WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-instructional factors include

  1. Pre-instructional strategies and segment length in interactive video programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Rusman, Ellen; Vin, J.; de Vin, Jeroen; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Willemse, Arjeh; Wieggers, Maurice; Abel, Omalley; Maushak, Nancy J.; Wright, Kristen Egeland; Simonson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of pre-instructional strategies on the relationship between learner-controlled or program-controlled length of video segments and on related test performance on post-tests and retention tests. The study looks at the effect of presenting learning objectives in ad

  2. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  3. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  4. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  5. A fairytale creation or the beginning of everything: Students’ pre-instructional conceptions about the Big Bang theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aretz

    2016-12-01

    However, it is not yet clear in science education if students’ conceptions about the Big Bang vary by nationality, and therefore, if it is possible to apply the same teaching modules to students from different countries, who may have diverse social and cultural backgrounds and different curricula. These conceptions with which students enter the classroom were investigated in our study. We implemented an open-ended questionnaire survey in Germany, with questions based on recent U.S. studies. The results clearly showed, with high interrater reliabilities, widespread misconceptions like the Big Bang being an explosion of preexisting matter into empty space or the universe having a centre. Furthermore, a comparison of results from researchers in the USA, Sweden and Germany allowed us to identify differences in students’ conceptions between the countries. Our findings appear to indicate that German students have slightly better pre-instructional conceptions about the Big Bang theory.

  6. The Impact of the Pre-Instructional Cognitive Profile on Learning Gain and Final Exam of Physics Courses: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzo, Maria Concetta; Nuzzo, Silvana; Zarcone, Michelangelo

    2006-01-01

    The case study described in this paper investigates the relationship among some pre-instructional knowledge, the learning gain and the final physics performance of computing engineering students in the introductory physics course. The results of the entrance engineering test (EET) have been used as a measurement of reading comprehension, logic and…

  7. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  8. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  9. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  10. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  11. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  12. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  13. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  15. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  16. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  18. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  19. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  20. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  1. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  2. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  3. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  4. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  5. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  6. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  7. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  8. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  9. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  11. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  12. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  13. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  14. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  15. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  16. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  17. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  18. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  19. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  20. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  1. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  2. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  3. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  4. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  5. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  6. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  7. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  8. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  9. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  10. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  11. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  12. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  13. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  14. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  15. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  16. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  18. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  19. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  20. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  1. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  3. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  4. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  5. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  6. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  7. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    ,000 genes) and enzyme immunoassay for quantitating secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone as an anti-inflammatory drug 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or other arthritides were treated...... for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  8. Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti–factor VIII immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Arthur R Thompson; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject...

  9. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  11. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  12. Development of multidrug resistance due to multiple factors including P-glycoprotein overexpression under K-selection after MYC and HRAS oncogene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-15

    Multistep tumorigenesis is a form of microevolution consisting of mutation and selection. To clarify the role of selection modalities in tumor development, we examined two alternative evolutionary conditions, r-selection in sparse culture, which allows cells to proliferate rapidly, and K-selection in confluent culture, in which overcrowding constrains cell proliferation. Using MYC- and EJ-RAS-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, we found that K-selected cells acquired and stably maintained multidrug resistance (MDR) to DOX, VCR, MTX and Ara-C. Then, we examined the involvement of a number of factors potentially causal of the development of MDR, that is, ploidy, Tp53 mutation, doubling time and the expression levels of genes related to drug resistance. Although ploidy status and Tp53 mutations did not correlate with MDR, we found that Abcb1/Mdr1, encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was significantly upregulated after K-selection. Cyclosporin A, a competitive inhibitor of Pgp, increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and reduced the resistance to it. Indeed, the population of Pgp-transfected cells significantly expanded under K-, but not under r-selection. In addition to Pgp upregulation, altered expression of other genes such as Cda/cytidine deaminase and Slc29a1/equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and prolonged doubling times were associated with MDR. This system reproduces events associated with MDR in vivo and would be useful for analysis of MDR development.

  13. Real-world Experience with Sofosbuvir-based Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C, Including Patients with Factors Previously Associated with Inferior Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christina J; Roytman, Marina M; Hong, Leena K; Huddleston, Leslie; Trujillo, Ruby; Cheung, Alvin; Poerzgen, Peter; Tsai, Naoky C S

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of sofosbuvir, a direct acting antiviral, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy, simplicity, and tolerability of sofosbuvir-based regimens and report high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) rates. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical trial findings translate into a real-world setting, particularly with treatment of chronic HCV in our diverse, multiethnic population of Hawai'i. Retrospective analysis was performed for 113 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection being treated at the Queen's Liver Center between January 2014 and March 2015. SVR rates for our cohort were slightly lower than the rates published by the clinical trials. Data analysis also suggested that most baseline characteristics previously associated with inferior response might not be as significant for sofosbuvir-based regimens; in our cohort, male gender was the only factor significantly related to increased risk of virologic relapse. Pacific Islanders also had higher rate of relapse compared to other ethnic groups, but the small number of patients treated in this subgroup make it difficult to validate this finding. While newer all-oral treatment regimens have been introduced since this study, we highlight the importance of comparing real-world versus clinical trial results for new treatments, and provide data analyses for treatment of chronic HCV in Hawai'i.

  14. Evaluating the prevalence of canceling surgical operations,including its influencing factors at Imam Khomeini hospital in Sari during 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamani kiasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Hospital admission for surgery is an important event for patients. Canceling surgical procedures produce several unpleasant results for patients such as waste of time, including payment. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to achieve problem solving methods.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical data regarding all surgical procedures (without sampling performed during 2006 to 2007, were recorded in a checklist. Study variables were identified based on surgical procedures that were canceled during this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and statistical analysis tests.Results: Of 4,711 scheduled patients, 510 (10/9% surgical operations were canceled. The highest number of patient candidates for surgical operation was related to gynecology, orthopedic, urology, while the least were related to reconstructive and vascular surgery groups respectively. The most canceled surgical procedures were related to neurosurgical operation 32/4% (68 from 207 cases while the least canceled cases belonged to gynecology 4/4% (48 from 1094 cases.Conclusion: The results of our study showed that 54/2% of canceled cases were preventable. The results of this study and similar studies demonstrate that traditional pre-operative preparation for surgical scheduling, day before surgery is in need of serious consideration. We recommend a fundamental change by discarding traditional methods and creating a new committee including specialized bed or resource groups, monthly management meetings to discuss causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to reduce its occurrence. Thus, decreasing the rate of canceling surgical wasted, while reducing anxiety in patients and their family. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(65:52-62 (Persian

  15. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  16. Borrelidin Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Inhibited Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via Several Factors Including GATA-Binding Protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Tokuyama, Shinji; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    An inhibitor of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was isolated from Streptomyces sp. TK08330 and identified by spectroscopy as the 18-membered macrolide borrelidin. Treatment with 1.0 μM borrelidin suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation by 80% and inhibited the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Borrelidin suppressed the mRNA expression of two master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα). Studies on well-known upstream regulators of PPARγ revealed that borrelidin down-regulated C/EBPδ mRNA expression but did not affect expression of C/EBPβ. Borrelidin increased mRNA expression of negative regulators of differentiation such as GATA-binding protein (GATA) 3, Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 3 and KLF7, as well as positive regulators, KLF4, KLF6 and KLF15, at early stages of differentiation. To elucidate a primary mediator of borrelidin differentiation inhibitory activity, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection experiments were performed. The mRNA expression of PPARγ, which was down-regulated by borrelidin, was not changed by KLF3 and KLF7 siRNA treatment. In contrast, expression of PPARγ in GATA-3 siRNA-treated cells was not significantly different from that of control siRNA-treated cells. Borrelidin significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in control siRNA-treated cells, and treatment with GATA-3 siRNA slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of borrelidin. These results indicate that borrelidin inhibited adipocyte differentiation partially via GATA-3.

  17. Human CD34+ CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells cultured with growth factors including Angptl5 efficiently engraft adult NOD-SCID Il2rγ-/- (NSG mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Drake

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34(+ CD133(+ cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and evaluated the cells for stem cell activity in NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/- (NSG mice by multi-lineage engraftment, long term reconstitution, limiting dilution and serial reconstitution. The phenotype of expanded cells was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of expansion and following engraftment in mice. We show that the SCID repopulating activity resides in the CD34(+ CD133(+ fraction of expanded cells and that CD34(+ CD133(+ cell number correlates with SCID repopulating activity before and after culture. The expanded cells mediate long-term hematopoiesis and serial reconstitution in NSG mice. Furthermore, they efficiently reconstitute not only neonate but also adult NSG recipients, generating human blood cell populations similar to those reported in mice reconstituted with uncultured human HSCs. These findings suggest an expansion of long term HSCs in our culture and show that expression of CD34 and CD133 serves as a marker for HSC activity in human cord blood cell cultures. The ability to expand human HSCs in vitro should facilitate clinical use of HSCs and large-scale construction of humanized mice from the same donor for research applications.

  18. Modifiable risk factors including sunlight exposure and fish consumption are associated with risk of hypertension in a large representative population from Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liang; Ho, Jacky; Feng, Jianzhang; Mpofu, Elias; Dibley, Michael J; Feng, Xiuhua; Van, Florance; Leong, Sokman; Lau, Winne; Lueng, Petra; Kowk, Carrie; Li, Yan; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye E

    2014-10-01

    Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β=-0.072, pexposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  20. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  1. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. Investigating students’ attitude towards the importance of factors included in the teaching evaluation forms of School of Public Health of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Dehghani Tafti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students’ attitudes about teaching methodology have been widely recognised as a valid tool of evaluating teaching activities of faculty members. This study aims to determine the importance of the factors included in the teaching evaluation, from the students’ point of view. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Using a random cluster sampling, 332 students of the school of public health of Shahid Sadoughi University were selected .To collect data, a questionnaire containing three partswere used. These were demographic items, teachers’ evaluation (14 items and self-evaluation (4 items. Results: The students (80% scoredpersonal characteristics more. Among different fields of study, those studying occupational health scored the factorsless than others, and those studying at masters level scored them more than others.   The results indicated that there are significant correlation between age, marital status, and employment status of the students and the total average score.   The students scored the self-evaluation items more than 60%, There was a significant correlation between the average scores of evaluation and self-evaluation items. The students at bachelor level scored the factor more than masters students. Conclusion: The students’ focus on personal characteristics of teachers was remarkable. There is a need to revise the process of academics’ recruitment based on these findings. There is also a need to review the items included in evaluation forms of the school.

  4. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  5. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  6. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  7. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Jonathan E; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D; Retterer, Cary J; Tressler, Lyal E; Wanner, Laura M; McGovern, Hugh F; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  8. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Nuss

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  9. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca(2+) and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism%Hhcy对冠脉内皮细胞损伤机制的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆成; 张向峰; 韩晓丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, etc in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism.Methods In this paper, according to coronary angiography examination,select 121 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. According to the clinical symptom of coronary heart disease group, heartache group 71 cases, acute myocardial infarction group 50 cases. 95 cases of normal healthy subjects were selected as control group. The Hcy, EC, ET, niacin and vitamin B12 were measured.Results In patients with coronary artery stenosis groups of Hcy, EC, ET, niacin, vitamin B12 indicators along with the change of coronary artery stenosis degree change, the more the degree of stenosis serious Hcy, EC, ET, etc indicators increased, the more obvious, in severe stenosis group (P<0.01). Hcy, EC, ET in CHD group significantly increased than the normal control group. The study also found that the level of serum Hcy and EC, Hcy and ET, Hcy and niacin had a positive correlation (r=0.61, r=0.55, r=0.62). Hcy had niacin, Hcy had vitamin B12 had a negative correlation (r=-0.62, r=-0.58).Conclusions The level of Hcy, EC, ET increasing and the level of niacin, vitamin B12 reducing has important significance in coronary artery intimal injury, plaque formation, leading to coronary artery stenosis.%目的:探讨Hhcy等致病因素在冠脉冠脉内皮细胞损伤的机制。方法:本文选择冠心病(CHD)患者121例,根据冠心病临床症状分组,心痛组71例,急性心肌梗塞组50例,选取95例冠状动脉造影等检查为正常健康者作为正常对照组。测定所有受试者同型半胱氨酸(Hcy),内皮细胞(EC),内皮素(ET),烟酸,维生素B12等指标。结果:冠脉狭窄患者各组Hcy,EC,ET、烟酸,维生素B12等指标随冠脉狭窄程度的改变而改变,狭窄程度愈严重Hcy,EC,ET等指标增高越明显(P<0.01)。CHD组Hcy,EC,ET等指标较正

  11. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B; Perham-Hester, Katherine A; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  12. A multifactorial approach including tumoural epidermal growth factor receptor, p53, thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase to predict treatment outcome in head and neck cancer patients receiving 5-fluorouracil

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, M. C.; Pivot, X; Formento, J. L.; Bensadoun, R J; Formento, P.; Dassonville, O; Francoual, M.; Poissonnet, G.; Fontana, X; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Milano, G

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of tumoural epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53, thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was analysed on 82 advanced head and neck cancer patients (71 men, 11 women; mean age 59). Induction treatment was cisplatin–5-FU ± folinic acid (61 patients, Chem group) or concomitant cisplatin–5-FU–radiotherapy (21 patients, RChem group). EGFR (binding assay), p53 protein (Sangtec immunoluminometric assay), TS and DPD activities (radioenzymatic ...

  13. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B.; Katherine A Perham-Hester; de Schweinitz, Peter; Bradford D Gessner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic ...

  14. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  15. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups.Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS, we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children.We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5. Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (<$10,000 in the year before the child was born (OR 3.94, 95%CI 1.22--17.03 and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01 and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995. Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60. Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state.The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  16. The pyrH gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris encoding UMP kinase is transcribed as part of an operon including the frr1 gene encoding ribosomal recycling factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lüders; Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    2000-01-01

    establishing the ability of the encoded protein to synthesize UDP. The pyrH gene in L. lactis is flanked downstream by frr1 encoding ribosomal recycling factor 1 and upstream by an open reading frame, orfA, of unknown function. The three genes were shown to constitute an operon transcribed in the direction orf......A-pyrH-frr1 from a promoter immediately in front of orfA. This operon belongs to an evolutionary highly conserved gene cluster, since the organization of pyrH on the chromosomal level in L. lactis shows a high resemblance to that found in Bacillus subtilis as well as in Escherichia coli and several other...

  17. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  18. What is the impact of obtaining medical clearance to participate in a randomised controlled trial examining a physical activity intervention on the socio-demographic and risk factor profiles of included participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Rebar, Amanda L; Maeder, Anthony J; Tague, Rhys; Savage, Trevor N; van Itallie, Anetta; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-12-07

    Requiring individuals to obtain medical clearance to exercise prior to participation in physical activity interventions is common. The impact this has on the socio-demographic characteristic profiles of participants who end up participating in the intervention is not clear. As part of the multi-component eligibility screening for inclusion in a three-arm randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of a web-based physical activity intervention, individuals interested in participating were required to complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The PAR-Q identified individuals as having lower or higher risk. Higher-risk individuals were required to obtain medical exercise clearance prior to enrolment. Comparisons of the socio-demographic characteristics of the lower- and higher-risk individuals were performed using t tests and chi-square tests (p = 0.05). A total of 1244 individuals expressed interest in participating, and 432 were enrolled without needing to undergo further screening. Of the 251 individuals required to obtain medical clearance, 148 received clearance, 15 did not receive clearance and 88 did not return any form of clearance. A total of 105 individuals were enrolled after obtaining clearance, and the most frequent reason for being required to seek clearance was for using blood pressure/heart condition medication. Higher-risk individuals were significantly older, had a higher body mass index and engaged in more sedentary behaviour than lower-risk individuals. Use of more inclusive participant screening protocols that maintain high levels of participant safety are encouraged. Allowing individuals to obtain medical clearance to participate can result in including a more diverse population likely to benefit most from participation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000157976 ). Registered on 9 February 2011.

  19. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  20. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  1. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  2. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  3. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  4. . and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus to include V factor-dependent and V factor-independent isolates, Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nvo., comb. nov., Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, N.; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reinvestigate the relationships and the generic affiliations of the species Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis. The nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene (nadV) conferring V factor-ind......)=NCTC 5906(T)) and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov. (type strain HK316(T)=ATCC 33393(T)=CCUG 10787(T)=CCUG 12838(T)=CIP 103292(T)=NCTC 10977(T)). The species of the genus Aggregatibacter are independent of X factor and variably dependent on V factor for growth in vitro......The aim of this study was to reinvestigate the relationships and the generic affiliations of the species Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis. The nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene (nadV) conferring V factor......-independent growth was identified in Haemophilus aphrophilus. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 462 amino acids that shows 74.5 % amino acid sequence identity to the corresponding enzyme from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Ten isolates of Haemophilus paraphrophilus all carried a nadV pseudogene. DNA from...

  5. Students' Pre-Instructional Beliefs and Reasoning Strategies About Astrobiology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and document student beliefs and reasoning difficulties concerning topics related to astrobiology. This was accomplished by surveying over two thousand middle school, high school, and college (science and non-science majors) students. Students were surveyed utilizing student-supplied response questions focused on the definition of life and its limitations. Careful, inductive analysis of student responses revealed that the majority of students correctly identify that liquid water is necessary for life and that life forms can exist without sunlight. However, many students incorrectly state that life cannot survive without oxygen. Furthermore, when students are asked to reason about life in extreme environments, they most often cite complex organisms (such as plants, animals, and humans) rather than the more ubiquitous microorganisms. Results of this study were used to inform the development of astrobiology curriculum materials.

  6. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  7. Full Boltzmann equations for leptogenesis including scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn-Woernle, F; Wong, Y Y Y

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by means of the full classical Boltzmann equations, without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors. Beginning with the full mode equations we derive the usual equations of motion for the right-handed neutrino number density and integrated lepton asymmetry, and show explicitly the impact of each assumption on these quantities. For the first time, we investigate also the effects of scattering of the right-handed neutrino with the top quark to leading order in the Yukawa couplings by means of the full Boltzmann equations. We find that in our full Boltzmann treatment the final lepton asymmetry can be suppressed by as much as a factor of 1.5 in the weak wash-out regime (K1), the full Boltzmann treatment and the integrated approach give nearly identical final lepton asymmetries (within 10 % of each other at K>3). Finally, we show that the opposing effects of quantum statistics on decays/i...

  8. Kinetics of the reaction of the heaviest hydrogen atom with H2, the 4Heμ + H2 → 4HeμH + H reaction: experiments, accurate quantal calculations, and variational transition state theory, including kinetic isotope effects for a factor of 36.1 in isotopic mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Donald G; Arseneau, Donald J; Sukhorukov, Oleksandr; Brewer, Jess H; Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G; Schatz, George C; Garrett, Bruce C; Peterson, Kirk A

    2011-11-14

    The neutral muonic helium atom (4)Heμ, in which one of the electrons of He is replaced by a negative muon, may be effectively regarded as the heaviest isotope of the hydrogen atom, with a mass of 4.115 amu. We report details of the first muon spin rotation (μSR) measurements of the chemical reaction rate constant of (4)Heμ with molecular hydrogen, (4)Heμ + H(2) → (4)HeμH + H, at temperatures of 295.5, 405, and 500 K, as well as a μSR measurement of the hyperfine coupling constant of muonic He at high pressures. The experimental rate constants, k(Heμ), are compared with the predictions of accurate quantum mechanical (QM) dynamics calculations carried out on a well converged Born-Huang (BH) potential energy surface, based on complete configuration interaction calculations and including a Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction. At the two highest measured temperatures the agreement between the quantum theory and experiment is good to excellent, well within experimental uncertainties that include an estimate of possible systematic error, but at 295.5 K the quantum calculations for k(Heμ) are below the experimental value by 2.1 times the experimental uncertainty estimates. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Variational transition state theory calculations with multidimensional tunneling have also been carried out for k(Heμ) on the BH surface, and they agree with the accurate QM rate constants to within 30% over a wider temperature range of 200-1000 K. Comparisons between theory and experiment are also presented for the rate constants for both the D + H(2) and Mu + H(2) reactions in a novel study of kinetic isotope effects for the H + H(2) reactions over a factor of 36.1 in isotopic mass of the atomic reactant. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Imaging of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Baraliakos, X

    2011-03-01

    New bone formation of the vertebral column is pathognomonic for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while acute and/or chronic changes in the sacroiliac joints are relevant for diagnosis. The 'gold standard' for assessment of structural changes in AS are conventional radiographs, while MRI is useful to assess inflammation. Recent MRI studies have shown that the lower half of the thoracic spine is most commonly affected in AS. Scoring tools for spinal inflammation such as the ASspiMRI-a have been proposed, successfully used in large clinical trials and compared in a multireader experiment; none was finally preferred by OMERACT. Quantification of structural spinal AS changes is performed by the modified Stokes AS Spine Score (mSASSS), which evaluates lateral cervical and lumbar radiographs. Two years was identified as the shortest possible follow-up time based on the reliability and sensitivity to change of the mSASSS. A potential disadvantage of the mSASSS is that the thoracic spine is not included. Recent data based on the mSASSS have suggested that tumour necrosis factor blockers do not inhibit radiographic progression in AS. Since the mean radiographic change is reported to be less than 1 syndesmophyte over 2 years, the sensitivity to change of the mSASSS has been questioned. However, in one study where continuous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use was compared with on-demand use, a difference between these two methods of drug intake was reported. The face and construct validity of the mSASSS has been criticised because a score of ´1´ contains a mixture of osteodestructive (erosions) and osteoproliferative changes (squaring and sclerosis). A new scoring system, the RASSS, which concentrates only on bone formation and which includes the lower part of the thoracic spine is currently being evaluated. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation in AS has recently been investigated. Low sclerostin and DKK-1 serum levels, both inhibitors of bone

  10. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  11. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  12. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  13. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  14. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  15. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  16. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., drunkenness, vagrancy, disturbing the peace, curfew violation, loitering, false fire alarm, non-specific charges of suspicion or investigation, and traffic violations (except data will be included on arrests...

  17. Including risk in the balanced scorecard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    iiSouthern African Business Review Special Edition Accounting Research 2015. Including risk in the .... customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspectives comprise ...... Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Kaplan ...

  18. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  19. [Prevention of dementia (including Alzheimer's disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, H H

    2004-05-01

    Prevention of dementia: Life expectancy still increases linearly, and the elderly part of the European population grows rapidly in relation to the young. Dementia, however, grows even more rapidly, because it increases exponentially after age 65; it will become a great burden if nothing is done. The discussion so far is concentrated on treatment, whereas prevention is neglected. The therapy of dementia, however, has limited effect. Contrary to a widespread opinion prevention is possible. Genetic factors alone dominate the fate of cognition only in about 3 % of the cases. Besides age, lifestyle and the vascular risk factors exercise a great influence. High blood pressure carries a fourfold risk, diabetes more than doubles the risk both of the vascular and of the Alzheimer type; combined even more. Especially cerebral microangiopathy is strongly associated with Alzheimer's dementia, it triggers the vicious circle which leads to amyloid deposition. The importance of the circulation is underestimated, because most of the microvascular cerebral lesions are not perceived by the patient. All the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease after age 65 are also vascular risk factors especially for microangiopathy: Apo-E4, oestrogen deficiency, insulin resistance, diabetes, arterial hypertension, high cholesterol, old age and increased plasma homocystin which is often caused by alcohol consumption even in moderate doses. A healthy life style with daily outdoor activity and a Mediterranean diet not only reduces the risk of dementia, but also of coronary death and cancer. Cognitively stimulating activity protects even more than physical activity against dementia; the basis for this is acquired in youth by education. Therapy with statins is advisable if atherosclerosis cannot be reasonably counteracted by physical activity and diet.

  20. Comparação dos fatores de risco para amputações maiores e menores em pacientes diabéticos de um Programa de Saúde da Família Comparison of risk factors for major and minor amputation in diabetic patients included in a Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Cancio Assumpção

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Dentre as maiores causas de internamento hospitalar em pacientes com diabetes melito tipos 1 e 2 estão as complicações do pé diabético, principalmente pelas sequelas, muitas vezes incapacitantes, destacando-se as amputações de membros inferiores. A insuficiência vascular periférica ocorre mais precocemente nesses pacientes. A coexistência de neuropatia, isquemia e imunodeficiência favorece o desenvolvimento de infecções nos membros inferiores, que, se não tratadas adequadamente, podem levar a amputações e até à morte. OBJETIVOS: Comparar os fatores de risco para amputações maiores e menores em pacientes diabéticos de um Programa de Saúde da Família do CAIC Virgem dos Pobres III, em Maceió, AL. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 93 pacientes com o diagnóstico de diabetes melito, sendo avaliada a realização ou não de amputações de membros inferiores. As variáveis analisadas foram: sexo, idade, tipo do diabetes, pressão arterial, amputação prévia (se maior ou menor, alterações dermatológicas, alterações de pulsos arteriais pedioso e tibial posterior, deformidades e neuropatia, e foram classificadas de acordo com a classificação de Wagner e de Texas. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes eram diabéticos tipo 2. Verificou-se que 4,30% dos pacientes evoluíram para amputação de membros inferiores. Não se observou variação significativa da hipertensão, deformidades e neuropatia em relação ao grupo de pacientes que foram amputados. Entretanto, a ausência de detecção dos pulsos distais dos membros inferiores revelou-se bastante significativa com relação ao desfecho de amputação. CONCLUSÃO: Deve-se proporcionar aos diabéticos um atendimento ambulatorial adequado para que seja possível prevenir ou minimizar tais complicações.BACKGROUND: The main causes of hospital admission in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus include diabetic foot complications, which may result in particularly disabling

  1. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  2. Recent developments in superconducting materials including ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the history of superconduction starting in 1911, when the superconducting phenomenon was first observed in murcury, until the recent discovery of superconducting materials with high critical temperatures. After outlining the BCS theory, basic characteristics are discussed including the critical temperature, magnetic field and current density to be reached for realizing the superconducting state. Various techniques for practical superconducting materials are discussed, including methods for producing extra fine multiconductor wires from such superconducting alloys as Nb-Ti, intermetallic Nb/sub 3/Sn compound and V/sub 3/Ga, as well as methods for producing wires of Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/(Al, Ge) and Nb/sub 3/Ge such as continuous melt quenching, electron beam irradiation, laser beam irradiation and chemical evaporation. Characteristics of superconducting ceramics are described, along with their applications including superconducting magnets and superconducting elements. (15 figs, 1 tab, 19 refs)

  3. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  4. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  5. The Case for Strategies that Include Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Case for Strategies that Include Men. Denise M Roth and .... one set of approaches advocated using medical cri- teria to identify and ... planning, offering services for the prevention and ..... are equipped with the basic minimum needed to respond to ..... Lane SD Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in ...

  6. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  7. An acoustic finite element including viscothermal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2007-01-01

    In acoustics it is generally assumed that viscous- en thermal boundary layer effects play a minor role in the propagation of sound waves. Hence, these effects are neglected in the basic set of equations describing the sound field. However, for geometries that include small confinements of air or thi

  8. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  9. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  10. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  11. Robust factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;

    2002-01-01

    Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...

  12. SKIRT: Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, Maarten; Dejonghe, Herwig; Davies, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.

  13. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  14. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  15. Opioid dependence treatment, including buprenorphine/naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, Dennis W; Fye, Carol L; Boardman, Kathy D; Sather, Mike R

    2002-02-01

    To review opioid dependence (OD) and its treatment. Pharmacologic treatments, including the use of buprenorphine/naloxone, are presented. Pharmaceutical care functions for outpatient OD treatment are discussed. Primary and review articles were identified by MEDLINE and HEALTHSTAR searches (from 1966 to November 2000) and through secondary sources. Tertiary sources were also reviewed regarding general concepts of OD and its treatment. Relevant articles were reviewed after identification from published abstracts. Articles were selected based on the objectives for this article. Studies of the treatment of OD with buprenorphine were selected based on the topic (pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, adverse reactions) and study design (randomized, controlled clinical trials in patients with OD with active/placebo comparisons and/or comparisons of active OD treatments). Articles regarding pharmacists' activities in the treatment and prevention of OD were reviewed for the pharmaceutical care section. OD is considered a medical disorder with costly adverse health outcomes. Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is cost-effective for OD, only about 12% of individuals with OD receive this treatment. Psychological and pharmacologic modalities are used to treat OD, but patients often relapse. Drug therapy includes alpha 2-agonists for withdrawal symptoms, detoxification regimens with or without opioids, opioid antagonists, and opioid replacement including methadone, levomethadyl acetate, and buprenorphine. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 1999 allows for office-based opioid replacement therapies. Sublingual buprenorphine with naloxone can be used in this milieu. Buprenorphine with naloxone is currently under new drug application review with the Food and Drug Administration. Clinical research shows buprenorphine to be equal in effectiveness to methadone, but safer in overdose due to its ceiling effect on respiratory depression. It has lower abuse potential and fewer

  16. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  17. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  18. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  19. Including supplementary elements in a compositional biplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunis-i-Estadella, J.; Thió-Henestrosa, S.; Mateu-Figueras, G.

    2011-05-01

    The biplot is a widely and powerful methodology used with multidimensional data sets to describe and display the relationships between observations and variables in an easy way. Compositional data are vectors with positive components, whose sum is constant because they represent a relative contribution of different parts to a whole; due to this property standard biplots cannot be performed with compositional data, instead of a previous transformation of the data is performed. In this paper, we extend the compositional biplot defined by Aitchison and Greenacre (2002), in order to include in the display supplementary elements which are not used in the definition of the compositional biplot. Different types of supplementary elements are considered: supplementary parts of the composition, supplementary continuous variables external to the composition, supplementary categorical variables and supplementary observations. The projection of supplementary parts of the composition is done by means of the equivalence of clr and lr biplots. The other supplementary projections are done by classical methodology. An application example with a real geological data is included.

  20. New generation concretes including reactive powder concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Grzeszczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a broad literature review, this paper presents characteristics of new generation composites on the basis of cements which are applied in engineering structures and in rehabilitation of structures. The role of cement, microfillers, superplasticizers and fibers in the above stated composites i.e. factors which allow for the maximum packing of particles in the cement matrix and a minimum pore volume, and the increase in composite bending strength, have been discussed. Special attention was paid to Reactive Powder Concrete in which coarse aggregate was replaced by ground quartz and sand. Such composites contain active microfillers and the applied new-generation superplasticizers allow us to decrease the water-cement ratio in the composite up to 0.2. Whereas, steel fibre additive allows us to significantly improve the bending strength.The paper presents the properties of the excellent Ductal — a composite from Reactive Powder Concrete, which at compressive strength from 180 to 230 MPa achieves the tensile strength of 30 to 50 MPa. Its application allows us to create slim profiles and tall light and slender, and simultaneously durable and corrosion-resistant structural elements of considerable span. This paper gives a few examples of Ductal application in practice.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, composite materials, reactive powder concrete

  1. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  2. Reconnection experiments including 3D magnetic nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Vrublevskis, A.

    2010-11-01

    A rich collection of magnetic reconnection scenarios is possible in three dimensions depending on the topological and geometric structure of the magnetic field [1]. In recent experiments at the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) three-dimensional effects were essential even in nearly axisymmetric plasmas with a non-vanishing toroidal field [2]. To explore reconnection in 3D geometries including magnetic null points, a new adjustable set of coils will be installed in the vacuum chamber of VTF. The range of vacuum magnetic field topologies attainable in VTF will be explored numerically. Plasma reconnection experiments will be run in these configurations, and measurements will be presented if available. [4pt] [1] CE Parnell, et al., (2009) ``Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection, in Magnetic Coupling between the Interior and the Atmosphere of the Sun,'' eds. S.S. Hasan and R.J. Rutten, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. [0ex] [2] Katz, N. et al., (2010) Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004.

  3. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  4. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  5. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  6. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  7. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  8. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  9. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  10. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  12. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  13. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  14. Optimization of Confectionary Sunflower Cultivation Technology by 5 Factors Including Sowing Time, Density, and Nitrogen, Phosphate and Potassium Fertilizers%播种期、密度、氮肥、磷肥、钾肥五因子对食用向日葵栽培技术的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白苇; 杨素梅; 尹海峰; 靳涛; 崔金丽; 张宝英

    2015-01-01

    采用五因子二次回归正交旋转组合设计,研究了冀西北地区播种期、密度、氮肥、磷肥、钾肥对食用向日葵产量的影响。试验单因子效应结果表明:播种期和氮肥在五因子中作用较大。试验两因子互作效应结果表明:氮肥和磷肥、磷肥和钾肥、密度和钾肥3对互作效应较大。食用向日葵高产栽培技术的最佳综合农艺组合为:播种期6月6~7日,密度33195~34305株/hm2,氮肥117.9~127.8 kg/hm2,磷肥51.2~52.8 kg/hm2,钾肥108.3~113.4 kg/hm2,适宜的 N︰P2O5︰K2O 平均为1︰0.41︰0.91。采用该组合试验示范,较当地传统种植模式增产5.8%~9.5%。%The effects of sowing time, density, and nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizers on the yield of confectionary sunflowers were studied adopting five-factor quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design in northwest of Hebei. The results of experimental single factor effect showed that the effects of sowing time and nitrogen fertilizer were higher in the five factors. The results of the interaction effect of two experiment factors showed that the interaction effects between the nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, between the phosphate fertilizer and potassium fertilizer, and between the density and potassium fertilizer are higher. The optimal comprehensive agronomic combination in the confectionary sunflower high-yield cultivation technology is as follows: the sewing time is June 6th to June 7th, the density is 33 195 to 34 305 plants/hm2, the nitrogen fertilizer is 117.9~127.8 kg/hm2, the phosphate fertilizer is 51.2~52.8 kg/hm2, the potassium fertil-izer is 108.3~113.4 kg/hm2, and the proper average ratio of N︰P2O5︰K2O is 1︰0.21︰0.91. By adopting the combination in the experimental demonstration, the yield was 5.8%~9.5% higher than that of the local traditional planting pattern.

  15. Traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth. Part 2. A clinical study of the effect of preinjury and injury factors, such as sex, age, stage of root development, tooth location, and extent of injury including number of intruded teeth on 140 intruded permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Bakland, Leif K; Andreasen, Frances Meriam

    2006-04-01

    A prospective study of 140 intruded permanent teeth was done to evaluate the following healing complications: pulp necrosis (PN), root resorption (surface, inflammatory and replacement resorption) (RR) and defects in marginal periodontal healing (MA). These complications were related to various preinjury and injury factors. Age appeared to be related to all three healing complications in that patients younger than 12 years had the lowest complication rate. Stage of root formation at the time of the injury was very strongly related to PN and MA, with immature root formation (i.e. incomplete root formation or completed root formation with wide open apex) having better prognosis than more mature root development. Lateral incisors showed significantly more defects in MA, a finding possibly explained by the observation that lateral incisors were more often involved in multiple intrusions compared to other teeth and noting that multiple intrusions had a significantly higher frequency of MA. An associated crown fracture with exposed dentin resulted in more frequent PN, a finding possibly related to bacterial invasion through dentinal tubules into an ischemic pulp. The presence of a gingival laceration added to both PN and MA. The extent of intrusion (in mm) showed some relation to both RR with intrusion 1-3 mm having the lowest frequency of RR, whereas PN and MA showed no significant relation to the extent of intrusion. Finally, multiple adjacent intruded teeth were more frequently involved in a significantly greater loss of interproximal marginal bone (MA) than single intrusions. In conclusion, the relationship between healing complications and preinjury and injury factors could generally be explained by better healing possibilities in teeth with immature root formation. A possible explanation for that could be the softer bone surrounding the tooth, whereby trauma to the periodontium might be diminished.

  16. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  17. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  18. Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A paper presents further results of continuing research reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most recent being Stochastic Representations of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors (NPO-41519), [Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 2006), page 57] and Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness (NPO-43822) [Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), page 56]. This research focuses upon a mathematical formalism for describing post-instability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism involves fictitious control forces that couple the equations of motion of the system with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These stabilizing forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in configuration space (ordinary three-dimensional space as commonly perceived) is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. As a result, the post-instability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable.

  19. Odontogenic fibroma, including amyloid and ossifying variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Lewis R

    2011-12-01

    Sixty-five cases of odontogenic fibroma (OdonF) are herein presented having been segregated into peripheral, extra bony tumors (n = 40) and tumors arising in bone or centrally (n = 25). All cases were characterized microscopically by a fibrous proliferation that varied within and between cases in cellularity and collagen fibril diameter, with intermixed odontogenic epithelial islands and cords. All central lesions presented as well demarcated radiolucencies and resorption of contiguous tooth roots was a common finding. These intraosseous lesions were of the WHO type; the so-called nonWHO type was excluded as all lesions with this diagnosis were devoid of an epithelial component and could be reclassified as other soft tissue fibrogenic tumors. Neither the central tumors nor the peripheral lesions recurred following enucleation/curettage, with a mean follow-up of 4 and 3.4 years respectively. Three distinct microscopic variations were encountered in this series: (1) two cases of OdonF with giant cell reaction, (2) two instances of OdonF with ossifying fibroma; and (3) four instances of OdonF with odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM), an amyloid-like protein found deposited adjacent to epithelial cords plus CD1a+/S-100+ Langerhans dendritic cells entwined around the epithelial element. A single instance of the odontogenic fibroma-like hamartoma/enamel hypoplasia syndrome has been included in this series.

  20. Locomotive Assignment Optimization Including Train Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intention– Cyclic locomotive assignment planning is a specific type of organization of locomotive usage, and in fact, it means putting the complete workload to a closed chain, which is repeated periodically. The concept of cyclic locomotive assignment planning type organization in the area of train traction has proven in practice as the best one, but as it is made for in-advance defined timetable and without considering the stochastic nature of the timetable realization process, it leads to incompatibility in using locomotives. Methodology – Methodology defined in this paper contains: research of train delays on the Serbian Railways and Montenegrin Railways networks, analysis of the real system organization of locomotive usage in conditions of train delays, theoretical thesis of solving the problem of optimal cyclic locomotive assignment planning in conditions of train delays, designing of a model with algorithms, preparing the software package, testing the model and program with results, as well as the conclusions drawn from the complete research project. Results– The optimization model of cyclic locomotive assignment planning during the process of making timetable including train delays has been defined. Conclusion –The obtained results have shown as expected, that the larger delays of trains required a larger number of locomotives. However, by using this model it is possible to optimize the required number of locomotives, taking into account the real time delays of trains.

  1. 考虑管理者风险态度因子的生产运作系统能力应急管理模型研究%Disrupting Capacity Management Model of Production Operation System by Including Decision-Maker's Risk Attitude Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包兴

    2011-01-01

    In the recent decades, many external factors (e. G. Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and political turmoil) have constantly disrupted the normal operations of some large-scaled systems, such as power grids, communication stations and chemical plants. The system disruption can cause great losses to a society and its economy. The management begins paying attention to hedging risks of system disruptions. Current literature underestimates the potential influence of a decision maker's risk attitude ( e. G. Risk-netural, conservative or aggressive) on risk management. To provide a reasonable model to manage risks associated with the capacity disruption, we add the risk attitude of decision makers to a mathematical model.In the year of 2008, a great freezingA heavy rain hit the southern China in 2008 and, which caused the a wide-ranged collapse of power grids. When managing the disruption, we found that damaged systems need to face two important issues. First, During the disruption management, we found two interesting restricts that capacity-injured systems have to face; first, the recovery of critical capacity is a cost-expensive and multi-periods process, due to the technique of maintenance department and provision of spare parts.Second, capacity-sharing partners could support parts of capacity that is usually much cheaper than recovery; however, the sharing of capacity has limited quantity and uncertain provision. Based on these findings, a a factor is firstly constructed to map the inventory and capacity-shortage into a decision-maker's risk attitude. Second, we proposed a single-period capacity disruption management model and then extended it to a multi-period model that has a proven unique solution sequence. Finally, we present a sensitive analysis towards key parameters by using the Genetic Algorithm.A comparison is presented with the research of [ 17 ] , we find 4Four interesting managerial insights were discovered. First, aggressive or conservative of

  2. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Quartin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10^(-3), due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  3. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartin, Miguel; Notari, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10-3, due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  4. Progress of studies on the responses of the key physiological processes including photosynthese in Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller to environmental factors%浒苔光合作用等关键生理过程对环境因子响应途径的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广策; 唐学玺; 何培民; 孙松; 高山; 郇丽; 王辉

    2016-01-01

    近年来,以浒苔(Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller)为原因种的绿潮在我国黄海海域持续爆发,已成为主要的生态灾害,国家对此高度重视,国际科学期刊上也发表了一系列研究论文,内容包括绿潮成因种浒苔的溯源和浒苔生理过程、繁殖途径及其对非生物胁迫因子的响应等,这些研究对认识绿潮的爆发机制有重要意义。为全面了解浒苔的研究状况,本文综述了近年来关于浒苔繁殖方式和途径、光合作用及其对非生物胁迫因子的响应的研究进展,同时对关键生物学过程进行了科学描述。%Recently, green tides mainly caused by Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller occurred frequently in the Yellow Sea of China and have become one of primary ecological disasters. Increasing attention has been paid to the event by the government of China. As a result, a large number of papers including tracking the algal origin of the green tides, physiological process and reproduction methods in U. prolifera and the responses of this alage to aboitic stresses have been published in the international journals. Those studies play an important role in un-derstanding the formation mechanism of green tides. In this paper, we reviewed the different methods of repro-duction in U. prolifera, photosynthesis, its responses to aboitic stresses and description of the key biological process.

  5. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  6. Testing the Impact of a Pre-Instructional Digital Game on Middle-Grade Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Katherine McMillan; Martin, Wendy; Clements, Margaret; Lewis Presser, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous studies of the impact of digital games on student learning remain relatively rare, as do studies of games as supports for learning difficult, core curricular concepts in the context of normal classroom practices. This study uses a blocked, cluster randomized controlled trial design to test the impact of a digital game, played as homework…

  7. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  8. Cytokine expression of microscopic colitis including interleukin-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Young Sook; Park, Dae Rim; Jung, Sung Ae; Han, Dong Soo; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Jo, Yun Ju; Lee, Ki Ho; Lee, Won Mi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koo, Hae Soo

    2015-05-23

    Microscopic colitis is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea with specific pathological changes that can be diagnosed by microscopic examination. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of proinflammatory cytokines to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of microscopic colitis. This study consisted of six patients with lymphocytic colitis, six patients with collagenous colitis, and six patients with functional diarrhea but normal pathology. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the colonic mucosal biopsies to assess the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2, interleukin-17, nuclear factor-κB, interferon-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We compared the quantity score of immunohistochemical staining among the groups. The microscopic colitis group showed significantly higher expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2, interleukin-17, nuclear factor-κB, and interferon-γ compared with the control group. Cytokine expression was similar between collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. However, the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 was higher in collagenous colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17 and interferon-γ, are highly expressed in microscopic colitis. The expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 was higher in collagenous colitis than in lymphocytic colitis. This study is the first on interleukin-17 expression in microscopic colitis patients.

  9. Correspondence between future-included and future-not-included theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the correspondence principle proposed in our previous paper, which claims that if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time $T_B$ and the past state at time $T_A$ as an expectation value in the complex action theory whose path runs over not only past but also future, the expectation value at the present time $t$ of a future-included theory for large $T_B-t$ and large $t-T_A$ corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large $t-T_A$. This correspondence principle suggests that the future-included theory is not excluded phenomenologically.

  10. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  11. Geostatistical simulations for radon indoor with a nested model including the housing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, C; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2016-01-01

    The radon prone areas definition is matter of many researches in radioecology, since radon is considered a leading cause of lung tumours, therefore the authorities ask for support to develop an appropriate sanitary prevention strategy. In this paper, we use geostatistical tools to elaborate a definition accounting for some of the available information about the dwellings. Co-kriging is the proper interpolator used in geostatistics to refine the predictions by using external covariates. In advance, co-kriging is not guaranteed to improve significantly the results obtained by applying the common lognormal kriging. Here, instead, such multivariate approach leads to reduce the cross-validation residual variance to an extent which is deemed as satisfying. Furthermore, with the application of Monte Carlo simulations, the paradigm provides a more conservative radon prone areas definition than the one previously made by lognormal kriging.

  12. Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

  13. Clinical characteristics of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV patients and prognostic factors including microbiological genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes. Methods Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined. Results Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61% had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21% had solid malignancies, 12 (15% had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7% had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3 β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes. Conclusions In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.

  14. Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

  15. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  16. Spruce forest bryophytes in central Norway and their relationship to environmental factors including modern forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisvoll, A.A. [Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prestoe, T. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Dept. of Botany, Trondheim (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    In this study of bryophyte diversity in 110 patches of spruce forests of bilberry, small fern, low herb, tall fern and tall herb type in Soer-Troendelag, central Norway, each patch (from 0.24 to 9.33 ha) was classified as one main vegetation type and one successional stage or cutting class. The bryophytes in each patch were censured in randomly established squares of 10 x 10 m, supplemented by complete sampling in the rest of the patch. A number of environmental variables was sampled, and the data sets treated with DCA and CCA. Altogether 210 bryophytes (71 liverworts and 139 mosses) were found in the squares, and 285 (96 liverworts and 189 mosses) in the forest patches. The average number of liverworts, mosses and bryophytes in forest patches increased gradually from the dry and poor to the moist and rich forest types. Several red listed and other interesting spruce forest species had their only or main occurrence in the rich and humid forest, and in old cutting classes. (au) 45 refs.

  17. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  18. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  19. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  20. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers : results from the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortner, Renée T.; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman; Konar, Meric; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fournier, Agnès; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T.; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Quirós, J. Ramón; Maria Huerta, José; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Butt, Salma Tunå; Borgquist, Signe; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested

  1. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  2. Sliding response of gravity dams including vertical seismic accelerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Constantin Christopoulos; Pierre Léger; André Filiatrault

    2003-01-01

    Seismic safety assessment of gravity dams has become a major concern in many regions of the world while the effects of vertical seismic accelerations on the response of structures remain poorly understood. This paper first investigates the effect of including vertical accelerations in the sliding response analysis of gravity dams subjected to a range of historical ground motion records separated in two groups according to their source-to-site distance. Analyses showed that the incidence of vertical accelerations on the sliding response of gravity dams is significantly higher for near-source records than for farsource records. The pseudo-static 30% load combination rule, commonly used in practice to account for the non-simultaneous occurrence of the peak horizontal and vertical accelerations, yielded good approximations of the minimum safety factors against sliding computed from time-history analyses. A method for empirically estimating the vertical response spectra based on horizontal spectra, accounting for the difference in frequency content and amplitudes between the two components is investigated. Results from analyses using spectrum compatible horizontal and vertical synthetic records also approximated well the sliding response of a gravity dam subjected to series of simultaneous horizontal and vertical historical earthquake records.

  3. Mutações no gene TP53 em tumores malignos de mama: associação com fatores de risco e características clínico-patológicas, inclusive risco de óbito, em pacientes residentes no Rio de Janeiro TP53 mutation in malignant breast tumors: association with risk factors and clinical-pathological characteristics, including risk of death, in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Vitória de Moura-Gallo

    2004-06-01

    describe the frequency and types of mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 in 120 patients with diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma recruited from the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA, Rio de Janeiro from1995 to 1997, and to analyze the associations between these mutations and risk factors, and tumor characteristics, including the presence of TP53 mutations, and risk of death. The molecular analysis detected TP53 alterations in 22 cases (18.3%, of which 2 cases presented 2 mutations each; a polymorphism in exon 6 was observed in 1 case. The mutations found were: 14 missense, 2 nonsense, 2 silent, 2 deletions, 1 insertion and 3 located in introns which probably did not change the protein. The analysis of risk factors in relation to TP53 mutations showed that only tobacco consumption had an association (adjusted OR = 0.24 (0.06-0.88. Multivariate analysis showed that only tumor aggressiveness showed an OR indicative of risk (3.98, IC 95% 1.25-12.72.These results are in agreement with previous studies, which report that the presence of TP53 mutations may indicate more aggressive breast tumors biologically although this is not the only parameter to be considered.

  4. Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesman, Ronald H.; Klein, Gregory J.; Kimdon, Joey A.; Kuo, Chaincy; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2003-05-02

    Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result

  5. Overview of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  6. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald

    2017-01-01

    Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances) as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances) is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA) was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor) were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Generating

  7. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  8. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Compartir On this Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease is usually diagnosed with one ...

  9. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  10. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  11. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  12. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  13. Aplasia versus pancytopenia, including the pure red cell variant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide range of locally secreted growth factors. (Fig. 2). ..... also challenging and replacement should be limited to single apheresis .... battery attached at the wrist and delivered via the nanomembrane itself, says Rogers. Fiorenzo Omenetto at ...

  14. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  16. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  19. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../services, including Child Protection, and/or establishing Multi-Disciplinary Teams. (b) Must include, where... circumstances and abilities and the extent to which the account holder needs assistance in managing his or her financial affairs; and (2) Managing supervised IIM accounts of children and adults (in conjunction with...

  20. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  1. Making Way and Making Sense: Including Newcomers in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet-Shore, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    In our everyday interactions as they unfold in real time, how do we do including? This article examines a specific set of interactional moments when the potential to be included (or not) recurs: when a newcomer arrives to some social scene where two or more already-present persons are actively engaged in some activity and that newcomer displays…

  2. Including All Children in Standards-Based Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn V.; Kasser, Susan L.; Nichols, Beverly A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of students with and without disabilities in physical education as the movement toward standards-based education progresses, examining whether standards should be applied to all students, obstacles to including all students, ways to include all students, and the importance of standards for teachers. An example of inclusive…

  3. Including Students with Disabilities. ERIC Mini-Bib EB14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara R., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 19 publications to help educators more effectively include students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The publications, including books, journal articles, videotapes, and reports, are dated from 1993 through 1999, and most are available through the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)…

  4. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  5. Including Student Voices in School Reform: Students Speak out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Deanna Iceman; Guzman, Lydia; Stephens, Laura; Boggs, Alison

    2007-01-01

    If school renewal is to ultimately impact student outcomes, then understanding and responding to the factors students describe as influencing their constructive and unconstructive effort is vital. Results from focus groups with 4th, 7th, 9th, and 11th graders indicated that when students set and work toward goals, they expend more effort in…

  6. Including Student Voices in School Reform: Students Speak out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Deanna Iceman; Guzman, Lydia; Stephens, Laura; Boggs, Alison

    2007-01-01

    If school renewal is to ultimately impact student outcomes, then understanding and responding to the factors students describe as influencing their constructive and unconstructive effort is vital. Results from focus groups with 4th, 7th, 9th, and 11th graders indicated that when students set and work toward goals, they expend more effort in…

  7. Does and should breast cancer genetic counselling include lifestyle advice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Vernooij, M.; Osch, L. van; Pijpe, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    To optimally inform counselees about their and their relatives' risks, information about lifestyle risk factors, e.g. physical activity and alcohol consumption, might be discussed in breast cancer genetic counselling. This study explored whether lifestyle was discussed, on whose initiative, whether

  8. Provisions in School Contracts: What to Include, What to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Many factors distinguish public school district transactions from private business transactions. Like any other business transaction, public school contracts should unambiguously describe the transaction and sufficiently outline the obligations of the parties. However, public school districts may be subject to distinctive laws that effectively…

  9. ETS-Associated Genomic Alterations including ETS2 Loss Markedly Affect Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0385 TITLE: ETS -Associated Genomic Alterations including ETS2 Loss Markedly Affect Prostate Cancer Progression...29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0385 ETS -Associated Genomic Alterations including ETS2 Loss Markedly Affect...upregulation of ERG, a transcription factor with oncogenic roles in other cancers such as leukemias and sarcomas (Tomlins, Rhodes et al. 2005; Turner

  10. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  11. Thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2017-03-07

    A thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. The reactor includes a multi-flight auger having different helix portions having different pitch. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor portions between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between portions during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat.

  12. High performance, durable polymers including poly(phenylene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Cy; Pratt, Harry; Anderson, Travis Mark

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to functionalized polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. In some embodiments, the polymers and copolymers of the invention include a highly localized concentration of acidic moieties, which facilitate proton transport and conduction through networks formed from these polymers. In addition, the polymers can include functional moieties, such as electron-withdrawing moieties, to protect the polymeric backbone, thereby extending its durability. Such enhanced proton transport and durability can be beneficial for any high performance platform that employs proton exchange polymeric membranes, such as in fuel cells or flow batteries.

  13. Paediatric Stroke: Review of the Literature and Possible Treatment Options, including Endovascular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa F. Ciceri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is among the top 10 causes of death in childhood. More than half of the surviving children have long-term neurological sequelae. Ischemic stroke (IS includes arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis with venous infarction. Haemorrhagic stroke (HS includes intracerebral haematoma or subarachnoid haemorrhage. Risk factors for stroke are different in children and in adults. 10–30% of IS have no identified risk factors. However, multiple risk factors are recognizable in the majority of stroke in children; thus, a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is crucial. Vascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, vessel dissection, stenosis, and moyamoya disease, are frequently associated with both IS and HS and lead to high recurrence rates. Endovascular and surgical treatment options are sometimes indicated, performed on the basis of expert opinion, and extrapolated from the adult procedures. In the present paper, we review the recent literature and we discuss the treatment in five cases managed at our institutions.

  14. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers: results from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman; Konar, Meric; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fournier, Agnès; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Quirós, J Ramón; Maria Huerta, José; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Butt, Salma Tunå; Borgquist, Signe; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-03-15

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at p risk estimates. We used internal validation with bootstrapping (1000-fold) to adjust for over-fitting. Adiponectin, estrone, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and triglycerides were selected into the model. After accounting for over-fitting, discrimination was improved by 2.0 percentage points when all evaluated biomarkers were included and 1.7 percentage points in the model including the selected biomarkers. Models including etiologic markers on independent pathways and genetic markers may further improve discrimination. © 2016 UICC.

  15. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo  presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.

  16. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... U.S. Morbidity Number of adults with diagnosed chronic bronchitis in the past year: 9.3 million Percent ...

  17. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Explore the past, the present and help build a promising future for the world’s polio survivors. ... Polio Health International (PHI) Including International Ventilator Users Network 4207 Lindell Blvd., #110, Saint Louis, MO 63108- ...

  18. Should LSP Dictionaries also Include Professional Jargon and Slang?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tional slang, as popular names for items of nomenclature, and also as trade names. ... and animals), in chemistry (the periodical system of elements, or the IUPAC .... includes new coinages from business journals and journalists' jargon which.

  19. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  20. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  1. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  3. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  4. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stick to a healthy meal plan. Artificial sweeteners Examples of artificial sweeteners include: Acesulfame potassium (Sunett, ... can cause diarrhea in some people. Naturally derived sweeteners Naturally derived sweeteners, stevia (Truvia, PureVia) and agave ...

  5. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... abuse, and are at higher risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including. HIV.[2] Because of mistrust in the ... [5,6] In countries where legislation penalises .... HIV/ STI risks. Discuss health prevention needs of transgender men.

  6. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  7. Aircrew Availability: Modeling Predictors of Duties Not Including Flying Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-25

    the final study population. Clinic location is not displayed, as only clinic pseudoidentifiers were provided to preserve data de-identification...conditions and factors influencing health status 26,360 (6.76) Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 24,521 (6.29...Injury and poisoning 22,404 (5.74) Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue 5529 (1.42) Infectious and parasitic diseases 5425 (1.39

  8. Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Heijungs, Reinout; Ohlau, Katrin

    Several damages have been associated with the exposure of human beings to noise. These include auditory effects, i.e., hearing impairment, but also non-auditory physiological ones such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, or psychological ones such as annoyance, depression, sleep disturbance, limited performance of cognitive tasks or inadequate cognitive development. Noise can also interfere with intended activities, both in daytime and nighttime. ISO 14'040 also indicated the necessity of introducing noise, together with other less developed impact categories, in a complete LCA study, possibly changing the results of many LCA studies already available. The attempts available in the literature focused on the integration of transportation noise in LCA. Although being considered the most frequent source of intrusive impact, transportation noise is not the only type of noise that can have a malign impact on public health. Several other sources of noise such as industrial or occupational need to be taken into account to have a complete consideration of noise into LCA. Major life cycle inventories (LCI) typically do not contain data on noise emissions yet and characterisation factors are not yet clearly defined. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review what is already available in the field and propose a new framework for the consideration of human health impacts of any type of noise that could be of interest in the LCA practice, providing indications for the introduction of noise in LCI and analysing what data is already available and, in the form of a research agenda, what other resources would be needed to reach a complete coverage of the problem. The literature production related to the impacts of noise on human health has been analysed, with considerations of impacts caused by transportation noise as well as occupational and industrial noise. The analysis of the specialist medical literature allowed for a better understanding of how to deal with the

  9. FGF growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  10. A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.

  11. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  12. Factors Influencing Environmental Scanning in the Organizational Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zita Correia; T.D. Wilson

    2001-01-01

    ..., directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness...

  13. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.

  14. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  15. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  16. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  17. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    asymmetries. The paper contributes theoretically in its innovative use of perspectivist theory in relation to text, and in identifying that the insights of polyocularity could valuably inform a new health communication paradigm, as current health communication paradigms do not fully recognize patients......Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper......’ perspectives. Apart from its theoretical contributions, the paper includes guidelines to support the production of PILs where patients’ perspectives are included. The guidelines are informed by practices that have characterised previous polyocular communication events, as well as research into how to maximize...

  18. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  19. Pediatric deformity treatment update, including 3D correction concepts%Pediatric deformity treatment update,including 3D correction concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randal R. Betz; Patrick J. Cahill; Joshua M. Pahys; Amer F. Samdani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the new developments in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,including 3D correction of deformity,posterior and minimally invasive surgery,and fusionless strategies.

  20. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  1. Factors Affecting Children Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, the author points out some theoretical defects of the CPH on which the policy was based. CPH is the conceptualization formulation of the maturational constraints for SLA. The paper, based on the reality of China, put forward some suggestion, which includes the time factor, the teacher's factor and the content factor.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  3. Seismic Response of Wind Turbines: Time Domain Simulations Including SSI

    OpenAIRE

    Amdal, Åse Marit Wist

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a 5MW offshore wind turbine on a monopile foundation was created in order to calculate the dynamic response of the structure including soil-structure interaction. The main focus was to develop a reliable numerical model of the coupled system - including the tower, monopile foundation and the surrounding soil. The wind turbine was subjected to earthquake load in the time-domain. The global response of the wind turbine was compared for the two prevalent meth...

  4. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  5. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  6. Six-dimensional beam-beam kick including coupled motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. A. Leunissen

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The six-dimensional beam-beam interaction as developed in 1992 by Hirata, Moshammer, and Ruggiero has been extended to include linear coupled motion and an arbitrary crossing plane. The technique of symplectic mapping in the six-dimensional phase space, called synchrobeam mapping, is applied to investigate the beam-beam kick within a solenoid. A linear beam-beam model including coupling is discussed in detail, also in the framework of a six-dimensional symplectic dispersion formalism.

  7. The Future of Constitutionally Required Lesser Included Offenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Hoffheimer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For over a generation courts have recognized that failing to instruct juries on lesser included offenses results in wrongful convictions. In Beck v. Alabama, the Supreme Court held that in capital cases juries must be instructed on the option of returning convictions of non-capital lesser included offenses. The Court explained that this right prevents juries from being forced to make all-or-nothing choices between guilt and innocence in cases where serious crimes have been committed and pressures to convict of some crime are great.

  8. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis E; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Gregory S; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  9. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en  el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma  de efectuar un factor en Colombia,  su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.

  10. Should Listening and Speaking be included in a Language Test?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗文

    2013-01-01

      Language test is widely used in our daily life for various purposes, while a lot of language tests fail to include listening or speaking for one reason or another. The question that whether this type of test is still valid enough to serve test purposes and have a positive washback for English learning has come up.

  11. Synaptic channel model including effects of spike width variation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic Channel Model Including Effects of Spike Width Variation Hamideh Ramezani Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT An accu...

  12. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  13. A Reactive Behavior Agent: Including Emotions into a Video Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Laureano-Cruces

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Why we have emotions and how they influence human behavior are two questions we constantly ask ourselves.According to researchers in the field, there are two kinds of information that the person receives to make a decision.This information is integrated to generate a whole. One comes from ourselves it is proprioceptive and refers toemotions; the other one is external, it comes from the environment. Thus, emotions are immersed in different areas ofa person’s life, including social, functional, and cognitive aspects. It has an important role in the decision-makingprocess. It is on this last point that this paper focuses its approach, which consists of including a cognitive structure ofemotions in a reactive behavior in order to enrich behavior, including the information generated through internalevaluation of the external physical stimuli. Our work is based on the OCC theory (named after the name of its authors:Ortony, Collins and Clore. This theory proposes that a decision-making process is affected through differentperspectives: a goals and events, b agents and their actions, and c objects and their capacity for attraction. Thecase study is situated within a scenario that represents an approach that seeks to include a module of emotions withinthe design of the architecture of a videogame.

  14. The Subjectivities of "Included" Students with Disabilities in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The contextual precept of this paper is to re-theorise inclusive education beyond technical rational solutions to the "problem" of disability. Drawing on Foucauldian and critical disability theories, I make the case for the analysis of inclusive schooling through the lens of students' "included" subjectivities--notwithstanding…

  15. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  16. Understanding heat transfer in 2D channel flows including recirculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Stigter, J.D.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Inviscid, irrotational two-dimensional flows can be modelled using the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral. Although bounded flows including boundary layer separation and recirculation are not irrotational, a model is presented that uses the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral to model these flows. The model sepa

  17. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  18. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  19. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

  20. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  1. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  2. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  3. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper...

  4. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data (such as service area, geographical characteristics, customer mix, historical loads, projected... consumer. (iii) Considerations that may be used to develop potential options include cost, market potential... customer must make the load forecasting data available to Western upon request. (6) Measurement...

  5. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  6. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a determination as to the intensity, persistence, or functionally limiting effects of the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220.114 Section 220.114 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  7. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 25.1181 Section 25.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and other...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones: regions included. 29.1181 Section 29.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and other combustion equipment installation described in § 29.859; (6...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23.1181 Section 23.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., turbine, and tailpipe sections. (c) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; and (d) Any fuel-burning heater...

  11. The International Project 1992 Update Including "Microfilming Projects Abroad."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutimann, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Describes microfilming projects in 30 countries collected from questionnaire responses. Additional topics discussed include cooperative programs for preservation and access; an overview of national programs; mass deacidification; new technologies, such as digital preservation; microfilming projects abroad; and future priorities. (Contains 10…

  12. Thick Plate Homogenization of Sandwich Panels Including Folded Cellular Cores

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEE, Arthur; Sab, Karam

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we provide the Bending-Gradient homogenization scheme and apply it to a sandwich panel including the chevron pattern. It turns out that the shear forces stiffness of the sandwich panel is strongly influenced by a skin distortion phenomenon which cannot be neglected in conventional design.

  13. The Instructional Improvement Questionnaire [Including Supporting and Technical Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    The Instructional Improvement Questionnaire (IIQ) is a student rating form designed to provide evaluative feedback to instructors about their teaching. The IIQ was first developed at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1969 and revised in 1972. The documents included here describe the development of the IIQ and research associated with…

  14. 30 CFR 250.211 - What must the EP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the EP include? 250.211 Section 250.211 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... exploration drilling, well test flaring, installing a well protection structure, and temporary...

  15. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  16. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  17. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  18. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  19. /facet: A Generic Facet Browser Including Temporal and Spatial Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.

    2007-01-01

    A generic facet browser including temporal and spatial visualization. The existing MultimediaN Eculture demo is updated in two ways: improved visualization of the semantic timeline and added a natural language sentence generator for cluster headers. Relation search interface is also implemente

  20. 31 CFR 306.87 - Partnerships (including nominee partnerships).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partnerships (including nominee partnerships). 306.87 Section 306.87 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL...

  1. Computer aided design of reentrant coaxial filters including coaxial excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boria, V.; Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced EM based CAD tool is used for the detailed characterisation of a family of reentrant coaxial waveguide filters. The EM analysis includes the effects of tuning screws and of the input/output coaxial excitation. The software is essentially used as an efficient replacement for the tradition

  2. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  3. Including expectant fathers in antenatal education programmes in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, J M; Nalbant, H; Bulut, A; Sahip, Y

    2001-11-01

    In this article we present the results of three studies investigating methods for including men in antenatal education in Istanbul, Turkey. Participants were first-time expectant parents living in low and middle-income areas. After a formative study on the roles of various family members in health during the period surrounding a first birth, an antenatal-clinic-based education programme for women and for couples was carried out as a randomised, controlled study. Based on the results, separate community-based antenatal education programmes for expectant mothers and expectant fathers were tested. There was demand among many pregnant women and some of their husbands for including expectant fathers in antenatal education. In the short term, these programmes seemed to have positive effects on women and men's reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. In the clinic-based programme the positive effects of including men were mainly in the area of post-partum family planning, while in the community-based programme positive effects among men were also seen in the areas of infant health, infant feeding and spousal communication and support. Free antenatal education should be made available to all expectant mothers and when possible, men should be included, either together with their wives or in a culture such as that of Turkey, in separate groups.

  4. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  5. Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene

    2012-06-07

    Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.

  6. Tissue-Specific Effects of Bariatric Surgery Including Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N. Dankel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the molecular links between obesity and disease is potentially of great benefit for society. In this paper we discuss proposed mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery improves metabolic health, including acute effects on glucose metabolism and long-term effects on metabolic tissues (adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and mitochondrial function. More short-term randomized controlled trials should be performed that include simultaneous measurement of metabolic parameters in different tissues, such as tissue gene expression, protein profile, and lipid content. By directly comparing different surgical procedures using a wider array of metabolic parameters, one may further unravel the mechanisms of aberrant metabolic regulation in obesity and related disorders.

  7. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate......Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  8. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  9. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William; Lindberg, Ryan; Kim, K-J; Shvyd' ko, Yuri

    2010-08-23

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  10. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors provides material for a comprehensive upper-level-undergrauate and graduate course on the subject, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. For the interested reader some additional advanced topics are included, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors are included. Also supplied are explicit formulas for many results, to support better understanding. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from ...

  11. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  12. Sonic-boom-induced building structure responses including damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, B. L.; Mayes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts of sonic-boom pressure loading of building structures and the associated responses are reviewed, and results of pertinent theoretical and experimental research programs are summarized. The significance of sonic-boom load time histories, including waveshape effects, are illustrated with the aid of simple structural elements such as beams and plates. Also included are discussions of the significance of such other phenomena as three-dimensional loading effects, air cavity coupling, multimodal responses, and structural nonlinearities. Measured deflection, acceleration, and strain data from laboratory models and full-scale building tests are summarized, and these data are compared, where possible, with predicted values. Damage complaint and claim experience due both to controlled and uncontrolled supersonic flights over communities are summarized with particular reference to residential, commercial, and historic buildings. Sonic-boom-induced building responses are compared with those from other impulsive loadings due to natural and cultural events and from laboratory simulation tests.

  13. Review of EGFR TKIs in metastatic NSCLC, including ongoing trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMelosky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI in the treatment of patients with advanced metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Most of these recent trials were conducted in patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours. As our knowledge of the EGFR mutation and its resistant pathways develops, the complexity of the situation expands. This article briefly reviews the pivotal trials leading to approval of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting for patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung carcinomas. It discusses the historical use of EGFR TKIs after the first line setting in unselected patients and briefly describes ongoing trials.

  14. Physics as a Mechanism for Including ELLs in Classroom Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) are frequently left on the periphery of classroom interactions. Due to misalignment of language skills, teachers and peers communicate with these students less often, decreasing the number of opportunities to engage. Exclusion can be avoided with learning activities that invite all students to participate and contribute ideas. We argue that environments and activities that privilege scientific inductive reasoning increase possibilities for emerging bilingual students to engage. This study investigated first-grade students' discussions about factors that affect how objects float. Students came from a variety of language backgrounds; all were considered beginner/intermediate ELLs. Results show that the goal of inducing principles from actual phenomena encouraged students to communicate their ideas and reasoning, boosting students' confidence in expressing themselves. Following the hybrid space argument of Vygotsky's theory of concept formation, we see how external expression pre...

  15. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  16. Outcomes Among Pregnant Women Included in the Operation TOMODACHI Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    Table 1 shows the status of potentially-exposed pregnancies. Pregnancy outcomes include live delivery, spontaneous loss, and induced abortion ...birth defects, which are defined according to the Case Definition of the National Birth Defects Prevention Network.3 Additional uses for these data...pregnancy outcome in the electronic medical data/records. Overall, the live delivery rates are quite high and the spontaneous loss rates are quite

  17. Rehabilitation of a triple amputee including a hip disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J C; Park, C I; Kim, Y C; Jang, S H; Bang, I K; Shin, J S

    1998-12-01

    A multiple amputee more severe than a triple amputee is uncommon. There have been no reports on the rehabilitation outcome of a triple amputee, including hip disarticulation and transtibial amputation. The authors report the rehabilitation of a patient with left hip disarticulation, right trans-tibial amputation, and left trans-humeral amputation due to a train accident. He has successfully completed the rehabilitation programme and has become independent in prosthetic ambulation, activities of daily living, and driving.

  18. Search for BSM physics including dark matter at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Xiangyang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased centre-of-mass energy of the proton-proton collisions of the LHC run 2 gives a unique opportunity to extend the sensitivity to the production of particles not foreseen by the Standard Model. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on BSM searches. Although the focus is on searches for production of DM particles, results include searches for heavy resonances in many final states and for production of supersymmetric particles.

  19. Evaporative cooler including one or more rotating cooler louvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David W

    2015-02-03

    An evaporative cooler may include an evaporative cooler housing with a duct extending therethrough, a plurality of cooler louvers with respective porous evaporative cooler pads, and a working fluid source conduit. The cooler louvers are arranged within the duct and rotatably connected to the cooler housing along respective louver axes. The source conduit provides an evaporative cooler working fluid to the cooler pads during at least one mode of operation.

  20. Circuit Modeling of a MEMS Varactor Including Dielectric Charging Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giounanlis, P.; Andrade-Miceli, D.; Gorreta, S.; Pons-Nin, J.; Dominguez-Pumar, M.; Blokhina, E.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical models for MEMS varactors including the effect of dielectric charging dynamics are not available in commercial circuit simulators. In this paper a circuit model using lumped ideal elements available in the Cadence libraries and a basic Verilog-A model, has been implemented. The model has been used to simulate the dielectric charging in function of time and its effects over the MEMS capacitance value.

  1. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  2. Tuneable photonic device including an array of metamaterial resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brener, Igal; Wanke, Michael; Benz, Alexander

    2017-03-14

    A photonic apparatus includes a metamaterial resonator array overlying and electromagnetically coupled to a vertically stacked plurality of quantum wells defined in a semiconductor body. An arrangement of electrical contact layers is provided for facilitating the application of a bias voltage across the quantum well stack. Those portions of the semiconductor body that lie between the electrical contact layers are conformed to provide an electrically conductive path between the contact layers and through the quantum well stack.

  3. An Axisymmetrical Acoustic BEM Formulation Including Visco-Thermal Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dimensions. However, this is not usually true for small devices such as microphones, hearing aids, couplers, MEMS devices, mobile phones, etc., and then the losses need to be modeled. In this paper a numerical implementation of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) which includes visco-thermal losses...... of the boundary into elements is adequate and the problem has a manageable size. The method can be extended to full three-dimensional BEM....

  4. Chiral-scale effective theory including a dilatonic meson

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan-Ling; Rho, Mannque

    2016-01-01

    A scale-invariant chiral effective Lagrangian is constructed for octet pions and a dilaton figuring as Nambu-Goldstone bosons with vector mesons incorporated as hidden gauge fields. The Lagrangian is built to the next-to-leading order in chiral-scale counting without baryon fields and then to leading order including baryons. The resulting theory is hidden scale-symmetric and local symmetric. We also discuss some possible applications of the present Lagrangian.

  5. Power factor compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra R, Felipe [Schneider Electric Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    Every company is looking for ways to increase productivity as a way to gain a competitive advantage. Energy is a significant element in making any product and so it is important to assess production processes from an energy perspective. This paper discusses the impact of power factor compensation on energy efficiency. The life cycle solution for energy efficiency involves optimization of active energy using automation and regulation. A brief explanation is given of how each component of a company plays a part in this cycle. Examples include simulations and analysis, modeling, performance monitoring facilities, and environmental sustainability. Reactive energy suppliers and the installation of capacitors are also explained. Types of compensation include fixed and automation compensations. Economic advantages include a reduction in the electricity bill and active energy consumption. Technical advantages include reduction in voltage drop and an increase in available power. The power correction factor also improves reliability and contributes to conservation of the environment.

  6. New chemical evolution analytical solutions including environment effects

    CERN Document Server

    Spitoni, E

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, more and more interest has been devoted to analytical solutions, including inflow and outflow, to study the metallicity enrichment in galaxies. In this framework, we assume a star formation rate which follows a linear Schmidt law, and we present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the metallicity (Z) in galaxies. In particular, we take into account environmental effects including primordial and enriched gas infall, outflow, different star formation efficiencies, and galactic fountains. The enriched infall is included to take into account galaxy-galaxy interactions. Our main results can be summarized as: i) when a linear Schmidt law of star formation is assumed, the resulting time evolution of the metallicity Z is the same either for a closed-box model or for an outflow model. ii) The mass-metallicity relation for galaxies which suffer a chemically enriched infall, originating from another evolved galaxy with no pre-enriched gas, is shifted down in parallel at lower Z values, if co...

  7. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  8. Transport Phenomena in Thin Rotating Liquid Films Including: Nucleate Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir

    2005-01-01

    In this grant, experimental, numerical and analytical studies of heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk have been conducted. Heat transfer coefficients were measured experimentally in a rotating disk heat transfer apparatus where the disk was heated from below with electrical resistance heaters. The heat transfer measurements were supplemented by experimental characterization of the liquid film thickness using a novel laser based technique. The heat transfer measurements show that the disk rotation plays an important role on enhancement of heat transfer primarily through the thinning of the liquid film. Experiments covered both momentum and rotation dominated regimes of the flow and heat transfer in this apparatus. Heat transfer measurements have been extended to include evaporation and nucleate boiling and these experiments are continuing in our laboratory. Empirical correlations have also been developed to provide useful information for design of compact high efficiency heat transfer devices. The experimental work has been supplemented by numerical and analytical analyses of the same problem. Both numerical and analytical results have been found to agree reasonably well with the experimental results on liquid film thickness and heat transfer Coefficients/Nusselt numbers. The numerical simulations include the free surface liquid film flow and heat transfer under disk rotation including the conjugate effects. The analytical analysis utilizes an integral boundary layer approach from which

  9. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  10. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  11. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  12. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  13. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results

  14. We need to include bystander first aid in trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-03-23

    The chain of trauma survival is a concept that originated in the area of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and was adapted to the treatment of trauma. In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest research into bystander first aid has resulted in improved outcome. Whereas, in trauma research the first link of the chain of survival is almost ignored. In OHCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders has been subject of a vast amount of research, as well as measures and programs to raise the rate of bystander CPR to cardiac arrest victims. These efforts have resulted in improved survival. The research effort has been well grounded in the research community, as demonstrated by its natural inclusion in the uniform reporting template (Utstein) for the treatment of OHCA. In trauma the bystander may contribute by providing an open airway, staunch bleedings, or prevent hypothermia. In trauma however, while the chain of survival has been adopted along with it distinct links, including bystander first aid, the consensus-based uniform reporting template for trauma (the Utstein template) does not include the bystander first aid efforts. There is extremely little research on what first aid measures bystanders provide to trauma victims, and on what impact such measures have on outcome. An important step to improve research on bystander first aid in trauma would be to include this as part of the uniform reporting template for trauma CONCLUSION: The lack of research on bystander first aid makes the first link in the trauma chain of survival the weakest link. We, the trauma research community, should either improve our research and knowledge in this area, or remove the link from the chain of survival.

  15. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  16. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  17. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, C; Filinov, A; Piel, A; Bonitz, M

    2007-01-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile \\cite{henning.pre06}. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principle simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals we demonstrate that both approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.

  18. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  19. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Izacard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize t...

  20. Harmonic measure for percolation and ising clusters including rare events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David A; Sander, Leonard M; Ziff, Robert M

    2008-10-03

    We obtain the harmonic measure of the hulls of critical percolation clusters and Ising-model Fortuin-Kastelyn clusters using a biased random-walk sampling technique which allows us to measure probabilities as small as 10{-300}. We find the multifractal D(q) spectrum including regions of small and negative q. Our results for external hulls agree with Duplantier's theoretical predictions for D(q) and his exponent -23/24 for the harmonic measure probability distribution for percolation. For the complete hull, we find the probability decays with an exponent of -1 for both systems.

  1. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, M

    2014-01-01

    A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  2. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  3. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Izacard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g., the INMDF [O. Izacard, Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504 (2016)]). One of the main dif...

  4. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  5. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  6. The Diversification Benefits of Including Carbon Assets in Financial Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinpeng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allowances traded in the EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS were initially designed as an economic motivation for efficiently curbing greenhouse as emissions, but now it mimics quite a few characteristics of financial assets, and have now been used as a candidate product in building financial portfolios. In this study, we examine the time-varying correlations between carbon allowance prices with other financial indices, during the third phase of EU-ETS. The results show that, at the beginning of this period, carbon price was still strongly corrected with other financial indices. However, this connection was weakened over time. Given the relative independence of carbon assets from other financial assets, we argue for the diversification benefits of including carbon assets in financial portfolios, and building such portfolios, respectively, with the traditional global minimum variance (GMV strategy, the mean-variance-OGARCH (MV-OGARCH strategy, and the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC strategy. It is shown that the portfolio built with the MV-OGARCH strategy far out-performs the others and that including carbon assets in financial portfolios does help reduce investment risks.

  7. Remote observations of reentering spacecraft including the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Cagle, Melinda F.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Gibson, David M.

    Flight measurement is a critical phase in development, validation and certification processes of technologies destined for future civilian and military operational capabilities. This paper focuses on several recent NASA-sponsored remote observations that have provided unique engineering and scientific insights of reentry vehicle flight phenomenology and performance that could not necessarily be obtained with more traditional instrumentation methods such as onboard discrete surface sensors. The missions highlighted include multiple spatially-resolved infrared observations of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter during hypersonic reentry from 2009 to 2011, and emission spectroscopy of comparatively small-sized sample return capsules returning from exploration missions. Emphasis has been placed upon identifying the challenges associated with these remote sensing missions with focus on end-to-end aspects that include the initial science objective, selection of the appropriate imaging platform and instrumentation suite, target flight path analysis and acquisition strategy, pre-mission simulations to optimize sensor configuration, logistics and communications during the actual observation. Explored are collaborative opportunities and technology investments required to develop a next-generation quantitative imaging system (i.e., an intelligent sensor and platform) with greater capability, which could more affordably support cross cutting civilian and military flight test needs.

  8. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL’s clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients’ group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  9. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  10. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFotis, G. C.; Van Dongen, M. J.; Hampton, A. S.; Komatsu, C. H.; Trowell, K. T.; Havas, K. C.; Davis, C. M.; DeSanto, C. L.; Hays, K.; Wagner, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, Tmax and χmax, ordering temperatures Tc, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that Tmax of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD2O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser Tmax than do nH2O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr2·2D2O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr2·2H2O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these.

  11. A Mixed Mode Cochlear Amplifier Including Neural Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Matthew R.; Holmes, W. Harvey

    2011-11-01

    The mixed mode cochlear amplifier (MMCA) model is derived from the physiology of the cochlea. It is comprised of three main elements of the peripheral hearing system: the cochlear mechanics, hair cell motility, and neurophysiology. This model expresses both active compression wave and active traveling wave modes of operation. The inclusion of a neural loop with a time delay, and a new paradigm for the mechanical response of the outer hair cells, are believed to be unique features of the MMCA. These elements combine to form an active feedback loop to constitute the cochlear amplifier, whose input is a passive traveling wave vibration. The result is a cycle-by-cycle amplifier with nonlinear response. This system can assume an infinite number of different operating states. The stable state and the first few amplitude-limited unstable (Hopf-bifurcated) states are significant in describing the operation of the peripheral hearing system. A hierarchy of models can be constructed from this concept, depending on the amount of detail included. The simplest model of the MMCA is a nonlinear delay line resonator. It was found that even this simple MMCA version can explain a large number of hearing phenomena, at least qualitatively. This paper concentrates on explaining the fractional octave shift from the living to postmortem response in terms of the new model. Other mechanical, hair cell and neurological phenomena can also be accounted for by the MMCA, including two-tone suppression behavior, distortion product responses, otoacoustic emissions and neural spontaneous rates.

  12. Kabuki syndrome: expanding the phenotype to include microphthalmia and anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Terri P; Banka, Siddharth; Reardon, William

    2015-10-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic malformation syndrome that is characterized by distinct facies, structural defects and intellectual disability. Kabuki syndrome may be caused by mutations in one of two histone methyltransferase genes: KMT2D and KDM6A. We describe a male child of nonconsanguineous Irish parents presenting with multiple malformations, including bilateral extreme microphthalmia; cleft palate; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; duplex kidney; as well as facial features of Kabuki syndrome, including interrupted eyebrows and lower lid ectropion. A de-novo germline mutation in KMT2D was identified. Whole-exome sequencing failed to reveal mutations in any of the known microphthalmia/anopthalmia genes. We also identified four other patients with Kabuki syndrome and microphthalmia. We postulate that Kabuki syndrome may produce this type of ocular phenotype as a result of extensive interaction between KMT2D, WAR complex proteins and PAXIP1. Children presenting with microphthalmia/anophthalmia should be examined closely for other signs of Kabuki syndrome, especially at an age where the facial gestalt might be less readily appreciable.

  13. Evaluation of FEMA-440 for including soil-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khoshnoudian F.; Behmanesh I.

    2010-01-01

    Replacing the entire soil-structure system with a fixed base oscillator to consider the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a common analysis method in seismic design. This technique has been included in design procedures such as NEHRP, ASCE, etc. By defining an equivalent fundamental period and damping ratio that can modify the response of the structure. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of SSI should be reconsidered when a structure undergoes a nonlinear displacement demand. In recent documents on Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs), FEMA-440 (2005), a modified damping ratio of the replacement oscillator was proposed by introducing the ductility of the soil-structure system obtained from pushover analysis. In this paper, the damping defined in FEMA-440 to include the soil-structure interaction effect is evaluated, and the accuracy of the Coefficiem Method given in FEMA-440 and the Equivalent Linearization Method is studied. Although the improvements for Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs) in FEMA-440 are achieved for a fixed base SDOF structure, the soil effects are not perfectly obtained. Furthermore, the damping definition of a soil-structure system is extended to structures to consider bilinear behavior.

  14. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  15. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  16. Global simulations of galactic winds including cosmic ray streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Zweibel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of an isolated Milky Way-size starburst galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of cosmic rays along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors depending on the details of the plasma physics. Due to the cosmic ray streaming instability, cosmic rays propagating in the interstellar medium scatter on self-excited Alfven waves and couple to the gas. When the wave growth due to the streaming instability is inhibited by some damping process, such as the turbulent damping, the cosmic ...

  17. Isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase inhibitors: a brief review including recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo Seok; Yeo, Seung-Gu; Yang, Sungjae; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-06-19

    Among the enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of Ras, isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) has been explored by a number of researchers as a significant enzyme controlling the activation of Ras. Indeed, inhibition of ICMT exhibited promising anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. This paper reviews patents and research articles published between 2009 and 2016 that reported inhibitors of ICMT as potential chemotherapeutic agents targeting Ras-induced growth factor signaling. Since ICMT inhibitors can modulate Ras signaling pathway, it might be possible to develop a new class of anti-cancer drugs targeting Ras-related cancers. Researchers have discovered indole-based small-molecular ICMT inhibitors through high-throughput screening. Researchers at Duke University identified a prototypical inhibitor, cysmethynil. At Singapore University, Ramanujulu and his colleagues patented more potent compounds by optimizing cysmethynil. In addition, Rodriguez and Stevenson at Universidad Complutense De Madrid and Cancer Therapeutics CRC PTY Ltd., respectively, have developed inhibitors based on formulas other than the indole base. However, further optimization of chemicals targeted to functional groups is needed to improve the characteristics of ICMT inhibitors related to their application as drugs, such as solubility, effectiveness, and safety, to facilitate clinical use.

  18. APORTACIONES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EUROPEA INCLUD-ED PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL ABANDONO ESCOLAR PREMATURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Padrós Cuxart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of reducing early school leaving in Europe, with special pressure in Spain, leads to the need of evidence based educational policies and measures. This paper presents measures to prevend and reduce early school leaving that have been identified within the research Project INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from education. This is the research Project with a higher level and resources developed  since now  in Europe regarding school education. The identified solutions are already being addressed in documents of the European Commission, such as the recent Communication to the European Parliament "Tackiling early school leaving: a key contribution to the Europe 2020 Agenda".

  19. Multi-factor authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  20. How should clinical data be included in experimental studies of cancer immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Bruserud, Øystein

    2004-08-01

    Patients diagnosed with the same malignant disease are often heterogeneous with regard to age, complications, malignant cell morphology and tumor histology, disease stage, prognostic parameters, and previous therapy. Many of these factors can affect immunocompetent cells or influence the malignant cell susceptibility to immunotherapy. Summaries of relevant clinical information should therefore be included in cancer immunology studies to increase the present as well as the future scientific impact. Guidelines for selection of relevant information are suggested in the article.

  1. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  2. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-03-29

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker–Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas.Phys. Plasmas23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time

  3. DRILL WEAR DURING THE BORING OF PARTICLE BOARD: A MULTI-FACTOR ANALYSIS INCLUDING EFFECTS OF MINERAL CONTAMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates and discusses multifactor non-linear, statistical dependencies of drill side-edges recession VBK and drill diameter recession DW on the cutting path length LC, the content of hard mineral contaminants CMC, the size of contaminant particles SMC, and the Mohs hardness MH. Significant influence of the cutting path LC, the content CMC of hard mineral contaminants (HMC, and the size of contaminant particles SMC was found, whereas the Mohs hardness MH of the contamination particles was less important.

  4. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    2009-01-01

    fibre and Saturated fat. Results: Greater food variety (OR = 1.32 for women, 1.13 for men), high leisure-time physical activity (OR = 2.20 for women, 1.91 for men), frequent intentions to eat healthily (OR = 8.19 for women, 5.40 for men) and low energy intake (OR = 0.78 for women, 0.85 for men) were...

  5. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  6. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  7. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  8. Linearizing neutrino evolution equations including neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Väänänen, D

    2013-01-01

    We linearize the neutrino mean-field evolution equations describing the neutrino propagation in a background of matter and of neutrinos, using techniques from many-body microscopic approaches. The procedure leads to an eigenvalue equation that allows to identify instabilities in the evolution, associated with a change of the curvature of the neutrino energy-density surface. Our result includes all contributions from the neutrino Hamiltonian and is generalizable to linearize the equations of motion at an arbitrary point of the evolution. We then consider the extended equations that comprise the normal mean field as well as the abnormal mean field that is associated with neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations. We first re-derive the extended neutrino Hamiltonian and show that such a Hamiltonian can be diagonalized by introducing a generalized Bogoliubov transformation with quasi-particle operators that mix neutrinos and antineutrinos. We give the eigenvalue equations that determine the energies of the quasi...

  9. Floating-point systolic array including serial processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeland, S.B.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes, in a systolic array system utilizing a plurality of semiconductor chips, a semiconductor chip. It comprises: a plurality of processing elements each including a floating-point serial processor and a plurality of data storage registers; global bus means coupled to the serial processor of each of the plurality of processing elements for inputing and outputing data to and from each chip and for programming each serial processor; and a plurality of data buses coupled to each of the plurality of data storage registers of each of the plurality of processing elements. The global bus means being coupled to the plurality of data storage registers for programming the data storage registers.

  10. Goldilocks Models of Higher-Dimensional Inflation (including modulus stabilization)

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mechanics of inflation in simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like in that they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size, yet simple enough to solve the full 6D field equations using basic tools. The solutions are not limited to the effective 4D regime with H m_KK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict eta ~ 0 hence n_s ~ 0.96 and r ~ 0.096 and so are ruled out if tensor modes remain unseen. Analysis of general parameters is difficult without a full 6D fluctuation calculation.

  11. Gravitational solutions, including radiation, for a perturbed light beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nackoney, R.W.

    1986-09-01

    Linearized field equations and solutions are derived for a perturbed sheet beam of light. The work is based on an exact solution of a collimated beam in the geometrical limit. The linearized field changes of the initially curved background metric can be put, with the help of the harmonic conditions, into a normal coordinate form. These six normal coordinates satisfy six linearized, inhomogeneous, field equations in three variables. Stationary solutions include divergent beams. Gravitational waves propagating opposite to the beam's flux are found to be confined to a region about the propagation axis of the beam, much as is experienced in wave guides. Radiative cases can be produced by large angle scattering of light and are discussed in terms of their effect on an ideal optical antenna. The effect is one that grows linearly with time. The growth time is prohibitively long for the most energetic systems that can be realistically considered in the foreseeable future.

  12. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the along-wind forced vibration response of an onshore wind turbine. The study includes the dynamic interaction effects between the foundation and the underlying soil, as softer soils can influence the dynamic response of wind turbines. A Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF...... rotational speed (3P effects). The effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction on the rotation of the foundation has also been investigated.......) horizontal axes onshore wind turbine model is developed for dynamic analysis using an Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model is comprised of a rotor blade system, a nacelle and a flexible tower connected to a foundation system using a substructuring approach. The rotor blade system consists of three rotating...

  14. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  15. Molecular phylogeny of coronaviruses including human SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses (CoVs) including the human SARS-associated virus is reconstructed from complete genomes by using our newly developed K- string composition approach. The relation of the human SARS-CoV to other coronaviruses, i.e. the rooting of the tree is suggested by choosing an appropriate outgroup. SARS-CoV makes a separate group closer but still distant from G2 (CoVs in mammalian host). The relation between different isolates of the human SARS virus is inferred by first constructing an ultrametric distance matrix from counting sequence variations in the genomes. The resulting tree is consistent with clinic relations between the SARS-CoV isolates. In addition to a larger variety of coronavirus genomes these results provide phylogenetic knowledge based on independent novel methodology as compared to recent phylogenetic studies on SARS-CoV.

  16. Oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'Ien, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been performed for oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag. The gaseous flame is assumed to be premixed and laminar with a one-step overall chemical reaction. The propellant is assumed to decompose according to the Arrenhius Law, with no condensed phase reaction. With this model, strong gas phase resonance has been found in certain cases at the characteristic gas-phase frequencies, but the peaking of the acoustic admittance is in the direction favoring the damping of pressure waves. At still higher frequencies, moderate wave-amplifying ability was found. The limit of low frequency response obtained previously by Denison and Baum was recovered, and the limitations of the quasi-steady theory were investigated.

  17. Precision Obesity Treatments Including Pharmacogenetic and Nutrigenetic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solas, Maite; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Ramirez, Maria J; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up. This review aims to provide an overview of the approved anti-obesity drugs and newer molecules that could affect different targets in the central nervous system or peripheral tissues, the molecular mechanisms, emerging dietary treatments and phytogenic compounds, and pharmacogenetic/nutrigenetic approaches for personalized obesity management.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  19. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  20. Optimising the composition of natural moulding sands including thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy St. Kowalski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the choice of the moulding sand mixture composition in terms of the sand behaviour in contact withmolten metal. Studies of high-temperature phenomena make assessment of the sand composition applicability under real operatingconditions possible, thus leading to the elimination of sand-originating casting defects. The research was conducted on selected moulding materials included in the composition of traditional moulding sand mixtures without the addition of carbon. The effect of moulding sand composition and moisture content on the linear dilatation and stress-induced allotropic changes of quartz was examined. The analysis of these phenomena was based on 3D charts and maps generated from data collected during the tests.

  1. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P.J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Method for constructing action principles for a diverse class of fluids with gyroscopic momentum transport is described. • General criteria for the conservation of momentum and angular momentum via Noether's theorem are obtained. • Fluids with intrinsic angular momentum are built as an illustration of the method. - Abstract: A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  2. A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H J

    2005-01-01

    Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes.

  3. About meanings as a rule not included in dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available About meanings as a rule not included in dictionaries The article discusses the problem of ambiguity of the exponents of logical existential quantification occurring in the verbal group of Bulgarian, Polish and Russian sentences: Bulg. отвреме навреме, понякога, Pol. od czasu do czasu, czasem, czasami, Rus. время от времени, иногда. This ambiguity can be explained by strong and weak existential quantification. Lexical semantics did not distinguish between these two types of existentiality. Here we present a description of selected exponents of logical existential quantification in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.

  5. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  6. Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    A unique description of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is given at the classical gravity level, along with a complete set of homogeneous, isotropic, analytic solutions in scalar-tensor cosmology, with radiation and curvature. All solutions repeat cyclically; they have been obtained by using conformal gauge symmetry (Weyl symmetry) as a powerful tool in cosmology, and more generally in gravity. The significance of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is that it provides a model independent analytic resolution of the singularity, as an unambiguous and unavoidable solution of the equations at the classical gravitational physics level. It is controlled only by geometry (including anisotropy) and only very general features of matter coupled to gravity, such as kinetic energy of a scalar field, and radiation due to all forms of relativistic matter. This analytic resolution of the singularity is due to an attractor mechanism created by the leading terms in the cosmological equation. It is unique, and it is unavoid...

  7. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  8. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  9. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  10. CHIONANTHUS (OLEACEAE IN SULAWESI, INDONESIA, INCLUDING THREE NEW SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH KIEW

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KIEW, R. 2015. Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi, Indonesia, including three new species. Reinwardtia 14(2: 287 ‒295. ― The genus Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi is revised. Nine species are described of which C. kostermansiiKiew, C. sordidus Kiew and C. sulawesicus Kiew are new species. Four species are endemic, C. celebicus Koord., C.sordidus, C. stenurus (Merr. Kiew and C. sulawesicus. The geographic range of C. cordulatus Koord. extends to Borneoand Mollucas, while C. kostermansii also occurs in Sumbawa and Flores, and the range of C. rupicolus (Lingelsh.Kiew extends to Sumbawa, Mollucas, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Chionanthus polygamus (Roxb.Kiew and C. ramiflorus Roxb. are both widespread species, the former from Sumatra to New Guinea and the latter fromcontinental Asia to the Solomon Islands. A key to identify the species is provided. Chionanthus gigantifolius Koord.remains incompletely known.

  11. Oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'Ien, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been performed for oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag. The gaseous flame is assumed to be premixed and laminar with a one-step overall chemical reaction. The propellant is assumed to decompose according to the Arrenhius Law, with no condensed phase reaction. With this model, strong gas phase resonance has been found in certain cases at the characteristic gas-phase frequencies, but the peaking of the acoustic admittance is in the direction favoring the damping of pressure waves. At still higher frequencies, moderate wave-amplifying ability was found. The limit of low frequency response obtained previously by Denison and Baum was recovered, and the limitations of the quasi-steady theory were investigated.

  12. Preferential Biases for Texts That Include Neuroscientific Jargon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Marco E; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    The results of an experiment of preferential biases for texts that include neuroscientific jargon are presented. Such preferential bias has been reported even when the presented jargon is meaningless. In a variation of the well-known Weisberg et al. experiment, a group of undergraduate students (N = 150; females 48%, males 52%, other 0%; M age = 22.4 year, SD = 2.6) chose between two possible explanations for a psychological phenomenon: a correct explanation or a circular restatement of facts. Unrelated neuroscientific terms were added to one of the explanations. Participants were asked to choose the correct explanation. There was a statistically significant preference for the explanation without neuroscientific terms. These findings differ from Weisberg et al.'s experiment and a number of others. The implications of this discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Parabasal theory for plane-symmetric systems including freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H.; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    An extension of paraxial theory to systems with a single plane of symmetry is provided. This parabasal model is based on the evaluation of a differential region around the reference ray that is defined by the center of the object and the center of the stop. To include freeform surfaces in this model, the local curvatures at the intersection point of the reference ray and the surface are evaluated. As an application, a generalized Scheimpflug principle is presented. The validity of the derived formulas is tested for highly tilted surfaces and is in good agreement with the exact ray tracing results. The analytical expressions are used to provide a first-order layout design of a planar imaging system.

  14. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  15. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  16. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  17. Ancillary Studies, Including Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Studies, in Pancreatic Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michelle D; Centeno, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is indicated for sampling of solid and cystic masses. Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cystic lesions on cytology can be problematic, and ancillary studies may help confirm diagnosis. Ancillary studies in pancreatic cytology include special stains, immunohistochemistry, mutational analyses of specific genes, cyst fluid analysis of tumor markers and enzymes, and, in some instances, flow cytometry. Proteomics, microRNA sequencing, and whole-exome gene sequencing have been used to illustrate the progression of pancreatic neoplasms and identify key diagnostic markers. This article summarizes recent literature on ancillary studies in pancreatic fine-needle aspiration samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Global model including multistep ionizations in helium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-12-01

    Particle and power balance equations including stepwise ionizations are derived and solved in helium plasmas. In the balance equations, two metastable states (21S1 in singlet and 23S1 triplet) are considered and the followings are obtained. The plasma density linearly increases and the electron temperature is relatively in a constant value against the absorbed power. It is also found that the contribution to multi-step ionization with respect to the single-step ionization is in the range of 8%-23%, as the gas pressure increases from 10 mTorr to 100 mTorr. Compared to the results in the argon plasma, there is little variation in the collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair created (ɛc) with absorbed power and gas pressure due to the small collision cross section and higher inelastic collision threshold energy.

  19. Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

  20. OPAL Central Detector (Including vertex, jet and Z chambers)

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the different parts of the tracking system. (This piece includes the vertex, jet and Z chambers) In the picture above, the central detector is the piece being removed to the right.

  1. A solid fuel which includes coal, coke and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuti, Y.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Sonetaka, K.

    1983-04-15

    A composition of solid domestic fuel is proposed with a reduced liberation of toxic gases (CO and hydrocarbon (Uv)) upon combustion. The fuel is produced from (percent) 80 mineral coal, 10 charcoal, 10 CaC03 with an additive of 2 percent methylcellulose to the charge. Briquets are made from the mixture with perforated openings which have a transverse cross section (PS) of 10 to 200 square millimeters. The ratio of the total transverse cross section of all the openings and the transverse cross section of the fuel briquet, including the area of the openings is 25 to 70. Systems for disposition of the openings in the fuel are cited, along with the cross section of a furnace with the loaded fuel and the dependencies of the CO content in the furnace gas on the properties of the fuel.

  2. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  3. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E.; Essington, Timothy E.; Kaplan, Isaac C.

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill–Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod–Limacina helicina, pink shrimp–Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab–Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake–Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species’ vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  4. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  5. Internet interventions for chronic pain including headache: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Buhrman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health problem and behavioral based treatments have been shown to be effective. However, the availability of these kinds of treatments is scarce and internet-based treatments have been shown to be promising in this area. The objective of the present systematic review is to evaluate internet-based interventions for persons with chronic pain. The specific aims are to do an updated review with a broad inclusion of different chronic pain diagnoses and to assess disability and pain and also measures of catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. A systematic search identified 891 studies and 22 trials were selected as eligible for review. Two of the selected trials included children/youth and five included individuals with chronic headache and/or migraine. The most frequently measured domain reflected in the primary outcomes was interference/disability, followed by catastrophizing. Result across the studies showed a number of beneficial effects. Twelve trials reported significant effects on disability/interference outcomes and pain intensity. Positive effects were also found on psychological variable such as catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. Several studies (n = 12 were assessed to have an unclear level of risk bias. The attrition levels ranged from 4% to 54% where the headache trials had the highest drop-out levels. However, findings suggest that internet-based treatments based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT are efficacious measured with different outcome variables. Results are in line with trials in clinical settings. Meta-analytic statistics were calculated for interference/disability, pain intensity, catastrophizing and mood ratings. Results showed that the effect size for interference/disability was Hedge's g = −0.39, for pain intensity Hedge's g = −0.33, for catastrophizing Hedge's g = −0.49 and for mood variables (depression Hedge's g = −0.26.

  6. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  7. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Hodgson

    Full Text Available Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1 the maximum stage vulnerability and (2 a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  8. Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-08-01

    Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the

  9. Global Simulations of Galactic Winds Including Cosmic-ray Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Zweibel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of an isolated Milky Way-size starburst galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays (CRs) injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of CRs along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors, depending on the details of the plasma physics. Due to the CR streaming instability, CRs propagating in the interstellar medium scatter on self-excited Alfvén waves and couple to the gas. When the wave growth due to the streaming instability is inhibited by some damping process, such as turbulent damping, the coupling of CRs to the gas is weaker and their effective propagation speed faster than the Alfvén speed. Alternatively, CRs could scatter from “extrinsic turbulence” that is driven by another mechanism. We demonstrate that the presence of moderately super-Alfvénic CR streaming enhances the efficiency of galactic wind driving. Cosmic rays stream away from denser regions near the galactic disk along partially ordered magnetic fields and in the process accelerate more tenuous gas away from the galaxy. For CR acceleration efficiencies broadly consistent with the observational constraints, CRs reduce the galactic star formation rates and significantly aid in launching galactic winds.

  10. Visió general de la discussió sobre les àrees d’exclusió del projecte INCLUD-ED General overview of the discussion on exclusion areas in the INCLUD-ED project Visión general de la discusión sobre las áreas de exclusión del proyecto INCLUD-ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article es discuteixen les aportacions que es fan des del projecte INCLUD-ED: Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion from education in Europe sobre la relació que es pot establir entre l’exclusió/inclusió educativa i l’exclusió/inclusió en quatre àrees de la societat: ocupació, habitatge, salut i participació social i política. En particular, es reflexiona sobre els efectes que té tant l’exclusió, com formes de superar-la i promoure la inclusió, en les situacions que han d’afrontar les persones que pertanyen a algun dels cinc grups vulnerables que es defineixen en el projecte INCLUD-ED. Es presenta una visió general de l’estat de la qüestió sobre les investigacions i anàlisis de les àrees d’exclusió. Conclou amb unes breus reflexions sobre com superar les situacions d’exclusió i quines alternatives d’actuació s’obren des de l’àmbit educatiu. ____________________________________________ Dans cet article, nous discutons les contributions que fait le projet INCLUD-ED sur la relation que l’on peut établir entre l’exclusion/inclusion éducative et l’exclusion/inclusion dans quatre domaines de la société : emploi, logement, santé et participation sociale et politique. En particulier, nous réfléchissons sur les effets de l’exclusion ainsi que sur les manières de la dépasser et de promouvoir l’inclusion dans les situations que doivent affronter les individus appartenant à l’un des cinq groupes vulnérables qui sont définis dans le projet INCLUD-ED. Nous présentons une vision générale de l’état de la question sur les recherches et les analyses des domaines d’exclusion. L'article conclut avec de brèves réflexions sur la manière de dépasser les situations d’exclusion et sur les alternatives d’intervention qui s’ouvrent dans le domaine éducatif.In this paper, we discuss the contributions of the INCLUD-ED project to the relationship that can be established

  11. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  12. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  13. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  14. Including public perspectives in industrial biotechnology and the biobased economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Lino; Birrer, Frans

    2006-01-01

    Industrial ("white") biotechnology promises to contribute to a more sustainable future. Compared to current production processes, cases have been identified where industrial biotechnology can decrease the amount of energy and raw materials used to make products and also reduce the amount of emissions and waste produced during production. However, switching from products based on chemical production processes and fossil fuels towards "biobased" products is at present not necessarily economically viable. This is especially true for bulk products, for example ethanol production from biomass. Therefore, scientists are also turning to genetic modification as a means to develop organisms that can produce at lower costs. These include not only micro-organisms, but also organisms used in agriculture for food and feed. The use of genetic modification for "deliberate release" purposes, in particular, has met great opposition in Europe. Many industrial biotechnology applications may, due to their scale, entail deliberate releases of GM organisms. Thus, the biobased economy brings back a familiar question; is it ethically justifiable, and acceptable to citizens, to expose the environment and society to the risks associated with GM, in order to protect that same environment and to sustain our affluent way of life? For a successful innovation towards a biobased economy, its proponents, especially producers, need to take into account (take responsibility for) such issues when developing new products and processes. These issues, and how scientists can interact with citizens about them in a timely way, are further explored in projects at Delft University and Leiden University, also in collaboration with Utrecht University.

  15. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  16. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Michael W; Aslam, Dean M; Janoudi, Abed; Chan, Ho-Yin; Wang, Donna H

    2011-08-15

    Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM). The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA), due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  17. Efficient Algorithms for Electrostatic Interactions Including Dielectric Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coarse-grained models of soft matter are usually combined with implicit solvent models that take the electrostatic polarizability into account via a dielectric background. In biophysical or nanoscale simulations that include water, this constant can vary greatly within the system. Performing molecular dynamics or other simulations that need to compute exact electrostatic interactions between charges in those systems is computationally demanding. We review here several algorithms developed by us that perform exactly this task. For planar dielectric surfaces in partial periodic boundary conditions, the arising image charges can be either treated with the MMM2D algorithm in a very efficient and accurate way or with the electrostatic layer correction term, which enables the user to use his favorite 3D periodic Coulomb solver. Arbitrarily-shaped interfaces can be dealt with using induced surface charges with the induced charge calculation (ICC* algorithm. Finally, the local electrostatics algorithm, MEMD(Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics, even allows one to employ a smoothly varying dielectric constant in the systems. We introduce the concepts of these three algorithms and an extension for the inclusion of boundaries that are to be held fixed at a constant potential (metal conditions. For each method, we present a showcase application to highlight the importance of dielectric interfaces.

  18. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  20. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  1. Toothpaste microstructure and rheological behaviors including aging and partial rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Jiali; Deng, Linhong

    2015-08-01

    Toothpastes are mainly composed of a dense suspension of abrasive substances, flavors, and therapeutic ingredients in a background liquid of humectants and water, and usually exhibit complex rheological behaviors. However, the relationship between the rheology and microstructure of toothpaste remains to be studied. In this paper, three commonly used toothpastes, namely Colgate, Darlie and Yunnan Baiyao (Ynby), were qualitatively and quantitatively studied as soft glassy materials. We found that although the three toothpastes generally behaved in similar fashion in terms of rheology, each particular one was distinct from others in terms of the quantitative magnitude of the rheologcial properties including thixotropy, creep and relaxation, yield stress, and power-law dependence of modulus on frequency. In addition, the history-dependent effects were interpreted in terms of aging and rejuvenation phenomena, analogous to those existing in glassy systems, and Ynby seemed to result in greater extent of aging and rejuvenation as compared to the other two. All these differences in toothpaste rheology may well be attributed to the different microscopic network microstructures as observed in this study. Therefore, this study provides first evidence of microstructurebased rheological behaviors of toothpaste, which may be useful for optimizing its composition, manufacturing processing as well as end-user applications.

  2. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence.

  3. Olfactory and tissue markers of fear in mammals including humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Roman; Wiergowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Michał; Gos, Tomasz; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Studniarek, Michał; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Pheromones are a mysterious world of chemical signals involved in conspecific communication. They play a number of key functions important for preservation of life of individual organisms, for their defence, survival of offspring and preservation of species. The best-known groups of pheromones include: trail pheromones, territorial pheromones, sex pheromones, aggregation pheromones, dispersion pheromones, repellent pheromones, social pheromones and alarm pheromones. Alarm pheromones are pheromones that are emitted by animals in threatening situations and inform members of the same species of danger. The identified alarm pheromones are synthesised by insects and aquatic organisms. Also humans are able to emit and perceive pheromones. Although alarm pheromones have not been isolated and identified in man so far, there is presumably evidence for their presence in humans. Pinpointing human alarm pheromones, determinants of experienced stress and inductors of provoked fear could have widespread consequences. Their identification could also be of significant importance for the practical utilisation of results by institutions responsible for safety and defence as well as law enforcement/crime detection and antiterrorist activities.

  4. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  5. C -parameter distribution at N3LL' including power corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, André H.; Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W.

    2015-05-01

    We compute the e+e- C -parameter distribution using the soft-collinear effective theory with a resummation to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log prime accuracy of the most singular partonic terms. This includes the known fixed-order QCD results up to O (αs3), a numerical determination of the two-loop nonlogarithmic term of the soft function, and all logarithmic terms in the jet and soft functions up to three loops. Our result holds for C in the peak, tail, and far tail regions. Additionally, we treat hadronization effects using a field theoretic nonperturbative soft function, with moments Ωn. To eliminate an O (ΛQCD) renormalon ambiguity in the soft function, we switch from the MS ¯ to a short distance "Rgap" scheme to define the leading power correction parameter Ω1. We show how to simultaneously account for running effects in Ω1 due to renormalon subtractions and hadron-mass effects, enabling power correction universality between C -parameter and thrust to be tested in our setup. We discuss in detail the impact of resummation and renormalon subtractions on the convergence. In the relevant fit region for αs(mZ) and Ω1, the perturbative uncertainty in our cross section is ≃ 2.5 % at Q =mZ.

  6. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  7. Materials issues in some advanced forming techniques, including superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Henshall, G.A.; Nieh, T.G. [and others

    1995-08-22

    From mechanics and macroscopic viewpoints, the sensitivity of the flow stress of a material to the strain rate, i.e. the strain rate sensitivity (m), governs the development of neck formation and therefore has a strong influence on the tensile ductility and hence formability of materials. Values of strain rate sensitivity range from unity, for the case of Newtonian viscous materials, to less than 0.1 for some dispersion strengthened alloys. Intermediate values of m = 0.5 are associated with classical superplastic materials which contain very fine grain sizes following specialized processing. An overview is given of the influence of strain rate sensitivity on tensile ductility and of the various materials groups that can exhibit high values of strain rate sensitivity. Recent examples of enhanced formability (or extended tensile ductility) in specific regimes between m = 1 and m = 0.3 are described, and potential areas for commercial exploitation are noted. These examples include: internal stress superplasticity, superplastic ceramics, superplastic intermetallics, superplastic laminated composites, superplastic behavior over six orders of magnitude of strain rate in a range of aluminum-based alloys and composites, and enhanced ductility in Al-Mg alloys that require no special processing for microstructural development.

  8. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  9. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  10. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion.

  11. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  12. Worldwide epidemiology of liver hydatidosis including the Mediterranean area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Grosso; Salvatore Gruttadauria; Antonio Biondi; Stefano Marventano; Antonio Mistretta

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide incidence and prevalence of cystic echinococcosis have fallen dramatically over the past several decades.Nonetheless,infection with Echinococcus granulosus (E.granulosus) remains a major public health issue in several countries and regions,even in places where it was previously at low levels,as a result of a reduction of control programmes due to economic problems and lack of resources.Geographic distribution differs by country and region depending on the presence in that country of large numbers of nomadic or semi-nomadic sheep and goat flocks that represent the intermediate host of the parasite,and their close contact with the final host,the dog,which mostly provides the transmission of infection to humans.The greatest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in human and animal hosts is found in countries of the temperate zones,including several parts of Eurasia (the Mediterranean regions,southern and central parts of Russia,central Asia,China),Australia,some parts of America (especially South America) and north and east Africa.Echinococcosis is currently considered an endemic zoonotic disease in the Mediterranean region.The most frequent strain associated with human cystic echinococcosis appears to be the common sheep strain (G1).This strain appears to be widely distributed in all continents.The purpose of this review is to examine the distribution of E.granulosus and the epidemiology of a re-emerging disease such as cystic echinococcosis.

  13. Targeted therapy of ovarian cancer including immune check point inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Chi Heum; Song, Hong Suk

    2017-08-22

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women because most patients present with advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. Although cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy remain the gold standards of treatment, the recurrence rate of ovarian cancer remains high. Attempts to improve this standard two-drug chemotherapy by adding a third cytotoxic drug have failed to affect either progression-free survival or overall survival and have resulted in an increase in toxic side effects. Some anti-angiogenic agents, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown efficacy in early stages of development for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. As demonstrated in recent clinical trials, the use of bevacizumab, cediranib, pazopanib, olaparib, and rucaparib, either alone or in combination with conventional cytotoxic agents, improves progression-free survival. Trials on immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab have revealed prolonged responses in a small set of ovarian cancer cases but require further exploration. In this review, we discuss the role of targeted therapies against ovarian cancer, including the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  14. Expanding marine protected areas to include degraded coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, A; Nelson, P A; Edgar, G J; Shashar, N; Reed, D C; Belmaker, J; Krause, G; Beck, M W; Brokovich, E; France, R; Gaines, S D

    2016-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied solution to coral reef degradation, yet coral reefs continue to decline worldwide. We argue that expanding the range of MPAs to include degraded reefs (DR-MPA) could help reverse this trend. This approach requires new ecological criteria for MPA design, siting, and management. Rather than focusing solely on preserving healthy reefs, our approach focuses on the potential for biodiversity recovery and renewal of ecosystem services. The new criteria would help identify sites with the highest potential for recovery and the greatest resistance to future threats (e.g., increased temperature and acidification) and sites that contribute to MPA connectivity. The DR-MPA approach is a compliment rather than a substitute for traditional MPA design approaches. We believe that the DR-MPA approach can enhance the natural, or restoration-assisted, recovery of DRs and their ecosystem services; increase total reef area available for protection; promote more resilient and better-connected MPA networks; and improve conditions for human communities dependent on MPA ecosystem services. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Betatron Function Parameterization of Beam Optics including Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Douglas; J. Kewisch; R.C. York

    1988-10-01

    Betatron function parameterization of symplectic matrices is of recognized utility in beam optical computations. The traditional ''beta functions'' beta, alpha, gamma,(=(1+alpha{sup 2})/beta) and psi (the betratron phase advance) provide an emittance-independent representation of the properties of a beam transport system. They thereby decouple the problem of ''matching'' injected beam envelope properties to the acceptance of a particular transport system from the details of producing a beam of a specific emittance. The definition and interpretation of these parameters becomes, however, more subtle when acceleration effects, especially adiabatic damping (with associated nonsymplecticity of the transfer matrix), are included. We present algorithms relating symplectic representations of beam optics to the more commonly encountered nonsymplectic (x, x', y, y') representation which exhibits adiabatic damping. Betatron function parameterizations are made in both representations. Self-consistent physical interpretations of the betatron functions are given and applications to a standard beam transport program are made.

  16. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  17. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  18. Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2011-03-01

    In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

  19. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  20. Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2016-05-01

    Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.

  1. Precise determination of Moessbauer lineshape parameters including interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.G.; Djedid, A.; Bullard, B.; Schupp, G.; Cowan, D.; Cao, Y.; Crow, M.L.; Yelon, W.

    1987-01-01

    Using 100 Ci /sup 183/Ta and 5 Ci /sup 182/Ta sources, with LiF and NaCl crystal monochromating filters, we have measured the lineshape parameters for the 46.5 keV and 99.1 keV Moessbauer effect (ME) transitions of /sup 183/W and the 100.1 keV transition of /sup 182/W. Using an analytic representation of the convolution integral and utilizing asymptotic analyses of the lineshape, we find, for both transmission and microfoil internal conversion (MICE) experiments, accurate values of all ME parameters including width, position, cross section, and interference. This new approach allows deconvolution of source and absorber spectra and gives a simple analytic expression for both as well as their Fourier transforms. The line widths for the 46.5, 99.1, and 100.1 keV transitions are 3.10(10), 0.369(18), and 0.195(12) cm/s, respectively. The interference parameters are -0.00257(9), -0.0093(12), and -0.0107(12) in the same respective order. The agreement between transmission and MICE measurements for the above lineshape parameters is within the experimental errors. We believe these measurements are the first having sufficient precision to allow a quantitative comparison with dispersion theory and they indicate interference parameters 10 to 20% smaller than predicted. Our measured line widths are less than earlier reported values. This is because our analysis of the true lineshape and the study of line asymptotics permits a quantitative determination of the isomer lifetimes rather than the usual lower bound found in earlier ME experiments. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  3. Goldilocks models of higher-dimensional inflation (including modulus stabilization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, C. P.; Enns, Jared J. H.; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P.

    2016-08-01

    We explore the mechanics of inflation within simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like inasmuch as they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size (or modulus), yet simple enough to solve explicitly the full extra-dimensional field equations using only simple tools. The solutions are not restricted to the effective 4D regime with H ll mKK (the latter referring to the characteristic mass splitting of the Kaluza-Klein excitations) because the full extra-dimensional Einstein equations are solved. This allows an exploration of inflationary physics in a controlled calculational regime away from the usual four-dimensional lamp-post. The inclusion of modulus stabilization is important because experience with string models teaches that this is usually what makes models fail: stabilization energies easily dominate the shallow potentials required by slow roll and so open up directions to evolve that are steeper than those of the putative inflationary direction. We explore (numerically and analytically) three representative kinds of inflationary scenarios within this simple setup. In one the radion is trapped in an inflaton-dependent local minimum whose non-zero energy drives inflation. Inflation ends as this energy relaxes to zero when the inflaton finds its own minimum. The other two involve power-law scaling solutions during inflation. One of these is a dynamical attractor whose features are relatively insensitive to initial conditions but whose slow-roll parameters cannot be arbitrarily small; the other is not an attractor but can roll much more slowly, until eventually transitioning to the attractor. The scaling solutions can satisfy H > mKK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict η simeq 0 and so r simeq 0.11 when ns simeq 0.96 and so

  4. Combination DMARD therapy including corticosteroids in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möttönen, T T; Hannonen, P J; Boers, M

    1999-01-01

    A number of reports indicating the growing acceptance of simultaneous therapy with multiple disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), as well as the use of more aggressive treatment measures in the early phases of disease to combat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have appeared during the last decade. However, only a few randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted on the use of DMARD combinations in early RA. We review these trials in this article. In two separate one-year studies combination therapy with sulphasalazine (SSZ) and methotrexate (MTX) seemed to offer no benefits compared to either drug used as monotherapy. On the other hand, the DMARD combinations so far proven to be superior to single DMARDs have initially also included a corticosteroid component. In the COBRA study (Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis) the combination of SSZ (2 gm/day), MTX (7.5 mg/week for 40 weeks), and prednisolone (Prd) (initially 60 mg/day, tapered in 6 weekly steps to 7.5 mg/day and stopped after 28 weeks) compared to SSZ alone (2 gm/day) resulted in significantly better clinical outcomes at week 28. Although the difference in clinical response between the treatment arms was lost at week 58, the progression of joint damage remained statistically significantly slower at week 80 in the patients initially assigned to the combination therapy. Furthermore, in the FIN-RACo trial (Finnish Rheumatoid Arthritis Combination Therapy Trial), therapy using a "tailored-steps" strategy with SSZ (1-2 gm/day), MTX (7.5-1.5 mg/week), hydroxychloroquine (300 mg/day), and Prd (up to 10 mg/day) yielded a significantly increased remission rate and less peripheral joint damage at two years than the single DMARD treatment strategy (initially SSZ 2 gm/day), with or without Prd. Adverse effects in both study arms were comparable. Two additional preliminary reports (in abstract form) suggest that intensive local therapy in the form of intra-articular injections added to single or

  5. A Fault Evolution Model Including the Rupture Dynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    We perform a preliminary numerical simulation of seismicity and stress evolution along a strike-slip fault in a 3D elastic half space. Following work of Ben-Zion (1996), the fault geometry is devised as a vertical plane which is about 70 km long and 17 km wide, comparable to the size of San Andreas Fault around Parkfield. The loading mechanism is described by "backslip" method. The fault failure is governed by a static/kinetic friction law, and induced stress transfer is calculated with Okada's static solution. In order to track the rupture propagation in detail, we allow induced stress to propagate through the medium at the shear wave velocity by introducing a distance-dependent time delay to responses to stress changes. Current simulation indicates small to moderate earthquakes following the Gutenberg-Richter law and quasi-periodical characteristic large earthquakes, which are consistent with previous work by others. Next we will consider introducing a more realistic friction law, namely, the laboratory-derived rate- and state- dependent law, which can simulate more realistic and complicated sliding behavior such as the stable and unstable slip, the aseismic sliding and the slip nucleation process. In addition, the long duration of aftershocks is expected to be reproduced due to this time-dependent friction law, which is not available in current seismicity simulation. The other difference from previous work is that we are trying to include the dynamic ruptures in this study. Most previous study on seismicity simulation is based on the static solution when dealing with failure induced stress changes. However, studies of numerical simulation of rupture dynamics have revealed lots of important details which are missing in the quasi-static/quasi- dynamic simulation. For example, dynamic simulations indicate that the slip on the ground surface becomes larger if the dynamic rupture process reaches the free surface. The concentration of stress on the propagating crack

  6. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

  7. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  8. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  9. Relationship between sleep duration and childhood obesity: Systematic review including the potential underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felső, R; Lohner, S; Hollódy, K; Erhardt, É; Molnár, D

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for papers using text words with appropriate truncation and relevant indexing terms. All studies objectively measuring sleep duration and investigating the association between sleep duration and obesity or factors (lifestyle and hormonal) possibly associated with obesity were included, without making restrictions based on study design or language. Data from eligible studies were extracted in tabular form and summarized narratively. After removing duplicates, 3540 articles were obtained. Finally, 33 studies (including 3 randomized controlled trials and 30 observational studies) were included in the review. Sleep duration seems to influence weight gain in children, however, the underlying explanatory mechanisms are still uncertain. In our review only the link between short sleep duration and the development of insulin resistance, sedentarism and unhealthy dietary patterns could be verified, while the role of other mediators, such as physical activity, screen time, change in ghrelin and leptin levels, remained uncertain. There are numerous evidence gaps. To answer the remaining questions, there is a need for studies meeting high methodological standards and including a large number of children. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  10. RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban; Keith Stewart, A

    2015-01-15

    To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27 968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-κ-B kinase-α (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy.

  11. Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Karla

    2012-04-10

    ITGs and TEMs in a tokamak configuration. The results show that collisions reduce the growth rate of slab ITGs in cylinder geometry, whereas they do not affect ITGs in a tokamak, which are mainly curvature-driven. However it is important to note that the pitch-angle scattering operator does not conserve momentum, which is most critical in the parallel direction. Therefore, the damping found in a cylinder could be the consequence of this missing feature and not a physical result [Dimits and Cohen 1994]. Nonetheless, the results are useful to determine whether the instability is mainly being driven by a slab or toroidal ITG mode. EUTERPE also has the feature of including kinetic electrons, which made simulations of TEMs with collisions possible. The combination of collisions and kinetic electrons made the numerical calculations extremely time-consuming, since the time step had to be small enough to resolve the fast electron motion. In contrast to the ITG results, it was observed that collisions are extremely important for TEMs in a tokamak, and in some special cases, depending on whether they were mainly driven by density or temperature gradients, collisions could even suppress the mode (in agreement with [Angioni et al. 2005, Connor et al. 2006]). In the case of stellarators it was found that ITGs are highly dependent on the device configuration. For LHD it was shown that collisions slightly reduce the growth rate of the instability, but for Wendelstein 7-X they do not affect it and the growth rate showed a similar trend with collisionality to that of the tokamak case. Collisions also tend to make the ballooning structure of the modes less pronounced.

  12. Risk factors for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Y E; Fagin, J A

    1997-01-01

    The potential risk factors for thyroid carcinoma development include genetic predisposition, exposure to therapeutic or environmental ionizing radiation, residence in areas of iodine deficiency or excess, history of preexisting benign thyroid disease, as well as hormonal and reproductive factors. In this review, we analyze some of the epidemiological data, as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which certain environmental and genetic factors might predispose to thyroid tumorigenesis. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:20-25).

  13. Optimal Algorithm for Algebraic Factoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支丽红

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents on optimized method for factoring multivariate polynomials over algebraic extension fields defined by an irreducible ascending set. The basic idea is to convert multivariate polynomials to univariate polynomials and algebraic extension fields to algebraic number fields by suitable integer substituteions.Then factorize the univariate polynomials over the algebraic number fields.Finally,construct mulativariate factors of the original polynomial by Hensel lemma and TRUEFACTOR test.Some examples with timing are included.

  14. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim;

    2016-01-01

    derived from latest world deforestation statistics, while a commercial feed mix of equivalent nutritive value was assumed to substitute the displaced grass as fodder. Intensification effects were included in both iLUC factors as additional N-fertilizer consumption. Finally, DR impacts were considered...... was developed for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced by willow cropping on arable land. For this, area expansion results from a general equilibrium economic model were combined with global LUC trends to differentiate between land transformation (as...... additional agricultural expansion, in areas with historical deforestation) and occupation (as delayed relaxation, DR, in areas with historical land abandonment) impacts. A biophysical approach was followed to determine the iLUCfeed emissions factor from marginal grassland. Land transformation impacts were...

  15. Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-12-17

    While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction.

  16. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  17. Polynomial J-spectral factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Huibert; Sebek, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Several algorithms are presented for the J-spectral factorization of a para-Hermitian polynomial matrix. The four algorithms that are discussed are based on diagonalization, successive factor extraction, interpolation, and the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation, respectively. The paper includ

  18. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  19. Global Factor Trade with Differentiated Factor Prices and Factor Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-kwong Kwok

    2004-01-01

    Relaxing the assumption of internationally identical factor intensity techniques in the HOV model creates two challenges. First, computing actual factor intensity techniques of different countries requires detailed input-output tables and factor usage data, which are not always available. Second, determinants of the factor intensity technique differences across countries need to be identified. This paper explores the role of relative factor price differences in the determination of factor int...

  20. Including Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Ellen Brantlinger's paper, "Using ideology: cases of non-recognition of the politics of research and practice in special education" (Brantlinger, E. 1997. "Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice in special education." "Review of Educational Research" 67, no. 4: 425-59),…

  1. Health risks of including alcohol and tobacco in PICTA free trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda

    2004-03-01

    In April 2005 Pacific Forum leaders will decide whether to include alcohol and tobacco in the Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA). This article presents arguments for keeping alcohol out of regional free trade agreements. Inclusion will allow regional rationalisation of production, increased alcohol availability, competition and marketing, and lower prices. These trade goals are inappropriate for alcohol and tobacco. Pacific public health organisations are concerned that official advice has focused on fiscal impacts, not health and social impacts. The World Health Organization has identified alcohol as the leading factor in injury and disease for low-mortality developing countries. Effective policies to reduce alcohol related harm include restrictions on availability, as well as excise taxes affecting price. Under trade agreements elsewhere, national alcohol policies have been challenged as 'non-tariff barriers to trade'. Hazardous drinking is of increasingly concern in the Pacific and decisions about alcohol should not reflect commercial interests.

  2. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Javier Orqueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system.

  3. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-06-22

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar density and vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  4. Why Include Impacts on Biodiversity from Land Use in LCIA and How to Select Useful Indicators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Michelsen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Loss of biodiversity is one of the most severe threats to sustainability, and land use and land use changes are still the single most important factor. Still, there is no sign of any consensus on how to include impacts on biodiversity from land use and land use changes in LCIA. In this paper, different characteristics of biodiversity are discussed and related to proposals on how to include land use and land use changes in LCIA. We identify the question of why we should care about biodiversity as a key question, since different motivations will result in different choices for the indicators, and we call for more openness in the motivation for indicator selection. We find a promising trend in combining pressure indicators with geographic weighting and regard this as a promising way ahead. More knowledge on the consequences of different choices, such as the selection of a reference state, is still needed.

  5. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory (MDFT) of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: ($i$) a scalar density and a vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and ($ii$) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  6. A factorization algorithm to compute Pfaffians

    OpenAIRE

    Rubow, Jürgen; Wolff, Ulli(Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany)

    2011-01-01

    We describe an explicit algorithm to factorize an even antisymmetric N^2 matrix into triangular and trivial factors. This allows for a straight forward computation of Pfaffians (including their signs) at the cost of N^3/3 flops.

  7. Socioeconomic factors associated with asthma prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate ranks 25th worldwide, SA ranks fourth for asthma mortality ... including larger household size, family and community violence, low ... pathways', wherein structural factors (e.g. urban living) were associated with individual factors (e.g. fewer ...

  8. Endodontic surgery prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Shah, Prakesh S

    2011-01-01

    Medline, (PubMed) and the Cochrane databases together with hand searching of the following journals: Journal of Endodontics, International Endodontic Journal, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology (name changed to Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics in 1995), Endodontics and Dental Traumatology (name changed to Dental Traumatology in 2001), Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Clinical studies evaluating apical surgery with placement of a root-end filling were included. Studies on apical surgery with orthograde root canal filling or about apicectomy alone without root-end filling were excluded, as were experimental and animal studies. Only studies with ≥ ten patients with a minimum six month follow-up period and clearly defined radiographic and clinical healing criteria, with healing reported for at least two categories of a specific prognostic factor were accepted. Studies reporting in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Scandinavian languages were included. All studies were assessed separately by two of the three authors, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Prognostic factors were divided into patient related, tooth-related or treatment-related factors. The reported percentages of healed teeth were pooled per category. The statistical method of Mantel-Haenszel was applied to estimate the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Homogeneity was assessed using Woolf's test. With regard to tooth-related factors, the following were identified as predictors of healing: absence of preoperative pain or signs, good density of the root canal filling and a periapical lesion size of ≤ 5 mm. With regard to treatment-related factors, teeth treated with the use of an endoscope tended to have higher healed rates than teeth treated without the use of an endoscope. Although the clinician may be able to control treatment

  9. Klf4 Is a Transcriptional Regulator of Genes Critical for EMT, Including Jnk1 (Mapk8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Neha; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie; Arnold, Phil; Antoniadis, Helena; Pachkov, Mikhail; van Nimwegen, Erik; Christofori, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    We have identified the zinc-finger transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) among the transcription factors that are significantly downregulated in their expression during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in mammary epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells. Loss and gain of function experiments demonstrate that the down-regulation of Klf4 expression is required for the induction of EMT in vitro and for metastasis in vivo. In addition, reduced Klf4 expression correlates with shorter disease-free survival of subsets of breast cancer patients. Yet, reduced expression of Klf4 also induces apoptosis in cells undergoing TGFβ-induced EMT. Chromatin immunoprecipitation/deep-sequencing in combination with gene expression profiling reveals direct Klf4 target genes, including E-cadherin (Cdh1), N-cadherin (Cdh2), vimentin (Vim), β-catenin (Ctnnb1), VEGF-A (Vegfa), endothelin-1 (Edn1) and Jnk1 (Mapk8). Thereby, Klf4 acts as a transcriptional activator of epithelial genes and as a repressor of mesenchymal genes. Specifically, increased expression of Jnk1 (Mapk8) upon down-regulation of its transcriptional repressor Klf4 is required for EMT cell migration and for the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate a central role of Klf4 in the maintenance of epithelial cell differentiation and the prevention of EMT and metastasis. PMID:23451207

  10. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  11. Lumbar foraminal stenosis, the hidden stenosis including at L5/S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Sumihisa; Inage, Kazuhide; Eguchi, Yawara; Kubota, Go; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-10-01

    In patients with lower back and leg pain, lumbar foraminal stenosis (LFS) is one of the most important pathologies, especially for predominant radicular symptoms. LFS pathology can develop as a result of progressing spinal degeneration and is characterized by exacerbation with foraminal narrowing caused by lumbar extension (Kemp's sign). However, there is a lack of critical clinical findings for LFS pathology. Therefore, patients with robust and persistent leg pain, which is exacerbated by lumbar extension, should be suspected of LFS. Radiological diagnosis is performed using multiple radiological modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, including plain examination and novel protocols such as diffusion tensor imaging, as well as dynamic X-ray, and computed tomography. Electrophysiological testing can also aid diagnosis. Treatment options include both conservative and surgical approaches. Conservative treatment includes medication, rehabilitation, and spinal nerve block. Surgery should be considered when the pathology is refractory to conservative treatment and requires direct decompression of the exiting nerve root, including the dorsal root ganglia. In cases with decreased intervertebral height and/or instability, fusion surgery should also be considered. Recent advancements in minimally invasive lumbar lateral interbody fusion procedures enable effective and less invasive foraminal enlargement compared with traditional fusion surgeries such as transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. The lumbosacral junction can cause L5 radiculopathy with greater incidence than other lumbar levels as a result of anatomical and epidemiological factors, which should be better addressed when treating clinical lower back pain.

  12. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  13. Including hydrological self-regulating processes in peatland models: Effects on peatmoss drought projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Metselaar, Klaas; Limpens, Juul; Teutschbein, Claudia; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; Berendse, Frank; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2017-02-15

    The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both processes. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on

  14. A Two-Factor Model of Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David E.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    The higher order structure of temperament was examined in two studies using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Because previous research showed robust levels of convergence between Rothbart’s constructs of temperament and the Big Five factors, we hypothesized a higher order two-factor model of temperament based on Digman’s higher order two-factor model of personality traits derived from factor analysis of the Big Five factors. Study 1 included 258 undergraduates. Digman’s model did not fit ...

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slapa Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

  16. Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk.

  17. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  18. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  19. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  20. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  1. A model predicting fluindione dose requirement in elderly inpatients including genotypes, body weight, and amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Pautas, Eric; Duverlie, Charlotte; Berndt, Celia; Andro, Marion; Mahé, Isabelle; Emmerich, Joseph; Lacut, Karine; Le Gal, Grégoire; Peyron, Isabelle; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Siguret, Virginie

    2014-04-01

    Indandione VKAs have been widely used for decades, especially in Eastern Europe and France. Contrary to coumarin VKAs, the relative contribution of individual factors to the indandione-VKA response is poorly known. In the present multicentre study, we sought to develop and validate a model including genetic and non-genetic factors to predict the daily fluindione dose requirement in elderly patients in whom VKA dosing is challenging. We prospectively recorded clinical and therapeutic data in 230 Caucasian inpatients mean aged 85 ± 6 years, who had reached international normalized ratio stabilisation (range 2.0-3.0) on fluindione. In the derivation cohort (n=156), we analysed 13 polymorphisms in seven genes potentially involved in the pharmacological effect or vitamin-K cycle (VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1) and fluindione metabolism/transport (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1). We built a regression model incorporating non-genetic and genetic data and evaluated the model performances in a separate cohort (n=74).Body-weight, amiodarone intake, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 genotypes were retained in the final model, accounting for 31.5% of dose variability. None influence of CYP2C9 was observed. Our final model showed good performances: in 83.3% of the validation cohort patients, the dose was accurately predicted within 5 mg, i.e.the usual step used for adjusting fluindione dosage. In conclusion, in addition to body-weight and amiodarone-intake, pharmacogenetic factors (VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1) related to the pharmacodynamic effect and transport of fluindione significantly influenced the dose requirement in elderly patients while CYP2C9 did not. Studies are required to know whether fluindione could be an alternative VKA in carriers of polymorphic CYP2C9 alleles, hypersensitive to coumarins.

  2. A New Method for Calculation of Single Seismic Phase of Cylindrically Multilayered Media Including Liquid Interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ruo-Long; WANG Ke-Xie; ZHANG Hong-Bing; HAN Wei

    2007-01-01

    A new method based on generalized reflection and transmission (R/T) coefficients method is proposed to calculate the single seismic phase (SSP) of cylindrically multilayered media including liquid interlayer. The use of normalization factors and normalized Lame coefficients makes the algorithm stable numerically. Using the modified R/T matrices, we derive the iterative expressions of generalized R/T matrices, and by using the iterative relation we determine the SSP of each interface and the full waveforms. To show the superiority of this new approach for investigating of reflection and transmission properties of cylindrically multilayered media, we simulate the full waveforms and SSPs of cased hole model with annulus Ⅰ (casing-cement interface) channelling (or,cross-flow). The generalized reflection coefficient spectra and SSPs of interfaces obtained show the propagation mechanism of each component of full waveform clearly.

  3. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal distribution under long-term studies. Meanwhile the boundary conditions for the thermal analysis are modeled and included, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by FEM simulations...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three...

  4. Numerical Analysis of Mold Deformation Including Plastic Melt Flow During Injection Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon Tae; Lee, Bong-Kee [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, a numerical analysis of an injection molding process was conducted for predicting the mold deformation considering non-Newtonian flow, heat transfer, and structural behavior. The accurate prediction of mold deformation during the filling stage is important to successfully design and manufacture a precision injection mold. While the local mold deformation can be caused by various factors, a pressure induced by the polymer melt is considered to be one of the most significant ones. In this regard, the numerical simulation considering both the melt filling and the mold deformation was carried out. A mold core for a 2D axisymmetric center-gated disk was used for the demonstration of the present study. The flow behavior inside the mold cavity and temperature distribution were analyzed along with the core displacement. Also, a Taguchi method was employed to investigate the influence of the relevant parameters including flow velocity, mold core temperature, and melt temperature.

  5. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye;

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity...... and roughness. This influences cell behaviour on the surface such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells as well as the mineralization of the extracellular matrix at the implant surfaces. The aim of the present systematic review was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating...... nanocoatings. The included in vivo studies, showed improvement of bone interface reactions measured as increased Bone-to-Implant Contact length and Bone Mineral Density adjacent to the polysaccharide coated surfaces. Based on existing literature, surface modification with polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans...

  6. Estimation of Contaminant Subslab Concentration in Vapor Intrusion Including Lateral Source–Building Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Most current vapor-intrusion screening models employ the assumption of a subsurface homogenous source distribution, and groundwater data obtained from nearby monitoring wells are usually taken to reflect the source concentration for several nearby buildings. This practice makes it necessary to consider the possible influence of lateral source–building separation. In this study, a new way to estimate subslab (nonbiodegradable) contaminant concentration is introduced that includes the influence of source offset with the help of a conformal transform technique. Results from this method are compared with those from a three-dimensional numerical model. Based on this newly developed method, a possible explanation is provided here for the great variation in the attenuation factors of the soil vapor concentrations of groundwater-to-subslab contaminants found in the EPA vapor-intrusion database. PMID:24795543

  7. Estimation of Contaminant Subslab Concentration in Vapor Intrusion Including Lateral Source-Building Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-08-01

    Most current vapor-intrusion screening models employ the assumption of a subsurface homogenous source distribution, and groundwater data obtained from nearby monitoring wells are usually taken to reflect the source concentration for several nearby buildings. This practice makes it necessary to consider the possible influence of lateral source-building separation. In this study, a new way to estimate subslab (nonbiodegradable) contaminant concentration is introduced that includes the influence of source offset with the help of a conformal transform technique. Results from this method are compared with those from a three-dimensional numerical model. Based on this newly developed method, a possible explanation is provided here for the great variation in the attenuation factors of the soil vapor concentrations of groundwater-to-subslab contaminants found in the EPA vapor-intrusion database.

  8. DYNAMICS OF FREE STRAIGHT SWIMMING OF ANGULLA ANGULLA INCLUDING FORWARD, BRAKING AND BACKWARD LOCOMOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eels can swim backward by reversing the direction of the traveling wave along the body. The propulsive mechanism of an eel, angulla angulla, during its self-propelled straight swimming, including forward swimming, braking and switching direction to backward swimming was numerically studied. The problem was reasonably simplified to a loose-coupling problem of fish swimming dynamics and hydrodynamics only in the swimming direction. The approach involved the simulation of the flow by solving the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible N-S equations and the fish motion dynamic problem with Newton's second law. Visualizations of flow fields and vortex structures were performed. The propulsive mechanism and dynamics during each process were investigated and the effects of controllable factors on forward free swimming were discussed.

  9. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal distribution under long-term studies. Meanwhile the boundary conditions for the thermal analysis are modeled and included, which can be adapted to different real-field applications of power electronic converters. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by FEM simulations...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three...

  10. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  11. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  12. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1ccardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Weak Lensing and CMB: Parameter forecasts including a running spectral index

    CERN Document Server

    Ishak, M; McDonald, P; Seljak, U; Ishak, Mustapha; Hirata, Christopher M.; Donald, Patrick Mc; Seljak, Uros

    2004-01-01

    We use statistical inference theory to explore the constraints from future galaxy weak lensing (cosmic shear) surveys combined with the current CMB constraints on cosmological parameters, focusing particularly on the running of the spectral index of the primordial scalar power spectrum, $\\alpha_s$. Recent papers have drawn attention to the possibility of measuring $\\alpha_s$ by combining the CMB with galaxy clustering and/or the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest. Weak lensing combined with the CMB provides an alternative probe of the primordial power spectrum. We run a series of simulations with variable runnings and compare them to semi-analytic non-linear mappings to test their validity for our calculations. We find that a ``Reference'' cosmic shear survey with $f_{sky}=0.01$ and $6.6\\times 10^8$ galaxies per steradian can reduce the uncertainty on $n_s$ and $\\alpha_s$ by roughly a factor of 2 relative to the CMB alone. We investigate the effect of shear calibration biases on lensing by including the calibration factor...

  14. Activity factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Exposure factors based on the Korean population are required for making appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that handbooks for exposure factors will be applied in many fields, as well as by health department risk assessors. The present article describes the development of an exposure factors handbook that specifically focuses on human activities in situations involving the possible risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We define majour exposure factors that represent behavioral patterns for risk assessment, including time spent on routine activities, in different places, on using transportation, and engaged in activities related to water contact including swimming, bathing and washing. Duration of residence and employment are also defined. National survey data were used to identify recommended levels of exposure factors in terms of time spent on routine activities and period of residence and employment. An online survey was conducted with 2073 subjects who were selected using a stratified random sampling method in order to develop a list of exposure factors for the time spent in different places and in performing water-related activities. We provide the statistical distribution of the variables, and report reference levels of average exposure based on the reliable data in our exposure factors handbook.

  15. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  16. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  17. Risk factors of placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected co...

  18. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  19. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  20. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  1. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  3. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  4. A Second Generation Nonlinear Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etezadi-Amoli, Jamshid; McDonald, Roderick P.

    1983-01-01

    Nonlinear common factor models with polynomial regression functions, including interaction terms, are fitted by simultaneously estimating the factor loadings and common factor scores, using maximum likelihood and least squares methods. A Monte Carlo study gives support to a conjecture about the form of the distribution of the likelihood ratio…

  5. On the factorization method in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosas-Ortiz, J O

    1998-01-01

    New exactly solvable problems have already been studied by using a modification of the factorization method introduced by Mielnik. We review this method and its connection with the traditional factorization method. The survey includes the discussion on a generalization of the factorization energies used in the traditional Infeld and Hull method.

  6. Risk factors for vascular disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breteler, M M; Bots, M L; Ott, A; Hofman, A

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that risk factors for vascular disease and stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. This paper reviews current knowledge on the relationship between risk factors for stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The focus will be on 'classical' risk factors, including age and gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, cholesterol, prior cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, cigarette smoking and alcohol use; as well as on factors that more recently have been recognized as putative risk factors, including APOE genotype, serum homocysteine concentration, relative abnormalities in the hemostatic and thrombotic systems, and inflammation.

  7. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  8. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the

  9. Molecular factors in migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Marta; Prendecki, Michał; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects 11% of adults worldwide. This disease most likely has a neurovascular origin. Migraine with aura (MA) and more common form - migraine without aura (MO) – are the two main clinical subtypes of disease. The exact pathomechanism of migraine is still unknown, but it is thought that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in this pathological process. The first genetic studies of migraine were focused on the rare subtype of MA: familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). The genes analysed in familial and sporadic migraine are: MTHFR, KCNK18, HCRTR1, SLC6A4, STX1A, GRIA1 and GRIA3. It is possible that migraine is a multifactorial disease with polygenic influence. Recent studies have shown that the pathomechanisms of migraine involves both factors responsible for immune response and oxidative stress such as: cytokines, tyrosine metabolism, homocysteine; and factors associated with pain transmission and emotions e.g.: serotonin, hypocretin-1, calcitonin gene-related peptide, glutamate. The correlations between genetic variants of the HCRTR1 gene, the polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and hypocretin-1, and serotonin were observed. It is known that serotonin inhibits the activity of hypocretin neurons and may affect the appearance of the aura during migraine attack. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of migraine, including genotype-phenotype correlations, may contribute to finding markers important for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:27191890

  10. Factors Influencing Prospective Women Students to Enroll at The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collection methods included interviews supplemented with focus group ... The study identified factors included internal or individual disposition factors that ... Learning at a distance was challenging and complex to prospective students.

  11. Factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E. Lankhorst (Nienke); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractABSTRACT This review systematically summarises factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies including ≥20 patients with PFPS that examined ≥1 possible factor associated with PFPS were included. A

  12. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF LATERAL MICRO-RESONATOR INCLUDING VISCOUS AIR DAMPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Rong; WANG Xiaojing; WANG Min; YU Maohua; XIE Mingchun

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the lateral micro-resonator including the air damping effect is researched. The air damping force is varied periodically during the resonator oscillating, and the air damp coefficient can not be fixed as a constant. Therefore the linear dynamic analysis which used the constant air damping coefficient can not describe the actual dynamic characteristics of the micro-resonator. The nonlinear dynamic model including the air damping force is established. On the base of Navier-Stokes equation and nonlinear dynamical equation, a coupled fluid-solid numerical simulation method is developed and demonstrates that damping force is a vital factor in micro-comb structures. Compared with existing experimental result, the nonlinear numerical value has quite good agreement with it. The differences of the amplitudes (peak) between the experimental data and the results by the linear model and the nonlinear model are 74.5% and 6% respectively. Nonlinear numerical value is more exact than linear value and the method can be applied in other micro-electro-mechanical systeme (MEMS) structures to simulate the dynamic performance.

  13. Photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization with enlargement of the spot size to include the feeding complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Georgalas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas, Alexandros A Rouvas, Dimitrios A Karagiannis, Athanasios I Kotsolis, Ioannis D LadasDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical School of Athens University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: This is a case report of a 83-year-old man with choroidal neovascularization (CNV, due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD in his right eye. Digital fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICG were performed, which disclosed predominantly classic subfoveal CNV and a dilated and tortuous feeding complex. The visual acuity was 20/800. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF treatment was suggested, however, the patient was not keen to receive an intraocular injection. Modified photodynamic therapy (PDT with spot size enlarged, to include not only the CNV lesion but the feeding complex as well, was performed. Ten days after one session of PDT, ICG showed absence of leakage from the CNV and complete occlusion of the feeding complex. The visual acuity gradually improved to 20/100 and remained stable during the following 23 months. No evidence of CNV leakage was seen in the FA and ICG during the follow up period. Adjustment of the PDT spot size to include the detectable by ICG feeding complex might be an additional option in order to close the subfoveal CNV and might be considered as an alternative to intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF in selected cases where anti-VEGF treatment is not available.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, photodynamic treatment, feeder vessel

  14. Neoadjuvant multidrug chemotherapy including High-Dose Methotrexate modifies VEGF expression in Osteosarcoma: an immunohistochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Michele A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis plays a role in the progression of osteosarcoma, as well as in other mesenchymal tumors and carcinomas, and it is most commonly assessed by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression or tumor CD31-positive microvessel density (MVD. Tumor VEGF expression is predictive of poor prognosis, and chemotherapy can affect the selection of angiogenic pattern. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of VEGF and CD31 in osteosarcoma, both at diagnosis and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in order to identify a potential role of chemotherapy in angiogenic phenotype. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 16 patients with high grade osteosarcoma. In each case archival pre-treatment biopsy tissue and post-chemotherapy tumor specimens were immunohistochemically stained against CD31 and VEGF, as markers of angiogenic proliferation both in newly diagnosed primary osteosarcoma and after multidrug chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX. The correlation between clinicopathological parameters and the degree of tumor VEGF and CD31 expression was statistically assessed using the χ2 test verified with Yates' test for comparison of two groups. Significance was set at p Results Expression of VEGF was positive in 11 cases/16 of cases at diagnosis. Moreover, 8 cases/16 untreated osteosarcomas were CD31-negative, but the other 8 showed an high expression of CD31. VEGF expression in viable tumor cells after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was observed in all cases; in particular, there was an increased VEGF expression (post-chemotherapy VEGF - biopsy VEGF in 11 cases/16. CD31 expression increased in 11 cases/16 and decreased in 3 cases after chemotherapy. The data relating to the change in staining following chemotherapy appear statistically significant for VEGF expression (p p > 0,05. Conclusions Even if the study included few patients, these results confirm that VEGF and CD

  15. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  16. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, occurs at an annual incidence of about 1 per 1000 adults. Rates increase sharply after around age 45 years, and are slightly higher in men than women in older age. Major risk factors for thrombosis, other than age, include exogenous factors such as surgery, hospitalization, immobility, trauma, pregnancy and the puerperium and hormone use, and endogenous factors such as cancer, obesity, and inherited and acquired disorde...

  17. Workplace aggression, including bullying in nursing and midwifery: a descriptive survey (the SWAB study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran

    2012-11-01

    Workplace aggression remains an important source of distress among nurses and midwives and has negative effects on staff health, patient care and organisations' reputation and fiscal health. To report on the nature and extent of workplace aggression, including bullying experienced by nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia. A descriptive study design was chosen. The Nurses Board of Victoria posted 5000 surveys to the randomly selected registered nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The participants were asked about their experiences of violence (from clients) and bullying (from colleagues) within their most recent four working weeks. In addition, the study investigated staff actions following incidents, staff training and safety at work, and what staff believe contribute to incidents. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages. Chi square tests and P value were used to assess differences in categorical data. 1495 returned questionnaires were included in the study (30% response rate). Over half of the participants (52%) experienced some form of workplace aggression. Thirty-six percent experienced violence mostly from patients or their visitors/relatives and 32% experienced bullying mostly from colleagues or from their managers/supervisors. Significant differences were found between those who experienced aggression from patients and those who were bullied in respect to handling of incidents; factors thought to contribute to incidents; and organisations' handling of incidents. The study suggests that staff are less worried by patient initiated aggression compared to bullying from colleagues. For all types of aggression, respondents clearly wanted better/more realistic training, as well as enforcement of policies and support when incidents arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pull factors of Finland and voluntary work

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvakainen, Janika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies pull factors of Finland and voluntary work. The aim of this study is to understand the pull factors of Finland from the perspective of young travelers. Which pull factors attract to choose Finland as their destination? In addition, which pull factors attract young travelers to participate in international voluntary work? The commissioner of this thesis is Allianssi Youth Exchange. The thesis is research-based and includes a quantitative Webropol survey and some qualit...

  19. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Seymour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design: In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results: The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions: Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come.