC QA: Design and Testing of An Image Acquisition and Processing System Utilizing a Combination of Radioluminescent Phosphors, Embedded X-Ray Markers and Optical Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C; Naczynski, D; Yu, S; Xing, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The recent development of phosphors to visualize radiation beams from linear accelerators (LINAC) offers a unique opportunity for evaluating radiation fields within the context of the treatment space. The purpose of this study was to establish an automated, self-calibrating prototype system for performing quality assurance (QA) measurements. Methods: A thin layer of Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor and fiducial markers were embedded on several planar faces of a custom-designed phantom. The phantom was arbitrarily placed near iso-center on the couch of a LINAC equipped with on-board megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) imagers. A plan consisting of several beams and integrated image acquisitions was delivered. Images of the phantom were collected throughout the delivery. Salient features, such as fiducials, crosshairs and beam edges were then extracted from these images used to calibrate the system, adjust for variations in phantom placement, and perform measurements. Beam edges were visualized by imaging the light generated by the phosphor on the phantom enabling direct comparison with the light field and laser locations. Registration of MV, kV and optical image data was performed using the embedded fiducial markers, enabling comparison of imaging center locations. Measurements specified by TG-142 were calculated and compared with those obtained from a commercially available QA system. Results: The system was able to automatically extract the location of the fiducials, lasers, light field and radiation field from the acquired images regardless of phantom positioning. It was also able to automatically identify the locations of fiducial markers on kV and MV images. All collected measurements were within TG-142 guidelines. The difference between the prototype and commercially available system were less than 0.2 mm. Conclusion: The prototype system demonstrated the capability of accurately and autonomously evaluating various TG-142 parameters independent of operator

  17. Practical constraints on fuel management a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical and potential constraints of performing fuel management at a large utility are reviewed. Based on approximately six years of experience in performing fuel management the constraints due to commercial, technical, utility system, design methods, and personnel and computer resources are discussed in detail

  18. Logging utilization in Idaho: Current and past trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Steven W. Hayes; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    A study of commercial timber-harvesting activities in Idaho was conducted during 2008 and 2011 to characterize current tree utilization, logging operations, and changes from previous Idaho logging utilization studies. A two-stage simple random sampling design was used to select sites and felled trees for measurement within active logging sites. Thirty-three logging...

  19. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  20. Linux utilities cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James Kent

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook-style guide packed with examples and illustrations, it offers organized learning through recipes and step-by-step instructions. The book is designed so that you can pick exactly what you need, when you need it.Written for anyone that would like to familiarize themselves with Linux. This book is perfect migrating from Windows to Linux and will save your time and money, learn exactly how to and where to begin working with Linux and troubleshooting in easy steps.

  1. Awareness and Utilization of Family Planning Methods among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficiency Virus (HIV) infection influence the design and background Family planning is an important preventive measure against maternal and child morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at determining the awareness and utilization of family ...

  2. Design research and industrial applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry.......Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry....

  3. A bayesian approach to laboratory utilization management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory utilization management describes a process designed to increase healthcare value by altering requests for laboratory services. A typical approach to monitor and prioritize interventions involves audits of laboratory orders against specific criteria, defined as rule-based laboratory utilization management. This approach has inherent limitations. First, rules are inflexible. They adapt poorly to the ambiguity of medical decision-making. Second, rules judge the context of a decision instead of the patient outcome allowing an order to simultaneously save a life and break a rule. Third, rules can threaten physician autonomy when used in a performance evaluation. Methods: We developed an alternative to rule-based laboratory utilization. The core idea comes from a formula used in epidemiology to estimate disease prevalence. The equation relates four terms: the prevalence of disease, the proportion of positive tests, test sensitivity and test specificity. When applied to a laboratory utilization audit, the formula estimates the prevalence of disease (pretest probability [PTP] in the patients tested. The comparison of PTPs among different providers, provider groups, or patient cohorts produces an objective evaluation of laboratory requests. We demonstrate the model in a review of tests for enterovirus (EV meningitis. Results: The model identified subpopulations within the cohort with a low prevalence of disease. These low prevalence groups shared demographic and seasonal factors known to protect against EV meningitis. This suggests too many orders occurred from patients at low risk for EV. Conclusion: We introduce a new method for laboratory utilization management programs to audit laboratory services.

  4. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  5. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  7. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  8. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  9. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  10. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  11. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  12. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  13. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  14. Enabling students to learn: Design, implementation and assessment of a supplemental study strategies course for an introductory undergraduate biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Jayanthi Sanjeevi

    Attrition in the STEM disciplines is a national problem and one of the important reasons for this is student experiences in introductory courses. A myriad of factors influence students' experiences in those courses; inadequate student preparation is one of the most cited reasons. Incoming freshmen often lack the learning strategies required to meaningfully learn and succeed in college courses. Unfortunately, the instructors have limited time and/or have little experience in teaching learning strategies. In this paper, the design, implementation, and evaluation of a Supplemental Course (SC) model that emphasizes learning strategies is presented. SC was offered concurrently with the introductory biology courses for four consecutive semesters (fall 2011 to spring 2013); for 10 weeks in fall 2012 and 7 weeks in the other semesters at Miami University. 10 weeks SC began earlier in the semester than the shorter SC. This study evaluated the effects of the SC on students' (1) performance in the introductory biology course, (2) perceived changes in self-regulation and social support, and (3) experiences in the introductory biology course before, during, and after participation in the SC. A mixed methods approach was used to address these goals. A pre-post survey was administered to obtain students' use of self-regulation strategies and social-support data. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze content exam grades and changes in self-regulation strategies and social-support. To explore the experiences of the students, semi-structured interviews were conducted, followed by analysis using grounded theory. The findings reveal that participants of the longer duration SC (with an earlier start date) significantly improved in content exam performance, perceived use of self-regulation strategies, and social support compared to the non-participants. Participants of the shorter duration SC (with a later start date) did not significantly improve in content exam performance

  15. Waste Resources Utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The effectiveness of thermoradiation (simultaneous use of heat and ionizing radiation) as a treatment for ridding sewage sludge of pathogenic organisms is being studied. The feasibiity of treating sewage sludge with thermoradiation to the ultimate benefit of society depends on a number of factors. For any proposed use of the sludge, the degree of thermoradiation treatment needed must be determined. This involves biological studies of major classes of organisms in sewage sludge. The cost of such a treatment versus the value of the benefits from sludge usage must be assessed. To do this realistically optimal treatment facilities must be designed, and actual sludge use assessment must be made. (LK)

  16. Evaluations and utilizations of risk importances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Davis, T.C.

    1985-08-01

    This report presents approaches for utilizing Probabilistic Risk Analyses (PRA's) to determine risk importances. Risk importances are determined for design features, plant operations, and other factors that can affect risk. PRA's can be used to identify the importances of risk contributors or proposed changes to designs or operations. The objective of this report is to serve as a handbook and guide in evaluating and applying risk importances. The utilization of both qualitative risk importances and quantitative risk importances is described in this report. Qualitative risk importances are based on the logic models in the PRA, while quantitative risk importances are based on the quantitative results of the PRA. Both types of importances are among the most robust and meaningful information a PRA can provide. A wide variety of risk importance evaluations are described including evaluations of the importances of design changes, testing, maintenance, degrading environments, and aging. Specific utilizations are described in inspection and in reliability assurance programs, however the general approaches have widespread applicability. The role of personal computers and decision support programs in applying risk importance evaluations is also described

  17. SSC design update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    Recent developments in the design and construction of the SSC are presented. Topics include status of the 20 TeV Collider rings, including interaction regions, utility regions, and main arcs, plus some remarks on the injector accelerators. Remaining issues facing the design of the colliding beams synchrotron and its injectors are discussed

  18. KEIMS utility manual (edition 1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeun Seung; Eom, Young Sam; Choi, Jin Yeup; Nam, Ji Hwa

    1996-06-01

    Since 1987 when KAERI had started Yonggwang 3 and 4 NSSS system design project, KAERI has carried out so many NSSS system design projects such as Ulchin 3 and 4, Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 and Yonggwang 5 and 6 with fixed members that necessity of increasing productivity has been raised. To improve design work efficiency, it was considered that computerization of workflow which took so much man-power and business time. As result of investigation of design workflow to reduce man-power loss. It was suggested that DDA (Document Distribution for Agreement) workflow, design document stored in DDCD (Document Distribution and Control Center), IOC (Interoffice Correspondence) document, Letter, PM Memo should be preferentially computerized. On the basis of these computerization requirements, MEDIS (Modular Engineering Document Imaging System) was selected. Prototype had been implemented during 1995.9 -1995.12, and from 1996.1 KEIMS (KAERI Engineering Information Management System) has been operated. This MEDIS system utility manual was composed of several technical memos which has been described on customization of MEDIS fit to KEIMS, program development for system check, and information control of database. Further edition would be released as utility technical memo added. (Author) .new

  19. KEIMS utility manual (edition 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeun Seung; Eom, Young Sam; Choi, Jin Yeup; Nam, Ji Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Since 1987 when KAERI had started Yonggwang 3 and 4 NSSS system design project, KAERI has carried out so many NSSS system design projects such as Ulchin 3 and 4, Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 and Yonggwang 5 and 6 with fixed members that necessity of increasing productivity has been raised. To improve design work efficiency, it was considered that computerization of workflow which took so much man-power and business time. As result of investigation of design workflow to reduce man-power loss. It was suggested that DDA (Document Distribution for Agreement) workflow, design document stored in DDCD (Document Distribution and Control Center), IOC (Interoffice Correspondence) document, Letter, PM Memo should be preferentially computerized. On the basis of these computerization requirements, MEDIS (Modular Engineering Document Imaging System) was selected. Prototype had been implemented during 1995.9 -1995.12, and from 1996.1 KEIMS (KAERI Engineering Information Management System) has been operated. This MEDIS system utility manual was composed of several technical memos which has been described on customization of MEDIS fit to KEIMS, program development for system check, and information control of database. Further edition would be released as utility technical memo added. (Author) .new.

  20. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....