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  1. LIF supports primitive endoderm expansion during pre-implantation development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgani, Sophie M; Brickman, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    report that LIF has two distinct roles: it blocks early epiblast (Epi) differentiation, and it supports the expansion of primitive endoderm (PrE)-primed ESCs and PrE in vivo. We find that activation of JAK/STAT signalling downstream of LIF occurs initially throughout the pre-implantation embryo......, but later marks the PrE. Moreover, the addition of LIF to cultured embryos increases the GATA6(+) PrE population, whereas inhibition of JAK/STAT signalling reduces both NANOG(+) epiblast and GATA6(+) PrE. The reduction of the NANOG(+) Epi might be explained by its precocious differentiation to later Epi...... derivatives, whereas the increase in PrE is mediated both by an increase in proliferation and inhibition of PrE apoptosis that is normally triggered in embryos with an excess of GATA6(+) cells. Thus, it appears that the relative size of the PrE is determined by the number of LIF-producing cells in the embryo...

  2. Transcriptome profiling of human pre-implantation development.

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    Pu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preimplantation development is a crucial step in early human development. However, the molecular basis of human preimplantation development is not well known. METHODOLOGY: By applying microarray on 397 human oocytes and embryos at six developmental stages, we studied the transcription dynamics during human preimplantation development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the preimplantation development consisted of two main transitions: from metaphase-II oocyte to 4-cell embryo where mainly the maternal genes were expressed, and from 8-cell embryo to blastocyst with down-regulation of the maternal genes and up-regulation of embryonic genes. Human preimplantation development proved relatively autonomous. Genes predominantly expressed in oocytes and embryos are well conserved during evolution. SIGNIFICANCE: Our database and findings provide fundamental resources for understanding

  3. Single-cell RNA sequencing: revealing human pre-implantation development, pluripotency and germline development.

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    Petropoulos, S; Panula, S P; Schell, J P; Lanner, F

    2016-09-01

    Early human development is a dynamic, heterogeneous, complex and multidimensional process. During the first week, the single-cell zygote undergoes eight to nine rounds of cell division generating the multicellular blastocyst, which consists of hundreds of cells forming spatially organized embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. At the level of transcription, degradation of maternal RNA commences at around the two-cell stage, coinciding with embryonic genome activation. Although numerous efforts have recently focused on delineating this process in humans, many questions still remain as thorough investigation has been limited by ethical issues, scarce availability of human embryos and the presence of minute amounts of DNA and RNA. In vitro cultures of embryonic stem cells provide some insight into early human development, but such studies have been confounded by analysis on a population level failing to appreciate cellular heterogeneity. Recent technical developments in single-cell RNA sequencing have provided a novel and powerful tool to explore the early human embryo in a systematic manner. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques utilized to specifically investigate human development and consider how the technology has yielded new insights into pre-implantation development, embryonic stem cells and the establishment of the germ line.

  4. PreImplantation Factor (PIF correlates with early mammalian embryo development-bovine and murine models

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    Coulam Carolyn B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PreImplantation Factor (PIF, a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos is essential for pregnancy: PIF modulates local immunity, promotes decidual pro-adhesion molecules and enhances trophoblast invasion. To determine the role of PIF in post-fertilization embryo development, we measured the peptide's concentration in the culture medium and tested endogenous PIF's potential trophic effects and direct interaction with the embryo. Methods Determine PIF levels in culture medium of multiple mouse and single bovine embryos cultured up to the blastocyst stage using PIF-ELISA. Examine the inhibitory effects of anti-PIF-monoclonal antibody (mAb added to medium on cultured mouse embryos development. Test FITC-PIF uptake by cultured bovine blastocysts using fluorescent microscopy. Results PIF levels in mouse embryo culture medium significantly increased from the morula to the blastocyst stage (ANOVA, P = 0.01. In contrast, atretic embryos medium was similar to the medium only control. Detectable - though low - PIF levels were secreted already by 2-cell stage mouse embryos. In single bovine IVF-derived embryos, PIF levels in medium at day 3 of culture were higher than non-cleaving embryos (control (P = 0.01 and at day 7 were higher than day 3 (P = 0.03. In non-cleaving embryos culture medium was similar to medium alone (control. Anti-PIF-mAb added to mouse embryo cultures lowered blastocyst formation rate 3-fold in a dose-dependent manner (2-way contingency table, multiple groups, X2; P = 0.01 as compared with non-specific mouse mAb, and medium alone, control. FITC-PIF was taken-up by cultured bovine blastocysts, but not by scrambled FITC-PIF (control. Conclusions PIF is an early embryo viability marker that has a direct supportive role on embryo development in culture. PIF-ELISA use to assess IVF embryo quality prior to transfer is warranted. Overall, our data supports PIF's endogenous self sustaining role in embryo development and the

  5. Near-infrared laser irradiation improves the development of mouse pre-implantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Masaki; Mori, Miho

    2017-05-27

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx. 73 h after culture) were irradiated at 904 nm for 60 s. These embryos were cultured in a time-lapse monitoring system and the timing of blastocyst hatching was evaluated. Some of the irradiated blastocysts were transferred to the uterine horns of pseudopregnant recipients immediately after irradiation. Pregnancy rates, and offspring growth and fertility, were evaluated. Near-infrared laser irradiation increased the speed of in vitro mouse embryo development. In irradiated blastocysts, hatching was faster than in control (non-irradiated) blastocysts (18.4 vs. 28.2 h, P infrared laser irradiation improves the quality of mouse embryo development in vitro, and increases the live birth rate without affecting the normality of the offspring. Thus, the near-infrared laser method may enhance the quality of embryos and contribute to improvements in reproductive technologies in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Murine Wee1 Plays a Critical Role in Cell Cycle Regulation and Pre-Implantation Stages of Embryonic Development

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    Yohei Tominaga, Cuiling Li, Rui-Hong Wang, Chu-Xia Deng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Wee1 kinase regulates the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint by phosphorylating and inactivating the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1. Loss of Wee1 in many systems, including yeast and drosophila, leads to premature mitotic entry. However, the developmental role of Wee1 in mammals remains unclear. In this study, we established Wee1 knockout mice by gene targeting. We found that Wee-/- embryos were defective in the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint induced by γ-irradiation and died of apoptosis before embryonic (E day 3.5. To study the function of Wee1 further, we have developed MEF cells in which Wee1 is disrupted by a tamoxifen inducible Cre-LoxP approach. We found that acute deletion of Wee1 resulted in profound growth defects and cell death. Wee1 deficient cells displayed chromosome aneuploidy and DNA damage as revealed by γ-H2AX foci formation and Chk2 activation. Further studies revealed a conserved mechanism of Wee1 in regulating mitotic entry and the G2/M checkpoint compared with other lower organisms. These data provide in vivo evidence that mammalian Wee1 plays a critical role in maintaining genome integrity and is essential for embryonic survival at the pre-implantation stage of mouse development.

  7. Can a genetically-modified organism-containing diet influence embryo development? A preliminary study on pre-implantation mouse embryos

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    B Cisterna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo several transformation steps to generate mature mRNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that a diet containing a genetically modified (GM soybean can induce modifications of nuclear constituents involved in RNA processing in some tissues of young, adult and old mice. On this basis, we have investigated the ultrastructural and immunocytochemical features of pre-implantation embryos from mice fed either GM or non- GM soybean in order to verify whether the parental diet can affect the morpho-functional development of the embryonic ribonucleoprotein structural constituents involved in premRNA pathways. Morphological observations revealed that the general aspect of embryo nuclear components is similar in the two experimental groups. However, immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization results suggest a temporary decrease of pre-mRNA transcription and splicing in 2-cell embryos and a resumption in 4-8-cell embryos from mice fed GM soybean; moreover, pre-mRNA maturation seems to be less efficient in both 2-cell and 4-8-cell embryos from GM-fed mice than in controls. Although our results are still preliminary and limited to the pre-implantation phases, the results of this study encourage deepening on the effects of food components and/or contaminants on embryo development.

  8. Injection of ligand-free gold and silver nanoparticles into murine embryos does not impact pre-implantation development

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    Ulrike Taylor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Intended exposure to gold and silver nanoparticles has increased exponentially over the last decade and will continue to rise due to their use in biomedical applications. In particular, reprotoxicological aspects of these particles still need to be addressed so that the potential impacts of this development on human health can be reliably estimated. Therefore, in this study the toxicity of gold and silver nanoparticles on mammalian preimplantation development was assessed by injecting nanoparticles into one blastomere of murine 2 cell-embryos, while the sister blastomere served as an internal control. After treatment, embryos were cultured and embryo development up to the blastocyst stage was assessed. Development rates did not differ between microinjected and control groups (gold nanoparticles: 67.3%, silver nanoparticles: 61.5%, sham: 66.2%, handling control: 79.4%. Real-time PCR analysis of six developmentally important genes (BAX, BCL2L2, TP53, OCT4, NANOG, DNMT3A did not reveal an influence on gene expression in blastocysts. Contrary to silver nanoparticles, exposure to comparable Ag+-ion concentrations resulted in an immediate arrest of embryo development. In conclusion, the results do not indicate any detrimental effect of colloidal gold or silver nanoparticles on the development of murine embryos.

  9. ENU mutagenesis reveals that Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila affects Cdkn1a and several members of the Wnt pathway during murine pre-implantation development

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    Lossie Amy C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our interests lie in determining the genes and genetic pathways that are important for establishing and maintaining maternal-fetal interactions during pregnancy. Mutation analysis targeted to a 34 Mb domain flanked by Trp53 and Wnt3 demonstrates that this region of mouse chromosome 11 contains a large number of essential genes. Two mutant alleles (l11Jus1 and l11Jus4, which fall into the same complementation group, survive through implantation but fail prior to gastrulation. Results Through a positional cloning strategy, we discovered that these homozygous mutant alleles contain non-conservative missense mutations in the Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila (Nle1 gene. NLE1 is a member of the large WD40-repeat protein family, and is thought to signal via the canonical NOTCH pathway in vertebrates. However, the phenotype of the Nle1 mutant mice is much more severe than single Notch receptor mutations or even in animals in which NOTCH signaling is blocked. To test the hypothesis that NLE1 functions in multiple signaling pathways during pre-implantation development, we examined expression of multiple Notch downstream target genes, as well as select members of the Wnt pathway in wild-type and mutant embryos. We did not detect altered expression of any primary members of the Notch pathway or in Notch downstream target genes. However, our data reveal that Cdkn1a, a NOTCH target, was upregulated in Nle1 mutants, while several members of the Wnt pathway are downregulated. In addition, we found that Nle1 mutant embryos undergo caspase-mediated apoptosis as hatched blastocysts, but not as morulae or blastocysts. Conclusions Taken together, these results uncover potential novel functions for NLE1 in the WNT and CDKN1A pathways during embryonic development in mammals.

  10. Perkembangan Praimplantasi Embrio Mencit dengan Materi Genetik yang Berasal dari Parental, Maternal, dan Inti Sel Somatik (PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYO WITH GENETIC MATERIAL DERIVED FROM PARENTAL, MATERNAL AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEUS

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    Harry Murti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloned embryo and parthenogenetic embryo are a potential source of stem cells for regenerativemedicine. Stem cells derived from those embryos are expected to overcome the ethical issues to the use offertilization embryos for therapeutic purposes. The pre-implantation development is a critical step fordeveloping embryos reach the blastocyst stage. The objectives in vivo of this research are to produce mousecloned embryo, parthenogenetic embryo, and fertilized embryo and to study stages of  in vitro pre-implantation development culture. In vivo fertilized embryos, mouse oocytes, and cumulus cells were usedin this study. Treatment was performed on female mice superovulated with PMSG and hCG injections.Two-cell stage of in vivo fertilized embryos were collected on the second day post hCG injection. Clonedembryos were produced through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT, which included enucleation, nucleartransfer and artificial activation. Parthenogenetic embryos were produced with artificial activationtechnique. The result of the research indicated that SCNT application was able to produce cloned embryos which could develop to blastocyst stage (3,2%. In addition, artificial activation of oocytes could produceparthenogenetic embryos which were able to develop up to the blastocyst stage (8,6%. In conclusion,efficiency level of parthenogenetic embryos that is able to reach the blastocyst stage was higher than in thecloned embryos. Fertilized embryos shows a better development and more efficient compared to in vitrocloned embryos and parthenogenetic embryos cultures.

  11. Insight into PreImplantation Factor (PIF*) Mechanism for Embryo Protection and Development: Target Oxidative Stress and Protein Misfolding (PDI and HSP) through Essential RIPK Binding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Barnea, Eytan R.; David M Lubman; Yan-Hui Liu; Victor Absalon-Medina; Soren Hayrabedyan; Krassimira Todorova; Gilbert, Robert O.; Joy Guingab; Timothy J Barder

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous PIF, upon which embryo development is dependent, is secreted only by viable mammalian embryos, and absent in non-viable ones. Synthetic PIF (sPIF) administration promotes singly cultured embryos development and protects against their demise caused by embryo-toxic serum. To identify and characterize critical sPIF-embryo protein interactions novel biochemical and bio-analytical methods were specifically devised. Methods FITC-PIF uptake/binding by cultured murine and equine...

  12. Insight into PreImplantation Factor (PIF*) Mechanism for Embryo Protection and Development: Target Oxidative Stress and Protein Misfolding (PDI and HSP) through Essential RIPK Binding Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Eytan R.; Lubman, David M.; Liu, Yan-Hui; Absalon-Medina, Victor; Hayrabedyan, Soren; Todorova, Krassimira; Gilbert, Robert O.; Guingab, Joy; Barder, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous PIF, upon which embryo development is dependent, is secreted only by viable mammalian embryos, and absent in non-viable ones. Synthetic PIF (sPIF) administration promotes singly cultured embryos development and protects against their demise caused by embryo-toxic serum. To identify and characterize critical sPIF-embryo protein interactions novel biochemical and bio-analytical methods were specifically devised. Methods FITC-PIF uptake/binding by cultured murine and equine embryos was examined and compared with scrambled FITC-PIF (control). Murine embryo (d10) lysates were fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC, fractions printed onto microarray slides and probed with Biotin-PIF, IDE and Kv1.3 antibodies, using fluorescence detection. sPIF-based affinity column was developed to extract and identify PIF-protein interactions from lysates using peptide mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In silico evaluation examined binding of PIF to critical targets, using mutation analysis. Results PIF directly targets viable cultured embryos as compared with control peptide, which failed to bind. Multistep Biotin-PIF targets were confirmed by single-step PIF-affinity column based isolation. PIF binds protein disulfide isomerases a prolyl-4-hydroxylase β-subunit, (PDI, PDIA4, PDIA6-like) containing the antioxidant thioredoxin domain. PIF also binds protective heat shock proteins (70&90), co-chaperone, BAG-3. Remarkably, PIF targets a common RIPK site in PDI and HSP proteins. Further, single PIF amino acid mutation significantly reduced peptide-protein target bonding. PIF binds promiscuous tubulins, neuron backbones and ACTA-1,2 visceral proteins. Significant anti-IDE, while limited anti-Kv1.3b antibody-binding to Biotin-PIF positive lysates HPLC fractions were documented. Conclusion Collectively, data identifies PIF shared targets on PDI and HSP in the embryo. Such are known to play a critical role in protecting against oxidative stress and protein misfolding. PIF

  13. Insight into PreImplantation Factor (PIF*) mechanism for embryo protection and development: target oxidative stress and protein misfolding (PDI and HSP) through essential RIKP [corrected] binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Eytan R; Lubman, David M; Liu, Yan-Hui; Absalon-Medina, Victor; Hayrabedyan, Soren; Todorova, Krassimira; Gilbert, Robert O; Guingab, Joy; Barder, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous PIF, upon which embryo development is dependent, is secreted only by viable mammalian embryos, and absent in non-viable ones. Synthetic PIF (sPIF) administration promotes singly cultured embryos development and protects against their demise caused by embryo-toxic serum. To identify and characterize critical sPIF-embryo protein interactions novel biochemical and bio-analytical methods were specifically devised. FITC-PIF uptake/binding by cultured murine and equine embryos was examined and compared with scrambled FITC-PIF (control). Murine embryo (d10) lysates were fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC, fractions printed onto microarray slides and probed with Biotin-PIF, IDE and Kv1.3 antibodies, using fluorescence detection. sPIF-based affinity column was developed to extract and identify PIF-protein interactions from lysates using peptide mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In silico evaluation examined binding of PIF to critical targets, using mutation analysis. PIF directly targets viable cultured embryos as compared with control peptide, which failed to bind. Multistep Biotin-PIF targets were confirmed by single-step PIF-affinity column based isolation. PIF binds protein disulfide isomerases a prolyl-4-hydroxylase β-subunit, (PDI, PDIA4, PDIA6-like) containing the antioxidant thioredoxin domain. PIF also binds protective heat shock proteins (70&90), co-chaperone, BAG-3. Remarkably, PIF targets a common RIKP [corrected] site in PDI and HSP proteins. Further, single PIF amino acid mutation significantly reduced peptide-protein target bonding. PIF binds promiscuous tubulins, neuron backbones and ACTA-1,2 visceral proteins. Significant anti-IDE, while limited anti-Kv1.3b antibody-binding to Biotin-PIF positive lysates HPLC fractions were documented. Collectively, data identifies PIF shared targets on PDI and HSP in the embryo. Such are known to play a critical role in protecting against oxidative stress and protein misfolding. PIF-affinity-column is a novel

  14. Insight into PreImplantation Factor (PIF* mechanism for embryo protection and development: target oxidative stress and protein misfolding (PDI and HSP through essential RIKP [corrected] binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eytan R Barnea

    Full Text Available Endogenous PIF, upon which embryo development is dependent, is secreted only by viable mammalian embryos, and absent in non-viable ones. Synthetic PIF (sPIF administration promotes singly cultured embryos development and protects against their demise caused by embryo-toxic serum. To identify and characterize critical sPIF-embryo protein interactions novel biochemical and bio-analytical methods were specifically devised.FITC-PIF uptake/binding by cultured murine and equine embryos was examined and compared with scrambled FITC-PIF (control. Murine embryo (d10 lysates were fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC, fractions printed onto microarray slides and probed with Biotin-PIF, IDE and Kv1.3 antibodies, using fluorescence detection. sPIF-based affinity column was developed to extract and identify PIF-protein interactions from lysates using peptide mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS. In silico evaluation examined binding of PIF to critical targets, using mutation analysis.PIF directly targets viable cultured embryos as compared with control peptide, which failed to bind. Multistep Biotin-PIF targets were confirmed by single-step PIF-affinity column based isolation. PIF binds protein disulfide isomerases a prolyl-4-hydroxylase β-subunit, (PDI, PDIA4, PDIA6-like containing the antioxidant thioredoxin domain. PIF also binds protective heat shock proteins (70&90, co-chaperone, BAG-3. Remarkably, PIF targets a common RIKP [corrected] site in PDI and HSP proteins. Further, single PIF amino acid mutation significantly reduced peptide-protein target bonding. PIF binds promiscuous tubulins, neuron backbones and ACTA-1,2 visceral proteins. Significant anti-IDE, while limited anti-Kv1.3b antibody-binding to Biotin-PIF positive lysates HPLC fractions were documented.Collectively, data identifies PIF shared targets on PDI and HSP in the embryo. Such are known to play a critical role in protecting against oxidative stress and protein misfolding. PIF-affinity-column is a

  15. Microfluidic Protocol for pre-implantation culture of single mammalian embryos: towards and optimal culture protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Telma C.; Rossem, van Fleur; Boiani, Michele; Berg, van den Albert; Le Gac, Séverine

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics holds great potential for the field of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), to provide integrated platforms for combined embryo culture and characterization. The development of mouse embryos is not impaired in a microfluidic format: it proceeds faster during the pre-implantation per

  16. Segmental sandwich osteotomy of the posterior mandible in pre-implant surgery - A systematic review

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    Zografos, Ioannis; Tzermpos, Fotios; Iatrou, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Background The rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior mandible with dental implants often requires bone augmentation procedures. The aim of the present study is the systematic review of the literature concerning the success rate of Segmental Sandwich Osteotomy (SSO) of the posterior mandible in pre-implant surgery. Material and Methods Systematic review of all clinical cases and clinical studies of SSO of the posterior mandible in pre-implant surgery with a minimum follow-up of 6 months after implant loading was performed, based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search strategy involved searching the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, Clinical Trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and National Research Register (www.controlled-trials.com), supplemented by a manual search, in August 2015. In every study, the intervention characteristics and the outcome were recorded. Results Out of the 756 initial results, only 17 articles fulfilled the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. They consisted of 9 retrospective case reports or series and 8 prospective randomized clinical trials. Overall, the studies included 174 patients. In these patients, 214 SSO augmentation procedures were performed in the posterior mandible and 444 implants were placed. The follow-up period after implant loading ranged between 8 months and 5.5 years. The success rate of SSO ranged between 90% and 100%. The implant survival during the follow-up period ranged between 90.9% and 100%. Conclusions Segmental Sandwich Osteotomy should be considered as a well documented technique for the rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior mandible, with long-term postsurgical follow-up. The success rates are very high, as well as the survival of the dental implants placed in the augmented area. Key words:Segmental osteotomy, dental implant, mandible, inlay graft. PMID:27918747

  17. Expression of microRNAs in bovine and human pre-implantation embryo culture media

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    Jenna eKropp

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma. However, it is unknown whether they are secreted by embryonic cells into the culture media. Given that miRNAs are expressed throughout embryonic cellular divisions and embryonic genome activation, we hypothesized that they are secreted from the embryo into the extracellular environment and may play a role in the developmental competence of bovine embryos. To test this hypothesis, bovine embryos were cultured individually from day 5 to day 8 of development in an in vitro fertilization system and gene expression of 5 miRNAs was analyzed in both embryos and culture media. Differential miRNA gene expression was observed between embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage, deemed degenerate embryos. MiR-25, mir-302c, miR-196a2, and miR-181a expression was found to be higher in degenerate embryos compared to blastocyst embryos. Interestingly, these miRNAs were also found to be expressed in the culture media of both bovine and human pre-implantation embryos. Overall, our results show for the first time that miRNAs are secreted from pre-implantation embryos into culture media and that miRNA expression may correlate with developmental competence of the embryo. Expression of miRNAs in in vitro culture media could allow for the development of biological markers for selection of better quality embryos and for subsequent successful pregnancy.

  18. The environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin disrupts morphogenesis of the rat pre-implantation embryo

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    Albertini David F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental toxicants, whose actions are often mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway, pose risks to the health and well-being of exposed species, including humans. Of particular concern are exposures during the earliest stages of development that while failing to abrogate embryogenesis, may have long term effects on newborns or adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal exposure to the AhR-specific ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD on the development of rat pre-implantation embryos with respect to nuclear and cytoskeletal architecture and cell lineage allocation. Results We performed a systematic 3 dimensional (3D confocal microscopy analysis of rat pre-implantation embryos following maternal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of TCDD. Both chronic (50 ng/kg/wk for 3 months and acute (50 ng/kg and 1 μg/kg at proestrus maternal TCDD exposure disrupted morphogenesis at the compaction stage (8–16 cell, with defects including monopolar spindle formation, f-actin capping and fragmentation due to aberrant cytokinesis. Additionally, the size, shape and position of nuclei were modified in compaction stage pre-implantation embryos collected from treated animals. Notably, maternal TCDD exposure did not compromise survival to blastocyst, which with the exception of nuclear shape, were morphologically similar to control blastocysts. Conclusion We have identified the compaction stage of pre-implantation embryogenesis as critically sensitive to the effects of TCDD, while survival to the blastocyst stage is not compromised. To the best of our knowledge this is the first in vivo study to demonstrate a critical window of pre-implantation mammalian development that is vulnerable to disruption by an AhR ligand at environmentally relevant doses.

  19. Relationship between pre-implant interleukin-6 levels, inflammatory response, and early outcome in patients supported by left ventricular assist device: a prospective study.

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    Raffaele Caruso

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The immune response is crucial in the development of multi-organ failure (MOF and complications in end-stage heart failure patients supported by left ventricular assist device (LVAD. However, at pre-implant, the association between inflammatory state and post-LVAD outcome is not yet clarified. Aim of the study was to assess the relationship among pre-implant levels of immune-related cytokines, postoperative inflammatory response and 3-month outcome in LVAD-patients. METHODS: In 41 patients undergoing LVAD implantation, plasma levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, crucial for monocyte modulation, and urine neopterin/creatinine ratio (Neo/Cr, marker of monocyte activation, were assessed preoperatively, at 3 days, 1 and 4 weeks post-LVAD. MOF was evaluated by total sequential organ failure assessment (tSOFA score. Intensive care unit (ICU-death and/or post-LVAD tSOFA ≥11 was considered as main adverse outcome. Length of ICU-stay, 1 week-tSOFA score, hospitalisation and 3-month survival were considered additional end-points. RESULTS: During ICU-stay, 8 patients died of MOF, while 8 of the survivors experienced severe MOF with postoperative tSOFA score ≥11. Pre-implant level of IL-6 ≥ 8.3 pg/mL was identified as significant marker of discrimination between patients with or without adverse outcome (OR 6.642, 95% CI 1.201-36.509, p = 0.030. Patients were divided according to pre-implant IL-6 cutoff of 8.3 pg/ml in A [3.5 (1.2-6.1 pg/mL] and B [24.6 (16.4-38.0 pg/mL] groups. Among pre-implant variables, only white blood cells count was independently associated with pre-implant IL-6 levels higher than 8.3 pg/ml (OR 1.491, 95% CI 1.004-2.217, p = 0.048. The ICU-stay and hospitalisation resulted longer in B-group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.030, respectively. Postoperatively, 1 week-tSOFA score, IL-8 and Neo/Cr levels were higher in B-group. CONCLUSIONS: LVAD-candidates with elevated pre-implant levels of IL-6 are associated, after

  20. Modulation of the maternal immune system by the pre-implantation embryo

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    Walker Caroline G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of pregnancy losses occur during the pre-implantation period, when the developing embryo is elongating rapidly and signalling its presence to the maternal system. The molecular mechanisms that prevent luteolysis and support embryo survival within the maternal environment are not well understood. To gain a more complete picture of these molecular events, genome-wide transcriptional profiles of reproductive day 17 endometrial tissue were determined in pregnant and cyclic Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Results Microarray analyses revealed 1,839 and 1,189 differentially expressed transcripts between pregnant and cyclic animals (with ≥ 1.5 fold change in expression; P-value Conclusion The maternal immune system actively surveys the uterine environment during early pregnancy. The embryo modulates this response inducing the expression of endometrial molecules that suppress the immune response and promote maternal tolerance to the embryo. During this period of local immune suppression, genes of the innate immune response (in particular, antimicrobial genes may function to protect the uterus against infection.

  1. Active caspase-3 and ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis in spontaneous and induced cell death in bovine in vitro produced pre-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørret, Jakob O.; Fabian, Dusan; Avery, Birthe;

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated chronological onset and involvement of active caspase-3, apoptotic nuclear morphology, and TUNEL-labeling, as well as ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis, in both spontaneous and induced cell death during pre-implantation development of bovine in vitro produced...... embryos. Pre-implantation embryos (2-cell to Day 8 blastocysts) were cultured with either no supplementation (untreated) or with 10 µM staurosporine for 24 hr (treated). Embryos were subjected to immunohistochemical staining of active caspase-3, TUNEL-reaction for detection of DNA degradation and DAPI......, active caspase-3 and apoptotic nuclear morphology were observed in an untreated 8-cell stage, and TUNEL-labeling was observed from the 16-cell stage. Blastomeres concurrently displaying all apoptotic features were present in a few embryos at 16-cell and morula stages and in all blastocysts. All three...

  2. Role of reactive oxygen species in diabetes-induced embryotoxicity: studies on pre-implantation mouse embryos cultured in serum from diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Kimyagarov, D; Yaffee, P; Abir, R; Raz, I; Kohen, R

    1996-11-01

    Sera from diabetic patients or sera with high levels of diabetic metabolic products, were found to affect mouse and rat blastocysts. In the present study we examined the earliest developmental stages at which human diabetic serum will be lethal to mouse pre-implantation embryos, and whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in these diabetes-induced injuries. We cultured 2-4 cell-stage embryos and blastocysts in a medium containing 30 or 50% serum obtained from pregnant women with diabetes Type I, Type II and gestational diabetes (GDM) for 72 h. The development of the 2-4 cell-stage embryos was delayed when cultured in 30% diabetic serum, but the viability was impaired to a lesser extent. Viability was reduced in blastocysts cultured in 50% diabetic serum, but the development of the living embryos was not delayed. Cyclic voltametry measures the oxidation potential of the tissue and the concentration of antioxidants, thus reflecting the total antioxidative activity of the embryos. Pre-implantation embryos cultured in diabetic serum had a lower concentration of antioxidants than embryos cultured in non-diabetic serum. It seems, therefore, that diabetic metabolic factors may induce embryotoxicity in pre-implantation embryos through derangement of the antioxidant defense mechanism. A similar mechanism is suggested for the diabetes-induced teratogenicity in post-implantation embryos.

  3. cDNA microarray analysis of bovine embryo gene expression profiles during the pre-implantation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Tomoyuki

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After fertilization, embryo development involves differentiation, as well as development of the fetal body and extra-embryonic tissues until the moment of implantation. During this period various cellular and molecular changes take place with a genetic origin, e.g. the elongation of embryonic tissues, cell-cell contact between the mother and the embryo and placentation. To identify genetic profiles and search for new candidate molecules involved during this period, embryonic gene expression was analyzed with a custom designed utero-placental complementary DNA (cDNA microarray. Methods Bovine embryos on days 7, 14 and 21, extra-embryonic membranes on day 28 and fetuses on days 28 were collected to represent early embryo, elongating embryo, pre-implantation embryo, post-implantation extra-embryonic membrane and fetus, respectively. Gene expression at these different time points was analyzed using our cDNA microarray. Two clustering algorithms such as k-means and hierarchical clustering methods identified the expression patterns of differentially expressed genes across pre-implantation period. Novel candidate genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Results In total, 1,773 individual genes were analyzed by complete k-means clustering. Comparison of day 7 and day 14 revealed most genes increased during this period, and a small number of genes exhibiting altered expression decreased as gestation progressed. Clustering analysis demonstrated that trophoblast-cell-specific molecules such as placental lactogens (PLs, prolactin-related proteins (PRPs, interferon-tau, and adhesion molecules apparently all play pivotal roles in the preparation needed for implantation, since their expression was remarkably enhanced during the pre-implantation period. The hierarchical clustering analysis and RT-PCR data revealed new functional roles for certain known genes (dickkopf-1, NPM, etc as well as novel candidate genes (AW464053, AW465434, AW

  4. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way...

  5. Dynamic changes in leptin distribution in the progression from ovum to blastocyst of the pre-implantation mouse embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Laura C.; Roberts, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The hormone leptin, which is primarily produced by adipose tissue, is a critical permissive factor for multiple reproductive events in the mouse, including implantation. In the CD1 strain, maternally-derived leptin from the oocyte becomes differentially distributed among blastomeres of pre-implantation embryos to create a polarized pattern, a feature consistent with a model of development in which blastomeres are biased towards a particular fate as early as the 2-cell stage. Here, we have confirmed that embryonic leptin is of maternal origin and re-examined leptin distribution in two distinct strains in which embryos were derived after either normal ovulation or superovulation. A polarized pattern of leptin distribution was found in the majority of both CD1 and CF1 embryos (79.1 % and 76.9 %, respectively) collected following superovulation, but was reduced, particularly in CF1 embryos (29.8 %; p < 0.0001), after natural ovulation. The difference in leptin asymmetries in the CF1 strain arose between ovulation and the first cleavage division, and was not affected by removal of the zona pellucida. Presence or absence of leptin polarization was not linked to differences in ability of embryos to develop normally to blastocyst. In the early blastocyst, leptin was confined subcortically to trophectoderm but upon blastocoel expansion it was lost from cells. Throughout development leptin co-localized with LRP2, a multi-ligand transport protein, and its patterning resembled that noted for the maternal-effect proteins OOEP, NLRP5, and PADI6, suggesting that it is a component of the subcortical maternal complex with as yet unknown significance in pre-implantation development. PMID:21444625

  6. Amorphous clusters in Co implanted ZnO induced by boron pre-implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potzger, K.; Shalimov, A.; Zhou, S.; Schmidt, H.; Mucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.

    2009-02-09

    We demonstrate the formation of superparamagnetic/ferromagnetic regions within ZnO(0001) single crystals sequently implanted with B and Co. While the pre-implantation with B plays a minor role for the electrical transport properties, its presence leads to the formation of amorphous phases. Moreover, B acts strongly reducing on the implanted Co. Thus, the origin of the ferromagnetic ordering in local clusters with large Co concentration is itinerant d-electrons as in the case of metallic Co. The metallic amorphous phases are non-detectable by common X-ray diffraction.

  7. Antigen presenting cells costimulatory signaling during pre-implantation pregnancy 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sławek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Success of pregnancy depends on many factors. Three phenomena inducing immune tolerance against semi-allogeneic conceptus may play a crucial role in the pre-implantation period of pregnancy: influence of sex hormones in sex cycle, presence of oocyte or embryo and the presence of semen in the female reproductive tract. On the other hand dendritic cells are the most effective antigen-presenting cells in regulation of immune phenomena and also are considered as potent participants in inducing immune tolerance in the pregnancy. They communicate with T cells in cell contact-dependent manner or via cytokines. During cell-cell contacts, costimulatory molecules play a key role and their expression is often dependent on cytokines milieu. Both costimulatory molecules and cytokines influence generation of T regulatory cells. Interactions of these molecules are closely related. In this paper we would like to pay attention to the importance of antigen presenting cells costimulatory potency in immune regulation during a pre-implantation period of pregnancy.

  8. Histopathological analysis of pre-implantation donor kidney biopsies: association with graft survival and function in one year post-transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-implantation kidney biopsy is a decision-making tool when considering the use of grafts from deceased donors with expanded criteria, implanting one or two kidneys and comparing this to post-transplantation biopsies. The role of histopathological alterations in kidney compartments as a prognostic factor in graft survival and function has had conflicting results. Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence of chronic alterations in pre-implant biopsies of kidney grafts and the association of findings with graft function and survival in one year post-transplant. Methods: 110 biopsies were analyzed between 2006 and 2009 at Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, including live donors, ideal deceased donors and those with expanded criteria. The score was computed according to criteria suggested by Remuzzi. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated using the abbreviated MDRD formula. Results: No statistical difference was found in the survival of donors stratified according to Remuzzi criteria. The GFR was significantly associated with the total scores in the groups with mild and moderate alterations, and in the kidney compartments alone, by univariate analysis. The multivariate model found an association with the presence of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, acute rejection and delayed graft function. Conclusion: Pre-transplant chronic kidney alterations did not influence the post-transplantation one-year graft survival, but arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis is predictive of a worse GFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection are independent prognostic factors.

  9. Pre-implant orthodontics: achieving vertical bone height without osseous grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Jeffery; Beagle, Jay R

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, orthodontic treatment has be involved with implant dentistry to correct malocclusion prior to surgical procedures. Most recently, orthodontics has become an invaluable adjunct to implant dentistry for treatment plans involving tooth replacement for sites diagnosed with localized advanced periodontitis. Loss of vertical bone height as a result of periodontal disease is difficult to overcome with hard tissue grafting. However, in cases where the failing or failed tooth is still present, an alternative method involving pre-implant orthodontics is being utilized to generate vertical bone height. Specifically, orthodontic intrusive and extrusive forces are exerted on the hopeles tooth or teeth to facilitate bone in the future implant site. The author presents a case demonstrating this technique.

  10. Designer babies on tap? Medical students' attitudes to pre-implantation genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes two studies about the determinants of attitudes to pre-implantation genetic screening in a multicultural sample of medical students from the United States. Sample sizes were 292 in study 1 and 1464 in study 2. Attitudes were of an undifferentiated nature, but respondents did make a major distinction between use for disease prevention and use for enhancement. No strong distinctions were made between embryo selection and germ line gene manipulations, and between somatic gene therapy and germ line gene manipulations. Religiosity was negatively associated with acceptance of "designer baby" technology for Christians and Muslims but not Hindus. However, the strongest and most consistent influence was an apparently moralistic stance against active and aggressive interference with natural processes in general. Trust in individuals and institutions was unrelated to acceptance of the technology, indicating that fear of abuse by irresponsible individuals and corporations is not an important determinant of opposition.

  11. Associations Between Pre-Implant Psychosocial Factors and Spinal Cord Stimulation Outcome: Evaluation Using the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Andrew R; Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Kukal, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has variable effectiveness in controlling chronic pain. Previous research has demonstrated that psychosocial factors are associated with diminished results of SCS. The objective of this investigation is to examine associations between pre-implant psychological functioning as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and SCS outcomes. SCS candidates at two sites (total N = 319) completed the MMPI-2-RF and measures of pain, emotional distress, and functional ability as part of a pre-implant psychological evaluation. At an average of 5 months post-implant, patients completed the measures of pain and emotional distress a second time. Poorer SCS outcomes and poorer patient satisfaction were associated with higher pre-implant MMPI-2-RF scores on scales used to assess emotional dysfunction, somatic/cognitive complaints, and interpersonal problems. Ways through which pre-implant psychological evaluations of spinal cord stimulator candidates can be informed by MMPI-2-RF findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. On the relation between moral, legal and evaluative justifications of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Georg

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the question whether to uphold or repeal the judicial prohibition on Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is being debated from quite different standpoints. This paper differentiates the major arguments according to their reasons as a) moral, b) evaluative (i.e. cultural/religious), and c) legal. The arguments for and against PGD can be divided by content into three groups: arguments relating to the status of the embryo, focusing on individual actions in the implementation of PGD, and relating to the foreseeable or probable consequences of PGD. In Germany, from a legal perspective, the status of the embryo does not permit the intervention of PGD; from a purely moral perspective, a prohibition on PGD does not appear defensible. It remains an open question, however, whether the moral argument permitting PGD should be restricted for evaluative (cultural) reasons. The paper discusses the species-ethical reasons, for which Jurgen Habermas sees worrisome consequences in the wake of PGD to the extent that we comprehend it as the forerunner of a 'positive eugenics'. It would so disrupt the natural preconditions of our universal morality. The question of whether to prohibit or allow PGD is not merely a question of simple moral and/or legal arguments, but demands a choice between evaluative, moral and (still to be specified) species-ethical arguments, and the question remains open.

  13. Identification of genes induced by the conceptus in the bovine endometrium during the pre-implantation period

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    An intact embryo-maternal communication in the pre-implantation period is particularly critical for establishment of pregnancy and early embryonic losses have been identified as the major cause of reproductive failure in cattle. Thus, to gain deeper insight into this complex embryo-maternal crosstalk, a combination of subtracted cDNA libraries and cDNA array hybridization was applied to identify mRNAs differentially regulated genes in the bovine endometrium by the presence of a conceptus. One...

  14. Pre-implant right ventricular function might be an important predictor of the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Margareta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Cardiac resynchronization therapy is proven efficacious in patients with heart failure (HF. Presence of biventricular HF is associated with a worse prognosis than having only left ventricular (LV HF and pacing might deteriorate heart function. The aim of the study was to assess a possible significance of right ventricular (RV pre-implant systolic function to predict response to CRT. Design We studied 22 HF-patients aged 72 ± 11 years, QRS-duration 155 ± 20 ms and with an LV ejection fraction (EF of 26 ± 6% before and four weeks after receiving a CRT-device. Results There were no changes in LV diameters or end systolic volume (ESV during the study. However, end diastolic volume (EDV decreased from 226 ± 71 to 211 ± 64 ml (p = 0.02 and systolic maximal velocities (SMV increased from 2.2 ± 0.4 to 2.6 ± 0.9 cm/s (p = 0.04. Pre-implant RV-SMV (6.2 ± 2.6 cm/s predicted postoperative increase in LV contractility, p = 0.032. Conclusions Pre-implant decreased RV systolic function might be an important way to predict a poor response to CRT implicating that other treatments should be considered. Furthermore we found that 3D- echocardiography and Tissue Doppler Imaging were feasible to detect short-term changes in LV function.

  15. Influence of the radiation (Co{sub 60}) in pre-implants rabbit embryos: effect on atypic mitotic index and embryo pole development; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: influencia no numero de mitoses atipicas e no grau de desenvolvimento do polo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia

    1995-08-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: embryo pole development; percentage of abnormal mitotic figures. irradiation time was associated with lower scores of embryo pole development, but not with irradiation dose. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The abnormal mitotic cells was affected both by the time and dose of irradiation. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Pre-implantation implantable cardioverter defibrillator concerns and Type D personality increase the risk of mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Erdman, Ruud A M;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients.......Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients....

  17. Effects of helium pre-implantation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of irradiated 316 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Tedeski, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Odette, G.R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Stoller, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens of a First Core heat of 316 stainless steel, in both the solution annealed and 20% cold worked condition, were irradiated to 46 dpa at 420 C, to 49 dpa at 520 C, and to 34 dpa at 600 C in FFTF/MOTA. Prior to irradiation, about half of the specimens were pre-implanted with approximately 100 appm of helium, and of these, several of the solution annealed and pre-implanted specimens were aged at 800 C for 2 hr. Post-irradiation density measurements showed little difference in density between the unimplanted alloys and their helium implanted counterparts. Microstructural observations on specimens irradiated at 420 C and 520 C showed relatively minor differences in defect distributions between the unimplanted and the helium implanted materials; in all cases the defect sizes and number densities were consistent with data in the literature. Where possible, irradiation hardening of the alloys was experimentally evaluated by microhardness and shear punch; experimentally obtained values were compared to values calculated using a computer model based on barrier hardening and the microstructural data. All methods indicated relatively small effects of helium implantation, and both measured and calculated values were in agreement with the range of values reported in the literature.

  18. Pre-implantation genetic screening using fluorescence in situ hybridization in couples of Indian ethnicity: Is there a scope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Gada Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a high incidence of numerical chromosomal aberration in couples with repeated in vitro fertilization (IVF failure, advanced maternal age, repeated unexplained abortions, severe male factor infertility and unexplained infertility. Pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS, a variant of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, screens numerical chromosomal aberrations in couples with normal karyotype, experiencing poor reproductive outcome. The present study includes the results of the initial pilot study on 9 couples who underwent 10 PGS cycles. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of PGS in couples with poor reproductive outcome. Settings and Design: Data of initial 9 couples who underwent 10 PGS for various indications was evaluated. Subjects and Methods: Blastomere biopsy was performed on cleavage stage embryos and subjected to two round fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH testing for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y as a two-step procedure. Results: Six of the 9 couples (10 PGS cycles conceived, including a twin pregnancy in a couple with male factor infertility, singleton pregnancies in a couple with secondary infertility, in three couples with adverse obstetric outcome in earlier pregnancies and in one couple with repeated IVF failure. Conclusion: In the absence of availability of array-comparative genomic hybridization in diagnostic clinical scenario for PGS and promising results with FISH based PGS as evident from the current pilot study, it is imperative to offer the best available services in the present scenario for better pregnancy outcome for patients.

  19. Significance of buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation on the level of the midbuccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation affects the level of the midbuccal mucosa (MBM). Ninety patients with a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone were included. The level of the MBM was measured on photographs taken 1 year after crown placement. The factors analyzed only explained 22% of the level of the MBM. The more an implant was placed to the buccal, the more the MBM was positioned apically. A comparable phenomenon was observed in cases with a thick biotype and cases that underwent pre-implant bone augmentation. Platform switching did not affect the level of the MBM.

  20. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development.

  1. Caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK enhances the yield of in vitro produced buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pre-implantation embryos and alters cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullani, N; Singh, M K; Sharma, A; Rameshbabu, K; Manik, R S; Palta, P; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S

    2016-02-01

    The present investigation was done to study the effect of caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, on in vitro produced buffalo embryos. Z-LEHD-FMK is a cell-permeable, competitive and irreversible inhibitor of enzyme caspase-9, which helps in cell survival. Buffalo ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse and the oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). The culture medium was supplemented with Z-LEHD-FMK at different concentrations i.e. 0 μM (control), 10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM and 50 μM during IVM and IVC respectively. After day-2 post-insemination, the cleavage rate was significantly higher (74.20 ± 5.87% at PZ-LEHD-FMK than at any other concentration. Same trend was observed in the blastocyst production rate which was higher at 20 μM (27.42 ± 2.94% at PZ-LEHD-FMK which showed apoptotic index significantly lower (1.88 ± 0.87 at PZ-LEHD-FMK treated blastocysts. The quantitative gene expression of CHOP and HSP10 genes showed significant increase (PZ-LEHD-FMK, while, HSP40 showed significant increase (PZ-LEHD-FMK concentrations. From the afore mentioned results we conclude that, Z-LEHD-FMK at 20 μM increased the cleavage and blastocyst rate of buffalo pre-implantation embryos also affecting the rate of apoptosis and cellular stress at various concentrations.

  2. Effect of variable scanning protocolson the pre-implant site evaluation of the mandible in reformatted computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    To evaluate the effect of variable scanning protocols of computed tomography for evaluation of pre-implant site of the mandible through the comparison of the reformatted cross-sectional images of helical CT scans obtained with various imaging parameters versus those of conventional CT scans. A dry mandible was imaged using conventional nonoverlapped CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and helical CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and pitches of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0. All helical images were reconstructed at reconstruction interval of 1 mm. DentaScan reformatted images were obtained to allow standardized visualization of cross-sectional images of the mandible. The reformatted images were reviewed and measured separately by 4 dental radiologists. The image qualities of continuity of cortical outline, trabecular bone structure and visibility of the mandibular canal were evaluated and the distance between anatomic structures were measured by 4 dental radiologists. On image qualities of continuity of cortical outline, trabecular bone structure and visibility of the mandibular canal and in horizontal measurement, there was no statistically significant difference among conventional and helical scans with pitches of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. In vertical measurement, there was no statistically significant difference among the conventional and all imaging parameters of helical CT scans with pitches of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0. The images of helical CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and pitches of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 are as good as those of conventional CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness for evaluation of pre-dental implant site of the mandible. Considering the radiation dose and patient comfort, helical CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and pitch of 2.0 is recommended for evaluation of pre-implant site of the mandible.

  3. Significance of buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation on the level of the midbuccal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation affects the level of the midbuccal mucosa (MBM). Ninety patients with a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone were included. The level of the MBM was measured on photographs

  4. [Conception rate and embryo development in guinea pigs with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kosaka, T; Takahashi, K W

    1994-01-01

    Observations were made on the timing of mating and the pre-implantation development of fertilized eggs in guinea pigs synchronized by long-term progesterone treatment. Females received a subcutaneous implant of progesterone-filled silastic tubing for 14 days. Copulation was observed from the evening of day 4 to the morning of day 6 in 53 of 54 females (98%). Most of them (47/53, 89%) copulated on day 5 after removal of the tubing. Designating the day of copulation (day 5 after removal of the tubing) as day 0 of gestation, embryos collected from the genital tract were at the 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages on days 1, 3, 4 and 5 of gestation, respectively. Eggs were recovered at high incidence (85-100%) from days 1 to 5 of gestation. On day 6 gestation, no eggs were recovered from the genital tract, suggesting that implantation had occurred. The mean litter size (+/- S. D.) was 4.0 +/- 0.8 pups, which were born normally after a mean gestation period of 67 +/- 1 days in 7 synchronized females. Since the female guinea pigs synchronized by the long-term progesterone treatment had normal reproductive ability similar to that of cyclic females, this technique would make it possible to obtain animals at a scheduled time even in smaller-sized colonies. In addition, observations on the pre-implantation development of embryos in females with synchronized estrus might be a useful aid in the field of reproductive research.

  5. Low utilization of prenatal and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in Huntington disease - risk discounting in preventive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, J D; Stern, H J

    2015-09-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a late-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a (CAG) triplet repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene that enlarges during male meiosis. In 1996 in this journal, one of us (J. D. S.) presented a methodology to perform pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in families at-risk for HD without revealing the genetic status of the at-risk parent. Despite the introduction of accurate prenatal and pre-implantation genetic testing which can prevent transmission of the abnormal HD gene in the family permanently, utilization of these options is extremely low. In this article, we examine the decision-making process regarding genetic testing in families with HD and discuss the possible reasons for the low uptake among this group.

  6. Religious Scholars' Attitudes and Views on Ethical Issues Pertaining to Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, A; Nor, S N; Amin, L

    2016-09-01

    Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) represents the first fusion of genomics and assisted reproduction and the first reproductive technology that allows prospective parents to screen and select the genetic characteristics of their potential offspring. However, for some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be, at a minimum, worrying and, at most, repugnant. Religious doctrines particularly are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. This paper focuses on opinions and arguments of selected religious scholars regarding ethical issues pertaining to PGD. In-depth interviews were conducted with religious scholars from three different religious organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Findings showed that Christian scholars are very sceptical of the long-term use of PGD because of its possible effect on the value of humanity and the parent-children relationship. This differs from Islamic scholars, who view PGD as God-given knowledge in medical science to further help humans understand medical genetics. For Buddhist scholars, PGD is considered to be new medical technology that can be used to save lives, avoid suffering, and bring happiness to those who need it. Our results suggest that it is important to include the opinions and views of religious scholars when it comes to new medical technologies such as PGD, as their opinions will have a significant impact on people from various faiths, particularly in a multi-religious country like Malaysia where society places high value on marital relationships and on the traditional concepts of family.

  7. Knockdown of CDKN1C (p57(kip2 and PHLDA2 results in developmental changes in bovine pre-implantation embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M Driver

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes have been implicated in early embryonic, placental, and neonatal development and alterations in expression levels of these genes can lead to growth abnormalities and embryonic lethality. However, little is known about the functions of bovine imprinted genes during the pre-implantation period. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the influence of altered expression of imprinted genes on developmental progress of embryos using small interfering RNA (siRNA. Expression levels of 18 imprinted genes (MAGEL2, UBE3A, IGF2R, NAP1L5, TSSC4, PEG3, NDN, CDKN1C, PHLDA2, MKRN3, USP29, NNAT, PEG10, RTL1, IGF2, H19, MIM1, and XIST were compared between embryos reaching the blastocyst stage and growth-arrested embryos (degenerates using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Ten genes were found to be differentially expressed between blastocysts and degenerates. The CDKN1C gene showed the highest upregulation in blastocysts whereas PHLDA2 was highly expressed in degenerates. To assess whether the observed differential gene expression was causative or resultant of embryo degeneration, these genes were selected for functional analysis using siRNA. Injection of siRNA specific to PHLDA2 into one-cell zygotes resulted in a substantial increase in blastocyst development, whereas injection of CDKN1C-specific siRNA resulted in a 45% reduction (P = 0.0006 in blastocyst development. RNA-Seq analysis of CDKN1C-siRNA-injected vs. non-injected embryos revealed 51 differentially expressed genes with functions in apoptosis, lipid metabolism, differentiation, and cell cycle regulation. Gene ontology analysis revealed nine pathways related to cell signaling, metabolism, and nucleic acid processing. Overall, our results show that proper expression levels of the imprinted genes CDKN1C and PHLDA2 are critical for embryo development, which suggests that these genes can be used as markers for normal blastocyst formation.

  8. A microfluidic system supports single mouse embryo culture leading to full-term development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Telma Cristina; Rossem, van Fleur; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele; Le Gac, Séverine

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the feasibility of application of a microfluidic system for in vitro culture of pre-implantation mouse embryos, with subsequent development to full-term upon embryo transfer. Specifically, embryos cultured in groups in nL volume chambers achieve pre-implantation develo

  9. Effect of Yttrium Pre-Implantation on Implantation Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to increase the peak depth of nitrogen atoms during the nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the rare earth metal yttrium was applied. In the experiment, yttrium and nitrogen ions were implanted under the voltage of 20 and 30 kV, respectively. In the samples with yttrium pre-implantation for 30 min, the Auger electron spectroscopy(AES) analysis shows that the peak depth of the nitrogen atoms increases from 50 up to 100 nm. It can also be seen from the tribological tests that the wear resistance of these samples is increased remarkably.

  10. Predictors of paravalvular aortic regurgitation following self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve implantation: the role of annulus size, degree of calcification, and balloon size during pre-implantation valvuloplasty and implant depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, O F; Schultz, C; Jabbour, A; Rubens, M; Mittal, T; Mohiaddin, R; Davies, S; Di Mario, C; Van der Boon, R; Ahmad, A S; Amrani, M; Moat, N; De Jaegere, P P T; Dalby, M

    2015-01-20

    We sought to investigate the role of balloon size during pre-implantation valvuloplasty in predicting AR and optimal Medtronic CoreValve (MCS) implantation depth. Paravalvular aortic regurgitation (AR) is common following MCS implantation. A number of anatomical and procedural variables have been proposed as determinants of AR including degree of valve calcification, valve undersizing and implantation depth. We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of 282 patients who had undergone MCS implantation with prior cardiac CT annular sizing between 2007 and 2011. Native valve minimum (Dmin), maximum (Dmax) and arithmetic mean (Dmean) annulus diameters as well as agatston calcium score were recorded. Nominal and achieved balloon size was also recorded. AR was assessed using contrast angiography at the end of each procedure. Implant depth was measured as the mean distance from the nadir of the non- and left coronary sinuses to the distal valve frame angiographically. 29 mm and 26 mm MCS were implanted in 60% and 39% of patients respectively. The majority of patients (N=165) developed AR <2 following MCS implantation. AR ≥3 was observed in 16% of the study population. High agatston calcium score and Dmean were found to be independent predictors of AR ≥3 in multivariate analysis (P<0.0001). Nominal balloon diameter and the number of balloon inflations did not influence AR. However a small achieved balloon diameter-to-Dmean ratio (≤0.85) showed modest correlation with AR ≥3 (P=0.04). This observation was made irrespective of the degree of valve calcification. A small MCS size-to-Dmean ratio is also associated with AR ≥3 (P=0.001). A mean implantation depth of ≥8+2mm was also associated with AR ≥3. Implantation depth of ≥12 mm was associated with small MCS diameter-to-Dmean ratio and increased 30-day mortality. CT measured aortic annulus diameter and agatston calcium score remain important predictors of significant AR. Other procedural predictors

  11. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  12. Success rates for product development strategies in new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, E; Nelson, G M; Haynes, M; Sargeant, F

    2016-04-01

    While research has examined the likelihood that drugs progress across phases of clinical trials, no research to date has examined the types of product development strategies that are the most likely to be successful in clinical trials. This research seeks to identify the strategies that are most likely to reach the market-those generated using a novel product development strategy or strategies that combine a company's expertise with both drugs and indications, which we call combined experience strategies. We evaluate the success of product development strategies in the drug development process for a sample of 2562 clinical trials completed by 406 US pharmaceutical companies. To identify product development strategies, we coded each clinical trial according to whether it consisted of an indication or a drug that was new to the firm. Accordingly, a clinical trial that consists of both an indication and a drug that were both new to the firm represents a novel product development strategy; indication experience is a product development strategy that consists of an indication that a firm had tested previously in a clinical trial, but with a drug that was new to the firm; drug experience is a product development strategy that consists of a drug that the firm had prior experience testing in clinical trials, but with an indication that was new to the firm; combined experience consists of both a drug and an indication that the firm had experience testing in clinical trials. Success rates for product development strategies across clinical phases were calculated for the clinical trials in our sample. Combined experience strategies had the highest success rate. More than three and a half percent (0·036) of the trials that combined experience with drugs and indications eventually reached the market. The next most successful strategy is drug experience (0·025) with novel strategies trailing closely (0·024). Indication experience strategies are the least successful (0·008

  13. Interest Rate Liberalization, Financial Development and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efforts at investigating the relationship between interest rate liberalisation and economic growth. ... information and imperfect competition mean that financial liberalisation can have a negative .... the Tobin's portfolio framework for household.

  14. Nominal exchange rate flexibility and real exchange rate adjustment : evidence from dual exchange rates in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Lai, Kon-Sun

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether exchange rate flexibility aids real exchange rate adjustment based on intra-period data on dual exchange rates from developing countries. Specifically, it analyzes whether the flexible parallel market rate produces faster or slower real exchange rate adjustment than the much less flexible official rate does. Half-life estimates of adjustment speeds are obtained using fractional time series analysis. We find no systematic evidence that greater exchange rate flex...

  15. Development of Nonelectronic Part Cyclic Failure Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    Figure 26), QM, and QL (Figure 27). The QH and QL are rugged connectors and utilize a course double lead-thread coupling. Other large connectors...group of relays is cacegorized either by MIL- SPOC classification or part type, as applicable. Operating fail- ure rates for each set of data were

  16. In vitro porcine blastocyst development in three-dementional alginate hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate embryonic and fetal development significantly impact pregnancy success and, therefore, the efficiency of swine production. The pre-implantation period of porcine pregnancy is characterized by several developmental hallmarks, which are initiated by the dramatic morphological change that o...

  17. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  18. Comparison of in vitro fertilization and nuclear transfer techniques in the production of buffalo pre-implantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Cruz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the timing of cleavage and blastocoel formation of in vitro fertilized and nuclear transfer embryos and to compare the efficiency of in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT techniques in the production of buffalo embryos under the same culture system. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were matured in vitro for 22 and 24 hr for SCNT and IVF, respectively. For IVF, COCs were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen and cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid supplemented with amino acids for 7 days. For SCNT, ear skin fibroblasts were inserted individually into enucleated oocytes, fused electrically, and activated with ethanol followed by cycloheximide treatment for 6 hr before culture in the same condition as IVF embryos. The results showed that SCNT embryos cleaved and formed blastocoel earlier than IVF embryos. The cleavage rate is significantly higher in SCNT embryos; while the blastocyst formation rate of IVF embryos is significantly higher (P<0.01 than SCNT embryos. The shorter time taken from cleavage to blastocoel formation by NT embryos as compared to in vitro fertilized ones suggests a difference in their developmental kinetics. The difference in the developmental competence between NT and IVF embryos warrants further investigation.

  19. Gray level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) to assess microstructural and textural changes in pre-implantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tiffany C Y; Ritter, Lesley J; Whitty, Annie; Fernandez, Renae C; Moran, Lisa J; Robertson, Sarah A; Thompson, Jeremy G; Brown, Hannah M

    2016-08-01

    The preimplantation embryo is extraordinarily sensitive to environmental signals and events such that perturbations can alter embryo metabolism and program an altered developmental trajectory, ultimately affecting the phenotype of the adult individual; indeed, the physical environment associated with in vitro embryo culture can attenuate development. Defining the underlying metabolic changes and mechanisms, however, has been limited by the imaging technology used to evaluate metabolites and structural features in the embryo. Here, we assessed the impact of in vitro fertilization and culture on mouse embryos using three metabolic markers: peroxyfluor 1 (a reporter of hydrogen peroxide), monochlorobimane (a reporter of glutathione), and Mitotracker Deep Red (a marker of mitochondria). We also evaluated the distribution pattern of histone 2AX gamma (γH2AX) in the nuclei of 2- and 8-cell embryos and blastocysts to investigate the degree of DNA damage caused by in vitro embryo culture. In vitro-fertilized embryos, in vivo-developed embryos, and in vivo-fertilized embryos recovered and cultured in vitro were compared at the 2-, 8-cell, and blastocyst stages. In addition to assessments based on fluorescence intensity, textural analysis using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), a statistical approach that assesses texture within an image, was used to evaluate peroxyfluor 1, monochlorobimane, and Mitotracker Deep Red staining in an effort to develop a robust metric of embryo quality. Our data provide strong evidence of modified metabolic parameters identifiable as altered fluorescence texture in embryos developed in vitro. Thus, texture-analysis approach may provide a means of gaining additional insight into embryo programming beyond conventional measurements of staining intensity for metabolic markers. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 701-713, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exchange Rate Policy and Sovereign Bond Spreads in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We test the hypothesis of a link between exchange rate policy and sovereign bonds. We analyze the effect of exchange rate policies on supply and credit spreads of sovereign bonds issued by developing countries. An exchange rate policy is captured by the de facto exchange rate regime and the real exchange rate misalignment. The main findings are: (1) real exchange rate overvaluation significantly increases sovereign bond issue probability and raises bond spreads; (2) spreads and the likelihood...

  1. Loss of maternal ATRX results in centromere instability and aneuploidy in the mammalian oocyte and pre-implantation embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Claudia; Viveiros, Maria M; De La Fuente, Rabindranath

    2010-09-23

    The α-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked protein (ATRX) is a chromatin-remodeling factor known to regulate DNA methylation at repetitive sequences of the human genome. We have previously demonstrated that ATRX binds to pericentric heterochromatin domains in mouse oocytes at the metaphase II stage where it is involved in mediating chromosome alignment at the meiotic spindle. However, the role of ATRX in the functional differentiation of chromatin structure during meiosis is not known. To test ATRX function in the germ line, we developed an oocyte-specific transgenic RNAi knockdown mouse model. Our results demonstrate that ATRX is required for heterochromatin formation and maintenance of chromosome stability during meiosis. During prophase I arrest, ATRX is necessary to recruit the transcriptional regulator DAXX (death domain associated protein) to pericentric heterochromatin. At the metaphase II stage, transgenic ATRX-RNAi oocytes exhibit abnormal chromosome morphology associated with reduced phosphorylation of histone 3 at serine 10 as well as chromosome segregation defects leading to aneuploidy and severely reduced fertility. Notably, a large proportion of ATRX-depleted oocytes and 1-cell stage embryos exhibit chromosome fragments and centromeric DNA-containing micronuclei. Our results provide novel evidence indicating that ATRX is required for centromere stability and the epigenetic control of heterochromatin function during meiosis and the transition to the first mitosis.

  2. Loss of maternal ATRX results in centromere instability and aneuploidy in the mammalian oocyte and pre-implantation embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Baumann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The α-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked protein (ATRX is a chromatin-remodeling factor known to regulate DNA methylation at repetitive sequences of the human genome. We have previously demonstrated that ATRX binds to pericentric heterochromatin domains in mouse oocytes at the metaphase II stage where it is involved in mediating chromosome alignment at the meiotic spindle. However, the role of ATRX in the functional differentiation of chromatin structure during meiosis is not known. To test ATRX function in the germ line, we developed an oocyte-specific transgenic RNAi knockdown mouse model. Our results demonstrate that ATRX is required for heterochromatin formation and maintenance of chromosome stability during meiosis. During prophase I arrest, ATRX is necessary to recruit the transcriptional regulator DAXX (death domain associated protein to pericentric heterochromatin. At the metaphase II stage, transgenic ATRX-RNAi oocytes exhibit abnormal chromosome morphology associated with reduced phosphorylation of histone 3 at serine 10 as well as chromosome segregation defects leading to aneuploidy and severely reduced fertility. Notably, a large proportion of ATRX-depleted oocytes and 1-cell stage embryos exhibit chromosome fragments and centromeric DNA-containing micronuclei. Our results provide novel evidence indicating that ATRX is required for centromere stability and the epigenetic control of heterochromatin function during meiosis and the transition to the first mitosis.

  3. Development of Clinical Rating Criteria for Tests of Lumbopelvic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Perrott

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop rating criteria for three clinical tests of LPS. Design. Qualitative research: focus group. Method. A focus group of five expert physiotherapists used qualitative methods to develop rating criteria for the three clinical tests. Results. Detailed rating criteria were established for the three tests. Each key factor considered important for LPS had characteristics described that represented both good and poor LPS. Conclusion. This study established rating criteria that may be used to clinically assess LPS.

  4. Anesthetic management for oocyte retrieval: An exploratory analysis comparing outcome in in vitro fertilization cycles with and without pre-implantation genetic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ioscovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To date, there has been no comparison of outcomes in women undergoing anesthesia for in vitro fertilization (IVF oocyte retrieval for the purpose of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD because of their or their partner′s genetic disease relative to the outcome in women requiring IVF because of fertility issues. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study, wherein all demographic and anesthetic management data were collected from IVF and PGD units′ records for a 6-month period. Descriptive analyses and parametric tests were employed. Results: There were 307 cases IVF and 76 cases PGD: most (97.4% and 99.7%, respectively received general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl ± dipyrone (90.5% and 93.3%, respectively with no adverse effects. The only statistically significant difference between IVF and PGD groups that was potentially clinically significant was post-procedure recovery time (23.0 ± 20.4 vs. 29.4 ± 35.8 min, respectively; P < 0.0001, but is explainable as greater caution by Anesthesiologists for higher-risk PGD cases having autosomal dominant diseases that may impact anesthesia management (myotonic dystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Marfan′s; two of these cases also recovered in the general post-anesthesia care unit, as a precaution for early diagnosis and treatment of potential post-procedural complication. Conclusions: Results of this first-ever survey of anesthesia for PGD compared with IVF cases imply that propofol-and-fentanyl-based anesthesia is safe and can be recommended, bearing in mind that with patients who have autosomal dominant diseases impacting anesthetic management it is prudent to be more cautious post-recovery.

  5. Essays on exchange rate policy in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khamfula, Y.A.

    1999-01-01

    The breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of pegged exchange rates has since 1971 given developing countries a wider range of choice with regard to their exchange rate regimes than had previously existed. With the emergence of a variety of exchange rate regimes, increasing attention has been given t

  6. Interest rate derivatives in developing countries in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Cerovic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still the main problem for the interest rate derivatives development is the lack of basic conditions, including inadequate measurement of interest rate risk exposure, underdevelopment of financial markets in general and especially of market instruments that underlying derivatives, weak and/or inadequate infrastructure and legal framework, misunderstanding and lack of experience in operations with financial derivatives and the complexity of the derivatives accounting.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MECHANICS OF FILM RATING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HANDY, RICKI; AND OTHERS

    A TRANSCRIPTION WAS MADE OF A GROUP DISCUSSION DEALING WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF RATING SCALES AND THE TECHNIQUES OF FILM RATING AND OF USE OF THE EQUIPMENT. THE AMIDON-FLANDERS INTERACTION ANALYSIS SCALE WAS USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FILM ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION RECORD (FAIR). DISCUSSIONS DEALT WITH SUCH PROBLEMS OF FILM RATING…

  8. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  9. Rate of force development: physiological and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J; Folland, Jonathan; Tillin, Neale; Duchateau, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way. Therefore, we provide evidence-based practical recommendations for rational quantification of rate of force development in both laboratory and clinical settings.

  10. Immunization coverage and infant mortality rate in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, A; Ozasa, K; Hayashi, K

    1994-01-01

    We examined whether immunization coverage (IMC) is one of the predictors of infant mortality rate (IMR), as a single indicator representing the availability of primary health care (PHC) services in developing countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that partial correlation coefficients for IMR with immunization coverage (-0.224), logarithm of per capita GNP (-0.294), total fertility rate (0.269), and adult literacy rate (-0.325) were all statistically significant (p immunization coverage is one of the main predictors of the infant mortality rate. It represents one of the health intervention components which can be used as a proxy indicator of the availability of PHC service in developing countries.

  11. Correlation Between Human Development Index and Infant Mortality Rate Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births is a vital index to monitor the standard of health and social inequality which is related to human development dimensions worldwide. Human development index (HDI includes basic social indicators such as life expectancy, education and income. Objectives The current study aimed to find the correlation between human development index and infant mortality rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive study that represents the relationship of infant mortality rate with human development index and human development index dimensions was performed on the profiles of 135 countries worldwide [Africa (35 countries, America (26 countries, Asia (30 countries, the Pacific (2 countries and Europe (42 countries]. Two databases were used in the study: the world health organization (WHO database (2010 and human development database (2010. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. Results The study found that socio-economic factors or human development dimensions are significantly correlated with risk of chance mortality in the world. The per capita income (r = -0.625, life expectancy (r = -0.925 and education (r = -0.843 were negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate; human development index (r = -0.844 was also negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate (P < 0.01. Conclusions Human development index is one of the best indicators and predictors to perceive healthcare inequities. Worldwide improvement of these indicators, especially the education level, might promote infant life expectancy and decrease infant mortality.

  12. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  13. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  14. Neuromuscular rate of force development deficit in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kelley G; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; LeDoux, Mark S; Schilling, Brian K

    2017-06-01

    Bradykinesia and reduced neuromuscular force exist in Parkinson disease. The interpolated twitch technique has been used to evaluate central versus peripheral manifestations of neuromuscular strength in healthy, aging, and athletic populations, as well as moderate to advanced Parkinson disease, but this method has not been used in mild Parkinson disease. This study aimed to evaluate quadriceps femoris rate of force development and quantify potential central and peripheral activation deficits in individuals with Parkinson disease. Nine persons with mild Parkinson Disease (Hoehn & Yahr≤2, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale total score=mean 19.1 (SD 5.0)) and eight age-matched controls were recruited in a cross-sectional investigation. Quadriceps femoris voluntary and stimulated maximal force and rate of force development were evaluated using the interpolated twitch technique. Thirteen participants satisfactorily completed the protocol. Individuals with early Parkinson disease (n=7) had significantly slower voluntary rate of force development (p=0.008; d=1.97) and rate of force development ratio (p=0.004; d=2.18) than controls (n=6). No significant differences were found between groups for all other variables. Persons with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease display disparities in rate of force development, even without deficits in maximal force. The inability to produce force at a rate comparable to controls is likely a downstream effect of central dysfunction of the motor pathway in Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Auxin metabolism rates and implications for plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Kramer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auxin metabolism rarely express their results as a metabolic rate, although the data obtained would often permit such a calculation to be made. We analyze data from 31 previously published papers to quantify the rates of auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, conjugate hydrolysis, and catabolism in seed plants. Most metabolic pathways have rates in the range 10 nM/h to 1 μM/h, with the exception of auxin conjugation, which has rates as high as ~100 μM/h. The highest rates of auxin conjugation suggests that auxin metabolic sinks may be very small, perhaps as small as a single cell. By contrast, the relatively low rate of auxin biosynthesis requires plants to conserve and recycle auxin during long-distance transport. The consequences for plant development are discussed.

  16. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within alginate hydrogel systems either supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 or conjugated with arg-gly-asp peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although deficiencies in porcine embryo elongation play a significant role on early embryonic mortality and establishment of within–litter developmental variation, the exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased within the uterine milieu during...

  17. Quality Rating and Improvement Systems and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing enriched learning environments is important to stimulating children's development in early childhood. Early child-care policymakers in many states in the US have adopted Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) as a way to verify quality of child care and to support children's school readiness. Objective: The purpose of…

  18. The development trends of credit rating agencies activity in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Galyaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and the prospects of development of the rating industry in the country are examined in the article. The author analyzes the influence of sovereign Russian credit rating decrease by the world’s leading rating agencies at the beginning of 2015 on financial sector of the country. Politically motivated international credit rating agencies ratings hinder the development of the Russian financial system. That’s why particular attention is paid to the rejection of dependence on the international credit rating agencies ratings and the appearance of a new strong and powerful national credit agency on the Russian market. The problems concerned with speculative estimates of the Russian investment potential. The author points some possible ways to recover from the crisis by involving inner agencies instead of international ones. Special attention is devoted to the existent legislative modifications. Never the less, speaking about the prospects and the future of the leading agencies, it is significant that their work will be relevant in long term due to the increasing uncertainty of the external environment. Moreover the necessity of investing funds in different objects intensifies which leads to the investors and depositors needs of investing. The presented information may be interesting for further profound exploration of the issues, identify the range of problems to be solved by international ratings of the issuers and their securities. In addition, the information proposed in the article can be also served as a basis for further comparison of the activity of international and national agencies in terms of the services offered.

  19. Rep rated long life capacitor development: Phase 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, I.; White, W.; Haskell, K.; Ennis, J.

    1984-09-01

    Polypropylene and polyolefin resins were characterized and processed into capacitor films. New capacitor films were developed--a post oriented processed, two layer polypropylene film and upgraded polyolefin film. Criteria for judging film quality were developed. Field life data were verified with paper/polypropylene capacitors on the Maxwell rep rate facility. A11 polypropylene film capacitors were developed with lifetimes in excess of 10 to the 7th power discharges at energy densities for the finished capacitor of 18.3 J/lb and projected to more than 20 J/lb.

  20. Development and validation of a Chinese music quality rating test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Zheng, Yiqing

    2013-09-01

    The present study aims to develop and validate a Chinese music quality rating test (MQRT). In Experiment 1, 22 music pieces were initially selected and paired as a 'familiar music piece' and 'unfamiliar music piece' based on familiarities amongst the general public in the categories of classical music (6), Chinese folk music (8), and pop music (8). Following the selection criteria, one pair of music pieces from each music category was selected and used for the MQRT in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, the MQRT was validated using these music pieces in the categories 'Pleasantness', 'Naturalness', 'Fullness', 'Roughness', and 'Sharpness'. Seventy-two adult participants and 30 normal-hearing listeners were recruited in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Significant differences between the familiar and unfamiliar music pieces were found in respect of pleasantness rating for folk and pop music pieces as well as in sharpness rating for pop music pieces. The comparison of music category effect on MQRT found significant differences in pleasantness, fullness, and sharpness ratings. The Chinese MQRT developed in the present study is an effective tool for assessing music quality.

  1. Commercialization and Industrial Development for the Fetal Hear Rate Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives for this task were to continue the development and testing of the NASA/ODU passive acoustic fetal heart rate monitor, with the goal of transferring the technology to the commercial sector. Areas of work included: 1. To assist in the development of a new hardware front end electronics box for the fetal heart rate monitor, so as to reduce the size of the electronics box, and also to provide for a "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" mode of operation. To make necessary changes in the operating software to support the two modes of operation. 2. To provide an option for a strip chart recording for the system, so that medical personnel could more easily make comparisons with ultra sound strip chart recordings. and 3. To help with continued testing of the system.

  2. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  3. Sustainable development and public health: rating European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seke Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable development and public health quite strongly correlate, being connected and conditioned by one another. This paper therein attempts to offer a representation of Europe’s current situation of sustainable development in the area of public health. Methods A dataset on sustainable development in the area of public health consisting of 31 European countries (formally proposed by the European Union Commission and EUROSTAT has been used in this paper in order to evaluate said issue for the countries listed thereof. A statistical method which synthesizes several indicators into one quantitative indicator has also been utilized. Furthermore, the applied method offers the possibility to obtain an optimal set of variables for future studies of the problem, as well as for the possible development of indicators. Results According to the results obtained, Norway and Iceland are the two foremost European countries regarding sustainable development in the area of public health, whereas Romania, Lithuania, and Latvia, some of the European Union’s newest Member States, rank lowest. The results also demonstrate that the most significant variables (more than 80% in rating countries are found to be “healthy life years at birth, females” (r2 = 0.880, “healthy life years at birth, males” (r2 = 0.864, “death rate due to chronic diseases, males” (r2 = 0.850, and “healthy life years, 65, females” (r2 = 0.844. Conclusions Based on the results of this paper, public health represents a precondition for sustainable development, which should be continuously invested in and improved. After the assessment of the dataset, proposed by EUROSTAT in order to evaluate progress towards the agreed goals of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS, this paper offers an improved set of variables, which it is hoped, may initiate further studies concerning this problem.

  4. Population Development Programme. Reduction of fertility rate a major goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    South Africa's development program has aimed to reduce total fertility to 2 children per woman by the year 2010. Since the program's inception, fertility declined from 4.6 to 4.1. White fertility over the last 4 years decreased from 2.1 to 1.7; Asian fertility declined from 2.8 to 2.3; Black fertility declined from 4.2 to 3.7. Black fertility was very low in the PWV area (2.6) and in metropolitan areas (3.2). High fertility was reflected in TBVC countries and self-governing areas (5.3). Teenage births among Whites have declined from 7.2% to 5.9%, and among Coloreds from 16% to 12.8%. Asian teenage childbearing declined from 10.9% to 8.2%, and Black teenage childbearing increased from 11.4% to 16.5%. The infant mortality rate declined for all races, and Blacks remained with the highest rate of 50/1000 live births. Literacy rates improved for Coloreds from 60% to 66% and for Blacks from 48% to 54%. Contraceptive usage was 65% among Whites, 59.2% among Coloreds, 60.2% among Asians, and 43.8% among Blacks. Awareness of population growth problems was 68% in rural and 82% in urban areas. The business sector will gain from becoming involved in development through a better trained work force, improved job satisfaction and less unrest, reduced absenteeism rates, improved trust between employer and employee, and more favorable socioeconomic conditions for business. Public health and reduction in sexually transmitted diseases would also improve. The business community has the opportunity to invest in a variety of development activities: to promote technical education through scholarships, public campaigns to promote the image of technical careers, and exchange of information with educators about business needs. Business might also provide employee training, women's training, employee involvement in decision making, and employee benefits such as preventive health services. Family planning could be integrated into training courses for employees and emphasize the small family

  5. Rates versus Developer Contributions as Revenue Sources for Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koutifaris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Population expansion in many New South Wales (NSW local government areas (LGA has resulted in an increase in demand for local infrastructure and services that has far outstripped sources of local government revenue. This paper looks at two important sources of local government revenue in NSW, municipal rates and Section 94 contributions, as a source of funding increased demand and maintenance of infrastructure. It examines some recent and potentially long-term trends of both these revenues within different economic climates. An analysis and comparison of data over the period from June 2006 through to June 2010 against data collected for the period ending June 1993 forms the basis of this research. The research objective is to compare changes in the relativity of these revenue types and assess their application as a source of local government revenue. Data collected from the Department of Local Government NSW is compared with the findings of an earlier study, conducted by Barnes and Dollery (1996, in determining their relativity. The provision and maintenance of infrastructure by local government is essential for growth in the economy and is a valuable asset to be used by the community. Two types of funding for this infrastructure, among others, is sourced from municipal rates and developer charges levied under Section 94 contributions either by the developer providing the infrastructure, or a contribution towards its funding (Barnes and Dollery 1996.

  6. Rates versus Developer Contributions as Revenue Sources for Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koutifaris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Population expansion in many New South Wales (NSW local government areas (LGA has resulted in an increase in demand for local infrastructure and services that has far outstripped sources of local government revenue. This paper looks at two important sources of local government revenue in NSW, municipal rates and Section 94 contributions, as a source of funding increased demand and maintenance of infrastructure. It examines some recent and potentially long-term trends of both these revenues within different economic climates. An analysis and comparison of data over the period from June 2006 through to June 2010 against data collected for the period ending June 1993 forms the basis of this research. The research objective is to compare changes in the relativity of these revenue types and assess their application as a source of local government revenue. Data collected from the Department of Local Government NSW is compared with the findings of an earlier study, conducted by Barnes and Dollery (1996, in determining their relativity. The provision and maintenance of infrastructure by local government is essential for growth in the economy and is a valuable asset to be used by the community. Two types of funding for this infrastructure, among others, is sourced from municipal rates and developer charges levied under Section 94 contributions either by the developer providing the infrastructure, or a contribution towards its funding (Barnes and Dollery 1996.

  7. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  8. Rate of development of forensically-important Dipterain southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Krüger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran larvae were collected from rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. carcasses during the four seasons in 2005 in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larvae were fed ground beef at ambient temperatures following collection from carcasses. The development of each species under these conditions was estimated. The most abundant species in the carcasses were Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Calliphoridae, and they were found in all seasons. The data were fitted to a linear model that describes the relationship between temperature and linear developmental rating. These two species are primary forensic indicators in southern Brazil. Other species such as Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani (Calliphoridae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, Muscina stabulans (Fallen (Muscidae, and Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Fanniidae were forensically less important because they only occurred in high frequency in certain seasons and during the first days of carcass decomposition.

  9. Development of the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneson, Mary E.; Hartsough, Don M.

    1987-01-01

    Constructed and tested Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale, rating scale of caller behavior, as an outcome measure at telephone hotline facility. Psychology students rated caller behavior on role-played audiotapes. Items having respectable item-total correlations comprise final version of scale which detected meaningful differences among audiotapes.…

  10. Smart Payload Development for High Data Rate Instrument Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Norton, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of smart payloads instruments systems with high data rates. On-board computation has become a bottleneck for advanced science instrument and engineering capabilities. In order to improve the computation capability on board, smart payloads have been proposed. A smart payload is a Localized instrument, that can offload the flight processor of extensive computing cycles, simplify the interfaces, and minimize the dependency of the instrument on the flight system. This has been proposed for the Mars mission, Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (MATMOS). The design of this system is discussed; the features of the Virtex-4, are discussed, and the technical approach is reviewed. The proposed Hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been shown to deliver breakthrough performance by tightly coupling hardware and software. Smart Payload designs for instruments such as MATMOS can meet science data return requirements with more competitive use of available on-board resources and can provide algorithm acceleration in hardware leading to implementation of better (more advanced) algorithms in on-board systems for improved science data return

  11. The Anti-Apoptotic Role of Berberine in Preimplantation Embryo In Vitro Development through Regulation of miRNA-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Shi, Ya-Ran; Liu, Xiao-Ran; Cao, Yong-Chun; Zhen, Di; Jia, Zi-Ye; Jiang, Jin-Qi; Tian, Jian-Hui; Gao, Jian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs containing berberine have been historically used to prevent miscarriage. Here, we investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effects of berberine on pre-implantation embryonic development are regulated by miRNA-21. Mouse pronuclear embryos were cultured in medium with or without berberine, and some were then microinjected with a miRNA-21 inhibitor. The in vitro developmental rates of 2- and 4-cell embryos and blastocysts, blastocyst cell numbers, apoptotic rates, and apoptotic cell numbers were measured in each group. Furthermore, we examined the transcription levels of miRNA-21 and its target genes (caspase-3, PTEN, and Bcl-2) and their translation levels. Comparisons were made with in vivo-developed and untreated embryos. We found that berberine significantly increased the developmental rates and cell numbers of mouse blastocysts and decreased apoptotic cell rates in vitro. Berberine also significantly increased miRNA-21 and Bcl-2 transcription levels and significantly decreased caspase-3 and PTEN transcription levels. In embryos treated with a miRNA-21 inhibitor, the results followed the opposite trend; PTEN and caspase-3 transcription levels increased significantly, while the transcription level of Bcl-2 decreased significantly. Additionally, berberine treatment significantly increased the Bcl-2 protein level and significantly decreased the caspase-3 and PTEN protein levels in blastocysts, but there were no significant differences observed in the levels of these proteins in 2- and 4-cell embryos. This study revealed that miRNA-21 is important for pre-implantation embryonic development, especially blastocyst development in vitro. Berberine elevates miRNA-21 expression, decreases PTEN and caspase-3 levels, increases Bcl-2 levels, and exerts anti-apoptotic and pro-growth effects.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTRIES' CREDIT RATING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Babanskaya V. V.; Urtenov M. K.; Kovalenko A. V.; Rusanov A. V.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a new approach to the countries’ credit rating definition, based on the advanced mathematical models, such as neural network model, multiple regression, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. A range of the analyses such as discriminant, cluster, multiple regression models and a neural network were performed on the following economic figures: GDP per capita, GDP value, annual growth rate of GDP, FDI - foreign investment, rate of unemployment, consumer price inflation i...

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTRIES' CREDIT RATING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanskaya V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach to the countries’ credit rating definition, based on the advanced mathematical models, such as neural network model, multiple regression, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. A range of the analyses such as discriminant, cluster, multiple regression models and a neural network were performed on the following economic figures: GDP per capita, GDP value, annual growth rate of GDP, FDI - foreign investment, rate of unemployment, consumer price inflation index, the size of government debt in percentage of GDP. The results, obtained for each model were combined in the countries’ credit rating estimation system called "7M"

  14. Rate of force development as a measure of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñailillo, L; Blazevich, A; Numazawa, H; Nosaka, K

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that rate of force development (RFD) would be a more sensitive indirect marker of muscle damage than maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) peak torque. Ten men performed one concentric cycling and two eccentric cycling (ECC1, ECC2) bouts for 30 min at 60% of maximal concentric power output with 2 weeks between bouts. MVC peak torque, RFD, and vastus lateralis electromyogram amplitude and mean frequency were measured during a knee extensor MVC before, immediately after and 1-2 days after each bout. The magnitude of decrease in MVC peak torque after exercise was greater (P < 0.05) for ECC1 (11-25%) than concentric cycling (2-12%) and ECC2 (0-16%). Peak RFD and RFD from 0-30 ms, 0-50 ms, 0-100 ms, to 0-200 ms decreased (P < 0.05) immediately after all cycling bouts without significant differences between bouts, but RFD at 100-200 ms interval (RFD(100-200)) decreased (P < 0.05) at all time points after ECC1 (24-32%) and immediately after ECC2 (23%), but did not change after CONC. The magnitude of decrease in RFD(100-200) was 7-19% greater than that of MVC peak torque after ECC1 (P < 0.05). It is concluded that RFD(100-200) is a more specific and sensitive indirect marker of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than MVC peak torque.

  15. The Relationship Between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Onder Buberkoku

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between exchange rates and stock prices in some developed and developing countries, namely Japan, Canada, England, Switzerland, Germany, Australia and Singapore, S. Korea, and Turkey. The study examines the long-run relationship between these market variables by using Johansen (1988) and Engle-Granger (1987) cointegration tests and shortrun dynamic relationship by using Granger causality test, a variance decomposition analysis and an impulse response analy...

  16. Strange bedfellows: the Bundestag’s free vote on pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD reveals how Germany’s restrictive bioethics legislation is shaped by a Christian Democratic/New Left issue-coalition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Arzheimer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s bioethical legislation presents a puzzle: given structural factors, the country should be at the forefront of reproductive medicine, but its embryology regime remains one of the strictest in Western Europe. Past research has linked this fact to an unusual coalition of Christian and New Left groups, which both draw a connection from modern embryology to eugenics under the Nazis. In this article, the workings of this alleged alliance are demonstrated at the micro-level for the first time. The behaviour of individual MPs in a crucial free vote on pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is modelled using data on their political, sectoral and religious affiliations. Identifying as a Catholic and membership in Christian organisations are strong predictors of resistance to PGD. Even more importantly, net of religious and professional ties, affiliation with either the Christian Democrats or the left-libertarian Green party is closely linked to restrictive bioethical preferences. The modest liberalisation in 2011 was contingent on external factors and the overwhelming support of the historically unusually large FDP delegation. With the FDP no longer represented in parliament and the Christian Democratic/New Left issue coalition even stronger than before, further liberalisation is unlikely.

  17. Protein Degradation Rate in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Nelson, Clark J; Trösch, Josua; Castleden, Ian; Huang, Shaobai; Millar, A Harvey

    2017-02-01

    We applied (15)N labeling approaches to leaves of the Arabidopsis thaliana rosette to characterize their protein degradation rate and understand its determinants. The progressive labeling of new peptides with (15)N and measuring the decrease in the abundance of >60,000 existing peptides over time allowed us to define the degradation rate of 1228 proteins in vivo. We show that Arabidopsis protein half-lives vary from several hours to several months based on the exponential constant of the decay rate for each protein. This rate was calculated from the relative isotope abundance of each peptide and the fold change in protein abundance during growth. Protein complex membership and specific protein domains were found to be strong predictors of degradation rate, while N-end amino acid, hydrophobicity, or aggregation propensity of proteins were not. We discovered rapidly degrading subunits in a variety of protein complexes in plastids and identified the set of plant proteins whose degradation rate changed in different leaves of the rosette and correlated with leaf growth rate. From this information, we have calculated the protein turnover energy costs in different leaves and their key determinants within the proteome.

  18. Developing ratings for food products: lessons learned from media rating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale; McKinley, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Children regularly consume low-nutrient, high-calorie food that is not consistent with a healthful diet, contributing to an increasing epidemic of overweight and obesity. Among the multiple causes of this problem is the food industry's emphasis on marketing calorie-dense food products to children. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that industry adopt a uniform system of simplified food ratings to convey the nutritional qualities of food in a manner that is understandable and appealing to children and youth. This report analyzes the need for such a system in a food marketing environment that increasingly identifies healthful products for the consumer in inconsistent fashion. It considers evidence regarding current usage of food labeling and draws parallels with media rating systems in discussing the prospects for a uniform food rating system that would accomplish the IOM's objective.

  19. A new respiratory rate monitor: development and initial clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hök, B; Wiklund, L; Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    different kinds of interference, including motion artefacts. The sensor is nonexpensive, rugged, simple to apply and inherently safe. An instrument with continuous display of respiratory rate, and an audiovisual apnea alarm has been designed and built. The complete system has been tested on patients during......The need for continuous, noninvasive, and reliable respiratory rate monitoring during recovery from general anesthesia has long been recognized. Alternative principles can be grouped into those detecting the respiratory effort, and those detecting the actual result, i.e. the respiratory gas flow...... recovery after general anesthesia. In 16 patients, the respiratory rate displayed by the instrument has been correlated against that visually observed. A good correlation was obtained. Minor discrepancies can be explained from the fact that visual observation corresponds to the respiratory effort, whereas...

  20. Dynamic changes of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation in pre-implantational pig embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Naru; Cao, Zubing; Wu, Ronghua; Liu, Xing; Tao, Jia; Chen, Zhen; Song, Dandan; Han, Fei; Li, Yunsheng; Fang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yunhai

    2014-08-01

    Histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) is an active epigenetic modification which has been revealed to be associated with active gene expression. It was hypothesized that H3K27ac might also participate in the porcine somatic reprogramming process during early development of SCNT-derived embryos. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of H3K27ac were investigated at different developmental stages in SCNT embryos compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) counterparts. Specifically, results showed that amounts of H3K27ac gradually decreased from the earliest pronuclear stage to 8-cell stage, corresponding to the major embryonic genome activation (EGA), followed by re-acetylation of H3K27 from the morula stage onwards accompanying the first cell lineage specification in IVF embryos. Similar dynamic patterns of H3K27ac signal was observed at all developmental stages of porcine SCNT and PA embryos except for the hatched stage in which amounts of H3K27ac in SCNT and PA embryos was slightly less than that in IVF counterparts. Moreover, the gradual decrease of H3K27ac before EGA was demonstrated to be an active process independent of DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis. The expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, MBD3 and CBP genes were well correlated with the dynamic changes of H3K27ac mark. Overall, these results indicate that H3K27ac is only defective in late SCNT blastocysts, and that the dynamic changes of this marker might also underlie the EGA and initial cell lineage specification during early embryo development.

  1. A new respiratory rate monitor: development and initial clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hök, B; Wiklund, L; Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    different kinds of interference, including motion artefacts. The sensor is nonexpensive, rugged, simple to apply and inherently safe. An instrument with continuous display of respiratory rate, and an audiovisual apnea alarm has been designed and built. The complete system has been tested on patients during...... and apnea. Such events may in some patients be as frequent as one incident per hour. One case of 'Ondine's curse' provided clear evidence that pulse oximetry has a low sensitivity to respiratory disorders....

  2. Development of a performance-rating scale for a nutrition knowledge test developed for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whati, Lindiwe; Senekal, Marjanne; Steyn, Nelia P; Lombard, Carl; Nel, Johanna

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (i) develop and validate a norm-referenced performance-rating scale to interpret a nutrition knowledge test developed for urban adolescents and (ii) develop a prototype for other researchers to follow when developing nutrition knowledge tests. For norm development the nutrition knowledge test (questionnaire) was administered to a sample representative of the questionnaire target group, referred to as the norm group. These included 512 adolescents in grades 8 (n 158), 10 (n 149) and 12 (n 205) at three randomly selected schools in Soweto and Johannesburg. The performance scores (in percentages) obtained by the norm group were transformed to Z-scores which were categorised into stanines using established Z-score cut-off points. For validation purposes the questionnaire was completed by 148 volunteers: sixty university dietetics students, nineteen non-nutrition university students and sixty-nine primary-school teachers. As required of an ideal norm group, the Z-scores formed a normal distribution (a bell-shaped curve). To facilitate interpretation of the results, the Z-score cut-off points for these categories were transformed back to performance scores (percentages) so that the performance of a testee could be interpreted directly from his/her performance in percentage. As is recommended, the nine stanine categories were reduced to five: very poor, fair/below average, good/average, very good/above average and excellent. The discriminatory validity of the norms was substantiated by showing that groups with known nutrition knowledge levels were rated appropriately and that the performance ratings of these groups differed significantly, with university dietetics students scoring 98.3%, primary-school teachers 20.3% and non-nutrition university students 31.6%. The norm-referenced performance-rating scale can be used with confidence to interpret the performance score achieved by a testee on the nutrition knowledge test developed

  3. Rep-rated long-life capacitor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, I.

    1983-03-01

    The characterization of polypropylene and polyolefin resins for capacitor film usage was studied. One polypropylene resin was selected for capacitor POP film fabrication. A polyolefin resin was upgraded for POP film fabrication. Two new capacitor films were developed - a post orientation processed, two layer, polypropylene film and a polyolefin resin film. New criteria for judging film quality are developed and instituted. A capacitor film test plan has been formulated. Test capacitor designs and a capacitor test plan have been devised.

  4. Thermodynamic Development of Corrosion Rate Modeling in Iron Phosphate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, Mark [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Brow, Richard [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2011-10-31

    A two-year research program investigated links between the thermodynamic properties of phosphate glasses and their corrosion rates in different solutions. Glasses in the Na2O-CaO-P2O5 and Na2O-Fe2O3-PO5 systems were prepared and characterized. These glasses were then exposed in bulk and powder form to acid (0.1M HCl), basic (0.1M KOH) and neutral (deionized water) solutions at varying exposure times and temperatures. Analysis of the solution and the glass after exposure determined the rate and type of corrosion that occurred. Simultaneously, efforts were made to determine the thermodynamic properties of solid iron phosphate compounds. This included measurement of low temperature (5-300 K) heat capacities, measured at Brigham Young University; the attempted use of a Parr calorimeter to measure ambient temperature enthalpies of formation; and attempted measurement of temperature heat capacities. Only the first of the three tasks was successfully accomplished. In lieu of experimental measurement of enthalpies of formation, first-principles calculation of enthalpies of formation was performed at Missouri S&T; these results will be used in subsequent modeling efforts.

  5. Development of a pheromone elution rate physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A first principle modeling approach is applied to available data describing the elution of semiochemicals from pheromone dispensers. These data include field data for 27 products developed by several manufacturers, including homemade devices, as well as laboratory data collected on three semiochemi...

  6. Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Howard; Ahn, Roy; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark; Nelson, Brett D; Burke, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. After developing a working definition of 'peace' and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual's level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions.

  7. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  8. Development of digital flow control system for multi-channel variable-rate sprayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical step for variable-rate spray applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries. An automatic flow rate control system activated with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was developed to control flow rates...

  9. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Panter, K E; Gaffield, W; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    2005-02-01

    alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n=2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n=2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation embryo development. Furthermore, we suggest that ingestion of Solanum species containing toxic amounts of glycoalkaloids may have negative effects on pre-implantation embryonic survival.

  10. Rate of development of predatory insects is dependent on that of their prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F. G. Dixon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed data in the literature on the rates of development of parasitoids that parasitize aphids and coccids. The objective was to determine whether their rates of development, as is well documented for ladybirds, are also dependent on that of their prey. The analysis revealed that, like ladybirds, parasitoids that parasitize aphids develop faster than those that parasitize coccids. Parasitoids and ladybird predators show the same pattern in their rates of development: those attacking aphids develop faster than those attacking coccids. This is strong evidence that we are dealing with a general response rather than one specific to ladybirds. It also lends support to the concept that the development rates of these natural enemies are evolutionarily conserved rather than phylogenetically constrained.

  11. Effects in cattle of genetic variation within the IGF1R gene on the superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Yang, Li-Guo; Riaz, Hasan; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Chen, Long; Li, Shu-Jing

    2013-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a membrane glycoprotein mediating most biological actions of IGF1 and IGF2, and has an important effect on ovulation, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy rate. The objectives of this study were to detect IGF1R gene polymorphisms of cattle and analyze the relationship with superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer (ET), as well as the hormone concentrations at the day of ET. One reported SNP of IGF1R G404T and a novel SNP of IGF1R G399A were analyzed in 170 Chinese Holstein donor cows and 118 Luxi recipients cattle. Statistical analysis revealed that the G404T mutation was associated (p=0.019) with increased ovulation rate and females with this mutation had enhanced performance in producing transferable embryos. For the polymorphic locus G399A, recipients with g.399 GG and g.399 GA genotypes had greater pregnancy rates after ET than that of g.399 AA genotype. Furthermore, the same tendency was observed that the genotype groups with greater pregnancy rates had greater progesterone and lesser estrogen concentrations, but these did not reach statistical significance. Results of the present study showed, for the first time, that the polymorphism in IGF1R is associated with superovulation traits, and indicated that the IGFIR gene can be used as a potential marker for donor selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oviduct: roles in fertilization and early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Winuthayanon, Wipawee

    2017-01-01

    Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients. Finally, the review compares different aspects of naturally occurring fertilization and assisted reproductive technology (ART)-achieved fertilization and embryo development, giving insight into potential areas for improvement in this technology. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. DEVELOPING AN EXCELLENT SEDIMENT RATING CURVE FROM ONE HYDROLOGICAL YEAR SAMPLING PROGRAMME DATA: APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary findings on the adequacy of one hydrological year sampling programme data in developing an excellent sediment rating curve. The study case is a 1DD1 subcatchment in the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. 1DD1 is the major runoff-sediment contributing tributary to the downstream hydropower reservoir, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM. In literature sediment rating curve method is known to underestimate the actual sediment load. In the case of developing countries long-term sediment sampling monitoring or conservation campaigns have been reported as unworkable options. Besides, to the best knowledge of the authors, to date there is no consensus on how to develop an excellent rating curve. Daily-midway and intermittent-cross section sediment samples from Depth Integrating sampler (D-74 were used to calibrate the subdaily automatic sediment pumping sampler (ISCO 6712 near bank point samples for developing the rating curve. Sediment load correction factors were derived from both statistical bias estimators and actual sediment load approaches. It should be noted that the ongoing study is guided by findings of other studies in the same catchment. For instance, long term sediment yield rate estimated based on reservoir survey validated the performance of the developed rating curve. The result suggests that excellent rating curve could be developed from one hydrological year sediment sampling programme data. This study has also found that uncorrected rating curve underestimates sediment load. The degreeof underestimation depends on the type of rating curve developed and data used.

  14. The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zavareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation and embryo development are controlled by intra-ovarian factors suchas steroid hormones. Progesterone (P4 exists in the follicular fluid that contributes tonormal mammalian ovarian function and has several critical functions during embryodevelopment and implantation, including endometrial receptivity, embryonic survivalduring gestation and transformation of the endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells.It is well known that the physiological effects of P4 during the pre-implantation stages ofsome mammal’s embryos are mediated by P4 receptors and their gene expression is determined.The effects of P4 on oocytes and embryo development have been assessed bysome investigations, with contradictory results. P4, a dominant steroid in follicular fluidat approximately 18 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge may have a criticalrole in maturation of oocytes at the germinal stage. However, it has been shown that differentconcentrations of P4 could not improve in vitro maturation rates of germinal vesicles(GV in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and cumulus denuded oocytes (CDOs.Culture media supplemented with P4 significantly improved mouse embryo development.In addition, an in vivo experimental design has shown high blastocyst survival andimplantation rates in P4-treated mice.In this review we explain some of the findings that pertain to the effects of P4 onoocyte maturation and embryo development both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. A meta-analysis of the factors influencing development rate variation in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development rates of Aedes aegypti are known to vary with respect to many abiotic and biotic factors including temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition. The relative importance of these factors and their interactions are not well established across populations. We performed meta-analysis on a dataset of development rate estimates from 49 studies. Results Meta-analytic results indicated that the environmental factor of temperature is sufficient to explain development rate variability in Ae. aegypti. While diet and density may greatly impact other developmental phenotypes, these results suggest that for development rate these factors should never be considered to the exclusion of temperature. The effect of temperature on development rate is not homogenous or constant. The sources of heterogeneity of the effect of temperature are difficult to analyze due to lack of consistent reporting of larval rearing methods. Conclusions Temperature is the most important ecological determinant of development rate in Ae. aegypti, but its effect is heterogeneous. Ignoring this heterogeneity is problematic for models of vector population and vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:24495345

  16. Development of a General Method for Determining Leak Rates from Limiting Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, A. I.; Blackwell, C. C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a general method for the determination of very low leak rates from limiting enclosures. There are many methods that can be used to detect and repair leaks from enclosures. Many methods have also been proposed that allow the estimation of actual leak rates, usually expressed as enclosure volume turnover. The proposed method combines measurements of the state variables (pressure, temperature, and volume) as well as the change in the concentration of a tracer gas to estimate the leak rate. The method was applied to the containment enclosure of the Engineering Development Unit of the CELSS Test Facility, currently undergoing testing at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  17. Developing a Practical Rating Rubric of Speaking Test for University Students of English in Parepare, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifa, Ammang; Rahman, Asfah; Hamra, Arifuddin; Jabu, Baso; Nur, Rafi'ah

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a practical rating rubric of speaking ability in the classroom setting. This research study involves the English speaking lecturers at a number of higher education institutions in Parepare, Indonesia. The product is designed based on Research and Development (R&D) approach, which is adopted from Gall, Gall, and Borg…

  18. Shutdown dose rate assessment with the Advanced D1S method: Development, applications and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, R., E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moro, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Petrizzi, L. [European Commission, DG Research and Innovation K5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Podda, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Serikov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Development of Advanced-D1S for shutdown dose rate calculations; Recent applications of the tool to tokamaks; Summary of the results of benchmarking with measurements and R2S calculations; Limitations and further development. Abstract: The present paper addresses the recent developments and applications of Advanced-D1S to the calculations of shutdown dose rate in tokamak devices. Results of benchmarking with measurements and Rigorous 2-Step (R2S) calculations are summarized and discussed as well as limitations and further developments. The outcomes confirm the essential role of the Advanced-D1S methodology and the evidence for its complementary use with the R2Smesh approach for the reliable assessment of shutdown dose rates and related statistical uncertainties in present and future fusion devices.

  19. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system either conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide or supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many uterine specific factors have been shown to be increased within the uterine milieu as the porcine embryo initiates elongation. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased during this time and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that has been shown to bind to cell surface integrins ...

  20. Developing models for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation rate. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive models can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical model developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation rate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop models for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation rate. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation rate and develop predictive models. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation rate has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop models for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these models, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different models were developed based on the types of hospitals.

  1. Studies Leading to the Development of High-Rate Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    greatest attention has been given to the lithium - thionyl chloride (Li/SOC12 ) system. Cells and batteries have been demonstrated with energy densities...Studies Leading to the Development of High-Rate Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology John C. Hall and Mark Koch Gould Research Center, Materials...High-Rate 11182to 33182 Lithium -Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology 1_1/82_to_3/31/82 S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMBER 2 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR

  2. Evaluation of a Practice-Development Initiative to Improve Breastfeeding Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Margaret; Cox, Julie; Doyle, Bronwyn; Reed, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for infant, mother, family, and community are well recognized, and increasing breastfeeding rates is considered an important health-promotion strategy. Improving breastfeeding knowledge and practice among individuals caring for breastfeeding women is considered an important aspect of this strategy. The practice-development initiative described in this article aimed to improve hospital-based breastfeeding rates through the implementation of The Ten Steps to Succes...

  3. Development of wide-range constitutive equations for calculations of high-rate deformation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For development of models of strength and compressibility of metals in wide range of pressures (up to several megabar and strain rates ~ 1÷108 s−1, the method of dynamic tests is used. Since direct measurement of strength is impossible under complicated intensive high-rate loading, a formal model is created at first, and then it is updated basing on comparison with many experiments, which are sensitive to shear strength. Elastic-plastic, viscous-elastic-plastic and relaxation integral models became nowadays most commonly used. The basic unsolved problems in simulation of high-rate deformation of metals are mentioned in the paper.

  4. Unilateral arm strength training improves contralateral peak force and rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Michael; Macquaide, Niall; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan; Kemi, Ole Johan

    2008-07-01

    Neural adaptation following maximal strength training improves the ability to rapidly develop force. Unilateral strength training also leads to contralateral strength improvement, due to cross-over effects. However, adaptations in the rate of force development and peak force in the contralateral untrained arm after one-arm training have not been determined. Therefore, we aimed to detect contralateral effects of unilateral maximal strength training on rate of force development and peak force. Ten adult females enrolled in a 2-month strength training program focusing of maximal mobilization of force against near-maximal load in one arm, by attempting to move the given load as fast as possible. The other arm remained untrained. The training program did not induce any observable hypertrophy of any arms, as measured by anthropometry. Nevertheless, rate of force development improved in the trained arm during contractions against both submaximal and maximal loads by 40-60%. The untrained arm also improved rate of force development by the same magnitude. Peak force only improved during a maximal isometric contraction by 37% in the trained arm and 35% in the untrained arm. One repetition maximum improved by 79% in the trained arm and 9% in the untrained arm. Therefore, one-arm maximal strength training focusing on maximal mobilization of force increased rapid force development and one repetition maximal strength in the contralateral untrained arm. This suggests an increased central drive that also crosses over to the contralateral side.

  5. Causality Relationship Between Import, Export and Growth Rate in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat YUKSEL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determine the relationship between imports, exports and growth rate in developing countries. Within this scope, 6 developing countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Malaysia, Mexico and Turkey were analyzed in this study. In order to achieve this purpose, annual data for the periods between 1961 and 2014 was tested by using Engle Granger co-integration analysis, Vector Error Correction Model and Toda Yamamoto causality analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was determined that there is not any relationship among three variables in Brazil and Mexico. On the other hand, we defined that increase in export causes higher growth rate in Argentina. Moreover, it was concluded that there is a causal relationship from import to export in China and Turkey. Furthermore, it was determined that export causes higher import in Malaysia. Therefore, it can be concluded that the relationship between import, export and growth rate is not same for all developing countries..

  6. Development rate and lower temperature threshold in the eggs of Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mujgan Kivan

    2008-01-01

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. has a wide distribution in the Palearctic region. It is the most important pest problem of wheat in Turkey. The objective of this study was to attain better knowledge of the development of the sunn pest eggs. The lower temperature threshold and development rate of eggs were determined at 17, 20, 23, 26 and 32℃ ± 1℃ in the laboratory. A linear model was used to describe the developmental rate and temperature. The egg development required 90.9 degree-days above the theoretical threshold of 11.7 ℃. The development time was 17.6 ± 0.1 days at 17℃, and 4.5 ± 0.01 days at 32℃. Incubation time was inversely related to temperature. The study showed that the eggs of E. integriceps needed shorter periods of time to complete their development than immature stages of their parasitoids Trissolcus spp.

  7. Development of a group contribution method to predict aqueous phase hydroxyl radical (HO*) reaction rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Li, Ke; Westerhoff, Paul; Crittenden, John

    2009-08-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO*) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites of organic compounds and initiates complex chain mechanisms. In order to help understand the reaction mechanisms, a rule-based model was previously developed to predict the reaction pathways. For a kinetic model, there is a need to develop a rate constant estimator that predicts the rate constants for a variety of organic compounds. In this study, a group contribution method (GCM) is developed to predict the aqueous phase HO* rate constants for the following reaction mechanisms: (1) H-atom abstraction, (2) HO* addition to alkenes, (3) HO* addition to aromatic compounds, and (4) HO* interaction with sulfur (S)-, nitrogen (N)-, or phosphorus (P)-atom-containing compounds. The GCM hypothesizes that an observed experimental rate constant for a given organic compound is the combined rate of all elementary reactions involving HO*, which can be estimated using the Arrhenius activation energy, E(a), and temperature. Each E(a) for those elementary reactions can be comprised of two parts: (1) a base part that includes a reactive bond in each reaction mechanism and (2) contributions from its neighboring functional groups. The GCM includes 66 group rate constants and 80 group contribution factors, which characterize each HO* reaction mechanism with steric effects of the chemical structure groups and impacts of the neighboring functional groups, respectively. Literature-reported experimental HO* rate constants for 310 and 124 compounds were used for calibration and prediction, respectively. The genetic algorithms were used to determine the group rate constants and group contribution factors. The group contribution factors for H-atom abstraction and HO* addition to the aromatic compounds were found to linearly correlate with the Taft constants, sigma*, and electrophilic substituent parameters, sigma+, respectively. The best calibrations for 83% (257 rate constants) and predictions for 62% (77

  8. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households. CONCLUSIONS: This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  9. Recent Impacts of Selected Development Indicators on Unemployment Rate: Focusing the SEE Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Dumicic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship between unemployment rate and development indicators: (1 the GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Parities (PPP in current international $; and (2 the Internet penetration rate, defined as the percentage of Internet users per 100 people. For 34 countries in 2013, only two simple linear regression models based on natural logarithms of data and the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS estimator appeared to be useful. The simple linear regression Model 1 shows a negative correlation between the main variable under study lnYUemRate and the regressor lnXGDPpc, explaining nearly half of the total variation. The simple linear regression Model 2 shows a negative correlation between lnYUemRate and lnXIntUse, explaining 27 % of the total sum of squares. Regarding clustering of 34 countries based on three variables, the Ward linkage and squared Euclidean distances gave an interesting four-cluster solution. The South-East European (SEE, and especially to the Western Balkan’s countries (WBC are focused. These countries, spread in three clusters, are not homogeneous. Bosnia and Herzegovina and R. Macedonia are with Spain and Greece, all having difficult economic situation. Albania, Montenegro and Serbia are with Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey, all being the SEEC. Croatia is with more developed Italy, Cyprus and Poland, and with less developed Portugal. Central European Slovenia, joined more developed countries of that area, but the most developed European countries comprised a cluster of their own.

  10. Tuyere development as an effective measure for high PC rate operation of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, T.; Kasai, A.; Nozawa, K.; Shibata, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kakogawa Works, Hyogo (Japan). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-07-01

    Kobe Steel has developed technologies to reduce coke consumption in its blast furnaces by injecting coal at a high rate. This paper described a newly developed tuyere and its contribution to improving permeability under high pulverized coal (PC) rate conditions at the blast furnaces at Kakogawa Works. Reducing the coke rate while increasing the coal injection rate results in higher ore/coke at the center region of the furnace, resulting in excessive peripheral gas and inducing gas channeling. Central coke charging (CCC) helps attain a stable gas flow inside the furnace by forming a vertical gas passage in the coke column. It enables furnace operators to directly control or enhance the central gas flow and improves gas and liquid permeability in the furnace bottom. In a conventional tuyere, the PC is introduced in or before the converged blast flow inside the tuyere where coal fines begin to decompose and interact with hot blasts. This newly developed convergent and divergent (CD) type tuyere was instrumental in safely reducing the pressure drop and its variation to a tolerable level even under ultra-high PCR conditions over 250 kg/thm. This paper described the effects of tuyere structure on raceway shapes using 3 types of tuyeres in a coke packed test furnace. It was concluded that the CD tuyere reduces pressure drop at the tuyere. An increase in PC rate offers benefits in terms of furnace stability. The CD tuyere also reduces coke deterioration in the raceway. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Development and validation of the Cancer Dyspnoea Scale: a multidimensional, brief, self-rating scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Tanaka; Akechi, T.; T. Okuyama; Nishiwaki,Y; Uchitomi, Y

    2000-01-01

    Dyspnoea is one of the most frequent and refractory symptoms in cancer patients. Lack of an appropriate assessment tool for dyspnoea seems to disturb establishment of management strategy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a brief self-rating scale to assess the multidimensional nature of dyspnoea in cancer patients. We developed a 12-item scale, the Cancer Dyspnoea Scale (CDS), composed of three factors (sense of effort/sense of anxiety/sense of discomfort), by using facto...

  12. New von Hippel-Lindau manifestations develop at the same or decreased rates in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise

    2015-01-01

    diagnosed throughout their lifetimes. We analyzed age-dependent manifestation rates using Poisson regression. We compared the women's rates in intervals where they had been pregnant with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals. We investigated possible long-term effects using pregnancy intervals...... pregnancies. Manifestation rates in women's pregnant intervals were lower compared with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals (1 year: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.439, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.131-1.474, p = 0.18; 3 years: HR = 0.412, 95% CI 0.214-0.796, p = 0.0083; and 5 years: HR = 0.450, 95% CI 0.......136-1.489, p = 0.19). Men and women had similar manifestation rates, both increasing from their 20s. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy does not aggravate vHL tumor development, and we neither discourage pregnancy in VHL mutation carriers nor recommend intensified surveillance during pregnancy. The pregnancy effect...

  13. Development of the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) test for hearing aid comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R M; McDaniel, D M

    1989-06-01

    The Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) Test has been developed for use in clinical comparisons of hearing aid conditions. After listening to a short passage of connected speech, subjects generate a rating proportional to its intelligibility using an equal-appearing interval scale from 0 to 10. Before test passages are presented, the signal-to-babble ratio (SBR) is adjusted to a level that elicits intelligibility ratings of 7-8 for a "setup" passage. Then, with SBR held constant, three or more test passages are rated and the results averaged for each aided condition. This paper describes the generation of recorded test materials and their investigation using normally hearing listeners. Based on these data, a critical difference of about 2 scale intervals is recommended. A future paper will deal with results for hearing-impaired subjects.

  14. Assessment of patient interpersonal behavior: Development and validation of a rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Höfling, Volkmar; Weck, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Patient in-session interpersonal behavior, as part of the therapeutic alliance, is an important aspect of the psychotherapy process and impacts treatment outcome. In the present study, the development and validation of a rating scale of patient in-session interpersonal behavior is described. A 10-item rating scale, the Assessment Form of Patient Interpersonal Behavior (AFPIB), was developed using an inductive procedure. The AFPIB was then validated in a sample of patients with hypochondriasis (N = 30), by having two independent raters assess patients' interpersonal behaviors shown in videotaped psychotherapy sessions (N = 60). The AFPIB demonstrated good reliability and validity. Thus, the AFPIB seems to be a promising rating scale for the assessment of patient interpersonal behavior shown in psychotherapy sessions.

  15. Specific cerebellar regions are related to force amplitude and rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraker, M B; Corcos, D M; Kurani, A S; Prodoehl, J; Swinnen, S P; Vaillancourt, D E

    2012-01-16

    The human cerebellum has been implicated in the control of a wide variety of motor control parameters, such as force amplitude, movement extent, and movement velocity. These parameters often covary in both movement and isometric force production tasks, so it is difficult to resolve whether specific regions of the cerebellum relate to specific parameters. In order to address this issue, the current study used two experiments and SUIT normalization to determine whether BOLD activation in the cerebellum scales with the amplitude or rate of change of isometric force production or both. In the first experiment, subjects produced isometric pinch-grip force over a range of force amplitudes without any constraints on the rate of force development. In the second experiment, subjects varied the rate of force production, but the target force amplitude remained constant. The data demonstrate that BOLD activation in separate sub-areas of cerebellar regions lobule VI and Crus I/II scales with both force amplitude and force rate. In addition, BOLD activation in cerebellar lobule V and vermis VI was specific to force amplitude, whereas BOLD activation in lobule VIIb was specific to force rate. Overall, cerebellar activity related to force amplitude was located superior and medial, whereas activity related to force rate was inferior and lateral. These findings suggest that specific circuitry in the cerebellum may be dedicated to specific motor control parameters such as force amplitude and force rate.

  16. Development of a Standardized Rating Tool for Drug Alerts to Reduce Information Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfistermeister, Barbara; Sedlmayr, Brita; Patapovas, Andrius; Suttner, Gerald; Tektas, Ozan; Tarkhov, Aleksey; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fromm, Martin F; Bürkle, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Maas, Renke

    2016-12-07

    A well-known problem in current clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is the high number of alerts, which are often medically incorrect or irrelevant. This may lead to the so-called alert fatigue, an overriding of alerts, including those that are clinically relevant, and underuse of CDSS in general. The aim of our study was to develop and to apply a standardized tool that allows its users to evaluate the quality of system-generated drug alerts. The users' ratings can subsequently be used to derive recommendations for developing a filter function to reduce irrelevant alerts. We developed a rating tool for drug alerts and performed a web-based evaluation study that also included a user review of alerts. In this study the following categories were evaluated: "data linked correctly", "medically correct", "action required", "medication change", "critical alert", "information gained" and "show again". For this purpose, 20 anonymized clinical cases were randomly selected and displayed in our customized CDSS research prototype, which used the summary of product characteristics (SPC) for alert generation. All the alerts that were provided were evaluated by 13 physicians. The users' ratings were used to derive a filtering algorithm to reduce overalerting. In total, our CDSS research prototype generated 399 alerts. In 98 % of all alerts, medication data were rated as linked correctly to drug information; in 93 %, the alerts were assessed as "medically correct"; 19.5 % of all alerts were rated as "show again". The interrater-agreement was, on average, 68.4 %. After the application of our filtering algorithm, the rate of alerts that should be shown again decreased to 14.8 %. The new standardized rating tool supports a standardized feedback of user-perceived clinical relevance of CDSS alerts. Overall, the results indicated that physicians may consider the majority of alerts formally correct but clinically irrelevant and override them. Filtering may help to reduce

  17. 77 FR 16116 - Public Input on the Development and Potential Issuance of Treasury Floating Rate Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Public Input on the Development and Potential Issuance of Treasury Floating Rate Notes AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Financial Markets, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  18. Development of a Rating Form to Evaluate Grant Applications to the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Rodriguez, Reymundo; Alexander, Laurel A.

    2006-01-01

    Reliance on subjective grant proposal review methods leads private philanthropies to underfund mental health programs, even when foundations have mental health focuses. This article describes a private mental health foundation's efforts to increase the objectivity of its proposal review process by developing a reliable, valid proposal rating form.…

  19. Development of a student rating scale to evaluate teachers' competencies for facilitating reflective learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub-de Jong, Mirabelle A.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Dekker, Hanke; Verkerk, Marian; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2011-01-01

    Context Teaching students in reflection calls for specific teacher competencies. We developed and validated a rating scale focusing on Student perceptions of their Teachers' competencies to Encourage Reflective Learning in small Groups (STERLinG). Methods We applied an iterative procedure to reduce

  20. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Sensors for the Variable Rate Tree Liner Sprayer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensors functioning reliably under harsh field conditions are needed for the development of variable-rate sprayers to apply pest control agents for tree liners in ornamental nurseries. Two ultrasonic sensors were tested to determine how their durability and detection stability would be influenced by...

  1. Success Rates by Software Development Methodology in Information Technology Project Management: A Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerald P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite over half a century of Project Management research, project success rates are still too low. Organizations spend a tremendous amount of valuable resources on Information Technology projects and seek to maximize the utility gained from their efforts. The author investigated the impact of software development methodology choice on ten…

  2. Recent Achievements in Developing Low Temperature and High Strain Rate Superplastic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is to briefly outline our recent activities in developing low temperature or high strain rate superplastic materials, including aircraft-used and general-purpose Al- and Mg-base alloys or composites, as well as Ti3Al base intermetallic alloys. The processing routes applied included the thermomechanical treatment, equal channel angular pressing and other extrusion or forging methods.

  3. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  4. The Development of a Behavior Patterns Rating Scale for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Nihat; Kuzu, Okan; Kuzu, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rating scale that can be used to evaluate behavior patterns of the organization people pattern of preservice teachers (PSTs). By reviewing the related literature on people patterns, a preliminary scale of 38 items with a five-points Likert type was prepared. The number of items was reduced to 29 after…

  5. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  6. Effect of Strength Training on Rate of Force Development in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjao, Andre Luiz Demantova; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Carneiro, Nelson Hilario; Goncalves, Raquel; Ferreira de Moura, Rodrigo; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of an 8-week strength training (ST) program on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromyographic activity (EMG) in older women. Seventeen women (M age = 63.4 years, SD = 4.9) without previous ST experience were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 10) group. A leg-press isometric test was…

  7. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S.C.; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were...

  8. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille;

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....

  9. Scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia: development of a new clinical scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz-Hubsch, T.; Montcel, S.T. du; Baliko, L.; Berciano, J.; Boesch, S.; Depondt, C.; Giunti, P.; Globas, C.; Infante, J.; Kang, J.S.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Mariotti, C.; Melegh, B.; Pandolfo, M.; Rakowicz, M.; Ribai, P.; Rola, R.; Schols, L.; Szymanski, S.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Durr, A.; Klockgether, T.; Fancellu, R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable and valid clinical scale measuring the severity of ataxia. METHODS: The authors devised the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and tested it in two trials of 167 and 119 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia. RESULTS: The mean time to administer SARA

  10. Success Rates by Software Development Methodology in Information Technology Project Management: A Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerald P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite over half a century of Project Management research, project success rates are still too low. Organizations spend a tremendous amount of valuable resources on Information Technology projects and seek to maximize the utility gained from their efforts. The author investigated the impact of software development methodology choice on ten…

  11. The choice of exchange rate regimes in developing countries: A mulitnominal panal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    von Hagen, Jürgen; Zhou, Jizhong

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices of exchange rate regimes in developing countries since 1980. Static and dynamic random-effects multinominal panel models are estimated using simulation-based techniques. Explanatory variables include OCA fundamentals, stabilization considerations, currency crises factors, and political and institutional features. The results reveal strong state dependence in regime choices.

  12. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.;

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  13. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  14. Potentiation increases peak twitch torque by enhancing rates of torque development and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscles (study 1). Additionally, potentiated quadriceps muscles torque was measured every min after a further 10 maximal voluntary contractions repeated every min (study 2). Electrical stimulation repeated several times without previous maximal voluntary contraction showed similar peak twitch torque. Peak twitch torque 4 s after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction increased by 45±13% (study 1) and by 56±10% (study 2), the rate of torque development by 53±13% and 82±29%, and the rate of relaxation by 50±17% and 59±22%, respectively, but potentiation was lost already two min after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction. There was a tendency for peak twitch torque to increase for the first five repeated maximal voluntary contractions, suggesting increased potentiation with additional maximal voluntary contractions. Correlations for peak twitch torque vs the rate of torque development and for the rate of relaxation were r(2)= 0.94 and r(2)=0.97. The correlation between peak twitch torque, the rate of torque development and the rate of relaxation suggests that potentiation is due to instantaneous changes in skeletal muscle contractility and relaxation.

  15. [Effect of maternal genotype on the rate of preimplantation development in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, V V; Vakhrusheva, M P

    1981-01-01

    The genetic control of the rate of preimplantation development was studied in the mouse embryos. The number of cells in the embryo and the percentage of embryos at the blastocyst stage were determined on the 3.5 day of pregnancy. The experiments were carried out with CBA, A/He, C57Bl/Mib mice and mice homozygous by the mutant genes white (Miwh), fidget (fi) and ocular retardation (or), congenic with the inbred C57Bl/Mib mice. Contrasting differences were found between C57Bl/Mib and fi/fi mice. The rate of development of the morphologically normal C57Bl/Mib and fi/fi and F1 embryo was shown to depend on the maternal genotype, rather than on the paternal one. The effect of maternal genotype of the rate of preimplantation development was related to differences in the time of beginning of the cleavage. The rate of cleavage is similar for the C57Bl/Mib, fi/fi and F1 embryos.

  16. Developing a Rating System for Building Energy Efficiency Based on In Situ Measurement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building energy consumption in China recently surpassed the US building consumption, and it is expected to increase significantly in the next decade pushed by the continuous population and urbanization increase. In response to that situation, the Chinese government introduced a series of building energy codes and rating systems to assess and enhance the building energy performance. The purpose of this study is to develop a rating system for the building energy efficiency, based on in situ measurement. The system is intended for office buildings in China’s cold zone. An evaluation framework, graphic dominant point, and principle of data collection and processing are illustrated in this paper. Three existing buildings were rated under the new rating system. The authors believe that the new system will contribute to a more accurate and comprehensive understanding for asset holders and occupants, that report on the extent to which energy efficiency buildings have been reached. Rating results are expected to be a reference for the retrofitting of existing buildings and the design of new buildings. In addition, the outlook for the rating system was also discussed.

  17. Biomedical progress rates as new parameters for models of economic growth in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Litovchenko, Maria

    2013-11-08

    While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan) and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative). While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG) growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm.

  18. Biomedical Progress Rates as New Parameters for Models of Economic Growth in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Zhavoronkov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative. While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm.

  19. Tremor irregularity, torque steadiness and rate of force development in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    We investigated lower-extremity isometric tremor Approximate Entropy (irregularity), torque steadiness and rate of force development (RFD) and their associations to muscle activation strategy during isometric knee extensions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients...... and the patients had increased muscle co-activation. A markedly lower RFD was found in PD and the decreased RFD correlated with reduced agonist muscle activation. Furthermore, patient RFD correlated with the Movement-Disorder-Society-Unified-Parkinson's-Disease-Rating-Scale 3 (motor part) scores. We concluded...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A RATING MODEL OF THE ASSESSMENT OF SCIENTIFIC PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Kalachikhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of organization of scientific projects competition in a higher education institution is investigated in the article. The method of expert evaluations is taken as a basis and the factorial variables are used at calculation. The rules of processing of model parameters, calculation of intermediate variables, calculation of a total rating and division of objects into classes on value of a rating are the results. The developed technique allows increasing validity of results of competitive selection during planning scientific researches.

  1. Socioeconomic differences in the development of self-rated health amongst adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Hansen, Claus D.

    2009-01-01

    decrease in self-rated health from age 15 to 18 years. Conclusions Self-rated health, the number of depressive symptoms and levels of perceived stress changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Changes in physical exercise were found to contribute to the deterioration......Background While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as amongst adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. This study reports on the development of self-rated health, perceived stress and depressive symptoms from age...... 15 to 18 years in a cohort study of Danish adolescents. The aim was to study predictors for health change among children with different social background. Methods Information from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3058) living in Ringkoebing County, Denmark was collected from...

  2. Trends in risks associated with new drug development: success rates for investigational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMasi, J A; Feldman, L; Seckler, A; Wilson, A

    2010-03-01

    This study utilizes both public and private data sources to estimate clinical phase transition and clinical approval probabilities for drugs in the development pipelines of the 50 largest pharmaceutical firms (by sales). The study examined the development histories of these investigational compounds from the time point at which they first entered clinical testing (1993-2004) through June 2009. The clinical approval success rate in the United States was 16% for self-originated drugs (originating from the pharmaceutical company itself) during both the 1993-1998 and the 1999-2004 subperiods. For all compounds (including licensed-in and licensed-out drugs in addition to self-originated drugs), the clinical approval success rate for the entire study period was 19%. The estimated clinical approval success rates and phase transition probabilities differed significantly by therapeutic class. The estimated clinical approval success rate for self-originated compounds over the entire study period was 32% for large molecules and 13% for small molecules. The estimated transition probabilities were also higher for all clinical phases with respect to large molecules.

  3. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Dept. de Zoologia

    2007-11-15

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  4. Development of a 300 Amp-hr high rate lithium thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Gerard H.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a high-rate lithium thionyl chloride cylindrical cell with parallel plate electrodes is discussed. The development was divided into three phases: phase 1, a 150 Amp/hour low rate (1 mA/sq cm) design; phase 2, a 25 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design; and phase 3, a 300 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design. The basic design is the same for all three cells. The electrodes are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Multiple electrodes are bussed up the side of the cylinder, 180 deg apart allowing excellent anode and cathode utilization. It is a lithium limited design with excess electrolyte. The cathode is Shawinigan or Gulf Acetylene black with no catalyst. The electrolyte is 1.8 Molar lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl4) in thionyl chloride. All cell cases are 304L Stainless Steel with a BS&B burst disc.

  5. Development of the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Guideline for Rating Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Won, Jong-Uk; Kim, So-Yun; Sohn, Myong-Sei; Youm, Yoo-Sik; Lee, Yoon-Seong; Kim, Dong-Jun; Cho, Soo-Hun; Lee, Mi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Systematic and effective welfare for the disabled is possible when there are scientific and objective criteria demonstrating either presence or severity of the impairment. We need our own scientific criteria suitable for our culture and society, since the impairment is influenced by them. In 2007, we established the Developing Committee of Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS) Guideline for Impairment Rating under KAMS supervision. We included all fixed and permanent physical impairments after a sufficient medical treatment. The impairment should be stable and medically measurable. If not, it should be reevaluated later. We benchmarked the American Medical Association Guides. The KAMS Guideline should be scientific, objective, valid, reasonable and practical. In particular, we tried to secure objectivity. We developed the KAMS Guideline for Impairment Rating. PMID:19503676

  6. Development and preliminary evaluation of an Android based heart rate variability biofeedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, F; Berndtsson, A; Abtahi, S; Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, K

    2014-01-01

    The reduced Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is believed to be associated with several diseases such as congestive heart failure, diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In these cases, HRV biofeedback may be a potential intervention method to increase HRV which in turn is beneficial to these patients. In this work, a real-time Android biofeedback application based on a Bluetooth enabled ECG and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (respiration) measurement device has been developed. The system performance and usability have been evaluated in a brief study with eight healthy volunteers. The result demonstrates real-time performance of system and positive effects of biofeedback training session by increased HRV and reduced heart rate. Further development of the application and training protocol is ongoing to investigate duration of training session to find an optimum length and interval of biofeedback sessions to use in potential interventions.

  7. Implications Of Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development And Real Exchange Rate For Economic Growth In Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang Achamoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI, financial development and real exchange rate (RER on economic growth in Cameroon using Cameroon’s annual time series data spanning the period 1977 - 2010. To address these objectives, residual based Engle-Granger test, the OLS based Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL bound testing and maximum likelihood based Johansen cointegration techniques are employed. Results of Unit roots tests show that all the series possessed unit roots at level or first difference form. The ARDL model and VECM results reveal that the RER has a significant negative effect on economic growth, while FDI and Financial Development relate positively to economic growth. These findings have implications for stimulating economic growth by increasing efficiency of the financial sector in allocating credit to the private sector and preventing real exchange rate appreciation in the shortrun.

  8. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  9. Development of dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A data bus transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebright, Rodney K.; Kim, Jae H.; Hughes, Rod; Clement, Jay W.; Bocek, Thomas M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Nitardy, John H.; Hong, Chi-Shain

    1996-10-01

    Boeing has first developed a space-qualifiable, radiation- hardened, dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A fiber-optic transceiver for military command/response time division multiplexed data bus applications. This will provide an enhancement path from a fixed low data rate MIL-STD-1553 bus to a high data rate MIL-STD-1773 bus with minor modification of terminals supporting the existing function. The transceiver operates at dual-rates of both 1 and 20 Mbps over temperature (minus 25 to plus 85 degrees Celsius), and it shows a large dynamic range of greater than 20 dB in support of 32-node star network; a sensitivity of up to minus 38.7 dBm and a saturation of minus 16.1 dBm (limited mainly by test source power) at BER less than or equal to 1 multiplied by 10-10. These transceivers are currently being utilized for space and military applications at DARPA, NASA, and JPL. In this paper we describe the dual-rate transceiver design requirements, ASIC and hybrid design, and performance test results.

  10. The endoscopy Global Rating Scale – Canada: Development and implementation of a quality improvement tool

    OpenAIRE

    Donald MacIntosh; Catherine Dubé; Roger Hollingworth; Sander Veldhuyzen van Zanten; Sandra Daniels; George Ghattas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly for colorectal cancer screening, and increasing emphasis on health care quality highlight the need for endoscopy facilities to review the quality of the service they offer.OBJECTIVE: To adapt the United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (UK-GRS) to develop a web-based and patient-centred tool to assess and improve the quality of endoscopy services provided.METHODS: Based on feedback from 22 sites across Canada that completed the...

  11. Development of fuzzy supplier-rating by trapeze fuzzy membership functions with trigonometrical legs

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Portik; Tamás Varga

    2011-01-01

    In every fields of industry, suppliers create the elements for the final products of OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), which means, suppliers ”define” the quality of the final products via the quality of elements. Due to this, the continuous evaluation of supplier performance can be one of the most effcient risk assessment tools to identify weakness in early stages, make the possibility to implement corrective actions in time. The paper offers new development of supplier-rating based on ...

  12. Development and characterisation of new high-rate muon drift tube detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Bernhard

    2012-07-25

    With the increase of the LHC luminosity above the design value and the higher background counting rates, detectors in the ATLAS muon spectrometer have to be replaced because the limits of the radiation tolerance will be exceeded. Therefore drift tube chambers with 15 mm tube diameter were developed. The required construction accuracy was verified and the limits of the resolution and efficiency were determined in a muon beam and under gamma irradiation and compared to model expectations.

  13. Development of Theoretical Methods for Predicting Solvent Effects on Reaction Rates in Supercritical Water Oxidation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Tucker, manuscript in preparation. “Examination of Nonequilibrium Solvent Effects on an SN2 Reaction in Supercritical Water,” R. Behera, B...DATES COVERED Final: 7/1/99 - 12/31/02 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of theoretical methods for predicting solvent effects on reactions ...computational methods for predicting how reaction rate constants will vary with thermodynamic condition in supercritical water (SCW). Towards this

  14. Socioeconomic differences in the development of self-rated health amongst adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Hansen, Claus D.

    2009-01-01

    perceived stress on average remained stable. Children of parents’ with the longest education had significantly worse development of all three health indicators compared with children of parents’ with primary school education. Participants who reduced their levels of physical exercise had a significant...... of selfrated health. This result stresses the importance of preventing adolescents from reducing their level of physical exercise.......Background While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as amongst adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. This study reports on the development of self-rated health, perceived stress and depressive symptoms from age...

  15. Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas Hydrate Formation Rate in Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions has become necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammerschmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipment, are the major concerns of the gas industry. The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on a combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems and more than 900 data points of the , , , and i-  hydrate formation rate. Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6 % for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

  16. Increased rate of force development of elbow flexors by antagonist conditioning contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Takashi; Yoshioka, Koichi; Ito, Susumu; Kusakabe, Tatsumi

    2009-08-01

    The effects of isometric antagonist conditioning contraction (ACC) at various durations and intensities on the contractile force, electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, and their rates of rise of elbow flexor muscles were examined in healthy participants. In particular, we focused on the change in the maximum rate of initial force development of agonists (dFagonist/dt(max)), which was evaluated by subtracting antagonist force decaying from apparent initial force development. While the ACC caused no statistically significant effect on the average force during elbow flexion, dFagonist/dt(max) was significantly increased by the ACC of short durations (1-2s) and large intensities. Similarly, the ACC did not affect the root mean square EMG amplitude of biceps brachii during elbow flexion, but significantly increased the maximum rate of rise of the absolute EMG amplitude (dE/dt(max)). These results suggested that facilitating effects of the ACC could be observed in the initial phase of agonist action in healthy participants, and ACC of shorter durations might be more effective. The increased dE/dt(max) suggested that increased neural activities might contribute to the antagonist conditioned facilitation of force development.

  17. Vocabulary development in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants and its relationship with speech perception abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2017-01-01

    China has the largest population of children with hearing impairments and cochlear implantation is gaining popularity there. However, the vocabulary development in this population is largely unexplored. This study examined early vocabulary outcomes, factors influencing early vocabulary development and the relationship between speech perception and vocabulary development in Mandarin-speaking children during the first year of cochlear implant use. A battery of vocabulary tests was administered to 80 children before implantation and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Demographic information was obtained to evaluate their relationships with vocabulary outcomes. The Mandarin-speaking children, who received their cochlear implants before 3 years of age, developed vocabulary at a rate faster than that of their same-aged peers with normal hearing. Better pre-implant hearing levels, younger age at implantation, and higher maternal education level contributed to the early vocabulary development. The trajectories of speech perception development highly correlated with those of vocabulary development during 3 to 12 months of CI use. and Implications: These findings imply that the vocabulary development of children implanted before 3 years of age may catch up with that of their hearing peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PRELIMINARY FRIT DEVELOPMENT AND MELT RATE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 (SB6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Edwards, T.

    2009-07-21

    The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projection in March 2009. Based on this projection, frit development efforts were undertaken to gain insight into compositional effects on the predicted and measured properties of the glass waste form and to gain insight into frit components that may lead to improved melt rate for SB6-like compositions. A series of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) based glasses was selected, fabricated and characterized in this study to better understand the ability of frit compositions to accommodate uncertainty in the projected SB6 composition. Acceptable glasses (compositions where the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) predicted acceptable properties, good chemical durability was measured, and no detrimental nepheline crystallization was observed) can be made using Frit 418 with SB6 over a range of Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. However, the ability to accommodate variation in the sludge composition limits the ability to utilize alternative frits for potential improvements in melt rate. Frit 535, which may offer improvements in melt rate due to its increased B2O3 concentration, produced acceptable glasses with the baseline SB6 composition at waste loadings of 34 and 42%. However, the PCCS MAR results showed that it is not as robust as Frit 418 in accommodating variation in the sludge composition. Preliminary melt rate testing was completed in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) with four candidate frits for SB6. These four frits were selected to evaluate the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O concentrations in the frit relative to those of Frit 418, although they are not necessarily candidates for SB6 vitrification. Higher concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the frit relative to that of Frit 418 appeared to improve melt rate. However, when a higher concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was coupled

  19. Development of the Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Rating of Treatment Intensity (PNORTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C; Hobbie, Wendy; Fisher, Michael J

    2017-09-08

    Measures of treatment intensity for childhood cancer are needed in research in order to control for variability in treatments. Existing measures of treatment intensity for childhood cancers do not reflect the complexities of treatment protocols for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. This paper describes the development of the Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Rating of Treatment Intensity (PNORTI). PNORTI development occurred in three phases. Phase 1: five experts in pediatric neuro-oncology created a 5-point scale of treatment intensity and 42 pediatric neuro-oncology providers completed a three-part online questionnaire to evaluate the classification system and apply the rating system to 16 sample patients. Validity was determined by respondents classifying therapy modalities into intensity levels. Inter-rater reliability was calculated from ratings of the 16 sample patients. Phase 2: three experts revised the PNORTI based on survey results and 18 pediatric neuro-oncology providers evaluated the classification system. Phase 3: ten experts in pediatric neuro-oncology refined and finalized the PNORTI and rated 10 sample patients using the PNORTI. Agreement between median ratings of the survey respondents and criterion raters for chemotherapy intensity (r's = .82 and 1.0) and overall treatment intensity level (r's = .91 and .94) were high in Phases 1 and 2. Inter-rater reliability also was very high when using the PNORTI to classify the 16 sample patients in Phase 1 (median agreement of r = .93 and rICC = .99) and the 10 sample patients in Phase 3 (median agreement of r = .92 and rICC = .98). The PNORTI is a valid and reliable method for classifying the intensity of different treatment modalities used in pediatric neuro-oncology.

  20. Structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the first 3 months of infant brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Dominic; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Curran, Megan; Buchthal, Steven D; Alicata, Daniel; Skranes, Jon; Johansen, Heather; Hernandez, Antonette; Yamakawa, Robyn; Kuperman, Joshua M; Dale, Anders M

    2014-10-01

    The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders. To assess structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the whole brain and regions of interest in infants during the first 3 months after birth. Serial structural T1-weighted and/or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 211 time points from 87 healthy term-born or term-equivalent preterm-born infants, aged 2 to 90 days, between October 5, 2007, and June 12, 2013. We segmented whole-brain and multiple subcortical regions of interest using a novel application of Bayesian-based methods. We modeled growth and rate of growth trajectories nonparametrically and assessed left-right asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms. Whole-brain volume at birth was approximately one-third of healthy elderly brain volume, and did not differ significantly between male and female infants (347 388 mm3 and 335 509 mm3, respectively, P = .12). The growth rate was approximately 1%/d, slowing to 0.4%/d by the end of the first 3 months, when the brain reached just more than half of elderly adult brain volume. Overall growth in the first 90 days was 64%. There was a significant age-by-sex effect leading to widening separation in brain sizes with age between male and female infants (with male infants growing faster than females by 200.4 mm3/d, SE = 67.2, P = .003). Longer gestation was associated with larger brain size (2215 mm3/d, SE = 284, P = 4×10-13). The expected brain size of an infant born one week earlier than average was 5% smaller than average; at 90 days it will not have caught up, being 2% smaller than average. The cerebellum grew at the highest rate, more than doubling in 90 days, and the hippocampus grew at the slowest rate, increasing by 47% in 90 days. There was left

  1. Rate of constitutive innate humoral immune development in Leach's storm petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) chicks is negatively correlated with growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauck, R.A.; Matson, K.D.; Philipsborn, J.; Ricklefs, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    1 Using a simple technique for assessing constitutive innate immune function recently adapted for use in wild populations, we characterize changes in avian immune system development by repeated measurements of individuals over the period of nestling growth in a wild population of Leach's Storm-Petre

  2. Rate control system algorithm developed in state space for models with parameter uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Jesus Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Researching in weightlessness above the atmosphere needs a payload to carry the experiments. To achieve the weightlessness, the payload uses a rate control system (RCS in order to reduce the centripetal acceleration within the payload. The rate control system normally has actuators that supply a constant force when they are turned on. The development of an algorithm control for this rate control system will be based on the minimum-time problem method in the state space to overcome the payload and actuators dynamics uncertainties of the parameters. This control algorithm uses the initial conditions of optimal trajectories to create intermediate points or to adjust existing points of a switching function. It associated with inequality constraint will form a decision function to turn on or off the actuators. This decision function, for linear time-invariant systems in state space, needs only to test the payload state variables instead of spent effort in solving differential equations and it will be tuned in real time to the payload dynamic. It will be shown, through simulations, the results obtained for some cases of parameters uncertainties that the rate control system algorithm reduced the payload centripetal acceleration below μg level and keep this way with no limit cycle.

  3. The development, reliability, and validity of a clinical rating scale for codependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, D; Swenson, M; Madsen-Hampton, K; Hale, R

    2001-01-01

    This investigation examined the reliability and validity of a rating scale for codependency in substance abuse treatment. The investigators developed an example-anchored rating scale to operationalize codependency as substance abuse counselors construe it in practice, and recruited 27 counselors for a counterbalanced multiple-treatment experiment. Counselors were randomly assigned to one of four continuing education workshops for rating-scale training, and asked to evaluate codependency in five videotaped cases. Semistructured case interviews were videotaped with a male and a female from five adult populations to vary the gender and codependency of cases: (1) outpatients in treatment for addiction, (2) outpatient spouses, (3) members of Codependents Anonymous, (4) United States Bureau of Land Management smoke jumpers, and (5) college students majoring in business or economics. To control for gender effects, one workshop presented male cases, one workshop presented female cases, and two workshops presented cases of both genders. To control for order effects, the assignment of videotapes to workshops was randomized to counterbalance the order in which counselors viewed them. The findings suggest that the rating scale yields reliable and valid evaluations of codependency without appreciable gender bias.

  4. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100 were taken from refrigerated carcasses (RS immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2. pH and temperature (T values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS. The ultimate pH (pHu value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  5. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  6. Rating tendencies of the innovative development prognostication system at the industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Rosokhata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article deals with the formational process of enterprise innovative directions on the basis of nowadays modern tendencies structured analysis. The practical realization of the innovative development prognostication process at the enterprise is confined mostly to the current market condition and economic viability analysis. The system of development innovative directions prognostication has no systematic complex approach, structured organization, set of elements, which provide to collect and rate nowadays tendencies, i.e. perspectives for future development. The object of an article is to form approach to the modern tendencies rating, which are observed within the introduction system concerning innovative development perspective directions prognostication at the enterprise – trend-watching. The results of the analysis. The article demonstrates the research on concepts “trend” and “tendencies” economic aspect definition. The author presents the approach to prognosticate innovative development directions of industrial enterprises, based on social and economic development urgent tendencies research; that is the main point to investigate the research direction – trend-watching. The methodic of tendencies rating to decrease subjectivity level while prognosticating enterprise development directions, which is based on tendencies spreading speed determination, is also suggested. The main essence of the tendencies development quantitative concept consists in the fact, that, in order to know which level will be achieved in this or that process, it is necessary to know average speed of its change. So, the average speed of the process change may be rated. The article presents three tendencies features, including time, place and action. These perceptions give reason to define the tendency speed, that is the resultant factor of tendency development and spreading factor in the proper time taking into account the

  7. Associated decrements in rate of force development and neural drive after maximal eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Bjerre, J; de Paoli, F; Vissing, K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD) and the neural drive following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-four subjects performed 15 × 10 maximal isokinetic eccentric knee extensor contractions. Prior to and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h during post-exercise recovery, isometric RFD (30, 50 100, and 200 ms), normalized RFD [1/6,1/2, and 2/3 of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and rate of electromyography rise (RER; 30, 50, and 75 ms) were measured. RFD decreased by 28-42% peaking at 48 h (P eccentric exercise. This association suggests that exercise-induced decrements in RFD can, in part, be explained decrements in neural drive. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tremor irregularity, torque steadiness and rate of force development in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-04-01

    We investigated lower-extremity isometric tremor Approximate Entropy (irregularity), torque steadiness and rate of force development (RFD) and their associations to muscle activation strategy during isometric knee extensions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and 15 neurologically healthy matched controls performed isometric maximal contractions (extension/flexion) as well as steady submaximal and powerful isometric knee extensions. The patients with PD showed decreased isometric tremor irregularity. Torque steadiness was reduced in PD and the patients had increased muscle coactivation. A markedly lower RFD was found in PD and the decreased RFD correlated with reduced agonist muscle activation. Furthermore, patient RFD correlated with the Movement-Disorder-Society-Unified-Parkinson's-Disease-Rating-Scale 3 (motor part) scores. We concluded that both knee isometric tremor Approximate Entropy and torque steadiness clearly differentiate between patients with PD and healthy controls. Furthermore, severely compromised RFD was found in patients with PD and was associated with decreased agonist muscle activation.

  9. Developing algorithms for healthcare insurers to systematically monitor surgical site infection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingston James M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Claims data provide rapid indicators of SSIs for coronary artery bypass surgery and have been shown to successfully rank hospitals by SSI rates. We now operationalize this method for use by payers without transfer of protected health information, or any insurer data, to external analytic centers. Results We performed a descriptive study testing the operationalization of software for payers to routinely assess surgical infection rates among hospitals where enrollees receive cardiac procedures. We developed five SAS programs and a user manual for direct use by health plans and payers. The manual and programs were refined following provision to two national insurers who applied the programs to claims databases, following instructions on data preparation, data validation, analysis, and verification and interpretation of program output. A final set of programs and user manual successfully guided health plan programmer analysts to apply SSI algorithms to claims databases. Validation steps identified common problems such as incomplete preparation of data, missing data, insufficient sample size, and other issues that might result in program failure. Several user prompts enabled health plans to select time windows, strata such as insurance type, and the threshold number of procedures performed by a hospital before inclusion in regression models assessing relative SSI rates among hospitals. No health plan data was transferred to outside entities. Programs, on default settings, provided descriptive tables of SSI indicators stratified by hospital, insurer type, SSI indicator (inpatient, outpatient, antibiotic, and six-month period. Regression models provided rankings of hospital SSI indicator rates by quartiles, adjusted for comorbidities. Programs are publicly available without charge. Conclusion We describe a free, user-friendly software package that enables payers to routinely assess and identify hospitals with potentially high SSI

  10. Development of a Behavioural Marker System for Rating Cadet’s Non-Technical Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernando PlÁcido da ConceiçÌo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the adoption of crew resource management training for bridge teams over the last decades, the training is still heavily focussed on technical achievements. In an educational context, the situation is more problematical, since with requirement of developing the technical skills, there is a need to build and evaluate the non-technical skills of cadets with little experience in bridge team management. In parallel with the application of team leadership models, the Portuguese Naval Academy conducted a research to improve the development and assessment of non-technical skills in bridge simulators. This paper describes the method used to identify the key non-technical skills required for naval cadets and to develop a behavioural marker system for their measurement. A literature review of behavioural marker systems was supplemented with an analysis of interviews conducted with students and simulator instructors. Additionally, further analysis of Portuguese Navy accidents reports was made, applying the HFACS framework to identify the relevant non-technical skills involved in the accidents. The resulting rating system covers five skill categories (leadership, situational awareness, communication, team work and decision making, each one with three rating elements. The framework is currently under evaluation tests in bridge simulators sessions, within an educational context.

  11. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Schwabl, H.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  12. Rasch analysis in the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Garde, B; Kreiner, S

    1995-01-01

    The study describes the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke. It was based on 74 first-stroke patients, 40 men and 34 women, each assessed three times during rehabilitation. Their median age was 69 years, and they represented all degrees of severity of paresis. Co...... in the 10-item subscores; 3) the score sum is independent of age, side of hemiparesis, and gender of the patient. Latent trait analysis (Rasch) was found to be an ideal model for statistical investigation of these properties....

  13. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  14. Stream flow rate measurement using tracer techniques at the Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA), Kelantan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud Mohammad; Abd Razak Hamzah; Wan Abd Aziz Wan Mohamad; Juhari Yusoff; Wan Zakaria Wan Mohd Tahir

    1985-06-01

    Measuring the flow rate of a water course is one of the basic operations in hydrology, being of general relevance to water problems and of particular importance in the planning of water control schemes. The techniques commonly used in streamflow gauging are either by a current meter of tracer dilution method. This paper describes the latter technique in which radioisotope Tc-99m was used as a tracer in streamflow measurements performed in 1983 in a few selected irrigation canals and pump house under the Kemubu Agriculture Development Authority (KADA), Kelantan. Total count technique and peak-to-peak method were adopted in this study. (author).

  15. Monitoring and identification of sepsis development through a composite measure of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bravi

    Full Text Available Tracking the physiological conditions of a patient developing infection is of utmost importance to provide optimal care at an early stage. This work presents a procedure to integrate multiple measures of heart rate variability into a unique measure for the tracking of sepsis development. An early warning system is used to illustrate its potential clinical value. The study involved 17 adults (age median 51 (interquartile range 46-62 who experienced a period of neutropenia following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplant; 14 developed sepsis, and 3 did not. A comprehensive panel (N = 92 of variability measures was calculated for 5 min-windows throughout the period of monitoring (12 ± 4 days. Variability measures underwent filtering and two steps of data reduction with the objective of enhancing the information related to the greatest degree of change. The proposed composite measure was capable of tracking the development of sepsis in 12 out of 14 patients. Simulating a real-time monitoring setting, the sum of the energy over the very low frequency range of the composite measure was used to classify the probability of developing sepsis. The composite revealed information about the onset of sepsis about 60 hours (median value before of sepsis diagnosis. In a real monitoring setting this quicker detection time would be associated to increased efficacy in the treatment of sepsis, therefore highlighting the potential clinical utility of a composite measure of variability.

  16. Bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli is growth rate dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Avinoam; Fishov, Itzhak; Hadas, Hilla; Einav, Monica; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2002-05-01

    Three independent parameters (eclipse and latent periods, and rate of ripening during the rise period) are essential and sufficient to describe bacteriophage development in its bacterial host. A general model to describe the classical "one-step growth" experiment [Rabinovitch et al. (1999a) J. Bacteriol.181, 1687-1683] allowed their calculations from experimental results obtained with T4 in Escherichia coli B/r under different growth conditions [Hadas et al. (1997) Microbiology143, 179-185]. It is found that all three parameters could be described by their dependence solely on the culture doubling time tau before infection. Their functional dependence on tau, derived by a best-fit analysis, was used to calculate burst size values. The latter agree well with the experimental results. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations.

  17. Factors Affecting the Rate of Pediatric Pneumonia in Developing Countries: a Review and Literature Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Ramezani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Millions of children less than 5 years old die from pneumonia globally and about 75-70% of these deaths occur in infants. Persian and English articles of International and National databases such as “WHO, Scopus and the Cochrane, Pub Med, Science Direct, Wiley, Google Scholar, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, Med Lib and Iran Doc were searched from 1970 to 2014. Result: The factors such as low birth weight, malnutrition, lack of breast feeding, micronutrient deficiencies, smoking tobacco, kindergarten and maternal education are the most important factors affecting the rate of pneumonia in developing countries. Conclusion: Actions such as nutritional interventions develop effective strategies on abstinence of smoking, promote the knowledge and practice of mothers about proper care of infants could have a significant effect on the reduction of morbidity and mortality of pneumonia in the infants.

  18. Development and Validity of the Rating Scales of Academic Skills for Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Edward S; Gebhardt, Sarah; Flatley, Katie; Guard, Kirra B; Fu, Qiong; Leichman, Erin S; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Hojnoski, Robin

    2017-01-23

    The development and psychometric qualities of a measure using teacher judgment to rate performance in reading comprehension for narrative text is described-the Rating Scales for Academic Skills-Reading Comprehension Narrative (RSAS-RCN). Sixty-five teachers from the third, fourth, and fifth grades of 8 elementary schools completed the measure on 177 students. Each teacher rated students who had been identified through school-based universal screening to be below the 25th percentile, between the 25th and 74th percentile, and at or above the 75th percentile on national normative standards. Results indicated the RSAS-RCN has strong to moderate evidence of (a) 1-week test-retest reliability, (b) concurrent validity with the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) and end of year state assessment in reading, and (c) significant classification accuracy across student ability levels. Principal component analysis and item response theory (Rasch modeling) indicate the RSAS-RCN is comprised of a single general dimension. Overall, this examination of the RSAS-RCN suggests teacher judgment may be a potentially valuable tool in assessing reading comprehension among upper elementary school students. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Development of an Advanced Respirometer for Experimental Studies of Benthic Rate Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Okuda, C.; Risi, M.; Parker, M.; Levesque, C.

    2005-05-01

    Rates of carbon remineralization and nutrient cycling by seafloor biotic assemblages are influenced by the availability of organic material, temperature, and oxygen availability, among other factors. The relative importance of various factors in controlling carbon cycling by the sediment community is poorly constrained, in part by technological limits on experiments that evaluate independently the effects of these factors. We have developed an advanced respiration chamber system capable of repeated rate measurements during a single deployment, with added capabilities for manipulating conditions within replicate chambers to test hypotheses concerning biogeochemical cycling by the benthos. The ROV-deployed respiration system has 12 syringes for tracer injection or sample withdrawal from 3 respiration chambers, pH, oxygen, and temperature sensors, stirring paddles, and a recirculation pump. The pump system is used to flush each chamber at preprogrammed intervals or oxygen tensions. Areas of investigation that are enabled by the system include the effects various factors on benthic oxygen consumptions (e.g. hypercapnia (elevated CO2), acidosis, ambient oxygen availability, temperature, organic carbon availability), rates of nutrient regeneration by the benthos in response to organic enrichments (labile and refractory organic carbon), time lags in carbon uptake and trophic pathways in responses to organic enrichment.

  20. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and initial development of physic nut without micronutrient fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Ferreira dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in Brazil have addressed the need for micronutrients of physic nut focusing on physiological responses, especially in terms of photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of omission of boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn on Jatropha curcas L.. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. The treatments were complete solution (control and solution without B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. We evaluated the chlorophyll content (SPAD units, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and accumulation of micronutrients in plants, resulting from different treatments. The first signs of deficiency were observed for Fe and B, followed by Mn and Zn, while no symptoms were observed for Cu deficiency. The micronutrient omission reduced the dry matter yield, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the plants differently for each omitted nutrient. It was, however, the omission of Fe that most affected the development of this species in all parameters evaluated. The treatments negatively affected the chlorophyll content, evaluated in SPAD units, and the photosynthetic rate, except for the omission of B. However this result was probably due to the concentration effect, since there was a significant reduction in the dry matter production of B-deficient plants.

  1. Quantifying plyometric intensity via rate of force development, knee joint, and ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Randall L; Ebben, William P

    2007-08-01

    Because the intensity of plyometric exercises usually is based simply upon anecdotal recommendations rather than empirical evidence, this study sought to quantify a variety of these exercises based on forces placed upon the knee. Six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes who routinely trained with plyometric exercises performed depth jumps from 46 and 61 cm, a pike jump, tuck jump, single-leg jump, countermovement jump, squat jump, and a squat jump holding dumbbells equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). Ground reaction forces obtained via an AMTI force plate and video analysis of markers placed on the left hip, knee, lateral malleolus, and fifth metatarsal were used to estimate rate of eccentric force development (E-RFD), peak ground reaction forces (GRF), ground reaction forces relative to body weight (GRF/BW), knee joint reaction forces (K-JRF), and knee joint reaction forces relative to body weight (K-JRF/BW) for each plyometric exercise. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that E-RFD, K-JRF, and K-JRF/BW were different across the conditions (p 0.05). Results indicate that there are quantitative differences between plyometric exercises in the rate of force development during landing and the forces placed on the knee, though peak GRF forces associated with landing may not differ.

  2. Development of high-frame-rate LED panel and its applications for stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Kajimoto, K.; Suyama, S.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report development of a high-frame-rate LED display. Full-color images are refreshed at 480 frames per second. In order to transmit such a high frame-rate signal via conventional 120-Hz DVI, we have introduced a spatiotemporal mapping of image signal. A processor of LED image signal and FPGAs in LED modules have been reprogrammed so that four adjacent pixels in the input image are converted into successive four fields. The pitch of LED panel is 20 mm. The developed 480-fps LED display is utilized for stereoscopic 3D display by use of parallax barrier. The horizontal resolution of a viewed image decreases to one-half by the parallax barrier. This degradation is critical for LED because the pitch of LED displays is as large as tens of times of other flat panel displays. We have conducted experiments to improve quality of the viewed image through the parallax barrier. The improvement is based on interpolation by afterimages. It is shown that the HFR LED provides detailed afterimages. Furthermore, the HFR LED has been utilized for unconscious imaging, which provide a sensation of discovery of conscious visual information from unconscious images.

  3. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire-based study...... was undertaken of non-institutionalized Danes, aged 70-95 years, with baseline in 1986. The response rate at baseline was 69%, n= 1,231. First follow-up was carried out in 1990, with 91% of eligible individuals participating (n=911). Second follow-up took place in 1994, where 83% of eligible individuals...... participated (n= 542). The association was studied between development in SRH from 1986 to 1990 and social relations in 1990 and in 1994. RESULTS: A sustained poor SRH predicted low contact frequency OR= 1.7 (1.1-2.6), small contact diversity OR= 1.6 (1.0-2.6) and low contact satisfaction OR=3.4 (2...

  4. Preamplifier development for high count-rate, large dynamic range readout of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshelashvili, Irakli; Erni, Werner; Steinacher, Michael; Krusche, Bernd; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter are central component of many experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Modern ''trigger less'' detectors run with very high count-rates, require good time and energy resolution, and large dynamic range. In addition photosensors and preamplifiers must work in hostile environments (magnetic fields). Due to later constraints mainly Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD's), Vacuum Photo Triodes (VPT's), and Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTT's) are used. A disadvantage is their low gain which together with other requirements is a challenge for the preamplifier design. Our group has developed special Low Noise / Low Power (LNP) preamplifier for this purpose. They will be used to equip PANDA EMC forward end-cap (dynamic range 15'000, rate 1MHz), where the PWO II crystals and preamplifier have to run in an environment cooled down to -25{sup o}C. Further application is the upgrade of the Crystal Barrel detector at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with APD readout for which special temperature comparison of the APD gain and good time resolution is necessary. Development and all test procedures after the mass production done by our group during past several years in Basel University will be reported.

  5. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  6. Development of a Reusable, Rate-Sensitive Abdomen for the Hybrid III Family of Dummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhana, S W; Elhagediab, A M; Walbridge, A; Hardy, W N; Schneider, L W

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a reusable, rate-sensitive dummy abdomen with abdominal injury assessment capability. The primary goal for the abdomen developed was to have good biofidelity in a variety of loading situations that might be encountered in an automotive collision. This paper presents a review of previous designs for crash dummy abdomens, a description of the development of the new abdomen, results of testing with the new abdomen and instrumentation, and suggestions for future work. The biomechanical response targets for the new abdomen were determined from tests of the mid abdomen done in a companion biomechanical study. The response of the abdominal insert is an aggregate response of the dummy's entire abdominal area and does not address differences in upper versus lower abdominal response, solid versus hollow organs, or organ position or mobility. While the abdomen developed has demonstrated good biofidelity in rigid bar, seat belt and airbag loading situations, some work remains to be done before it can be used in crash testing.

  7. Effects of different nuclear transfer and activation methods on the development of mouse somatic cell cloned embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang ErYao; YU Yang; Li XueMei; JIAO LiHong; Wang Liu

    2007-01-01

    A group of adult somatic cell cloned mice were obtained by using cumulus cells as nuclei donor cells. To study the effect of different nuclear transfer (NT) and activation methods on the development of mouse cloned embryos, embryos were reconstructed using two traditional NT methods (electrofusion and direct injection) and four activation treatments (electric pulse, ethanol, SrCl2 and electric pulse combined with SrCl2). The data showed that the efficiency of reconstruction using the direct injection method is significantly higher (90.7%) than that of the electrofusion method (49.7%). Parthenogenetic embryos can develop to blastocyst stage with three activation conditions, including ethanol, electric pulse and SrCl2; however, the rates of development to blastocyst after ethanol and electric pulse activation (52.4%, 54.2%) are significantly lower than after SrCl2 activation (76.9%). Treatment of embryos for 6 h with 10 mmol/L SrCl2 was found to be the best condition for activation of parthenogenetic as well as reconstructed embryos. By contrast, reconstructed embryos failed to develop to blastocyst stage after being activated by ethanol. The use of either injection or electrofusion for embryo reconstruction affected the pre-implantation development. However, after transfer in pseudopregnant mice, cloned mice were obtained from both methods.

  8. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Joyce Irene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  9. The development of the cell cryopreservation protocol with controlled rate thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurina, Tatyana M; Pakhomov, Alexandr V; Polyakova, Anna L; Legach, Evgeniy I; Bozhok, Galyna A

    2016-06-01

    Thawing in the water bath is often considered as a standard procedure. The thermal history of samples thawed in this way is poorly controlled, but cryopreservation and banking of cell-based products require standardization, automation and safety of all the technological stages including thawing. The programmable freezers allow implementation of the controlled cooling as well as the controlled thawing. As the cell damage occurs during the phase transformation that takes place in the cryoprotectant medium in the process of freezing-thawing, the choice of warming rates within the temperature intervals of transformations is very important. The goal of the study was to investigate the influence of warming rates within the intervals of the phase transformations in the DMSO-based cryoprotectant medium on the cell recovery and to develop a cryopreservation protocol with controlled cooling and warming rates. The temperature intervals of phase transformations such as melting of the eutectic mixture of the cryoprotectant solution (MEMCS), melting of the eutectic salt solution (MESS), melting of the main ice mass (MMIM), recrystallization before MEMCS, recrystallization before MESS and recrystallization before MMIM were determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. The biological experiments were performed on the rat testicular interstitial cells (TIC). The highest levels of the cell recovery and metabolic activity after cryopreservation were obtained using the protocol with the high (20 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of crystallization of the eutectics as well as recrystallizations and the low (1 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of melting of the eutectics as well as MMIM. The total cell recovery was 65.3 ± 2.1 %, the recovery of the 3-beta-HSD-positive (Leydig) cells was 82.9 ± 1.8 %, the MTT staining was 32.5 ± 0.9 % versus 42.1 ± 1.7 %; 57.4 ± 2.1 % and 24.0 ± 1.1 % respectively, when compared to the thawing in

  10. A consensus rating method for small virus-retentive filters. I. Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Scott; Riordan, William; Pease, Leonard F; Tsai, De-Hao; Levy, Richard; Haque, Mohammed; Martin, Jerold; Moroe, Ichiro; Sato, Terry; Morgan, Michael; Krishnan, Mani; Campbell, Jennifer; Genest, Paul; Dolan, Sherri; Tarrach, Klaus; Meyer, Anika; Zachariah, Michael R; Tarlov, Michael J; EtzeL, Mark; Brorson, Kurt; Aranha, Hazel; Bailey, Mark; Bender, Jean; Carter, Jeff; Chen, Qi; Dowd, Chris; Jani, Raj; Jen, David; Kidd, Stanley; Meltzer, Ted; Remington, Kathryn; Rice, Iris; Romero, Cynthia; Sato, Terry; Jornitz, Maik; Sekura, Carol Marcus; Sofer, Gail; Specht, Rachel; Wojciechowski, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Virus filters are membrane-based devices that remove large viruses (e.g., retroviruses) and/or small viruses (e.g., parvoviruses) from products by a size exclusion mechanism. In 2002, the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) organized the PDA Virus Filter Task Force to develop a common nomenclature and a standardized test method for classifying and identifying viral-retentive filters. One goal of the task force was to develop a test method for small virus-retentive filters. Because small virus-retentive filters present unique technical challenges, the test method development process was guided by laboratory studies to determine critical variables such as choice of bacteriophage challenge, choice of model protein, filtration operating parameters, target log10 reduction value, and filtration endpoint definition. Based on filtration, DLS, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and polymerase chain reaction studies, a final rating based on retention of bacteriophage PP7 was chosen by the PDA Virus Filter Task Force. The detailed final consensus filter method was published in the 2008 update of PDA Technical Report 41. Virus Filtration.

  11. E-Government Attempts in Small Island Developing States: The Rate of Corruption with Virtualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Arif

    2016-12-19

    In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption. This paper explores the potential impact of government virtualization by SIDS and against corruption by comparing the corruption perception index (CPI) rates of 15 SIDS countries. The CPI relates to the degree by which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians by business people and country analysts. In order to reveal the long-term impact of virtual deployment and its consequences on corruption, an in-depth case analysis based on the CPI index rates was conducted on the deployment of the e-government system in Cyprus.

  12. Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Braby, L A; Reece, W D

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation exp...

  13. Effect of copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate on metabolic rate and development of broiler embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Abdullah Talal Abudllah; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Sawosz, E.

    2016-01-01

    , it has been shown that in-ovo administration of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) and copper sulphate (CuSO4) remarkably improved the body weights of growing chickens. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was to elucidate the potential effects of Cu-NP and CuSO4 on the metabolic rate (oxygen...... with Cu-NP (50 and 100 mg/kg). Gaseous exchange was measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and EE was estimated from day 10 to day 19 of embryogenesis. Body weight at 24 h after hatching and the relative organ weights were used as a measure of hatching development. In-ovo injection of 50 mg....../kg Cu-NP and CuSO4 significantly increased O2 consumption and EE on the 16th and 19th day of incubation compared with the control group; Cu-NP had the largest effect on the metabolic rate. However, organ weights (intestine, heart, liver, and breast) relative to the yolk-free body weight were...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH RATE HIGH RESOLUTION DETECTOR FOR EXAFS EXPERIMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.; LI,Z.; KUCZEWSKI,A.J.; SIDDONS,D.P.

    2002-11-10

    A new detector for EXAFS experiments is being developed. It is based on a multi-element Si sensor and dedicated readout ASICs. The sensor is composed of 384 pixels, each having 1 mm{sup 2} area, arranged in four quadrants of 12 x 8 elements, and wire-bonded to 32-channel front-end ASICs. Each channel implements low noise preamplification with self-adaptive continuous reset, high order shaper, band-gap referenced baseline stabilizer, one threshold comparator and two DAC adjustable window comparators, each followed by a 24-bit counter. Fabricated in 0.35{micro}m CMOS dissipates about 8mW per channel. First measurements show at room temperature a resolution of 14 rms electrons without the detector and of 40 rms electrons (340eV) with the detector connected and biased. Cooling at -35C a FWHM of 205eV (167eV from electronics) was measured at the Mn-K{alpha} line. A resolution of about 300eV was measured for rates approaching 100kcps/cm{sup 2} per channel, corresponding to an overall rate in excess of 10MHz/cm{sup 2}. A channel-to-channel threshold dispersion after DACs adjustment of 2.5 rms electrons was also measured.

  15. Crack shape developments and leak rates for circumferential complex-cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    A computerized procedure has been developed that predicts the growth of an initial circumferential surface crack through a pipe and further on to failure. The crack growth mechanism can either be fatigue or stress corrosion. Consideration is taken to complex crack shapes and for the through-wall cracks, crack opening areas and leak rates are also calculated. The procedure is based on a large number of three-dimensional finite element calculations of cracked pipes. The results from these calculations are stored in a database from which the PC-program, denoted LBBPIPE, reads all necessary information. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented for cracked pipes subjected to both stress corrosion and vibration fatigue.

  16. Prognosticating fault development rate in wind turbine generator bearings using local trend models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Palou, Jonel; Sweeney, Christian Walsted;

    2016-01-01

    Generator bearing defects, e.g. ball, inner and outer race defects, are ranked among the most frequent mechanical failures encountered in wind turbines. Diagnosis and prognosis of bearing faults can be successfully implemented using vibration based condition monitoring systems, where tracking...... the signal energy between 10Hz to 1000Hz is utilized as feature to characterize the severity of developing bearing faults. Furthermore, local trend models are employed to predict the progression of bearing defects from a vibration standpoint in accordance with the limits suggested in ISO 10816. Predictions...... of vibration trends from multi-megawatt wind turbine generators are presented, showing the effectiveness of the suggested approach on the calculation of the RUL and fault progression rate....

  17. RD Collaboration Proposal: Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chistiansen, J (CERN)

    2013-01-01

    This proposal describes a new RD collaboration to develop the next genrration of hybrid pixel readout chips for use in ATLAS and CMS PHase 2 upgrades. extrapolation of hybrid pixel technology to the HL-LHC presents major challenges on several fronts. Challenges include: smaller pixels to resolve tracks in boosted jets, much higher hit rates (1-2 GHz/cm2 ), unprecedented radiation tolerance (10 MGy), much higher output bandwidth, and large IC format with low power consumption in order to instrument large areas while keeping the material budget low. This collaboration is specifically focused on design of hybrid pixel readout chips, and not on more general chip design or on other aspects of hybrid pixel technology. Participants include 7 institutes on ATLAS and 7 on CMS, plus 2 on both experiments.

  18. Development of new high-rate composting process of municipal refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, H.; Tamura, T.; Kumagaya, T.; Shimada, T.; Yoneda, M.; Hamamoto, I.

    1979-01-01

    In Japan, the composting technique is being re-evaluated as one of the alternative techniques for solid waste disposal. A review is made of the municipal refuse high-rate composting technique from the viewpoints of the changed properties of munficipal refuses and environmental protection. As the result of an operation of a pilot plant having a composting capacity of one ton of refuse per day, a new process suited to the properties of today's municipal refuses in Japan was developed. The feature of the new process is to control the moisture content of fresh compost (obtained from the primary digester) by a mechanical press and produce fully ripened compost without non-compostable materials such as plastics and glass.

  19. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  20. Development of an observer rating scale for caregiver communication in persons with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L; Parker, Carlo

    2012-04-01

    There have been few reported studies of communication between spouses with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia. An observer rating scale for verbal and nonverbal behavior, Verbal-Nonverbal Interaction Scale for Caregivers (VNVIS-CG), was developed to study caregiver communication in couples affected by AD. Preliminary psychometric testing showed that the VNVIS-CG evidenced good reliability and validity. Researchers observed both common caregiver communication strategies and novel strategies that have not been reported in the literature. In future studies, researchers can examine the relationship between caregiver communication and indicators of mental health. Everyday conversations provide fertile ground for nurses to influence family relationships. Nurses can teach caregivers to use strategies that promote engagement and avoid those that discourage participation.

  1. Rate of Force Development, Muscle Architecture, and Performance in Young Competitive Track and Field Throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaras, Nikolaos D; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta E; Methenitis, Spyridon K; Krase, Argyro A; Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Spengos, Konstantinos M; Terzis, Gerasimos D

    2016-01-01

    The rate of force development (RFD) is an essential component for performance in explosive activities, although it has been proposed that muscle architectural characteristics might be linked with RFD and power performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between RFD, muscle architecture, and performance in young track and field throwers. Twelve young track and field throwers completed 10 weeks of periodized training. Before (T1) and after (T2) training performance was evaluated in competitive track and field throws, commonly used shot put tests, isometric leg press RFD, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength as well as vastus lateralis architecture and body composition. Performance in competitive track and field throwing and the shot put test from the power position increased by 6.76 ± 4.31% (p Rate of force development and 1RM strength also increased (p ≤ 0.05). Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle length increased by 5.95 ± 7.13% (p = 0.012) and 13.41 ± 16.15% (p = 0.016), respectively. Significant correlations were found at T1 and T2, between performance in the shot put tests and both RFD and fascicle length (p ≤ 0.05). Close correlations were found between RFD, muscle thickness, and fascicle length (p ≤ 0.05). Significant correlations were found between the % changes in lean body mass and the % increases in RFD. When calculated together, the % increase in muscle thickness and RFD could predict the % increase in shot put throw test from the power position (p = 0.019). These results suggest that leg press RFD may predict performance in shot put tests that are commonly used by track and field throwers.

  2. The role of rate of force development on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a) the relationship between rate of force development (RFD) and vertical jump (VJ) performance during a counter movement jump (CMJ), and b) the reliability of RFD recorded during the CMJ and squat jump (SJ) forms of the VJ. Twenty-three physically active men aged 23 ± 3.9 years participated in the study. Subjects completed 3 unloaded CMJ and 3 unloaded SJ in random order on a force plate. The RFD was measured during CMJ and SJ movements with vertical jump displacement (VJD) measured simultaneously during the CMJ only. Subjects incorporated arm swing to their CMJ technique to reach up as high as possible, and VJD was measured. All SJ were executed with both hands on the hips throughout the full range of movement. Peak rate of force development (PRFD), peak force (PF), and time to peak force (TPF) were significantly correlated to VJD during the CMJ (r = 0.68, r = 0.51, and r = -0.48, respectively). The RFD and TPF during the CMJ and SJ were associated with low test-retest reliability (coefficient of variation [CV]: 11.8-7.9%). Peak and average power, PF, and VJD produced high test-retest reliability (CV: 2.8-5.1%) during both the CMJ and SJ movements. Our results indicate that PRFD, a measure of explosive strength, and PF, a measure of maximal strength, are the primary contributors to VJD during the CMJ in physically active men. However, caution must be used when interpreting data using PRFD because of its low retest reliability.

  3. Development and evaluation of an algorithm for computer analysis of maternal heart rate during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula; Bernardes, João; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Amorim-Costa, Célia; Silva, Maria; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2014-06-01

    Maternal heart rate (MHR) recordings are morphologically similar and sometimes coincident with fetal heart rate (FHR) recordings and may be useful for maternal-fetal monitoring if appropriately interpreted. However, similarly to FHR, visual interpretation of MHR features may be poorly reproducible. A computer algorithm for on-line MHR analysis was developed based on a previously existing version for FHR analysis. Inter-observer and computer-observer agreement and reliability were assessed in 40 one-hour recordings obtained from 20 women during the last 2h of labor. Agreement and reliability were evaluated for the detection of basal MHR, long-term variability (LTV), accelerations and decelerations, using proportions of agreement (PA) and Kappa statistic (K), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Changes in MHR characteristics between the first and the second hour of the tracings were also evaluated. There was a statistically significant inter-observer and computer-observer agreement and reliability in estimation of basal MHR, accelerations, decelerations and LTV, with PA values ranging from 0.72 (95% CI: 0.62-0.79) to 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), and K values ranging from 0.44 (95% CI: 0.28-0.60) to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.96). Moreover, basal MHR, number of accelerations and LTV were significantly higher in the last hour of labor, when compared to the initial hour. The developed algorithm for on-line computer analysis of MHR recordings provided good to excellent computer-observer agreement and reliability. Moreover, it allowed an objective detection of MHR changes associated with labor progression, providing more information about the interpretation of maternal-fetal monitoring during labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of partial melting and extensional strain rates in the development of metamorphic core complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.

    2009-11-01

    Orogenic collapse involves extension and thinning of thick and hot (partially molten) crust, leading to the formation of metamorphic core complexes (MCC) that are commonly cored by migmatite domes. Two-dimensional thermo-mechanical Ellipsis models evaluate the parameters that likely control the formation and evolution of MCC: the nature and geometry of the heterogeneity that localizes MCC, the presence/absence of a partially molten layer in the lower crust, and the rate of extension. When the localizing heterogeneity is a normal fault in the upper crust, the migmatite core remains in the footwall of the fault, resulting in an asymmetric MCC; if the localizing heterogeneity is point like region within the upper crust, the MCC remains symmetric throughout its development. Therefore, asymmetrically located migmatite domes likely reflect the dip of the original normal fault system that generated the MCC. Modeling of a severe viscosity drop owing to the presence of a partially molten layer, compared to a crust with no melt, demonstrates that the presence of melt slightly enhances upward advection of material and heat. Our experiments show that, when associated with boundary-driven extension, far-field horizontal extension provides space for the domes. Therefore, the buoyancy of migmatite cores contributes little to the outer envelope of metamorphic core complexes, although it may play a significant role in the internal dynamics of the partially molten layer. The presence of melt also favors heterogeneous bulk pure shear of the dome as opposed to the bulk simple shear, which dominates in melt-absent experiments. Melt presence affects the shape of P-T-t paths only slightly for material located near the top of the low-viscosity layer but leads to more complex flow paths for material inside the layer. The effect of extension rate is significant: at high extension rate (cm yr - 1 in the core complex region), partially molten crust crystallizes and cools along a high

  5. Scheduling Coordinator’s Flat Rate Service for Wind Energy Development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Prondziński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the electricity market has made the energy industry an attractive investment for many businesses. In recent years, the electricity market has been going through the process of liberalization, which has contributed to the provision of new services for investors interested in the development of the energy industry. Recently, one of the most rapidly growing sources of electricity has been wind farms. Few investors are aware of the consequences of connecting wind farms to the national power grid, as well as of the subsequent exploitation of these resources. After the Electricity Sales Contract has been concluded, investors agree to predict electrical capacity generation within the span of 24 hours with a daily advance. The specific nature of wind farm functioning makes the prediction of electrical capacity generation difficult and, consequently, the owners bear the costs of deviations on the electricity balancing market. The resulting costs may result in the lack of liquidity of the project owner and, ultimately, in bankruptcy. In such a case, the Scheduling Coordinator’s flat rate service is a solution for the owner of a wind farm. The paper presents an analysis of selected forecasting models used to predict the electrical capacity of wind farms, as well as the Scheduling Coordinator’s service.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhance the rate of litter decomposition while inhibiting soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Heng; Hyde, Kevin; Xu, Jianchu; Mortimer, Peter

    2017-02-08

    Although there is a growing amount of evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) influence the decomposition process, the extent of their involvement remains unclear. Therefore, given this knowledge gap, our aim was to test how AMF influence the soil decomposer communities. Dual compartment microcosms, where AMF (Glomus mosseae) were either allowed access (AM+) to or excluded (AM-) from forest soil compartments containing litterbags (leaf litter from Calophyllum polyanthum) were used. The experiment ran for six months, with destructive harvests at 0, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days. For each harvest we measured AMF colonization, soil nutrients, litter mass loss, and microbial biomass (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA)). AMF significantly enhanced litter decomposition in the first 5 months, whilst delaying the development of total microbial biomass (represented by total PLFA) from T150 to T180. A significant decline in soil available N was observed through the course of the experiment for both treatments. This study shows that AMF have the capacity to interact with soil microbial communities and inhibit the development of fungal and bacterial groups in the soil at the later stage of the litter decomposition (180 days), whilst enhancing the rates of decomposition.

  7. High frame rate imaging systems developed in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binkang; Wang, Kuilu; Guo, Mingan; Ruan, Linbo; Zhang, Haibing; Yang, Shaohua; Feng, Bing; Sun, Fengrong; Chen, Yanli

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents high frame rate imaging systems developed in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology in recent years. Three types of imaging systems are included. The first type of system utilizes EG&G RETICON Photodiode Array (PDA) RA100A as the image sensor, which can work at up to 1000 frame per second (fps). Besides working continuously, the PDA system is also designed to switch to capture flash light event working mode. A specific time sequence is designed to satisfy this request. The camera image data can be transmitted to remote area by coaxial or optic fiber cable and then be stored. The second type of imaging system utilizes PHOTOBIT Complementary Metal Oxygen Semiconductor (CMOS) PB-MV13 as the image sensor, which has a high resolution of 1280 (H) ×1024 (V) pixels per frame. The CMOS system can operate at up to 500fps in full frame and 4000fps partially. The prototype scheme of the system is presented. The third type of imaging systems adopts charge coupled device (CCD) as the imagers. MINTRON MTV-1881EX, DALSA CA-D1 and CA-D6 camera head are used in the systems development. The features comparison of the RA100A, PB-MV13, and CA-D6 based systems are given in the end.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhance the rate of litter decomposition while inhibiting soil microbial community development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Heng; Hyde, Kevin; Xu, Jianchu; Mortimer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Although there is a growing amount of evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) influence the decomposition process, the extent of their involvement remains unclear. Therefore, given this knowledge gap, our aim was to test how AMF influence the soil decomposer communities. Dual compartment microcosms, where AMF (Glomus mosseae) were either allowed access (AM+) to or excluded (AM−) from forest soil compartments containing litterbags (leaf litter from Calophyllum polyanthum) were used. The experiment ran for six months, with destructive harvests at 0, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days. For each harvest we measured AMF colonization, soil nutrients, litter mass loss, and microbial biomass (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA)). AMF significantly enhanced litter decomposition in the first 5 months, whilst delaying the development of total microbial biomass (represented by total PLFA) from T150 to T180. A significant decline in soil available N was observed through the course of the experiment for both treatments. This study shows that AMF have the capacity to interact with soil microbial communities and inhibit the development of fungal and bacterial groups in the soil at the later stage of the litter decomposition (180 days), whilst enhancing the rates of decomposition. PMID:28176855

  9. Information Processing: Rate-Based Investigation of Cell Physiological Changes along Design Space Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagmeister, Patrick; Wechselberger, Patrick; Herwig, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Recent initiatives summarized under the term quality by design (QbD) urge for science and risk-based pharmaceutical bioprocess development strategies. One of the most accepted concepts communicated by the regulatory authorities is the concept of design space-a multidimensional combination of critical process parameter (CPP) ranges where the quality acceptance criteria (critical quality attributes, CQAs) are fulfilled. Current design space development along QbD principles focuses on the investigation of statistical CPP/CQA interactions, while the biological mechanistic of this interaction is hardly considered. Furthermore, the plethora of available online and offline data gathered within design space development is typically not used for the demonstration of process understanding. Here we present a methodology about how typical recorded process data can be processed and used to gather mechanistic process knowledge within upstream design space development, without the need for further experiments or additional analytical procedures. Data derived from online and offline measurements (off gas quantification, air flows, substrate flows, biomass dry cell weight measurements) were processed into scale-independent information in the form of specific rates and yield coefficients (data processing). Subsequently, the obtained information was regressed with the investigated process parameters aiming at the investigation of mechanistic interactions (information processing). The power of the presented approach was demonstrated on a multivariate study involving two process parameters (induction phase temperature and induction phase feeding strategy) aiming at the production of recombinant product in an Escherichia coli K12 strain. The knowledge successfully extracted indicated a time dependency of the metabolic load posed on the system, a possible down regulation of the promoter at reduced temperatures, and reduced cell lysis at higher specific feeding regimes. The presented data

  10. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  11. Estrogen Receptor-α and Its Target Gene c-Myc and Pre-implantation Embryos%雌激素受体α及其靶基因c-Myc与植入前胚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕琴

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-α(Erα), member of the steroid hormone receptor gene superfamily that acts as ligand-inducible transcription factor and plays an important role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and development of cells and tissues. C-Myc,the Erα target gene,which belongs to Myc gene family, is a kind of nucleoprotein class protooncogene. Erα regulates the expression of c-Myc, at the same time,the expression of c-Myc changing also affects the function of Erα,they are associated with each other. Erα and c-Myc expression are stage-specific in preimplantation embryos, suggesting that their functions might be involved in the development of mammalian preimplantation embryos.%雌激素受体α(ERα)属于类固醇激素受体超家族,是细胞核中需要配体激活的转录因子,对细胞和组织的增殖、分化和发育有重要的调节作用.c-Myc是ERα目的 基因,属于Myc基因家族,是一种核蛋白类的原癌基因.ERα调控着c-Myc的表达,而c-Myc的表达变化也影响着ERα的功能发挥,彼此之间存在关联.它们在哺乳动物植入前胚中呈阶段特异性表达,在植入前胚发育中发挥一定作用.

  12. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    Gasification is considered one of the most promising technologies in biomass applications. The higher efficiency compared to boiler power systems, the perspectives in fuel synthesis and its environmental friendly features are some examples of its potential. Biomass gasification has evolved since its first applications, but it has not been possible to reach a solid commercial stage, except during periods of crises and only for some specific applications. Meanwhile, other gasification technologies, fed by fossil fuels, are currently widely used on industrial scales. This thesis aims to analyze the knowledge development and diffusion patterns of the biomass gasification technology since 1970s in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden. Additionally, it seeks to identify the factors that strengthen and weaken the learning process. Finally, the concept of learning curve will be used to numerically assess the rate of learning in small scale biomass gasification for electricity generation. The feasibility of various future scenarios will be evaluated in order to know what is the likelihood for the technology to become competitive in the short term. To do so, the historical evolution of biomass gasification in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden has been analyzed. These countries have been selected due to the increasing number of ongoing projects and initiatives since 1970. Subsequently, the development of this technology has been encouraged by two historical facts. Initially, the price of fossil fuels grew in 1973 and 1979 enhancing the interest for biomass gasification as a future alternative. Afterwards, the willingness, shown by the mentioned countries, to reduce greenhouse gases emissions following the Kyoto protocol has revived the interest in biomass gasification. However, none of these two events has driven this technology sufficiently to achieve a sustainable commercial status. In addition, small and large scale projects have followed different development processes

  13. Laguna Verde: a 120% extended power up-rate project developed by Iberdrola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Teillet, A.; Garcia-Serrano Tapia, J. L.; Ruiz Gutierrez, L. [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion S.A Sociedad Unipersonal (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The experience which this document wants to present, describes the work being developed by IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion, for the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico, owned by the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE). This generation plant consists of two light boiling water type units (BWR) design by General Electric in the 80's. The objective of this project is to perform the modifications on the thermal cycle of the plant required by an Extended Power Up-rate, to achieve a safe and reliable operation of the plant at 120% of its original thermal power, whilst upgrading and renovating plant equipment and installations to achieve a license renewal from 40 to 60 years of operation The consortium formed in 97% by IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion SAU and in 3% by ALSTOM Mexicana, S.A. de CV, was awarded the contract in an international bid, competing against General Electric and Siemens. The project began in March 2007 and is scheduled to finalize in December 2010. At this point the work carried out include modifications of the main condenser replacement, moisture separator reheaters (MSR's) and feedwater heaters no. 5 and 6 in the two units, therefore having executed two out of four scheduled outages. The scope, development and organization of this project, whose basic elements include the design, engineering, training, supply of equipment, dismantling, installation, testing, commissioning, treatment and delivery of radioactive waste generated during the project implementation to CFE, is aimed to ensure a safe and reliable operation of the plant under the new conditions of increased thermal power of the reactor, with a thermal cycle optimized so that the gross power of the generator increase from the current 686.7 MWe to a value of 817.1 MWe in both units. An Extended Power Up-rate means an opportunity to modernize equipments, to improve maintenance, to get a better plant knowledge and to motivate the employees facing a challenging project. This project

  14. Development of an improved extruded dielectric cable rated 230 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, L D; Traut, R T; Bolden, G N

    1977-05-01

    Work performed on developing an improved 230 kV extruded solid dielectric cable, the techniques of jointing such cables and the testing of terminations suitable for operation at that voltage level are described. Difficulties were encountered during manufacture in applying the semi-conducting extruded conductor shield. A new higher melt point compound solved the problem. A joint capable of operating at the 230 kV level was developed but showed a deficiency under voltage impulse testing while the conductor was at elevated temperature. A reduction in contract scope terminated this effort. Two terminals rated for 230 kV were found to be commercially available from domestic manufacturers. The limited testing performed showed them to be compatible with the cable cross-linked polyethylene insulation and electrically sound under 60 Hertz testing. No direct voltage or impulse voltage testing was performed on the terminations. A sample circuit, consisting of cable and joint, was subjected to impulse voltages at both room temperature and normal conductor operating temperature of 90/sup 0/C. While the cable only was able to withstand voltage impulses in excess of the Basic Impulse Level (BIL) at room temperature, it failed at BIL while conductor was heated to 90/sup 0/C. In like manner, a cable and joint circuit was assembled. Similar voltages were impressed at room temperature without incident. The joint failed at 90/sup 0/C conductor temperature. Cable, joint and termination were assembled in a simulated circuit and subjected to conductor loading to elevate temperature while 60 Hz voltages in excess of normal operating levels were continuously applied.

  15. Non-contact flow gauging for the extension and development of rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Matthew; Large, Andy; Russell, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Accurate measurement of river discharge is fundamental to understanding hydrological processes, associated hazards and ecological responses within fluvial systems. Established protocols for determining river discharge are partial, predominantly invasive and logistically difficult during high flows. There is demand for new methods for accurate quantification of flow velocity under high-flow/flood conditions to in turn enable better post-event reconstruction of peak discharge. As a consequence considerable effort has been devoted to the development of innovative technologies for the representation of flow in open channels. Remotely operated fixed and mobile systems capable of providing quantitative estimates of instantaneous and time-averaged flow characteristics using non-contact methods has been a major development. Amongst the new approaches for stand-alone continuous monitoring of surface flows is Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV). Here we adapt the LSPIV concept, to provide continuous discharge measurements in non-uniform channels with complex flow conditions. High Definition videos (1080p; 30fps) of the water surface are acquired at 5 minute intervals. The image is rectified to correct for perspective distortion using a new, open source tool which minimises errors resulting from oblique image capture. Naturally occurring artefacts on the water surface (e.g. bubbles, debris, etc.) are tracked with the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm. The data generated is in the form of a complex surface water velocity field which can be interrogated to extract a range of hydrological information such as the streamwise velocity at a cross-section of interest, or even allow the interrogation of hydrodynamic flow structures. Here we demonstrate that this approach is capable of generating river discharge data comparable to concurrent measurements made using existing, accepted technologies (e.g. ADCP). The outcome is better constraint and extension of rating curves

  16. The rate of force development scaling factor (RFD-SF): protocol, reliability, and muscle comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellumori, Maria; Jaric, Slobodan; Knight, Christopher A

    2011-07-01

    Performing a set of isometric muscular contractions to varied amplitudes with instructions to generate force most rapidly reveals a strong linear relationship between peak forces (PF) achieved and corresponding peak rates of force development (RFD). The slope of this relationship, termed the RFD scaling factor (RFD-SF), quantifies the extent to which RFD scales with contraction amplitude. Such scaling allows relative invariance in the time required to reach PF regardless of contraction size. Considering the increasing use of this relationship to study quickness and consequences of slowness in older adults and movement disorders, our purpose was to further develop the protocol to measure RFD-SF. Fifteen adults (19-28 years) performed 125 rapid isometric contractions to a variety of force levels in elbow extensors, index finger abductors, and knee extensors, on 2 days. Data were used to determine (1) how the number of pulses affects computation of the RFD-SF, (2) day-to-day reliability of the RFD-SF, and (3) the nature of RFD-SF differences between diverse muscle groups. While sensitive to the number of pulses used in its computation (P50 pulses (ICC>.7) and more so with 100-125 pulses (ICC=.8-.92). Despite differences in size and function across muscles, RFD-SF was generally similar (i.e., only 8.5% greater in elbow extensors than in index finger abductors and knee extensors; P=.049). Results support this protocol as a reliable means to assess how RFD scales with PF in rapid isometric contractions as well as a simple, non-invasive probe into neuromuscular health.

  17. EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alfarraj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its components compared to the neighbouring Gulf country of Bahrain, which was ranked 8th for the same index. While this is still modest in relation to the Saudi government’s expectation concerning its vision for eGovernment implementation for 2010, and the results achieved by the neighbouring Gulf countries such as Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the eGovernment index, the Saudi government has endeavoured to meet the public needs concerning eGovernment and carry out the implementation of eGovernment properly. Governments may heed the importance of actively launching official government websites – the focus of this study – as the main portals for delivering their online services to all the different categories of eGovernment (including G2C, G2B, and G2G. However, certain Saudi ministries have not given due attention to this vital issue. This is evidenced by the fact that some of their websites are not fully developed or do not yet exist, which clearly impedes that particular ministry from appropriately delivering eServices.

  18. Barbell deadlift training increases the rate of torque development and vertical jump performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Shields, JoCarol E; Luera, Micheal J; Munayer, Ibrahim K; Mota, Jacob A; Carrillo, Elias C; Olinghouse, Kendra D

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of barbell deadlift training on rapid torque characteristics of the knee extensors and flexors. A secondary aim was to analyze the relationships between training-induced changes in rapid torque and vertical jump performance. Fifty-four subjects (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 20) or training group (n = 34). Subjects in the training group performed supervised deadlift training twice per week for 10 weeks. All subjects performed isometric strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors and vertical jumps before and after the intervention. Torque-time curves were used to calculate rate of torque development (RTD) values at peak and at 50 and 200 milliseconds from torque onset. Barbell deadlift training induced significant pre- to post-increases of 18.8-49.0% for all rapid torque variables (p knee flexors (r = 0.30-0.37, p torque capacities in both the knee extensors and flexors. Changes in rapid torque were associated with improvements in vertical jump height, suggesting a transfer of adaptations from deadlift training to an explosive, performance-based task. Professionals may use these findings when attempting to design effective, time-efficient resistance training programs to improve explosive strength capacities in novices.

  19. Effect of remote voluntary contractions on knee extensor torque and rate of velocity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Emily A; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J

    2010-09-01

    Remote voluntary contractions (RVCs) are described as a muscle action of the prime mover while performing a simultaneous muscle action with another part of the body. Previous studies have shown that RVCs may elicit augmented performance of the prime mover. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of RVCs on knee extensor rate of velocity development (RVD) and peak torque. Fourteen men and 16 women who were regularly active and free of any knee pathology for the past year took part in this study. Subjects performed 3 maximal dynamic knee extensions at 3 velocities with and without an RVC condition. The RVC condition consisted of holding hand dynamometers in each hand and maximally gripping while performing a maximal knee extension movement. The NO-RVC condition was the same only without gripping. Men produced greater peak torque and RVD than did women across speeds and conditions. Analysis demonstrated that RVC had no effect on knee extension peak torque, but RVD decreased in the RVC condition (NO-RVC 2,012.07 [46.52] degrees xs-1xs-1; RVC 1,882.61 [51.84] degrees xs-1xs-1). Grip strength of the left hand at 180 degrees xs-1decreased from 42.03 (14.40) to 38.83 (14.65) kg in the RVC condition. In conclusion, RVC should not be used when attempting to maximize RVD, because it may hinder results when performing a single joint movement.

  20. Musculotendinous Stiffness of Triceps Surae, Maximal Rate of Force Development, and Vertical Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak Driss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between ankle plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness (MTS and performance in a countermovement vertical jump (CMJ and maximal rate of torque development (MRTD were studied in 27 active men. MTS was studied by means of quick releases at 20 (S0.2, 40 (S0.4, 60 (S0.6, and 80% (S0.8 of maximal voluntary torque (TMVC. CMJ was not correlated with strength indices but was positively correlated with MRTD/BM, S0.4/BM. The slope α2 and intercept β2 of the torque-stiffness relationships from 40 to 80% TMVC were correlated negatively (α2 and positively (β2 with CMJ. The different stiffness indices were not correlated with MRTD. The prediction of CMJ was improved by the introduction of MRTD in multiple regressions between CMJ and stiffness. CMJ was also negatively correlated with indices of curvature of the torque-stiffness relationship. The subjects were subdivided in 3 groups in function of CMJ (groups H, M, and L for high, medium, and low performers, resp.. There was a downward curvature of the torque-stiffness relationship at high torques in group H or M and the torque-stiffness regression was linear in group L only. These results suggested that torque-stiffness relationships with a plateau at high torques are more frequent in the best jumpers.

  1. Development of Tissue to Total Mass Correction Factor for Porites divaricata in Calcification Rate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannone, T. C.; Kelly, S. K.; Foster, K.

    2013-05-01

    One anticipated result of ocean acidification is lower calcification rates of corals. Many studies currently use the buoyant weights of coral nubbins as a means of estimating skeletal weight during non-destructive experiments. The objectives of this study, conducted at the Little Cayman Research Centre, were twofold: (1) to determine whether the purple and yellow color variations of Porites divaricata had similar tissue mass to total mass ratios; and (2) to determine a correction factor for tissue mass based on the total coral mass. T-test comparisons indicated that the tissue to total mass ratios were statistically similar for purple and yellow cohorts, thus allowing them to be grouped together within a given sample population. Linear regression analysis provided a correction factor (r2 = 0.69) to estimate the tissue mass from the total mass, which may eliminate the need to remove tissue during studies and allow subsequent testing on the same nubbins or their return to the natural environment. Additional work is needed in the development of a correction factor for P. divaricata with a higher prediction accuracy.

  2. Development of a MEMS-rate sensor with PZT actuation and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Christopher M.; Fox, Colin H.

    2002-07-01

    This paper relates to the development of a novel rate sensor for a wide range of potential applications in the automotive field, amongst others. The sensor is based on the dynamic behavior of an active, vibrating silicon structure that uses thin-film piezoelectric material for actuation and sensing functions, and can be manufactured using silicon micro-machining techniques. The use of piezo-electric material for drive and pickoff offers potentially significant advantages over electrostatic/capacitive means in terms of achievable actuation forces and simplicity of structural design. This paper gives an overview of the design and analysis of a prototype sensor. The design concept is described and a low-order mathematical model, incorporating the inertial behavior of the structure and the interaction between the silicon structure and the piezo-drives and pickoffs is presented. This model allows the basic sensitivity of the sensor to be quantified. The design of a prototype sensor is then described. Some preliminary test results are presented, illustrating the feasibility of the concept.

  3. Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Multimedia

    Tomasek, L; Loddo, F; Liberali, V; Rizzi, A; Re, V; Minuti, M; Pangaud, P; Barbero, M B; Pacher, L; Kluit, R; Hinchliffe, I; Giubilato, P; Faccio, F; Pernegger, H; Krueger, H; Gensolen, F D; Prydderch, M L; Bilei, G M; Da rocha rolo, M D; Fanucci, L; Grillo, A A; Bellazzini, R; Manghisoni, M; Palomo pinto, F R; Michelis, S; Huegging, F G; Kishishita, T; Marchiori, G; Christian, D C; Kaestli, H C; Meier, B; Key-charriere, M; Andreazza, A; Traversi, G; De canio, F; Linssen, L; Dannheim, D; Conti, E; Hemperek, T; Menouni, M; Fougeron, D; Genat, J; Bomben, M; Marzocca, C; Demaria, N; Mazza, G; Van bakel, N A; Palla, F; Grippo, M T; Magazzu, G; Ratti, L; Abbaneo, D; Crescioli, F; Deptuch, G W; Neue, G; De robertis, G; Passeri, D; Placidi, P; Gromov, V; Morsani, F; Bisello, D; Paccagnella, A; Christiansen, J; Dho, E; Wermes, N; Rymaszewski, P; Rozanov, A; Wang, A; Lipton, R J; Havranek, M; Neviani, A; Karagounis, M; Godiot, S; Calderini, G; Seidel, S C; Horisberger, R P; Garcia-sciveres, M A; Stabile, A; Beccherle, R; Bacchetta, N

    The present hybrid pixel detectors in operation at the LHC represent a major achievement. They deployed a new technology on an unprecedented scale and their success firmly established pixel tracking as indispensable for future HEP experiments. However, extrapolation of hybrid pixel technology to the HL-LHC presents major challenges on several fronts. We propose a new RD collaboration specifically focused on the development of pixel readout Integrated Circuits (IC). The IC challenges include: smaller pixels to resolve tracks in boosted jets, much higher hit rates (1-2 GHz/cm$^{2}$), unprecedented radiation tolerance (10 MGy), much higher output bandwidth, and large IC format with low power consumption in order to instrument large areas while keeping the material budget low. We propose a collaboration to design the next generation of hybrid pixel readout chips to enable the ATLAS and CMS Phase 2 pixel upgrades. This does not imply that ATLAS and CMS must use the same exact pixel readout chip, as most of the dev...

  4. Development and implementation of a writing program to improve resident authorship rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Amber Bradley; Hoge, Stephanie C; Cribb, Ashley; Manasco, Kalen B

    2015-09-01

    The development, implementation, and evaluation of a writing program with a formalized writing project as a component of postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residencies are described. The writing program at Georgia Regents Medical Center/University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, a collaborative and jointly funded program, was initiated in the 2010-11 residency year. The goals of the program are to teach residents to communicate effectively, apply leadership skills, employ project management skills, and provide medication- and practice- related education and training. The program combines both writing experiences and mentorship. At the beginning of the residency year, trainees are presented with opportunities to participate in both research projects and writing projects. Specifically, opportunities within the writing program include involvement in review articles, case reports, drug information rounds, book chapters, letters to the editor, and high-quality medication-use evaluations for potential publication. The writing project is highly encouraged, and completion of a manuscript to be submitted for publication is expected by graduation. Nine papers were published by 8 of 18 PGY1 and PGY2 residents in the four years before program implementation. A total of 23 publications were published by 18 (72%) of the 25 PGY1 and PGY2 residents in the four years after implementation of the writing program. Implementation of a formal writing program increased the overall publication rate of residents. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department Epidemiology and Biostatistics, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 {+-} 0.9 and 0.6 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 {+-} 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  6. Taguchi Method for Development of Mass Flow Rate Correlation using Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Mixture in Capillary Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shodiya Sulaimon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The capillary tube is an important control device used in small vapor compression refrigeration systems such as window air-conditioners, household refrigerators and freezers. This paper develops a non-dimensional correlation based on the test results of the adiabatic capillary tube for the mass flow rate through the tube using a hydrocarbon refrigerant mixture of 89.3% propane and 10.7% butane (HCM. The Taguchi method, a statistical experimental design approach, was employed. This approach explores the economic benefit that lies in studies of this nature, where only a small number of experiments are required and yet valid results are obtained. Considering the effects of the capillary tube geometry and the inlet condition of the tube, dimensionless parameters were chosen. The new correlation was also based on the Buckingham Pi theorem. This correlation predicts 86.67% of the present experimental data within a relative deviation of -10% to +10%. The predictions by this correlation were also compared with results in published literature.

  7. Fatigue-induced dissociation between rate of force development and maximal force across repeated rapid contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether the presence of fatigue induced by prolonged running influenced the time courses of force generating capacities throughout a series of intermittent rapid contractions. Thirteen male amateur runners performed a set of 15 intermittent isometric rapid contractions of the knee extensor muscles, (3s/5s on/off) the day before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) a half marathon. The maximal voluntary contraction force, rate of force development (RFDpeak), and their ratio (relative RFDpeak) were calculated. At POST, considering the first (out of 15) repetition, the maximal force and RFDpeak decreased (p<0.0001) at the same extent (by 22±6% and 24±22%, respectively), resulting in unchanged relative RFDpeak (p=0.6). Conversely, the decline of RFDpeak throughout the repetitions was more pronounced at POST (p=0.02), thus the decline of relative RFDpeak was more pronounced (p=0.007) at POST (-25±13%) than at PRE (-3±13%). The main finding of this study was that the fatigue induced by a half-marathon caused a more pronounced impairment of rapid compared to maximal force in the subsequent intermittent protocol. Thus, the fatigue-induced impairment in rapid muscle contractions may have a greater effect on repeated, rather than on single, attempts of maximal force production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were assigned to two experimental groups: eccentric resistance training (TG) or control (CG). Participants on the TG trained three days a week for a total of eight weeks. Training consisted of maximal unilateral eccentric knee extensors actions performed at 180 °s-1. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque (MVC) and incremental RFD in successive 50 ms time-windows from the onset contraction were analysed in absolute terms (RFDINC) or when normalised relative to MVC (RFDREL). After eight weeks, TG demonstrated increases in MVC (28%), RFDINC (0-50 ms: 30%; 50-100 ms: 31%) and RFDREL (0-50 ms: 29%; 50-100 ms: 32%). Moreover, no changes in the late phase of incremental RFD were observed in TG. No changes were found in the CG. In summary, we have demonstrated, in active individuals, that a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance RFDINC and RFDREL obtained at the early phase of rising joint torque.

  9. Resistance training for explosive and maximal strength: effects on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felipe B D; Oliveira, Anderson S C; Rizatto, Guilherme F; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s(-1)) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.In active non-strength trained individuals, a short-term resistance training program designed to increase both explosive and maximal strength seems to reduce the adaptive response (i.e. increased RFDMAX) evoked by training with an intended ballistic effort (i.e. high-RFD contraction).

  10. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, J L; Zebis, M K; Aagaard, P

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas, qualitatively, the relative proportion of type IIX muscle fibers decreased. Multiple regression analysis showed that while increased MVC positively influenced both early and late RFD, decreased-type IIX negatively influenced early RFD only. In conclusion, early and late RFD responded differently to high-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force.

  11. Increase in rate of force development with skin cooling during isometric knee extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Ryota; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Tadano, Chigaya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Yona, Masae; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Muro, Masuo

    2014-12-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) plays an important role when performing rapid and forceful movements. Cold-induced afferent input with transient skin cooling (SC) can modulate neural drive. However, the relationship between RFD and SC is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SC increases RFD during isometric knee extension. Fifteen young healthy men (25 ± 8 yrs old) contracted their quadriceps muscle as fast and forcefully as possible with or without SC. Skin cooling was administered to the front of the thigh. Torque and electromyographic activity were measured simultaneously. Peak torque was not affected by SC. Skin cooling induced a significant increase in RFD at the phase 0-30 and 0-50 ms. The root mean square of the electromyography of vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis at the phases 0-30-50-100 ms increased significantly or tended to increase with SC. These results suggest that SC may increase neural drive and improve RFD in the very early phases of contraction.

  12. Musculotendinous stiffness of triceps surae, maximal rate of force development, and vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driss, Tarak; Lambertz, Daniel; Rouis, Majdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Vandewalle, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between ankle plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) and performance in a countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) and maximal rate of torque development (MRTD) were studied in 27 active men. MTS was studied by means of quick releases at 20 (S0.2), 40 (S0.4), 60 (S0.6), and 80% (S0.8) of maximal voluntary torque (T(MVC)). CMJ was not correlated with strength indices but was positively correlated with MRTD/BM, S 0.4/BM. The slope α 2 and intercept β 2 of the torque-stiffness relationships from 40 to 80% T(MVC) were correlated negatively (α 2) and positively (β 2) with CMJ. The different stiffness indices were not correlated with MRTD. The prediction of CMJ was improved by the introduction of MRTD in multiple regressions between CMJ and stiffness. CMJ was also negatively correlated with indices of curvature of the torque-stiffness relationship. The subjects were subdivided in 3 groups in function of CMJ (groups H, M, and L for high, medium, and low performers, resp.). There was a downward curvature of the torque-stiffness relationship at high torques in group H or M and the torque-stiffness regression was linear in group L only. These results suggested that torque-stiffness relationships with a plateau at high torques are more frequent in the best jumpers.

  13. Age-related decline in the rate of force development scaling factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellumori, Maria; Jaric, Slobodan; Knight, Christopher A

    2013-10-01

    Physical quickness is less in older adults with implications for fall prevention, movement initiation, and activities of daily living. The purpose was to compare control of rapid contractions in young and older adults within two diverse muscle groups: powerful elbow extensors (EE) and dexterous index finger abductors (IFA). Most-rapid force pulses to a variety of levels were recorded and peak force and rate of force development (RFD) were analyzed with linear regression. The resulting slope represents the dependent variable of interest, the RFD-scaling factor (RFD-SF). RFD-SF of EE and IFA strongly correlated both overall (r = .87, p < .01) and separately in young (r = .60, p < .05) and older (r = .77, p < .01) adults. RFD-SF values were different between muscle groups (F1,28 = 19.1, p < .001) and also less in elderly (F1,28 = 32.6, p < .001). We conclude that RFD-SF provides a sensitive assessment of muscle quickness that can be used to evaluate neuromuscular function in aging humans.

  14. Are early and late rate of force development differently influenced by fast-velocity resistance training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe B D; Rizatto, Guilherme F; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of fast-velocity concentric isokinetic resistance training (FV) on the rate of force development (RFD) at early (100 ms) of rising muscle force. Nine men participated in a 6-week resistance training intervention for the lower body, and nine matched subjects participated as controls (CON). During concentric isokinetic (180°s(-1)) knee extension training, subjects were instructed to do each contraction 'as fast and forcefully as possible'. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD (0-10, 0-20, …, 0-250 ms from the onset of contraction) were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the knee extensors (KE). There were no significant changes in MVC of KE in both groups after intervention (FV = 314·2 ± 101·1 versus 338·7 ± 88·0 N∙m, P>0·05; CON = 293·3 ± 94·8 versus 280·0 ± 72·2 N∙m, P>0·05). The RFD increased 39-71% at time intervals up to 90 ms from the onset of the contraction (Pforce.

  15. Measuring Supportive Music and Imagery Interventions: The Development of the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Burns, Debra S; Perkins, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated modest benefits from music-based interventions, specifically music and imagery interventions, during cancer care. However, little attention has been paid to measuring the benefits of music-based interventions using measurement instruments specifically designed to account for the multidimensional nature of music-imagery experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of, and psychometrically evaluate, the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale (MTSRS) as a measure for cancer patients engaged in supportive music and imagery interventions. An exploratory factor analysis using baseline data from 76 patients who consented to participate in a music-based intervention study during chemotherapy. Factor analysis of 14 items revealed four domains: Awareness of Body, Emotionally Focused, Personal Resources, and Treatment Specific. Internal reliability was excellent (Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.75 to 0.88) and construct and divergent-discriminant validity supported. The MTSRS is a psychometrically sound, brief instrument that captures essential elements of patient experience during music and imagery interventions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Barton

    Full Text Available Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both.

  17. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's…

  18. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic influences on life history expression: metabolism and parentally induced temperature influences on embryo development rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Nikilson, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic processes are assumed to underlie life history expression and trade-offs, but extrinsic inputs are theorised to shift trait expression and mask trade-offs within species. Here, we explore application of this theory across species. We do this based on parentally induced embryo temperature as an extrinsic input, and mass-specific embryo metabolism as an intrinsic process, underlying embryonic development rate. We found that embryonic metabolism followed intrinsic allometry rules among 49 songbird species from temperate and tropical sites. Extrinsic inputs via parentally induced temperatures explained the majority of variation in development rates and masked a relationship with metabolism; metabolism explained a minor proportion of the variation in development rates among species, and only after accounting for temperature effects. We discuss evidence that temperature further obscures the expected interspecific trade-off between development rate and offspring quality. These results demonstrate the importance of considering extrinsic inputs to trait expression and trade-offs across species.

  19. The multiple sclerosis rating scale, revised (MSRS-R): Development, refinement, and psychometric validation using an online community

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In developing the PatientsLikeMe online platform for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), we required a patient-reported assessment of functional status that was easy to complete and identified disability in domains other than walking. Existing measures of functional status were inadequate, clinician-reported, focused on walking, and burdensome to complete. In response, we developed the Multiple Sclerosis Rating Scale (MSRS). Methods We adapted a clinician-rated measure,...

  20. Tectonic uplift, threshold hillslopes, and denudation rates in a developing mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, S.A.; Phillips, W.M.; Summerfield, M.A.; Fifield, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies across a broad range of drainage basins have established a positive correlation between mean slope gradient and denudation rates. It has been suggested, however, that this relationship breaks down for catchments where slopes are at their threshold angle of stability because, in such cases, denudation is controlled by the rate of tectonic uplift through the rate of channel incision and frequency of slope failure. This mechanism is evaluated for the San Bernardino Mountains, California, a nascent range that incorporates both threshold hill-slopes and remnants of pre-uplift topography. Concentrations of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in alluvial sediments are used to quantify catchment-wide denudation rates and show a broadly linear relationship with mean slope gradient up to ???30??: above this value denudation rates vary substantially for similar mean slope gradients. We propose that this decoupling in the slope gradient-denudation rate relationship marks the emergence of threshold topography and coincides with the transition from transport-limited to detachment-limited denudation. The survival in the San Bernardino Mountains of surfaces formed prior to uplift provides information on the topographic evolution of the range, in particular the transition from slope-gradient-dependent rates of denudation to a regime where denudation rates are controlled by rates of tectonic uplift. This type of transition may represent a general model for the denudational response to orogenic uplift and topographic evolution during the early stages of mountain building. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  1. The Development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale: A New Rating Scale for the Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David G M; Mennes, Lisette M; Prahl, Charlotte; Kramer, Gem J C; Disse, Melissa A; van Couwelaar, Gijs M; Niessen, Frank B; Griot, J P W Don

    2017-09-01

      The development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, a simple and reliable photographic reference scale for the assessment of nasolabial appearance in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.   A blind retrospective analysis of photographs of cleft lip and palate patients was performed with this new rating scale.   VU Medical Center Amsterdam and the Academic Center for Dentistry of Amsterdam.   Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the age of 6 years.   Photographs that showed the highest interobserver agreement in earlier assessments were selected for the photographic reference scale. Rules were attached to the rating scale to provide a guideline for the assessment and improve interobserver reliability. Cropped photographs revealing only the nasolabial area were assessed by six observers using this new Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale in two different sessions.   Photographs of 62 children (6 years of age, 44 boys and 18 girls) were assessed. The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.62, obtained with the intraclass correlation coefficient. To measure the internal consistency, a Cronbach alpha of .91 was calculated. The estimated reliability for three observers was .84, obtained with the Spearman Brown formula.   A new, easy to use, and reliable scoring system with a photographic reference scale is presented in this study.

  2. Rates of oxygen uptake increase independently of changes in heart rate in late stages of development and at hatching in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (fH), heart mass (Mh) and body mass (Mb) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean fH and VO2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while fH was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while fH was reduced by half resulting in a further 3.6 fold increase in oxygen pulse. There was an overall negative correlation between mean fH and VO2 when data from hatchlings was included. Thus, predicting metabolic rate as VO2 from measurements of fH is not possible in embryonic reptiles. Convective transport of oxygen to supply metabolism during embryonic incubation was more reliably indicated as an index of cardiac output (COi) derived from the product of fH and Mh. However, a thorough analysis of factors determining rates of oxygen supply during development and eclosion in reptiles will require cannulation of blood vessels that proved impossible in the present study, to determine oxygen carrying capacity by the blood and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V diff), plus patterns of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of post‐movement beta rebound by contraction force and rate of force development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Adam; Mullinger, Karen J.; O'Neill, George C.; Barratt, Eleanor L.; Morris, Peter G.; Bauer, Markus; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Movement induced modulation of the beta rhythm is one of the most robust neural oscillatory phenomena in the brain. In the preparation and execution phases of movement, a loss in beta amplitude is observed [movement related beta decrease (MRBD)]. This is followed by a rebound above baseline on movement cessation [post movement beta rebound (PMBR)]. These effects have been measured widely, and recent work suggests that they may have significant importance. Specifically, they have potential to form the basis of biomarkers for disease, and have been used in neuroscience applications ranging from brain computer interfaces to markers of neural plasticity. However, despite the robust nature of both MRBD and PMBR, the phenomena themselves are poorly understood. In this study, we characterise MRBD and PMBR during a carefully controlled isometric wrist flexion paradigm, isolating two fundamental movement parameters; force output, and the rate of force development (RFD). Our results show that neither altered force output nor RFD has a significant effect on MRBD. In contrast, PMBR was altered by both parameters. Higher force output results in greater PMBR amplitude, and greater RFD results in a PMBR which is higher in amplitude and shorter in duration. These findings demonstrate that careful control of movement parameters can systematically change PMBR. Further, for temporally protracted movements, the PMBR can be over 7 s in duration. This means accurate control of movement and judicious selection of paradigm parameters are critical in future clinical and basic neuroscientific studies of sensorimotor beta oscillations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2493–2511, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:27061243

  4. Dissociated time course recovery between rate of force development and peak torque after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the association between isokinetic peak torque (PT) of quadriceps and the corresponding peak rate of force development (peak RFD) during the recovery of eccentric exercise. Twelve untrained men (aged 21·7 ± 2·3 year) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions for knee extensors (10 sets of 10 repetitions with a 2-min rest between each set) on isokinetic dynamometer. PT and peak RFD accessed by maximal isokinetic knee concentric contractions at 60° s(-1) were obtained before (baseline) and at 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Indirect markers of muscle damage included delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. The eccentric exercise resulted in elevated DOMS and CK compared with baseline values. At 24 h, PT (-15·3%, P = 0·002) and peak RFD (-13·1%, P = 0·03) decreased significantly. At 48 h, PT (-7·9%, P = 0·002) was still decreased but peak RFD have returned to baseline values. Positive correlation was found between PT and peak RFD at baseline (r = 0·62, P = 0·02), 24 h (r = 0·99, P = 0·0001) and 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) after eccentric exercise. The magnitude of changes (%) in PT and peak RFD from baseline to 24 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) and from 24 to 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) were significantly correlated. It can be concluded that the muscle damage induced by the eccentric exercise affects differently the time course of PT and peak RFD recovery during isokinetic concentric contraction at 60° s(-1). During the recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, PT and peak RFD are determined but not fully defined by shared putative physiological mechanisms. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR EXPLOSIVE AND MAXIMAL STRENGTH: EFFECTS ON EARLY AND LATE RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe B.D. Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD. Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10, and 2 min separated each set (3. Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC, RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s-1 in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p < 0.001 after training. In addition, RFD (Nm·s-1 increased by 22-28% at time epochs up to 20 ms from the contraction onset (0-10 ms = 1679. 1 ± 597.1 vs. 2159.2 ± 475.2, p < 0.001; 0-20 ms = 1958.79 ± 640.3 vs. 2398.4 ± 479.6, p < 0. 01, with no changes verified in later time epochs. However, no training effects on RFD were found for the training group when RFD was normalized to MVC. No changes were found in the control group. In conclusion, very early and late RFD responded differently to a short period of resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport

  6. An attempt to bridge muscle architecture dynamics and its instantaneous rate of force development using ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jizhou; Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Li, Guanglin

    2015-08-01

    Muscle force output is an essential index in rehabilitation assessment or physical exams, and could provide considerable insights for various applications such as load monitoring and muscle assessment in sports science or rehabilitation therapy. Besides direct measurement of force output using a dynamometer, electromyography has earlier been used in several studies to quantify muscle force as an indirect means. However, its spatial resolution is easily compromised as a summation of the action potentials from neighboring motor units of electrode site. To explore an alternative method to indirectly estimate the muscle force output, and with better muscle specificity, we started with an investigation on the relationship between architecture dynamics and force output of triceps surae. The muscular architecture dynamics is captured in ultrasonography sequences and estimated using a previously reported motion estimation method. Then an indicator named as the dorsoventrally averaged motion profile (DAMP) is employed. The performance of force output is represented by an instantaneous version of the rate of force development (RFD), namely I-RFD. From experimental results on ten normal subjects, there were significant correlations between the I-RFD and DAMP for triceps surae, both normalized between 0 and 1, with the sum of squares error at 0.0516±0.0224, R-square at 0.7929±0.0931 and root mean squared error at 0.0159±0.0033. The statistical significance results were less than 0.01. The present study suggested that muscle architecture dynamics extracted from ultrasonography during contraction is well correlated to the I-RFD and it can be a promising option for indirect estimation of muscle force output.

  7. A comparison of methods for determining the rate of force development during isometric midthigh clean pulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, G Gregory; Ruben, Ryan P; Lider, Joshua; Twine, Corey; Cormie, Prue

    2015-02-01

    Twelve female division I collegiate volleyball players were recruited to examine the reliability of several methods for calculating the rate of force development (RFD) during the isometric midthigh clean pull. All subjects were familiarized with the isometric midthigh clean pull and participated in regular strength training. Two isometric midthigh clean pulls were performed with 2 minutes rest between each trail. All measures were performed in a custom isometric testing device that included a step-wise adjustable bar and a force plate for measuring ground reaction forces. The RFD during predetermined time zone bands (0-30, 0-50, 0-90, 0-100, 0-150, 0-200, and 0-250 milliseconds) was then calculated by dividing the force at the end of the band by the band's time interval. The peak RFD was then calculated with the use of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 milliseconds sampling windows. The average RFD (avgRFD) was calculated by dividing the peak force (PF) by the time to achieve PF. All data were analyzed with the use of intraclass correlation alpha (ICCα) and the coefficient of variation (CV) and 90% confidence intervals. All predetermined RFD time bands were deemed reliable based on an ICCα >0.95 and a CV <4%. Conversely, the avgRFD failed to meet the reliability standards set for this study. Overall, the method used to assess the RFD during an isometric midthigh clean pull impacts the reliability of the measure and predetermined RFD time bands should be used to quantify the RFD.

  8. Modulation of post-movement beta rebound by contraction force and rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Adam; Mullinger, Karen J; O'Neill, George C; Barratt, Eleanor L; Morris, Peter G; Bauer, Markus; Folland, Jonathan P; Brookes, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Movement induced modulation of the beta rhythm is one of the most robust neural oscillatory phenomena in the brain. In the preparation and execution phases of movement, a loss in beta amplitude is observed [movement related beta decrease (MRBD)]. This is followed by a rebound above baseline on movement cessation [post movement beta rebound (PMBR)]. These effects have been measured widely, and recent work suggests that they may have significant importance. Specifically, they have potential to form the basis of biomarkers for disease, and have been used in neuroscience applications ranging from brain computer interfaces to markers of neural plasticity. However, despite the robust nature of both MRBD and PMBR, the phenomena themselves are poorly understood. In this study, we characterise MRBD and PMBR during a carefully controlled isometric wrist flexion paradigm, isolating two fundamental movement parameters; force output, and the rate of force development (RFD). Our results show that neither altered force output nor RFD has a significant effect on MRBD. In contrast, PMBR was altered by both parameters. Higher force output results in greater PMBR amplitude, and greater RFD results in a PMBR which is higher in amplitude and shorter in duration. These findings demonstrate that careful control of movement parameters can systematically change PMBR. Further, for temporally protracted movements, the PMBR can be over 7 s in duration. This means accurate control of movement and judicious selection of paradigm parameters are critical in future clinical and basic neuroscientific studies of sensorimotor beta oscillations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2493-2511, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Design and development of liquid filled polymeric fibers with flexure rate viscoelastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardo, L., E-mail: laura.gottardo@empa.ch, E-mail: rudolf.hufenus@empa.ch; Hufenus, R., E-mail: laura.gottardo@empa.ch, E-mail: rudolf.hufenus@empa.ch; Heuberger, M., E-mail: manfred.heuberger@empa.ch [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014-CH St. Gallen (Switzerland); Dressler, M., E-mail: dressler@ecs.umass.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The design and development of a novel category of bi-component polymeric fibers, made of a polymeric sheath and a liquid core is described. To understand and to analyze the flow of molten polymer and liquid within a spin pack, we built a macroscale analogon where co-flow of polymer and liquid is investigated systematically. The macroscale analogon is composed of a glass cylinder with a finite length and a coaxial capillary. The inner fluid flows in the capillary and at its outlet meets the outer fluid flowing inside the glass cylinder. The fluids are pumped into the setup using pressurized bottles with controlled flow rates. A high-speed camera is placed in front of the glass cylinder to record the transient and the steady flow of the two phases and the morphology of their interface during co-flow. We systematically analyzed the combination of various fluids and different injection channel geometries, and used these findings to design a customized spin pack. Extrusion trials with molten polymers and specific liquids resulted in the production of liquid filled polymeric fibers (LFF) with different amounts of liquid from 3% to 33%vol. and diameters from 150μm to 1mm. Fiber morphology has been investigated with the help of optical microscopy and computer tomography, in order to analyze both surface and core morphology. Mechanical characterization of fibers has been carried out with special care to the damping capacity of such fibers using two different methods: two point bending tests to evaluate the energy dissipation of fibers upon bending at low frequency values (0.005-0.5Hz), and analysis of vibration reduction to determine the quality factor at the resonance frequency of the 1{sup st} and 3{sup rd} vibration mode.

  10. Heart rate variability and increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penčić-Popović Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To our knowledge there are no data about the relationship between elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 and altered cardiac autonomic function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between heart rate variability (HRV and slightly increased risk for DM2. Methods. We evaluated 69 subjects (50.0 ± 14.4 years; 30 male without DM2, coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC: group I (n = 39 included subjects with 12 > FINDRISC ≥ 7; group II (n = 30 subjects with FINDRISC < 7. HRV was derived from 24-h electrocardiogram. We used time domain variables and frequency domain analysis performed over the entire 24-h period, during the day (06-22 h and overnight (22-06 h. Results. Standard deviation of the average normal RR intervals was significantly lower in the group with increased risk for DM2 compared to the group II (127.1 ± 26.6 ms vs 149.6 ± 57.6 ms; p = 0.035. Other time domain measures were similar in both groups. The group I demonstrated significantly reduced frequency domain measures, total power - TP (7.2 ± 0.3 ln/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.029, and low frequency - LF (5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.6 ln/ms2; p = 0.006, over entire 24 h, as well as TP (7.1 ± 0.3 ln/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.004, very low frequency (6.2 ± 0.2 ln/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.2 ln/ms2; p = 0.030, LF (5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 6.2 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.000 and high frequency (5.7 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2; p = 0.011 during the daytime compared to the group II. Nocturnal frequency domain analysis was similar between the groups. The low diurnal frequency was independently related to elevated risk for diabetes mellitus (beta = -0,331; p = 0.006. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest that even slightly elevated risk for developing diabetes mellitus may be related to impaired HRV.

  11. Development and Use of the Directives Rating System in Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy D.; Burlingame, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Applied the Directives Rating System (DRS), which classifies directives, to transcripts of four expert group therapists. DRS yielded satisfactory estimates of interrater agreement and validity. Findings showed that DRS ratings were related to therapists' theoretical orientation and that therapists tended to use imperatives and requestives when…

  12. Performance evaluation of a newly developed variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit, coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, wer...

  13. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... polymerase chain reaction: A model for human embryo ... Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine ... obtain and there is no ethical issue related to their use for research.

  14. Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.

    2014-02-01

    Background - The goal of this project, with a focus on commercial buildings in California, was to develop a new framework for evidence-based minimum ventilation rate (MVR) standards that protect occupants in buildings while also considering energy use and cost. This was motivated by research findings suggesting that current prescriptive MVRs in commercial buildings do not provide occupants with fully safe and satisfactory indoor environments. Methods - The project began with a broad review in several areas ? the diverse strategies now used for standards or guidelines for MVRs or for environmental contaminant exposures, current knowledge about adverse human effects associated with VRs, and current knowledge about contaminants in commercial buildings, including their their presence, their adverse human effects, and their relationships with VRs. Based on a synthesis of the reviewed information, new principles and approaches are proposed for setting evidence-based VRs standards for commercial buildings, considering a range of human effects including health, performance, and acceptability of air. Results ? A review and evaluation is first presented of current approaches to setting prescriptive building ventilation standards and setting acceptable limits for human contaminant exposures in outdoor air and occupational settings. Recent research on approaches to setting acceptable levels of environmental exposures in evidence-based MVR standards is also described. From a synthesis and critique of these materials, a set of principles for setting MVRs is presented, along with an example approach based on these principles. The approach combines two sequential strategies. In a first step, an acceptable threshold is set for each adverse outcome that has a demonstrated relationship to VRs, as an increase from a (low) outcome level at a high reference ventilation rate (RVR, the VR needed to attain the best achievable levels of the adverse outcome); MVRs required to meet each

  15. Developing an Erosion Rate Map for Myanmar Using USLE, GIS and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtehani, Sobhan; Rutten, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Predicting erosion and estimating sediment loads in rivers are of major tasks in water resources system planning and management. In Myanmar erosion and collapse of river banks is common during the rainy season and riverine communities are frequently forced to relocate as their homes are dangerously close to the disintegrating river banks (Mann 2013). Myanmar is one of climatically most diverse countries located in Southeast Asia, where sheet, rill, and gully erosion affect crop yields as well as livelihood strategies of many people (Htwe, Brinkmann et al. 2015). In Myanmar, soil erosion measurement and monitoring approaches are increasingly important for land management planning to effectively avoid erosion and soil degradation, but such monitoring is limited by the availability of data and budgetary constraints. Therefore, spatial modeling approaches using GIS and remote sensing techniques play an important role for rapid risk assessments (Htwe 2016). In this study ''Model Builder'' tool in ArcGIS was used to create a model which generates an erosion rate map using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). USLE is the product of five factors: rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P). Input data files for this model were acquired from online open source databases. Precipitation data was downloaded from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for calculation of R factor. The resolution of TRMM data is very coarse (0.25 degree × 0.25 degree), therefore it was spatially downscaled by developing a relation between TRMM and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using regression analysis method. Soil maps depicting percentages of sand, clay and silt were obtained from soilgrids website for calculation of K factor. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with resolution of 90 meters was taken from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for calculation of LS

  16. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  17. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  18. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  19. Cost Analyses of Measures to Improve Residential Energy Ratings to 6 Stars - Playford North Development, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Belusko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  This paper reports the results of a study on the cost implications of achieving greater energy efficiency as measured by House Energy Rating(HER ‘stars’ for new housing on a greenfield development in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. Twelve house designs typical of the housing options available from a number of builders engaged with this development were modeled using the 2nd generation Building Code of Australia (BCA accredited energy rating assessment tool AccuRate. Where the model predicted a rating below the minimum rating (6 star proposed under the recently agreed Commonwealth of Australia, National Energy Efficiency strategy, the designs were modified in order to improve the rating to 6 stars using a combination of specification changes and energy efficient technology options. These changes or options were then priced at prevailing building suppliers and subcontractors retail cost levels in order that an average ‘extra cost to 6 star’ and range of indicative costs to achieve 6 star housing compliance could be articulated. The results revealed that standard and currently available technologies, such a reflective foil barriers, increased insulation and low emissivity ‘e’ type glazing provide a means to achieving 6 star ratings at a modest additional cost, i.e. 1-2% of total construction and development costs.

  20. Cost Analyses of Measures to Improve Residential Energy Ratings to 6 Stars - Playford North Development, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy O'Leary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  This paper reports the results of a study on the cost implications of achieving greater energy efficiency as measured by House Energy Rating(HER ‘stars’ for new housing on a greenfield development in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. Twelve house designs typical of the housing options available from a number of builders engaged with this development were modeled using the 2nd generation Building Code of Australia (BCA accredited energy rating assessment tool AccuRate. Where the model predicted a rating below the minimum rating (6 star proposed under the recently agreed Commonwealth of Australia, National Energy Efficiency strategy, the designs were modified in order to improve the rating to 6 stars using a combination of specification changes and energy efficient technology options. These changes or options were then priced at prevailing building suppliers and subcontractors retail cost levels in order that an average ‘extra cost to 6 star’ and range of indicative costs to achieve 6 star housing compliance could be articulated. The results revealed that standard and currently available technologies, such a reflective foil barriers, increased insulation and low emissivity ‘e’ type glazing provide a means to achieving 6 star ratings at a modest additional cost, i.e. 1-2% of total construction and development costs.

  1. Cost Analyses of Measures to Improve Residential Energy Ratings to 6 Stars - Playford North Development, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Belusko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study on the cost implications of achieving greater energy efficiency as measured by House Energy Rating(HER ‘stars’ for new housing on a greenfield development in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. Twelve house designs typical of the housing options available from a number of builders engaged with this development were modeled using the 2nd generation Building Code of Australia (BCA accredited energy rating assessment tool AccuRate. Where the model predicted a rating below the minimum rating (6 star proposed under the recently agreed Commonwealth of Australia, National Energy Efficiency strategy, the designs were modified in order to improve the rating to 6 stars using a combination of specification changes and energy efficient technology options. These changes or options were then priced at prevailing building suppliers and subcontractors retail cost levels in order that an average ‘extra cost to 6 star’ and range of indicative costs to achieve 6 star housing compliance could be articulated. The results revealed that standard and currently available technologies, such a reflective foil barriers, increased insulation and low emissivity ‘e’ type glazing provide a means to achieving 6 star ratings at a modest additional cost, i.e. 1-2% of total construction and development costs.

  2. Development of Copper Corrosion Products and Relation between Surface Appearance and Corrosion Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh [Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Tru, Nguyen Nhi [Vietnam Institute for Tropical Technology and Environmental Protection, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Yoshino, Tsujino [Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan); Yasuki, Maeda [Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Copper was exposed unsheltered and sheltered in four humid tropical sites, representing urban, urban-industrial, urban-marine and rural environments. The corrosion rates and the sequence of corrosion product formation are presented and discussed in relation with climatic and atmospheric pollution parameters. Chemical compositions of corrosion products were found to depend on environments and duration of exposure. In all environments, cuprite was the predominating corrosion product that formed first and continuously increased during the exposure. Among the sulphur-containing corrosion products, posnjakite and brochantite were more frequently found and the first formed earlier. Nantokite was the most common chlorine-containing products for most cases, except the high-chloride environment, where atacamite was detected instead. The corrosion rate of copper was well indicated by the colour of patina. The red-purple colour corresponded to the high corrosion rate and the greenish grey colour corresponded to the low corrosion rate. Corrosion rate of sheltered copper in urban-marine environment increased with the exposure time.

  3. In situ growth rates and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in chronic lung infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Jelsbak, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    The growth dynamics of bacterial pathogens within infected hosts are a fundamental but poorly understood feature of most infections. We have focused on the in situ distribution and growth characteristics of two prevailing and transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones that have caused chronic lung...... matrix, whereas nonmucoid variants were present mainly as dispersed cells. To obtain estimates of the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in CF lungs, we used quantitative FISH to indirectly measure growth rates of bacteria in sputum samples (reflecting the in vivo lung conditions). The concentration of r......RNA in bacteria isolated from sputa was measured and correlated with the rRNA contents of the same bacteria growing in vitro at defined rates. The results showed that most cells were actively growing with doubling times of between 100 and 200 min, with some growing even faster. Only a small stationary...

  4. Development of monopoly abuse supervision of electricity rates. Entwicklung der kartellrechtlichen Missbrauchsaufsicht ueber die Strompreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, H.R.

    1993-03-15

    Starting point for the investigation is the decision of the regional cartel office of Berlin with which it dismissed a case about a complaint against excessive electricity rates of the EBAG in East Berlin. The Berlin cartel office stated as reason for the decision that the results for 1991 of the regional electric utilities in the new Federal states, particularly also in the area of Berlin, were negative. Due to increases in cost and charges due to high capital investments also for the current year losses are expected. There is reason to believe that the prices of most electric utilities are not sufficiently calculated on the basis of costs. The rates of the electric utilities which are obviously based on average electricity rates in West Germany do not present a suitable and sufficiently reliable comparative basis for the determination of a fair price within the scope of concept of comparable market. (orig./UA)

  5. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child’s joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the findings that coordinated joint engagement was l...

  6. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  7. Development of An Optimization Method for Determining Automation Rate in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Since automation was introduced in various industrial fields, it has been known that automation provides positive effects like greater efficiency and fewer human errors, and negative effect defined as out-of-the-loop (OOTL). Thus, before introducing automation in nuclear field, the estimation of the positive and negative effects of automation on human operators should be conducted. In this paper, by focusing on CPS, the optimization method to find an appropriate proportion of automation is suggested by integrating the suggested cognitive automation rate and the concepts of the level of ostracism. The cognitive automation rate estimation method was suggested to express the reduced amount of human cognitive loads, and the level of ostracism was suggested to express the difficulty in obtaining information from the automation system and increased uncertainty of human operators' diagnosis. The maximized proportion of automation that maintains the high level of attention for monitoring the situation is derived by an experiment, and the automation rate is estimated by the suggested automation rate estimation method. It is expected to derive an appropriate inclusion proportion of the automation system avoiding the OOTL problem and having maximum efficacy at the same time.

  8. The Impact of rising international interest rates on developing countries: The South Korean experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Bernhard; Mayer, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of rising international interest rates on the South Korean economy during the seventies with the help of an econometric macro model. The results show that there was an induced reduction of investment and GDP, yet inflationary pressures were somewhat mitigated by a lowering of capital inflows.

  9. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  10. Vigor rating and brix for first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point Cultivar Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genetic variability in agronomic performance will help optimize breeding and selection strategies. Vigor ratings and Brix data were collected from the 2009 and 2010 clones in the first clonal selection stage (Stage I) of the Canal Point (CP) sugar...

  11. Development of a hydrometric measurement series for the needs of rating curve estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Rating curve is the basis for correct designation of flow's values in water gauge cross section with a certain water level. It is approximated on the basis of rating curve measurements carried out at different water levels. Hydrometric measurements are subject to random and systematic errors. Random errors results from the manner and carefulness of carrying out measurements whereas systematic errors are mainly due to variability in the flow in time. Proper estimation of measurement's uncertainty affects the proper determination of the speed and consequently the rating curve. In Poland, hydrometric measurements have been performed in most water-gauge cross sections for decades. The obtained results in the low waters' section are not always arranged according to a hydraulically determined rating curve. They often constitute a dispersed cloud of points with a weakly marked trend and high variance. The curve designated on the basis of them is subject to a high, difficult to estimate error. The study presents a set of functions transforming a many-year measurement series carried out in a water gauge profile. Hydrometric measurements were carried out in the main channel. Then they were grouped into classes. The division into classes was performed as a two-step procedure. Firstly, the measurement results (uniform) which are arranged along rating curve were individualized. Secondly, the reasons for such a division was clarified. Changes in methodology and measurement techniques, the location of hydrometric profiles and changes in the geometric parameters and hydraulic sections have been taken into account. In each class, the transformed values of water levels and its velocity are in accordance with the normal distribution. Consequently, it enabled us to designate the confidence intervals of compound regression in each observation class and chosing diverging measurement. In a consequence, corrected rating curves were generated. Its variability was determined and compared

  12. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  13. Whether duration of the recovery phase of magnetic storm depends on the development rate of storm at its main phase?

    CERN Document Server

    Yermolaev, Yuri I

    2014-01-01

    We compare dependences between the storm development rate $|Dst_{min}|/\\Delta T$ ($\\Delta T$ is the durations of main phase) and the duration of recovery phase of magnetic storms generated by three various types of interplanetary drivers: (1, 2) compression regions CIR and Sheath, and (3) body of interplanetary CME (magnetic clouds and Ejecta). Our analyze shows that the duration of recovery phase correlates with the storm development rate for CIR- and Sheath-induced storms, and does not correlate for ICME- induced storms.

  14. Increased rate of force development and neuromuscular activity after high-load resistance training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load resistance training on the rate of force development and neuromuscular function in patients undergoing dialysis. MethodsTwenty-nine patients were tested before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. The rate of force...... development was tested using the Good Strength dynamometer chair. Muscle strength and neuromuscular function in the m. Vastus lateralis was estimated using electromyography in a one repetition maximum test during dynamic knee extension and during a 20s isometric knee extension with 50% of the one repetition...

  15. Developing Elementary Teachers' Knowledge about Functions and Rate of Change through Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael A.; Middleton, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development of elementary school teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching as they participated in a Modeling Instruction environment that placed heavy emphasis on improving their subject-matter knowledge as a basis for affecting the development of their pedagogical content knowledge. We…

  16. Developing a Teacher Evaluation Instrument to Provide Formative Feedback Using Student Ratings of Teaching Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J.C.M.; van Veen, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a teacher evaluation instrument, based on students’ observations, which exhibits cumulative ordering in terms of the complexity of teaching acts. The study integrates theory on teacher development with theory on teacher effectiveness and applies a cross-valid

  17. Developing Elementary Teachers' Knowledge about Functions and Rate of Change through Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael A.; Middleton, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development of elementary school teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching as they participated in a Modeling Instruction environment that placed heavy emphasis on improving their subject-matter knowledge as a basis for affecting the development of their pedagogical content knowledge. We…

  18. Relevant microclimate for determining the development rate of malaria mosquitoes and possible implications of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paaijmans, K.P.; Imbahale, S.S.; Thomas, M.B.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between mosquito development and temperature is one of the keys to understanding the current and future dynamics and distribution of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Many process-based models use mean air temperature to estimate larval development times, and hence

  19. Development of Final A-Fault Rupture Models for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J.; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and rate of earthquake ruptures for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-based models, where ruptures are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-model option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the main report.

  20. Software metrics: The quantitative impact of four factors on work rates experienced during software development. [reliability engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. E., Jr.; Judge, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model of a software development process is described. The software development process is seen to consist of a sequence of activities, such as 'program design' and 'module development' (or coding). A manpower estimate is made by multiplying code size by the rates (man months per thousand lines of code) for each of the activities relevant to the particular case of interest and summing up the results. The effect of four objectively determinable factors (organization, software product type, computer type, and code type) on productivity values for each of nine principal software development activities was assessed. Four factors were identified which account for 39% of the observed productivity variation.

  1. Development of an Abrasive Water Jet Optimum Abrasive Flow Rate Model for Titanium Alloy Cutting (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    As the abrasive water jet (AWJ) is used in industry extensively, optimization of the process parameters that determine efficiency, economy and...quality of the process is becoming more and more important for its successful application. However, being a complicated cutting system, an abrasive water ... jet is characterized by a large number of process parameters, which include water pressure, orifice diameter, traverse rate, standoff distance, impact

  2. Development on the Calculation Software Package of the Contribution Rate of Mechanization in Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a software specially in calculating the contribution rate of machanization in agriculture by usng economy math method ,computer technology and Visual Basic 6. 0 version. The software package has friendly interface,simple operating way and accurate, feasible calculating method. It greatly changes the condition in the past which had considerable lots of data and miscellaneous and trivial methods,which were even hard to seek answer. So it has very high practicl value.

  3. Development of a QTL-environment-based predictive model for node addition rate in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gezan, Salvador A; Eduardo Vallejos, C; Jones, James W; Boote, Kenneth J; Clavijo-Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Osorno, Juan M; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen; Roman-Paoli, Elvin; Gonzalez, Abiezer; Beaver, James; Ricaurte, Jaumer; Colbert, Raphael; Correll, Melanie J

    2017-05-01

    This work reports the effects of the genetic makeup, the environment and the genotype by environment interactions for node addition rate in an RIL population of common bean. This information was used to build a predictive model for node addition rate. To select a plant genotype that will thrive in targeted environments it is critical to understand the genotype by environment interaction (GEI). In this study, multi-environment QTL analysis was used to characterize node addition rate (NAR, node day(- 1)) on the main stem of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). This analysis was carried out with field data of 171 recombinant inbred lines that were grown at five sites (Florida, Puerto Rico, 2 sites in Colombia, and North Dakota). Four QTLs (Nar1, Nar2, Nar3 and Nar4) were identified, one of which had significant QTL by environment interactions (QEI), that is, Nar2 with temperature. Temperature was identified as the main environmental factor affecting NAR while day length and solar radiation played a minor role. Integration of sites as covariates into a QTL mixed site-effect model, and further replacing the site component with explanatory environmental covariates (i.e., temperature, day length and solar radiation) yielded a model that explained 73% of the phenotypic variation for NAR with root mean square error of 16.25% of the mean. The QTL consistency and stability was examined through a tenfold cross validation with different sets of genotypes and these four QTLs were always detected with 50-90% probability. The final model was evaluated using leave-one-site-out method to assess the influence of site on node addition rate. These analyses provided a quantitative measure of the effects on NAR of common beans exerted by the genetic makeup, the environment and their interactions.

  4. Development and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam for improvement of dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar-jalali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this study was preparation and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam to enhance its dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersion formulations with different carriers including crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit powder and with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared employing cogrinding method. Dissolution study of the piroxicam powders, physical mixtures and solid dispersions was performed in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid using USP Apparatus type II. The physical characterization of formulations were analyzed using powder X ray diffraction (PXRD, particle size analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Interactions between the drug and carriers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic method. Results: It was revealed that all of three carriers increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam from physical mixtures and especially in solid dispersions compared to piroxicam pure and treated powders. PXRD and DSC results were confirmed the reduction of crystalline form of piroxicam. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interaction between drug and carriers in the solid dispersion formulations. Conclusion: Dissolution rate was dependent on the type and ratio of drug: carrier as well as pH of dissolution medium. Dissolution data of formulations were fitted well in to the linear Weibull as well as non-linear logistic and a suggested models.

  5. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  6. Development of the self-report version of the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Weingeroff, Jolie L; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD). The measure covers a 1-week time frame, and each of the nine criteria for BPD is rated on a five-point anchored rating scale of 0-4. Seventy-five subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD were recruited from the community. The convergent validity of the interview and self-report versions of the ZAN-BPD was found to be high (with a median value of 0.70). In terms of reliability, the internal consistency of the nine criteria scores of the ZAN-BPD was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). In addition, 13 of 14 intraclass correlations for same-day test-retest reliability were in the excellent range (> 0.75). Finally, the sensitivity of both versions of the ZAN-BPD to change was assessed 7-10 days after they were first administered and found to be adequate (e.g. r = 0.66 for total score of ZAN-BPD). Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the self-report ZAN-BPD is a promising self-report scale for the assessment of change in the severity of borderline psychopathology over time.

  7. Prevalence rates of helmet use among motorcycle riders in a developed region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuequn, Yu; Ke, Liang; Ivers, Rebecca; Du, Wei; Senserrick, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of helmet use, and of correct helmet use (chinstrap firmly fastened) among motorcycle riders and their passengers in Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey involving direct observation of motorcycle riders was conducted at 20 randomly selected intersections. A total of 13,410 motorcycles were observed during a 10-day period in February 2009. The overall prevalence of helmet use was 72.6% (95% CI: 71.8-73.3%) among drivers and 34.1% (95% CI: 32.7-35.5%) among pillion passengers. The prevalence of correct use was 43.2% (95% CI: 42.4-44.0%) and 20.9% (95% CI: 19.8-22.1%) for drivers and passengers respectively. The helmet wearing rate on city streets was almost 95%, however city riders were more likely than rural riders to wear non-motorcycle helmets while riding. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with increased helmet use included riding on city streets, male gender, being a driver, carrying less passengers and riding a registered motorcycle. The results indicated enforcement and education activities need to be strengthened with respect to both helmet use and helmet quality, especially in rural areas, in order to improve wearing rates.

  8. Development of computerized dose planning system and applicator for high dose rate remote afterloading irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T. J. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Kim, S. W. [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea); Kim, O. B.; Lee, H. J.; Won, C. H. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Yoon, S. M. [Dong-a Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To design and fabricate of the high dose rate source and applicators which are tandem, ovoids and colpostat for OB/Gyn brachytherapy includes the computerized dose planning system. Designed the high dose rate Ir-192 source with nuclide atomic power irradiation and investigated the dose characteristics of fabricated brachysource. We performed the effect of self-absorption and determining the gamma constant and output factor and determined the apparent activity of designed source. he automated computer planning system provided the 2D distribution and 3D includes analysis programs. Created the high dose rate source Ir-192, 10 Ci(370GBq). The effective attenuation factor from the self-absorption and source wall was examined to 0.55 of the activity of bare source and this factor is useful for determination of the apparent activity and gamma constant 4.69 Rcm{sup 2}/mCi-hr. Fabricated the colpostat was investigated the dose distributions of frontal, axial and sagittal plane in intra-cavitary radiation therapy for cervical cancer. The reduce dose at bladder and rectum area was found about 20 % of original dose. The computerized brachytherapy planning system provides the 2-dimensional isodose and 3-D include the dose-volume histogram(DVH) with graphic-user-interface mode. emoted afterloading device was built for experiment of created Ir-192 source with film dosimetry within {+-}1 mm discrepancy. 34 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  9. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  10. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations Between Rate of Force Development Metrics and Throwing Velocity in Elite Team Handball Players: a Short Research Report

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mário C.; Saavedra, Francisco J.; Abrantes, Catarina; Felipe J. Aidar

    2011-01-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant’s development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite mal...

  12. A pressure ulcer and fall rate quality composite index for acute care units: A measure development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Diane K; Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E; Dunton, Nancy E; Staggs, Vincent S; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J

    2016-11-01

    Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index-the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Two-phase measure development study. 5144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors(®) during the year 2013. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index=100-PUR-FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of physical restraint use were not associated with higher Pressure

  13. Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    Letter of Intent for RD Collaboration Proposal focused on development of a next generation pixel readout integrated circuits needed for high luminosity LHC detector upgrades. Brings together ATLAS and CMS pixel chip design communities.

  14. Development of an All Solid High Energy Density Space Rated Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quallion's intends to develop an all-solid 600 Wh/kg, flexible form-factor lithium rechargeable energy device for advanced space power applications. Quallion's...

  15. Development of synchronized, autonomous, and self-regulated oscillations in transpiration rate of a whole tomato plant under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Rony; Da-Costa, Noam; Raviv, Michael; Moshelion, Menachem

    2010-07-01

    Plants respond to many environmental changes by rapidly adjusting their hydraulic conductivity and transpiration rate, thereby optimizing water-use efficiency and preventing damage due to low water potential. A multiple-load-cell apparatus, time-series analysis of the measured data, and residual low-pass filtering methods were used to monitor continuously and analyse transpiration of potted tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse during well-irrigated and drought periods. A time derivative of the filtered residual time series yielded oscillatory behaviour of the whole plant's transpiration (WPT) rate. A subsequent cross-correlation analysis between the WPT oscillatory pattern and wet-wick evaporation rates (vertical cotton fabric, 0.14 m(2) partly submerged in water in a container placed on an adjacent load cell) revealed that autonomous oscillations in WPT rate develop under a continuous increase in water stress, whereas these oscillations correspond with the fluctuations in evaporation rate when water is fully available. The relative amplitude of these autonomous oscillations increased with water stress as transpiration rate decreased. These results support the recent finding that an increase in xylem tension triggers hydraulic signals that spread instantaneously via the plant vascular system and control leaf conductance. The regulatory role of synchronized oscillations in WPT rate in eliminating critical xylem tension points and preventing embolism is discussed.

  16. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  17. Tribological development of TiCN coatings by adjusting the flowing rate of reactive gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Momeni, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    TiCN coatings were deposited by means of direct current magnetron sputtering of Ti targets in presence of N2 and C2H2 reactive gases. The microstructure, composition, mechanical and tribological properties of the deposited thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), nanoindentation, ball-on-disc, scratch test, and three dimensional (3D) optical microscopy. The obtained results presents a reproducible processing route for tailoring microstructure, mechanical and tribological behavior of TiCN coatings by controlling flowing rate of the reactive gases.

  18. Development of Heart Rate Variaty in the Early and Rehabilitation Phase of AMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Tanhbalouti; Feng Jianzhang; Feng Xiuhua

    2000-01-01

    Heart rate variaty (HRV) of 85 cases with AMI was observed in the early phase after onset and rehabilitation phase at first month and sixth month, and was contrasted with six time threshold indices of 111 cases with coronary heart disease and that of 35 normal control. We found the HRV of AMI was apperantly lower in the acute phase than that of coronary heart disease and normal controls. HRV recovered gradually with inclining to be stable after half a year, but it was still lower than that of controls. Low HRV in early phase of AMI suggested the poor prognosis.

  19. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergio Zimmermann et al.

    2001-03-20

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology.

  20. Soil development rates from an optically stimulated luminescence-dated beach ridge sequence in Northern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asger Habekost; Elberling, Bo; Pejrup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    of each pedon and soil stratum was measured by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and used to estimate soil development rates. Soils were divided into five groups from Typic Haplorthods and Entic Alorthods with a mean OSL age of 29659294 yr to Typic Quartzipsamments with a mean OSL age...

  1. Inverse Effects on Growth and Development Rates by Means of Endocrine Disruptors in African Clawed Frog Tadpoles ("Xenopus Laevis")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Zachary Carl

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on fish, frogs, and salamanders, showed the ability for estrogen (EE2) and anthropogenic endocrine disruptors to skew sex ratios and cause hermaphrodism. This study addressed the effects of estrogens on growth and development rates of African clawed frog tadpoles ("Xenopus laevis") during their gender determination stages. The…

  2. A Facet-Factorial Approach towards the Development and Validation of a Jazz Rhythm Section Performance Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable rating scale to assess jazz rhythm sections in the context of jazz big band performance. The research questions that guided this study included: (a) what central factors contribute to the assessment of a jazz rhythm section? (b) what items should be used to describe and assess a jazz…

  3. Contents of nucleic and amino acids and rate of protein synthesis in developing flight muscles of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Schrikker, A.E.M.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. Changes in the contents of DNA, RNA, free amino acids (FAA) and protein as well as in the rate of protein synthesis in vivo were measured in the developing flight muscles of Locustamigratoria. 2. 2. The DNA concentration rises temporarily at the end of the last larval instar, possibly in rela

  4. A Facet-Factorial Approach towards the Development and Validation of a Jazz Rhythm Section Performance Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable rating scale to assess jazz rhythm sections in the context of jazz big band performance. The research questions that guided this study included: (a) what central factors contribute to the assessment of a jazz rhythm section? (b) what items should be used to describe and assess a jazz…

  5. Development of a new product for unrestrained heart rate measurement in swimming: a user centered design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooijen, V.; De Voogd-Claessen, L.; Lauche, K.; Jeanne, V.; Van der Vliet, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a new product for unrestrained heart rate measurement to provide feedback and target training efforts in professional swimming. While training is considered to be the key to becoming a top athlete, little is known about how to determine the right training course

  6. Effect of nanoparticles of silver and gold on metabolic rate and development of broiler and layer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, L; Sawosz, E; Hotowy, A

    2012-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of nanoparticles of silver (AgNano) and gold (AuNano) on metabolic rate (O(2) consumption, CO(2) production and heat production-HP) and the development of embryos from different breeds of broiler and layer chicken. Gaseous exchange was measured in an open...

  7. Enhanced Ovarian Folliclular Development by Metformin Does Not Correlate with Pregnancy Rate: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Basirat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common, complex endocrinedisorder for women of productive age. A high incidence of ovulation failure in womenwith PCOS is related to insulin resistance. Some studies have assessed the effects ofhyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in relationship with insulin sensitizing agentssuch as Metformin (Met. These medicines have been suggested new scope for ovulationstimulation enhancement with Clomiphene Citrate (CC in PCOs women. The aimof this study is to compare the effectiveness of adding Met to CC in women with PCOS.Materials and Methods: This multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trialstudy was performed on 334 PCOS patients from 2007 to 2009. Patients were randomlydivided into two groups and ovulation induction was performed with either CC alone orCC + Met. The treatment was continued for three cycles, then the mature follicle andpregnancy rates were evaluated.Results: In the CC + Met group, 68% had at least one dominant follicle in the first cyclethat was significant (p<0.001, and 31.7% had one in the second cycle. In the CC group54.5% in the first cycle, 31.7% second cycle, and 6.9% ovulated in the third cycle. Thepregnancy rate was 28.7% in CC + Met group and 24.6% in the CC group, with no significantdifferences between the two groups.

  8. The development of a high strain rate superplastic Al-Mg-Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashwood, R.J.; Grimes, R.; Harrison, A.W.; Flower, H.M. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2001-07-01

    In order for superplastic forming of aluminium to break out of the niche market low cost alloys are required that exhibit higher strain rate capability that are capable of volume production. This paper describes an investigation into the feasibility of producing such an alloy. A series of Al-4Mg alloys with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% Zr additions was prepared using a cheap particulate casting route, in an attempt to achieve higher levels of Zr supersaturation than are possible with conventional casting. The particulate was processed into a sheet product via hot extrusion followed by cold rolling and the effect of a number of process variables on the SPF performance of the sheet was investigated. It was found that increasing the Zr content, and manipulation of the thermomechanical processing conditions improved the SPF performance. Ductilities in excess of 600% have been achieved at a strain rate of 0.01 s{sup -1}, together with flow stresses less than 15 MPa. (orig.)

  9. Formulation development and dissolution rate enhancement of efavirenz by solid dispersion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P T Koh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate of efavirenz using solid dispersion systems (binary and ternary. A comparison between solvent and fusion method was also investigated. Solid dispersions of efavirenz were prepared using polyethylene glycol 8000, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 alone and combination of both. Tween 80 was incorporated to obtain a ternary solid dispersion system. Dissolution tests were conducted and evaluated on the basis of cumulative percentage drug release and dissolution efficiency. Physicochemical characterizations of the solid dispersions were carried out using differential scanning calorimetric, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Dissolution was remarkably improved in both systems compared to pure efavirenz ( P0.05 in dissolution was observed between the two methods. Binary and ternary solid dispersion systems both have showed a significant improvement in the dissolution rate of efavirenz. Formulations with only polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 showed best dissolution profile and 1:10 was identified as an optimum drug-polymer weight ratio.

  10. Deformation and Shear Band Development in an Ultrahigh Carbon Steel During High Strain Rate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K; Sherby, O D

    2004-07-06

    The mechanical response of a pearlitic UHCS-1.3C steel deformed at approximately 4000 s{sup -1} to large strains ({var_epsilon} = -0.9) has been studied. Failure, at both the macroscopic and the microscopic levels has been evaluated, and the ability of the material to absorb energy in compression has been examined. Failure occurred by the development of a shear band. However before failure, extensive buckling of the carbide plates was observed and the UHCS-1.3C material exhibited significant potential for compressive ductility and energy absorption due to the distributed buckling of these plates. Strain localization during adiabatic shear band development resulted in the formation of austenite. Subsequent cooling produced a divorced-eutectoid transformation with associated deformation, which resulted in a microstructure consisting of 50 to 100 nm sized grains. The stress-strain behavior within the shear band has also been determined. The results are used to critically evaluate the maximum shear stress criterion of shear band development. New criteria for the development of shear bands are developed based on a strain energy concept.

  11. Development rate and brood production in haplo- and pleometrotic colonies of Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim; Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2012-01-01

    until the first worker emerges may shorten. For territorial species and species that rob brood from neighbouring colonies, a faster production of more workers may improve the chance of surviving intraspecific competition. In this study, the time from the nuptial flight to the emergence of the first...... with development time, showing that earlier development of the first worker increased queen fecundity. These results indicate that pleometrotic O. smaragdina colonies are competitively superior to haplometrotic colonies as they produce more workers faster and shorten the claustral phase, leading to increased queen...

  12. Bone characteristics of late-term embryonic and hatchling broilers: bone development under extreme growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, R; Uni, Z; Shahar, R

    2012-10-01

    The development of broilers is an extreme example of rapid growth, increasing in weight from 40 g at hatch to 2,000 g 5 to 6 wk later. Such rapid growth requires a correspondingly fast development of the skeleton. Bone development is a genetically programmed process that is modified by epigenetic factors, mainly muscle-induced stresses and strains. In this study, we describe the temporal changes in bone morphology and material properties during the prehatch period [embryonic day (E) 14, E17, E19, E21] and posthatch d 3 and 7. The bones were examined for their weight, length, ash content, mechanical properties, and cortical structure. We show that the cross-sectional shape of the tibia and femur changes during the examination period from circular to elliptical. Additionally, the changes in bone properties are time-dependent and nonuniform: from E14 to E17 and from d 3 to 7, fast bone growth was noted, with major increases in both mechanical properties (stiffness, ultimate load, and energy to fracture) and geometric properties (cross-sectional area and thickness, medullary area, and moment of inertia). On the other hand, during the last days of incubation, most mechanical and geometric properties remain unchanged or even decrease. The reasons for this finding may relate to the hatching process but also to mineral shortage during the last days of incubation. This study leads to better understanding of bone development in ovo and posthatch in fast-growing broilers.

  13. Development of a Self-Rating instrument to Measure Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Koning, L. de; Hof, T.; Dongen, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the development of an instrument to measure team situation awareness (TSA). Individual team member SA may or may not be shared through communication processes with other team members. Most existing instruments do not measure these processes but measure TSA as a

  14. Lowering Total Fertility Rates in Developing States: Security and Policy Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    practices, refuse arranged marriages, and avoid genital mutilation are key to lowering exposure to HIV and other sexually transmitted disease. Development...the mother), and unequal nourishment of male and female children. The aforementioned phenomena are but a few examples of women’s lack of power to

  15. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nerve growth factor influences cleavage rate and embryo development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, M; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Mulet, A P; de León, A; Barbeito, L; Menchaca, A

    2016-10-01

    Recent information about Nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein traditionally associated to the nervous system that regulates survival and maturation of developing neurons, suggests that it may exert action also on different levels in the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NGF added during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization or in vitro embryo development in sheep. Nerve growth factor was supplemented to the culture medium at 0, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL, during either in vitro maturation (Exp. 1), in vitro fertilization (Exp. 2), or in vitro culture (Exp. 3). In addition, NGF mRNA expression was determined in cumulus cells and oocytes. Nerve growth factor induced early cleavage when added during oocyte maturation or fertilization, improved embryo development when added during fertilization, and had no significant effect when added during embryo culture. In general, the effect was more evident with 100 rather than 1,000 ng/mL (P development in sheep. We suggest a possible effect of this growth factor on oocyte maturation and mainly on the fertilization process.

  16. Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

  17. Development rate, consumption and host specificity of Carea varipes (Lepidoptera: Nolidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is an invasive weed in Florida and Hawaii, USA. Surveys for natural enemies of this exotic shrub in Hong Kong, China resulted in the development of a laboratory colony and initial host range testing of Carea varipes as a potential biological control agent of R. ...

  18. Development rate, consumption, and host fidelity of Neostauropus alternus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is an invasive weed in Florida and Hawaii, USA. Surveys for natural enemies of this exotic shrub in Hong Kong, China resulted in the development of a laboratory colony and host range testing of Neostauropus alternus (Walker 1855) as a potential biological contro...

  19. Development of Gas Micro-Strip Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD28 \\\\ \\\\ Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of preshower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/beauty/charm factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about p...

  20. Adaptive multi-rate interface: development and experimental verification for real-time hybrid simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maghareh, Amin; Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Dyke, Shirley J.;

    2016-01-01

    Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is a powerful cyber-physical technique that is a relatively cost-effective method to perform global/local system evaluation of structural systems. A major factor that determines the ability of an RTHS to represent true system-level behavior is the fidelity...... it employs different time steps in the numerical and the physical substructures while including rate-transitioning to link the components appropriately. Typically, a higher-order numerical substructure model is solved at larger time intervals, and is coupled with a physical substructure that is driven...... frequency between the numerical and physical substructures and for input signals with high-frequency content. Further, it does not induce signal chattering at the coupling frequency. The effectiveness of AMRI is also verified experimentally....

  1. A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

    2011-01-01

    Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

  2. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  3. Measuring awareness in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: development of the Memory Awareness Rating Scale--adjusted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rachel M; Oyebode, Jan R; Clare, Linda

    2006-04-01

    Variations in level of awareness among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact on well-being for the person with dementia and their carer, and may influence outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation interventions. Awareness has often been assessed using discrepancies between self and proxy rating or between self-rating and objective task performance, with the latter considered to be preferable. Measures are available that are suitable for people with mild AD, for example the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS). However, these may be less appropriate for people whose impairments are more advanced and who consequently have more difficulty with the objective task component. In order to provide a measure suitable for people with moderate AD, an adjusted Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARSA) was developed by altering the objective task component of the MARS. The MARSA was piloted with 41 participants with mild to moderate AD. It was found to be suitable for use with a broader group of participants than the MARS. The component ratings were found to have good internal consistency. The component ratings and the two indices of awareness had high test-retest reliability. The extension of the original measure offers the opportunity to consider awareness throughout the course of the disease and provides a basis for longitudinal investigations of awareness.

  4. Development of a strain rate dependent material model of human cortical bone for computer-aided reconstruction of injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour, Zahra; Zioupos, Peter; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided methods such as finite-element simulation offer a great potential in the forensic reconstruction of injury mechanisms. Numerous studies have been performed on understanding and analysing the mechanical properties of bone and the mechanism of its fracture. Determination of the mechanical properties of bones is made on the same basis used for other structural materials. The mechanical behaviour of bones is affected by the mechanical properties of the bone material, the geometry, the loading direction and mode and of course the loading rate. Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of cortical bone has been well demonstrated in literature studies, but as many of these were performed on animal bones and at non-physiological strain rates it is questionable how these will apply in the human situations. High strain-rates dominate in a lot of forensic applications in automotive crashes and assault scenarios. There is an overwhelming need to a model which can describe the complex behaviour of bone at lower strain rates as well as higher ones. Some attempts have been made to model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of the bone at high strain rates using constitutive mathematical models with little demonstrated success. The main objective of the present study is to model the rate dependent behaviour of the bones based on experimental data. An isotropic material model of human cortical bone with strain rate dependency effects is implemented using the LS-DYNA material library. We employed a human finite element model called THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety), developed by Toyota R&D Labs and the Wayne State University, USA. The finite element model of the human femur is extracted from the THUMS model. Different methods have been employed to develop a strain rate dependent material model for the femur bone. Results of one the recent experimental studies on human femur have been employed to obtain the numerical model for cortical femur. A

  5. QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT AND QUALIFICATIONS RATING IN THE LAND MANAGEMENT SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Myrasheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to observe the existing approaches to qualifications framework development in the sphere of land management, cadastres and real estate management, as well as the qualifications framework adaptation to European system. The relevance of the issue is related to the specific professional and institutional problems facing Russian educational establishments engaged in personnel training in the given sphere. The authors demonstrate the qualifications framework development in the land management sector regarding it as a key mechanism of educational mobility and the router for knowledge acquisition and updates. The qualifications framework is referred to as a systematic and structured description of recognized qualifications. The accepted worldwide methodology of organizing the educational process and quality control system is given. The emphasis is on the need to comply the qualifications framework with the Russian State Educational Standards.

  6. Effect of copper nanoparticles on metabolic rate and development of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Sawosz, E.; Vadalasetty, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    chickens were distributed into four groups that were administered colloidal CuNano on: day 1 and/or 10. Gaseous exchange was measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and HP was calculated for 16- and 19-day-old embryos. Yolk free body weight (YFBW) at 24h after hatching and the relative organ...... of embryos and depressed the development of organs; however, it did not affect YFBW, immunoglobulin concentrations and the expression of immuno-related genes....

  7. Development of Fast High-Resolution Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High Counting Rates

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00287945; Dubbert, J.; Horvat, S.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Adomeit, S.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.; Zibell, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized drift-tube chambers are e?cient detectors for high-precision tracking over large areas. The Monitored Drift-Tube (MDT) chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reach a spatial resolution of 35 micons and almost 100% tracking e?ciency with 6 layers of 30 mm diameter drift tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas mixture at 3 bar and a gas gain of 20000. The ATLAS MDT chambers are designed to cope with background counting rates due to neutrons and gamma-rays of up to about 300 kHz per tube which will be exceeded for LHC luminosities larger than the design value of 10-34 per square cm and second. Decreasing the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm while keeping the other parameters, including the gas gain, unchanged reduces the maximum drift time from about 700 ns to 200 ns and the drift-tube occupancy by a factor of 7. New drift-tube chambers for the endcap regions of the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been designed. A prototype chamber consisting of 12 times 8 l...

  8. Equal perimeter yield criterion and its specific plastic work rate: Development, validation and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章顺虎; 赵德文; 陈晓东

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the nonlinearity of Mises criterion, a new linear yield criterion with a dodecagon shape of the same perimeter as Mises criterion was derived by means of geometrical analysis. Its specific plastic work rate expressed as a linear function of the yield stress, the maximum and minimum strains was also deduced and compared with that of Mises criterion. The physical meaning of the proposed yield criterion is that yielding of materials begins when the shear yield stress τs reaches the magnitude of 0.594σs. By introducing the Lode parameter, validation of evolution expressions of the proposed yield criterion with those based on Tresca, Mises and TSS criteria as well as available classical yield experimental results of various metals shows that the present results intersect with Mises results and coincide well with experimental data. Moreover, further application to the limit analysis of circle plate as an example is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed yield criterion, and the subsequent comparison of limit loads with the Tresca analytical solutions and Mises numerical results shows that the present results are higher than the Tresca analytical results, and are in good agreement with the Mises numerical results.

  9. Development and validation of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale – Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Letícia Santos Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This article aims to describe the adaptation and translation process of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS and its reduced version, the Bush-Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument (BFCSI for Brazilian Portuguese, as well as its validation. Methods: Semantic equivalence processes included four steps: translation, back translation, evaluation of semantic equivalence and a pilot-study. Validation consisted of simultaneous applications of the instrument in Portuguese by two examiners in 30 catatonic and 30 non-catatonic patients. Results: Total scores averaged 20.07 for the complete scale and 7.80 for its reduced version among catatonic patients, compared with 0.47 and 0.20 among non-catatonic patients, respectively. Overall values of inter-rater reliability of the instruments were 0.97 for the BFCSI and 0.96 for the BFCRS. Conclusion: The scale's version in Portuguese proved to be valid and was able to distinguish between catatonic and non-catatonic patients. It was also reliable, with inter-evaluator reliability indexes as high as those of the original instrument.

  10. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  11. Macro- and micromineral composition of fetal pigs and their accretion rates during fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, D C; Watts, M R; St-Pierre, N

    2009-09-01

    Twenty-six crossbreed (Yorkshire x Landrace) sows bred to Duroc boars were used to determine fetal measurements and mineral compositions at various stages of gestation. Sows were fed a vitamin and mineral fortified 15% CP corn soybean meal gestation diet fed at 2.1 kg daily with dietary minerals meeting or in excess of NRC requirements. Sow and litter measurements were evaluated at 5 periods postcoitum (45, 62, 80, 100, 115 d). The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 3 to 6 observations per mean. Uterine fluid and fetal tissue were collected upon slaughter from the sows during the first 4 measurement periods. The empty uterus and uterine fluid contents were weighed. Individual fetuses were weighed and their length measured. Neonatal pigs from 6 sows were killed by electric shock before colostrum consumption. The fetuses and neonates were subsequently frozen, ground, and analyzed for water, protein, ash, and fat. The mineral profile was determined for the entire litter by inductively coupled plasma analysis technology. The sow and litter was each considered the experimental unit for all measurements and mineral compositions with regression analysis determined from 45 to 115 d of gestation. Results demonstrated that fetal weight increased quadratically (P < 0.01) and uterine fluid increased quadratically (P < 0.01) from 45 to 62 d, but then declined to 100 d postcoitum. The water, protein, ash, and lipid content of the fetus increased quadratically (P < 0.01) from 45 to 115 d of development, with the greatest increase of each component occurring during the last 15 d of development. Each of the macro- and microminerals increased curvilinearly (P < 0.01) as fetal development progressed with approximately 50% of the total litter and fetal macro- and micromineral contents occurring during the last 15 d of gestation. These results indicate that there is a large increase in mineral contents of fetal pigs during late gestation and that there may

  12. Rethinking royalty Rates: Why There Is a Better Way to Tax Oil and Gas Development

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Busby; Benjamin Dachis; Bev Dahlby

    2011-01-01

    When provinces raise royalties charged on oil and gas production, the result can be less, not more tax revenues. The authors show how resource-rich provinces would be better off relying more on auctions for exploration and development rights and relying less on royalties levied on output. Oil and gas taxation in Canada consists of two main elements: an auction payment and royalties that apply to the value of resources extracted. The authors examine the results of Alberta’s short-lived decisio...

  13. Nexus of Health and Development: Modelling Crude Birth Rate and Maternal Mortality Ratio Using Nighttime Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Roychowdhury

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health and development are intricately related. Although India has made significant progress in the last few decades in the health sector and overall growth in GDP, there are still large regional differences in both health and development. The main objective of this paper is to develop techniques for the prediction of health indicators for all the districts of India and examine the correlations between health and development. The level of electrification and district domestic product (DDP are considered as two fundamental indicators of development in this research. These data, along with health metrics and the information from two nighttime satellite images, were used to propose the models. These successfully predicted the health indicators with less than a 7%–10% error. The chosen health metrics, such as crude birth rate (CBR and maternal mortality rate (MMR, were mapped for the whole country at the district level. These metrics showed very strong correlation with development indicators (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.92 to 0.99 at the 99% confidence interval. This is the first attempt to use Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS (satellite imagery in a socio-economic study. This paper endorses the observation that areas with a higher DDP and level of electrification have overall better health conditions.

  14. Wind energy development: methods to assess bird and bat fatality rates post-construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dalthorp, Daniel; Miller, T J; Bruns, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring fatalities at wind energy facilities after they have been constructed can provide valuable information regarding impacts of wind power development on wildlife. The objective of this monitoring is to estimate abundance of a super-population of carcasses that entered the area within a designated period of time. By definition, the population is not closed and carcasses can enter as they are killed through collision with turbines, and leave as they are removed by scavengers or decompose to a point where they are not recognizable. In addition, the population is not inherently mobile, but can only change location through some external force. A focus on number of animal carcasses comprising the super-population, combined with peculiar traits that resist classic assumptions, distinguish fatality estimation at wind-power facilities from more classic abundance estimates that can be addressed through mark-recapture techniques or other well-known abundance estimators. We review the available methods to estimate the super-population of carcasses at wind power facilities. We discuss the role of these estimates in determining appropriate levels of minimization and mitigation of impacts to individual species of concern. We discuss the potential to extrapolate these measurements to reflect the cumulative effect of the industry on individual species. Finally, we suggest avenues of research needed to strengthen our understanding of the effect wind power development has, and might have in the future, on wildlife on this continent and worldwide.

  15. Overall Well-Being and Supervisor Ratings of Employee Performance, Accountability, Customer Service, Innovation, Prosocial Behavior, and Self-Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of overall well-being and well-being change on six supervisor-rated indicators of employee performance valued by organizations: overall performance, accountability, customer service, innovation, prosocial behavior, and self-development. The current study used two waves of well-being survey data collected over 2 years and supervisor performance ratings for 5691 employees. Ordinary least squares regression was conducted. Both well-being at baseline and two-year change in well-being were related to all six supervisor-rated performance dimensions, controlling for other employee characteristics. Overall well-being likely functioned as a resource enabling people to successfully perform across the specific areas highly valued by their company. Given this connection, well-being interventions could be used as a means to accomplish improved performance in dimensions that contribute to organizational performance.

  16. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  17. Development of Jacket Platform Tsunami Risk Rating System in Waters Offshore North Borneo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Lee; MS Liew; NH Mardi; KL Na; Iraj Toloue; SK Wong

    2016-01-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3Mw seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US$25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  18. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3 M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  19. Development of a phoswich detector for neutron dose rate measurements in the Earth's atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doensdorf, Esther Miriam

    2014-04-30

    The Earth is constantly exposed to a stream of energetic particles from outer space. Through the interaction of this radiation with the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere a complex radiation field is formed which varies with the location inside the Earth's atmosphere. This radiation field consists of charged and uncharged particles leading to the constant exposure of human beings to radiation. As this ionizing radiation can be harmful for humans, it is necessary to perform dose rate measurements in different altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Due to their higher biological effectiveness the exposure to neutrons is more harmful than the exposure to γ-rays and charged particles, which is why the determination of neutron dose rates is the focus of this work. In this work the prototype of a Phoswich detector called PING (Phoswich Instrument for Neutrons and Gammas) is developed to determine dose rates caused by neutrons in the Earth's atmosphere and to distinguish these from γ-rays. The instrument is composed of two different scintillators optically coupled to each other and read out by one common photomultiplier tube. The scintillator package consists of an inner plastic scintillator made of the material BC-412 and a surrounding anti-coincidence made of sodium doped caesium iodide (CsI(Na)). In this work the instrument is calibrated, tested and flown and a procedure for a pulse shape analysis for this instrument is developed. With this analysis it is possible to distinguish pulses from the plastic scintillator and pulses from the CsI(Na). The pulses from the plastic scintillator are mainly due to the interaction of neutrons but there is an energy-dependent contribution of γ-rays to these events. Measurements performed on board an airplane show that the dose rates measured with the developed detector are in the same order of magnitude as results of other instruments. During measurements on board stratospheric balloons the altitude dependence

  20. Development of growth rate measuring method for intracellular, parasitic acid-fast bacteria using radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Noboru; Fukutomi, Yasuo [National Inst. of Infectious Deseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To prevent and treat infections diseases caused by pathogenic acid-fast bacteria such as Mycobacterium leprae, Tubercle bacillus, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms of intracellular proliferations of these bacteria. This research project was started to make DNA library using a new constructed shuttle vector. Development of in vitro evaluation method for intracellular proliferation of mycobacterium and its transformed cells was attempted on the basis of Buddemeyer method. This method was able to precisely determine the metabolic activities as low as those in leprae and its modified method using {sup 14}C-palmitic acid was highly sensitive and the results were obtainable in a shorter period. The generated CO{sub 2} was satisfactorily absorbed into scintillator without using a filter paper. A new culture medium from which arginine, a NO-producing compound was eliminated was used to repress the sterilizing effects of NO, but the metabolic activities of leprae was not enhanced. (M.N.)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Kelner; T.E. Owen; D.L. George; A. Minachi; M.G. Nored; C.J. Schwartz

    2004-03-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} began a multi-year project co-funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. The project goal is to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype retrofit natural gas energy flow meter in 2000-2001 included: (1) evaluation of the inferential gas energy analysis algorithm using supplemental gas databases and anticipated worst-case gas mixtures; (2) identification and feasibility review of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen diluent content; (3) experimental performance evaluation of infrared absorption sensors for carbon dioxide diluent content; and (4) procurement of a custom ultrasonic transducer and redesign of the ultrasonic pulse reflection correlation sensor for precision speed-of-sound measurements. A prototype energy meter module containing improved carbon dioxide and speed-of-sound sensors was constructed and tested in the GRI Metering Research Facility at SwRI. Performance of this module using transmission-quality natural gas and gas containing supplemental carbon dioxide up to 9 mol% resulted in gas energy determinations well within the inferential algorithm worst-case tolerance of {+-}2.4 Btu/scf (nitrogen diluent gas measured by gas chromatograph). A two-week field test was performed at a gas-fired power plant to evaluate the inferential algorithm and the data acquisition requirements needed to adapt the prototype energy meter module to practical field site conditions.

  3. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments.

  4. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  5. Estimating Suicide Rates in Developing Nations: A Low-Cost Newspaper Capture-Recapture Approach in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Thandrayen, Joanne; Samphoas, Chien; Se, Pros; Lewchalermwongse, Boontriga; Ratanashevorn, Rattanakorn; Perry, Megan L; Britts, Choloe

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a low-cost method for estimating suicide rates in developing nations that lack adequate statistics. Data comprised reported suicides from Cambodia's 2 largest newspapers. Capture-recapture modeling estimated a suicide rate of 3.8/100 000 (95% CI = 2.5-6.7) for 2012. That compares to World Health Organization estimates of 1.3 to 9.4/100 000 and a Cambodian government estimate of 3.5/100 000. Suicide rates of males were twice that of females, and rates of those newspaper reports proved a reasonable method for estimating suicide rates for countries with inadequate official data. These methods are low-cost and can be applied to regions with at least 2 newspapers with overlapping reports. Means to further improve this approach are discussed. These methods are applicable to both recent and historical data, which can benefit epidemiological work, and may also be applicable to homicides and other statistics.

  6. Development of a water boil-off spent-fuel calorimeter system. [To measure decay heat generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creer, J.M.; Shupe, J.W. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    A calorimeter system was developed to measure decay heat generation rates of unmodified spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear reactors. The system was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested using the following specifications: capacity of one BWR or PWR spent fuel assembly; decay heat generation range 0.1 to 2.5 kW; measurement time of < 12 h; and an accuracy of +-10% or better. The system was acceptance tested using a dc reference heater to simulate spent fuel assembly heat generation rates. Results of these tests indicated that the system could be used to measure heat generation rates between 0.5 and 2.5 kW within +- 5%. Measurements of heat generation rates of approx. 0.1 kW were obtained within +- 15%. The calorimeter system has the potential to permit measurements of heat generation rates of spent fuel assemblies and other devices in the 12- to 14-kW range. Results of calorimetry of a Turkey Point spent fuel assembly indicated that the assembly was generating approx. 1.55 kW.

  7. Cross-bridge versus thin filament contributions to the level and rate of force development in cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, M; Martin, H; Barsotti, R J; Rivera, A J; Martyn, D A; Clemmens, E

    2004-09-01

    In striated muscle thin filament activation is initiated by Ca(2+) binding to troponin C and augmented by strong myosin binding to actin (cross-bridge formation). Several lines of evidence have led us to hypothesize that thin filament properties may limit the level and rate of force development in cardiac muscle at all levels of Ca(2+) activation. As a test of this hypothesis we varied the cross-bridge contribution to thin filament activation by substituting 2 deoxy-ATP (dATP; a strong cross-bridge augmenter) for ATP as the contractile substrate and compared steady-state force and stiffness, and the rate of force redevelopment (k(tr)) in demembranated rat cardiac trabeculae as [Ca(2+)] was varied. We also tested whether thin filament dynamics limits force development kinetics during maximal Ca(2+) activation by comparing the rate of force development (k(Ca)) after a step increase in [Ca(2+)] with photorelease of Ca(2+) from NP-EGTA to maximal k(tr), where Ca(2+) binding to thin filaments should be in (near) equilibrium during force redevelopment. dATP enhanced steady-state force and stiffness at all levels of Ca(2+) activation. At similar submaximal levels of steady-state force there was no increase in k(tr) with dATP, but k(tr) was enhanced at higher Ca(2+) concentrations, resulting in an extension (not elevation) of the k(tr)-force relationship. Interestingly, we found that maximal k(tr) was faster than k(Ca), and that dATP increased both by a similar amount. Our data suggest the dynamics of Ca(2+)-mediated thin filament activation limits the rate that force develops in rat cardiac muscle, even at saturating levels of Ca(2+).

  8. Albanian economy, sustainable development and comparative analysis of SME growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Mucollari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial activity in Albania as well as in other countries of Eastern Europe during the past few years has seen significant important developments. One of the main features observed is that financial activity in Albania is dominated by banking activity, while non-banking activity remains extremely limited. The investment funds in Albania according to the Albanian legislation on “Investment Funds” could be any private entity that accumulates financial resources of natural or legal persons (Vouchers, cash etc. In this paper we will focus precisely on the definition of SME and their ability to build a business plan that will help them to be successful in terms of seeking funds. For this reason, SME and their financing opportunities in Albania is one of the issues that will be analyzed. Firstly we will treat the business plan in theory and its role in SME, and hot to draft a business plan for a Travel Agency. In this paper we study the literature on the concept of SME and the business plan. For this reason we have found valid date information on studies from various writers and publications. By giving a financial view on SME on Albania, we have analyzed information from bulletins of the Albanian Bank.

  9. Associations between rate of force development metrics and throwing velocity in elite team handball players: a short research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mário C; Saavedra, Francisco J; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J

    2011-09-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant's development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; prate of force development at peak force (0,56; prate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads.

  10. Development rates and habitat shifts in the Antarctic neritic euphausiid Euphausia crystallorophias, 1986 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Edward; Townsend, Annie W.

    Dynamics of distribution and growth were studied in the coastal Antarctic euphausiid Euphausia crystallorophias in the western Bransfield Strait region during the 1986-1987 summer. The life phases showed differences in distribution. After the start of reproduction, which was well underway in December across shelf and open waters of the straits, the January distribution of larvae expanded with concentrations near the Peninsula, along the main Bransfield Current, and, to a lesser extent, around the South Shetlands. In February the distribution retracted toward the Peninsula as abundance diminished greatly. By March, larvae were found only north of the South Shetlands and in Gerlache Strait area where highest numbers had been observed through the season. Juveniles, believed to be 1 year old, and subadults, 2 years old, appeared to be randomly dispersed across the region at all times. Our few specimens of the adult class were from within or near embayments. Most December larvae were nauplii, metanauplii and Calyptosis 1. In January, older calyptopis stages were dominant. Latest observed eggs and nauplii were in January inside the Deception Island caldera. During February to March, development progressed from the calyptosis phase to the furcilia phase, and mean abundance of larvae declined from the >100 m -2 level of January to <10 m -2. Most late March larvae were furcilia stages 2 and 3, averaging one stage less than the more rapidly growing E. superba which had begun reproduction about a month later than E. crystallorophias. The Year-1 cohort was recognized in December as 12-16 mm juveniles, dispersed across the strait at mean abundances like those of the Year-0 larval class in March. The juveniles were about 15-21 mm by February, and there was no apparent growth through March. Subadults and adults were sparse in these open waters. Based on earlier year-round data an older E. crystallorophias from Poland's research station at Admiralty Bay, there seem to be two post

  11. Quantifying bamboo coral growth rate nonlinearity with the radiocarbon bomb spike: A new model for paleoceanographic chronology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, M. M.; LaVigne, M.; Miller, H. R.; Hill, T. M.; McNichol, A.; Gaylord, M. Lardie

    2017-07-01

    Bamboo corals, long-lived cold water gorgonin octocorals, offer unique paleoceanographic archives of the intermediate ocean. These Isididae corals are characterized by alternating gorgonin nodes and high Mg-calcite internodes, which synchronously extend radially. Bamboo coral calcite internodes have been utilized to obtain geochemical proxy data, however, growth rate uncertainty has made it difficult to construct precise chronologies for these corals. Previous studies have relied upon a single tie point from records of the anthropogenic Δ14C bomb spike preserved in the gorgonin nodes of live-collected corals to calculate a mean radial extension rate for the outer 50 years of skeletal growth. Bamboo coral chronologies are typically constructed by applying this mean extension rate to the entire coral record, assuming constant radial extension with coral age. In this study, we aim to test this underlying assumption by analyzing the organic nodes of six California margin bamboo corals at high enough resolution (coral collection date (2007.5) for four samples. Radial extension rates between tie points ranged from 10 to 204 μm/year, with a decrease in growth rate evident between the 1957-1970 and 1970-2007.5 periods for all four corals. A negative correlation between growth rate and coral radius (r =-0.7; p=0.04) was determined for multiple bamboo coral taxa and individuals from the California margin, demonstrating a decline in radial extension rate with specimen age and size. To provide a mechanistic basis for these observations, a simple mathematical model was developed based on the assumption of a constant increase in circular cross sectional area with time to quantify this decline in radial extension rate with coral size between chronological tie points. Applying the area-based model to our Δ14C bomb spike time series from individual corals improves chronology accuracy for all live-collected corals with complete Δ14C bomb spikes. Hence, this study provides

  12. In-situ measurement of texture development rate in CaIrO3 post-perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Simon A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    The rate of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) development during deformation of post-perovskite is crucial in interpreting seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle but the stability field of MgSiO3 post-perovskite prevents high-strain deformation experiments being performed on it. Therefore, to constrain the rate of CPO development in post-perovskite, we deformed CaIrO3, a low-pressure analogue of MgSiO3 post-perovskite, in simple shear at 3.2 GPa and 400 °C to a shear strain (γ) of 0.81. From X-ray diffraction patterns acquired during deformation, we invert for CPO as a function of strain. By comparing the CPO that develops with visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) models we constrain the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) of the non-primary slip-systems in CaIrO3 to be of order 6 times stronger than the primary [ 1 0 0 ] (0 1 0) slip system. This value is significantly less than has been assumed by previous studies and if applicable to MgSiO3 implies that seismic anisotropy in the D″ layer develops slower than has previously been assumed.

  13. Breaking through the glass ceiling: a survey of promotion rates of graduates of a primary care Faculty Development Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mindy A; Barry, Henry C; Dunn, Ruth Ann; Keefe, Carole; Weismantel, David

    2006-01-01

    Academic promotion has been difficult for women and faculty of minority race. We investigated whether completion of a faculty development fellowship would equalize promotion rates of female and minority graduates to those of male and white graduates. All graduates of the Michigan State University Primary Care Faculty Development Fellowship Program from 1989-1998 were sent a survey in 1999, which included questions about academic status and appointment. We compared application and follow-up survey data by gender and race/ethnicity. Telephone calls were made to nonrespondents. A total of 175 (88%) graduating fellows responded to the follow-up survey. Information on academic rank at entry and follow-up was obtained from 28 of 48 fellows with missing information on promotion. Male and female graduates achieved similar academic promotion at follow-up, but there was a trend toward lower promotion rates for minority faculty graduates compared to white graduates. In the multivariate analysis, however, only age, years in rank, initial rank, and type of appointment (academic versus clinical) were significant factors for promotion. Academic advancement is multifactorial and appears most related to time in rank, stage of life, and career choice. Faculty development programs may be most useful in providing skill development and career counseling.

  14. Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cells Dedifferentiate Partly in Culture, While Maintaining their Ability to Improve Early Embryo Development Rate and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz-Panneau, B; Locatelli, Y; Uzbekova, S; Perreau, C; Mermillod, P

    2015-10-01

    There are convincing arguments to suggest that the success of early reproductive events is reliant on a satisfactory dialogue between gametes-embryo and the oviduct epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize an in vitro model to study these interactions. Cattle zygotes produced in vitro were cultured in either SOF or TCM-199 in the presence or absence of bovine oviduct cell monolayers (BOEC), under 20% or 5% O2 . The embryonic development rate and its quality (cell numbers, cryosurvival) were evaluated, as were the BOEC contents in 11 candidate transcripts (real-time PCR) at different time points. A BOEC co-culture did indeed increase the rate of development in both media under 5% O2 (41 vs 27% and 28 vs 10% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p culture, although mRNA levels of OGP, C3, PGR and ESR2 were clearly reduced, suggesting a dedifferentiation of BOEC during culture. However, SSP1 and GPX4 transcripts were slightly increased during culture, this rise becoming significant by the end of the culture period. In conclusion, our co-culture system with bovine oviduct epithelial cells used for the development of bovine zygotes produced in vitro enhanced blastocyst formation and above all the quality of the resulting embryos, which was associated with specific transcriptomic changes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The effect of temperature on egg development rate and hatching success in Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Weydmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pelagic copepods Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus are important components of Arctic marine ecosystems. Projected climate warming may influence the roles they play in the ecosystem. Arctic C. glacialis and boreal C. finmarchicus eggs were incubated at temperatures of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10°C to investigate the effects of increasing temperature on egg development rate and hatching success. The effect of increasing temperature on median development time, described by B[ebreve]lehrádek's temperature function, was examined using a Bayesian approach. For the studied temperature range, we observed the increase of egg development rates with the increasing temperature, although there was no change in hatching success. Calanus finmarchicus eggs hatched significantly faster than C. glacialis above approximately 2°C; the difference was progressively larger at higher temperatures. This may indicate that the boreal species have physiological advantages in areas where ambient temperatures increase, which may lead to C. finmarchicus outcompeting the Arctic species in situations where timing is important, for example, in relation to spring bloom dynamics. Development time to hatching (DH was evaluated using B[ebreve]lehrádek's model and a set of different assumptions. The models that best fitted our data were those with species-specific parameters: DH (h=5940 (T+9.7−1.63 for C. finmarchicus and DH (h=14168 (T+14−1.75 for C. glacialis.

  16. Effects of types and application rates of nitrogen fertilizer on the development and nitrogen utilization of summer maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxie YI; Pu WANG; Hongbin TAO; Hongfang ZHANG; Lixia SHEN

    2008-01-01

    To reduce nitrogen fertilizer (NF) loss and improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in summer maize, the effects of the different application rates of three types of NF (urea, coated urea and compound fertilizer) on the growth and development and NUE of summer maize (cultivars: Zhengdan958 and Nongda108) were studied in 2004. The main findings of this study were: (1) The yields of the two cultivars increased significantly with each The increase in the yield of summer maize treated with compound fertilizer was greater than the yield of those treated with either of the other two fertilizers at the same application rate, while the differences among the three types of NF were not significant. (2) Grain number per ear of the two cultivars rose in relation to the increase in N application rate, while its relationship with the type of NF was very weak. The type of NF had a greater impact on 1000-grain weight, and a difference between cultivars was observed. (3) Leaf area index (LAI), dry matter weight and leaf chlorophyll content grew in relation to the increase in N application rate, and were improved more sharply by compound fertilizer or coated urea than by urea alone. (4) Compared to the results achieved with urea, the NUEs of summer maize treated with coated urea and compound fertilizer were higher but the nitrogen harvest index was not improved. In addition, the NUEs of three types of NF exhibited a genotype difference from summer maize.

  17. Variations of Infant and Under-five Child Mortality Rates around the World, the Role of Human Development Index (HDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Human Development Index (HDI is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators, which apart from measuring the socio-economic development of countries can predict health outcomes. The current study aimed at determination of the effects of HDI individual components on infant and child mortality. Materials and Methods: At a cross- sectional study,data on infant and child mortality rates and values for HDI individual components were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO and the World Bank respectively. The effect of HDI individual components on infant and child mortality were derived from linear regression models. Results: During 1990-2015, infant and child mortality have declined in all countries. Most proportion of child mortality is attributed to death in infants. All HDI individual components significantly  inversely were related to infant mortality rate (IMR and among them expected years of schooling has the strongest effect with regression coefficient of β= -5.9 (95% CI: -6.63, -5.13. Conclusion: The highest IMRs have been observed for EMRO and AFRO regions of the WHO. Policies targeting women health and empowerment can have a tremendous impact on reducing child mortality rates around the world.

  18. Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjuddin, A.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

  19. Development of strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in iran 2012-2014: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Razieh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Dovom, Marzieh Rostami; Torkestani, Farahnaz; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Sajedinejad, Sima

    2014-12-01

    With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; "standardization", "education", "amending regulations", and "performance supervision". Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved strategies that in the context of Iran could work.

  20. Development of Strategies to Reduce Cesarean Delivery Rates in Iran 2012–2014: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Razieh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Dovom, Marzieh Rostami; Torkestani, Farahnaz; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Sajedinejad, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. Methods: A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Results: Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; “standardization”, “education”, “amending regulations”, and “performance supervision”. Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Conclusions: Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved strategies

  1. Development of strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in iran 2012-2014: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. Methods: A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Results: Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; "standardization", "education", "amending regulations", and "performance supervision". Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Conclusions: Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved

  2. Positive selection in development and growth rate regulation genes involved in species divergence of the genus Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Barbara; Greshake, Bastian; Funke, Elisabeth; Ebersberger, Ingo; Pfenninger, Markus

    2015-08-19

    Life history traits like developmental time, age and size at maturity are directly related to fitness in all organisms and play a major role in adaptive evolution and speciation processes. Comparative genomic or transcriptomic approaches to identify positively selected genes involved in species divergence can help to generate hypotheses on the driving forces behind speciation. Here we use a bottom-up approach to investigate this hypothesis by comparative analysis of orthologous transcripts of four closely related European Radix species. Snails of the genus Radix occupy species specific distribution ranges with distinct climatic niches, indicating a potential for natural selection driven speciation based on ecological niche differentiation. We then inferred phylogenetic relationships among the four Radix species based on whole mt-genomes plus 23 nuclear loci. Three different tests to infer selection and changes in amino acid properties yielded a total of 134 genes with signatures of positive selection. The majority of these genes belonged to the functional gene ontology categories "reproduction" and "genitalia" with an overrepresentation of the functions "development" and "growth rate". We show here that Radix species divergence may be primarily enforced by selection on life history traits such as (larval-) development and growth rate. We thus hypothesise that life history differences may confer advantages under the according climate regimes, e.g., species occupying warmer and dryer habitats might have a fitness advantage with fast developing susceptible life stages, which are more tolerant to habitat desiccation.

  3. Improvements in rate of development and magnitude of force with intense auditory stimuli in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Djamshidian, Atbin; Ling, Helen; Lees, Andrew; Brown, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease can show brief but dramatic normalization of motor activity in highly arousing situations, a phenomenon often termed paradoxical kinesis. We sought to mimic this in a controlled experimental environment. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and nine age-matched healthy controls were asked to grip a force dynamometer as quickly and strongly as possible in response to a visual cue. A loud (96 dB) auditory stimulus was delivered at the same time as the visual cue in ~50% of randomly selected trials. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the experiment was conducted after overnight withdrawal of antiparkinsonian drugs and again 1 h after patients had taken their usual morning medication. Patients showed improvements in the peak rate of force development and the magnitude of force developed when loud auditory stimuli accompanied visual cues. Equally, they showed improvements in the times taken to reach the peak rate of force development and their maximal force. The paradoxical facilitatory effect of sound was similar whether patients were off or on their usual antiparkinsonian medication, and could be reproduced in age-matched healthy controls. We conclude that motor improvement induced by loud auditory stimuli in Parkinson's disease is related to a physiological phenomenon which survives both with and after withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication. The potential independence of the mediating pathways from the dopaminergic system provides impetus for further investigation as it may yield a novel nondopaminergic target for therapeutic manipulation in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Development of a 16 kHz repetition rate, 110 W average power copper HyBrID laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Biswal; P K Agrawal; G K Mishra; S V Nakhe; S K Dixit; J K Mittal

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the design and performance analysis of an indigenously developed 110 W average output power copper HyBrID laser operating at 16 kHz pulse repetition rate. The laser active medium was confined within a fused silica tube of ∼ 6 cm diameter and ∼ 200 cm active length. An in-house developed high-power (∼ 10 kW) solid-state pulser was used as the electrical excitation source. A simple estimation of deposited electrical power, at the laser head, was carried out and based on it, the laser tube efficiency was found to be 2.9% at 70 W and 2.2% at 110 W laser power levels.

  5. Developing Performance Cost Index Targets for ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G – Performance Rating Method - Rev.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Appendix G, the Performance Rating Method in ASHRAE Standard 90.1 has been updated to make two significant changes for the 2016 edition, to be published in October of 2016. First, it allows Appendix G to be used as a third path for compliance with the standard in addition to rating beyond code building performance. This prevents modelers from having to develop separate building models for code compliance and beyond code programs. Using this new version of Appendix G to show compliance with the 2016 edition of the standard, the proposed building design needs to have a performance cost index (PCI) less than targets shown in a new table based on building type and climate zone. The second change is that the baseline design is now fixed at a stable level of performance set approximately equal to the 2004 code. Rather than changing the stringency of the baseline with each subsequent edition of the standard, compliance with new editions will simply require a reduced PCI (a PCI of zero is a net-zero building). Using this approach, buildings of any era can be rated using the same method. The intent is that any building energy code or beyond code program can use this methodology and merely set the appropriate PCI target for their needs. This report discusses the process used to set performance criteria for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 and suggests a method for demonstrating compliance with other codes and beyond code programs.

  6. Developing Performance Cost Index Targets for ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G – Performance Rating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Appendix G, the Performance Rating Method in ASHRAE Standard 90.1 has been updated to make two significant changes for the 2016 edition, to be published in October of 2016. First, it allows Appendix G to be used as a third path for compliance with the standard in addition to rating beyond code building performance. This prevents modelers from having to develop separate building models for code compliance and beyond code programs. Using this new version of Appendix G to show compliance with the 2016 edition of the standard, the proposed building design needs to have a performance cost index (PCI) less than targets shown in a new table based on building type and climate zone. The second change is that the baseline design is now fixed at a stable level of performance set approximately equal to the 2004 code. Rather than changing the stringency of the baseline with each subsequent edition of the standard, compliance with new editions will simply require a reduced PCI (a PCI of zero is a net-zero building). Using this approach, buildings of any era can be rated using the same method. The intent is that any building energy code or beyond code program can use this methodology and merely set the appropriate PCI target for their needs. This report discusses the process used to set performance criteria for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 and suggests a method for demonstrating compliance with other codes and beyond code programs.

  7. Maternal Mortality and Female Literacy Rates in Developing Countries during 1970–2000: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The gross longitudinal relationship between female literacy and maternal mortality ratios has not been adequately investigated even though the knowledge of the relationship is crucial for designing maternal mortality reduction programs through female literacy campaigns and improvements. The objective of the study was to examine the dynamic relationship between female literacy and mortality ratios. A longitudinal study design spanning three decades, 1970–2000, was used. Country level data on 143 nations belonging to six geographical regions for the duration 1970–2000 were secured from websites hosted by global agencies such as World Bank and the United Nations were utilized. Maternal mortality ratios (1970–2000 ranged from 147 to 271 across the six regions. The longitudinal relationship between female literacy rates and maternal mortality ratios was examined using a latent growth curve approach. The study found that rates of change in female literacy and maternal mortality ratios are negatively related. Steady rates of increase in female literacy were associated with declining maternal mortality ratios as well. We find that female literacy programs are of immense value in reducing maternal mortality ratios given their ability to yield sustained reductions in mortality levels in developing countries.

  8. Development and Interpretation of New Sediment Rating Curve Considering the Effect of Vegetation Cover for Asian Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration of a river can provide very important perspective on erosion or soil loss of one river basin ecosystem. The changes of land use and land cover, such as deforestation or afforestation, affect sediment yield process of a catchment through changing the hydrological cycle of the area. A sediment rating curve can describe the average relation between discharge and suspended sediment concentration for a certain location. However, the sediment load of a river is likely to be undersimulated from water discharge using least squares regression of log-transformed variables and the sediment rating curve does not consider temporal changes of vegetation cover. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI can well be used to analyze the status of the vegetation cover well. Thus long time monthly NDVI data was used to detect vegetation change in the past 19 years in this study. Then monthly suspended sediment concentration and discharge from 1988 to 2006 in Laichau station were used to develop one new sediment rating curve and were validated in other Asian basins. The new sediment model can describe the relationship among sediment yield, streamflow, and vegetation cover, which can be the basis for soil conservation and sustainable ecosystem management.

  9. Reduced expression of the SHORT-ROOT gene increases the rates of growth and development in hybrid poplar and Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehua Wang

    Full Text Available SHORT-ROOT (SHR is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1 as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89 in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height and secondary (girth growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species.

  10. Estimating the Influence of Cochlear Implantation on Language Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G; Moog, Jean S

    2007-01-01

    Research studies reviewed here have identified a wide variety of factors that may influence a child's auditory, speech and language development following cochlear implantation. Intrinsic characteristics of the implanted child, including gender, family socio-economic status, age at onset of hearing loss and pre-implant residual hearing may predispose a child to greater or lesser post-implant benefit. Intervention characteristics that may influence outcome include age of the child when deafness is identified and amplification and habilitation is initiated, the communication mode used with the child and the type of classroom/therapy employed. Characteristics of the implant itself include generation of technology used, the age of the child when implant stimulation is initiated, and the amount of time the child has used the implant. These factors interact in unpredictable ways, so that isolated correlations between predictor variables and outcome scores may be difficult to interpret. Results for two independent samples of orally-educated children tested by different laboratories were compared using multiple regression analysis to illustrate interactions among predictor variables. Four predictor variables accounted for a similar proportion of variance (23% and 24%) in receptive vocabulary (PPVT) outcome scores in each sample. A unique predictor was then added to each analysis. The addition of pre-implant aided threshold not only increased the total variance accounted for to almost 40%, but also increased the effect of implant age as a predictor variable. A different result was observed in the other sample, were the added predictor variable was nonverbal IQ, where the estimated contribution of implant age was reduced. The current analysis suggests that future analyses minimally control for independent contributions of implant age, nonverbal IQ, and pre-implant aided thresholds when examining expected outcomes. Children in both samples who received a cochlear implant

  11. Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional two-dimensional helical TWT interaction codes. This limits the analysis and design of novel devices or TWT's with parameters differing from what is conventionally manufactured. In addition, the inaccuracy of current computational tools limits achievable TWT performance because optimized designs require highly accurate models. To address these concerns, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, helical TWT interaction model was developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by radiofrequency input/output couplers, and an electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet focusing. A cutaway view of several turns of the three-dimensional helical slow-wave circuit with input/output couplers is shown. This has been shown to be more accurate than conventionally used two-dimensional models. The growth of the communications industry has also imposed a demand for increased data rates for the transmission of large volumes of data. To achieve increased data rates, complex modulation and multiple access techniques are employed requiring minimum distortion of the signal as it is passed through the TWT. Thus, intersymbol interference (ISI) becomes a major consideration, as well as suspected causes such as reflections within the TWT. To experimentally investigate effects of the physical TWT on ISI would be

  12. Can students' reasons for choosing set answers to ethical vignettes be reliably rated? Development and testing of a method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John; Schwartz, Lisa; McConnachie, Alex; Jolly, Brian; Morrison, Jillian

    2004-12-01

    Although ethics is an important part of modern curricula, measures of students' ethical disposition have not been easy to develop. A potential method is to assess students' written justifications for selecting one option from a preset range of answers to vignettes and compare these justifications with predetermined 'expert' consensus. We describe the development of and reliability estimation for such a method -- the Ethics in Health Care Instrument (EHCI). Seven raters classified the responses of ten subjects to nine vignettes, on two occasions. The first stage of analysis involved raters' judging how consistent with consensus were subjects' justifications using generalizability theory, and then rating consensus responses on the action justification and values recognition hierarchies. The inter-rater reliability was 0.39 for the initial rating. Differential performance on questions was identified as the largest source of variance. Hence reliability was investigated also for students' total scores over the nine consensus vignettes. Rater effects were the largest source of variance identified. Examination of rater performance showed lack of rater consistency. D-studies were performed which showed acceptable reliability could nevertheless be obtained using four raters per EHCI. This study suggests that the EHCI has potential as an assessment instrument although further testing is required of all components of the methodology.

  13. The differential effect of metabolic alkalosis on maximum force and rate of force development during repeated, high-intensity cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Raftry, Sean; Brooks, Cristy; Dowswell, Ben; Romero, Rick; Green, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on maximal force production, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle recruitment during repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling. Ten male and female (n = 10) subjects completed two fixed-cadence, high-intensity cycling trials. Each trial consisted of a series of 30-s efforts at 120% peak power output (maximum graded test) that were interspersed with 30-s recovery periods until task failure. Prior to each trial, subjects consumed 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (ALK) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contractions were performed immediately after each 30-s effort. Maximal force (F max) was calculated as the greatest force recorded over a 25-ms period throughout the entire contraction duration while maximal RFD (RFD max) was calculated as the greatest 10-ms average slope throughout that same contraction. F max declined similarly in both the ALK and PLA conditions, with baseline values (ALK: 1,226 ± 393 N; PLA: 1,222 ± 369 N) declining nearly 295 ± 54 N [95% confidence interval (CI) = 84-508 N; P force vs. maximum rate of force development during a whole body fatiguing task.

  14. Organ-specific rates of cellular respiration in developing sunflower seedlings and their bearing on metabolic scaling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years ago Max Kleiber described what has become known as the "mouse-to-elephant" curve, i.e., a log-log plot of basal metabolic rate versus body mass. From these data, "Kleiber's 3/4 law" was deduced, which states that metabolic activity scales as the three fourths-power of body mass. However, for reasons unknown so far, no such "universal scaling law" has been discovered for land plants (embryophytes). Here, we report that the metabolic rates of four different organs (cotyledons, cotyledonary hook, hypocotyl, and roots) of developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings grown in darkness (skotomorphogenesis) and in white light (photomorphogenesis) differ by a factor of 2 to 5 and are largely independent of light treatment. The organ-specific respiration rate (oxygen uptake per minute per gram of fresh mass) of the apical hook, which is composed of cells with densely packaged cytoplasm, is much higher than that of the hypocotyl, an organ that contains vacuolated cells. Data for cell length, cell density, and DNA content reveal that (1) hook opening in white light is caused by a stimulation of cell elongation on the inside of the curved organ, (2) respiration, cell density and DNA content are much higher in the hook than in the stem, and (3) organ-specific respiration rates and the DNA contents of tissues are statistically correlated. We conclude that, due to the heterogeneity of the plant body caused by the vacuolization of the cells, Kleiber's law, which was deduced using mammals as a model system, cannot be applied to embryophytes. In plants, this rule may reflect scaling phenomena at the level of the metabolically active protoplasmic contents of the cells.

  15. Carbon storage and sequestration rate assessment and allometric model development in young teak plantations of tropical moist deciduous forest, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration through plantations is one of the important mitigation measures for rising levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This study aimed to assess C stocks and their sequestration rate, and to develop allometric models for estimation of C stocking in age-series young teak (Tectona grandis) planta-tions (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) by using biomass and productivity estimation and regression, respectively. These plantations were raised in tropical moist deciduous forests of Kumaun Himalayan tarai. Total C stocks estimated for these plantations were 1.6, 15.8, 35.4, 39.0, 61.5 and 73.2 Mg ha-1, respectively. Aboveground and belowground C storage in-creased with increasing plantation age;however, the range of their percentage contribution showed little variation (87.8–88.2 and 11.7–12.7%, respectively). The rate of C sequestration for these respective plantations was 1.06, 6.95, 5.46, 5.42, 3.39 and 5.37 Mg ha-1 a-1. Forty percent of the aboveground annual storage was retained in the tree while 60%was released in the form of foliage, twigs, and fruit litter. In the case of total (tree) annual production, 43%was retained while 57%was released as litter including root. C stock, C sequestration rate, accumulation ratio (1.4–18.1), root:shoot C ratio (0.61–0.13) and production efficiency (0.01–0.18) were comparable to some previous reports for other species and forests. These data could be useful in deciding the harvesting age for young teak with respect to C storage and sequestration rate. Four allometric models using linear regression equations were developed between biomass (twice the C stock) and diameter, girth, and height of the tree at different ages. The diameter model was found more suitable for C stock predic-tion in similar areas.

  16. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  17. Developing IntegRATE: a fast and frugal patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Elwyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efforts have been made to measure integration in health care delivery, but few existing instruments have adopted a patient perspective, and none is sufficiently generic and brief for administration at scale. We sought to develop a brief and generic patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery.Methods: Drawing on both existing conceptualisations of integrated care and research on patients’ perspectives, we chose to focus on four distinct domains of integration: information sharing,consistent advice, mutual respect and role clarity. We formulated candidate items and conducted cognitive interviews with end users to further develop and refine the items. We then pilot-tested the measure.Results: Four rounds of cognitive interviews were conducted (n = 14 and resulted in a four-item measure that was both relevant and understandable to end users. The pilot administration of the measure (n = 15 further confirmed the relevance and interpretability of items and demonstrated that the measure could be completed in less than one minute.Conclusions: This new measure, IntegRATE, represents a patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery that is conducive to use in both routine performance monitoring and research. The psychometric properties of the measure will be assessed in the next stage of development

  18. The rate of velocity development associates with muscle echo intensity, but not muscle cross-sectional area in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jacob A; Giuliani, Hayden K; Gerstner, Gena R; Ryan, Eric D

    2017-09-21

    The examination of mechanisms contributing to the age-related reductions in rapid velocity development is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) on plantarflexor rate of velocity development (RVD) in older adults. Twenty-two men (mean ± SD age = 69 ± 3 years) performed three maximal plantarflexion voluntary isokinetic muscle actions at a velocity of 2.09 rad · s(-1). Peak RVD was determined as the peak derivative of the velocity-time curve from the onset of velocity development to the onset of the load range. B-mode ultrasound was used to examine CSA and EI from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius. Plantarflexor RVD was related to EI (r = -0.491, P = 0.020), but not CSA (r = -0.003, P = 0.989). The findings of the present investigation suggest that alterations in muscle tissue composition (i.e., increase in intramuscular fat and/or fibrous tissue) may influence the ability of older adults to rapidly accelerate their limb.

  19. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-03-09

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary.

  1. Recovery rate and prognosis in older persons who develop acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E Wesley; Wheeler, Arthur P; Thompson, B Taylor; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Steinberg, Kenneth P; Bernard, Gordon R

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation increases 10-fold from the ages of 55 to 85 years, yet the rate of recovery and outcomes in older persons who develop acute lung injury are poorly defined. To examine age as an independent risk factor in recovery and intensive care unit discharge after acute lung injury. Prospective cohort study. 10 U.S. university-based medical centers. 902 mechanically ventilated patients enrolled in randomized, controlled trials for the treatment of acute lung injury. All patients were managed according to a standardized protocol for ventilator management and weaning. Frequency and time to achieve well-defined recovery landmarks, duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay, and survival. Median duration of mechanical ventilation was 19 days (interquartile range, 7 to >28 days) for patients 70 years of age or older (n = 173) compared with 10 days (interquartile range, 5 to 26 days) for patients younger than 70 years of age (n = 729) (P 28 days) and 16 days for the younger group (8 to >28 days) (P = 0.004). Survival rates decreased across increasing decades of age (P 0.2). After passing a spontaneous breathing trial, however, older patients required 1 more day than younger patients to achieve unassisted breathing (P = 0.002) and 3 more days to leave the intensive care unit (P = 0.005). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, age of 70 years or older was a strong predictor of in-hospital death (hazard ratio, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.0 to 3.2]; P acute lung injury compared with their younger counterparts, even after adjustment for covariates. Older survivors recovered from respiratory failure and achieved spontaneous breathing at the same rate as younger patients but had greater difficulty achieving liberation from the ventilator and being discharged from the intensive care unit.

  2. Updating of the hierarchical rock mass rating (HRMR) system and a new subsystem developed for weathered granite formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miranda Tiago; e Sousa L. Ribeiro; Tinoco Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    The RMR system is still very much applied in rock mechanics engineering context. It is based on the eval-uation of six weights to obtain a final rating. To obtain the final rating a considerable amount of informa-tion is needed concerning the rock mass which can be difficult to obtain in some projects or project stages at least with accuracy. In 2007 an alternative classification scheme based on the RMR, the Hierarchical Rock Mass Rating (HRMR) was presented. The main feature of this system was the adaptation to the level of knowledge existent about the rock mass to obtain the classification of the rock mass since it followed a decision tree approach. However, the HRMR was only valid for hard rock granites with low fracturing degrees. In this work, the database was enlarged with approximately 40%more cases considering other types of granite rock masses including weathered granites and based on this increased database the sys-tem was updated. Granite formations existent in the north of Portugal including Porto city are predom-inantly granites. Some years ago a light rail infrastructure was built in the city of Porto and surrounding municipalities which involved considerable challenges due to the high heterogeneity levels of the granite formations and the difficulties involved in their geomechanical characterization. In this work it is intended to provide also a contribution to improve the characterization of these formations with special emphasis to the weathered horizons. A specific subsystem applicable to the weathered formations was developed. The results of the validation of these systems are presented and show acceptable perfor-mances in identifying the correct class using less information than with the RMR system.

  3. Impact of population density on collision rates in a rapidly developing rural, exurban area of Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kelly; Sternfeld, Isabelle; Melnick, Douglas Sloan

    2013-04-01

    To determine if the commonly acknowledged relationships between population density and traffic collisions are found at the subcounty level and to describe how collision characteristics may vary substantially at a local level, with a particular emphasis on exurban areas. Los Angeles County collision data were obtained from the California Highway Patrol and the census tract and service planning area (SPA) for each collision were determined. The correlation between population density and collision rates by census tract was calculated within each SPA and for the entire county. Primary collision factors were compared for geographic areas of different population densities within one exurban SPA in Los Angeles County. An inverse relationship was found between collision rates and population density within Los Angeles County. Primary collisions factors were different in areas of the county with different population densities, with driving or biking under the influence particularly common in the most rural area. Subcounty analyses are very important to the study of traffic collisions. Traffic problems in rapidly developing exurban areas may be quite different from those in older, more established areas.

  4. Reduced rate of knee extensor torque development in older adults with knee osteoarthritis is associated with intrinsic muscle contractile deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Damien M; Tourville, Timothy W; Slauterbeck, James R; Ades, Philip A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer; Beynnon, Bruce D; Toth, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of knee osteoarthritis on the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensors in older adults with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA; n=15) and recreationally-active controls (n=15) of similar age, sex and health status, as well as the relationship between RTD and the size and contractility of single muscle fibers. OA participants had lower RTD when expressed in absolute terms (Nm/ms). There were sex differences in peak RTD (Ptorque (PT). In knee OA volunteers, we found strong correlations between the RTD expressed relative to PT and the velocity of contraction of single myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIA/X muscle fibers (r=0.652 and 0.862; both Pknee osteoarthritis and healthy older adults is related, in part, to the size and function of single muscle fibers.

  5. Scaling and memory in the return intervals of energy dissipation rate in three-dimensional fully developed turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuang; Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2008-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of return intervals $r$ between successive energy dissipation rates above a certain threshold $Q$ in three-dimensional fully developed turbulence. We find that the distribution function $P_Q(r)$ scales with the mean return interval $R_Q$ as $P_Q(r)=R_Q^{-1}f(r/R_Q)$ except for $r=1$, where the scaling function $f(x)$ has two power-law regimes. The return intervals are short-term and long-term correlated and possess multifractal nature. The Hurst index of the return intervals decays exponentially against $R_Q$, predicting that rare extreme events with $R_Q\\to\\infty$ are also long-term correlated with the Hurst index $H_\\infty=0.639$.

  6. ANALYSIS OF INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN ARRIVALS OF TOURISTS IN BOARDING HOUSES, ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY AND RELATIVE POVERTY RATE TO REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHIZDEANU ION

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the activity area, the link between the firm, sustainability and the necessary means to achieve that desideratum, is real and accepted in the context in which scientists, investors, entrepreneurs, state and citizens are becoming more and more aware of the devastating impact of the chaotic activities aimed at making a profit at any cost. Being aware of the importance of the correlation between ecotourism and sustainability, after a preliminary conceptualization of the means to promote green tourism business, and some elements of ecological marketing an analysis has been attempted via the linear regression model of interdependence between arrivals of tourists in the rural boarding houses, accommodation capacity and the relative poverty rate at the level of development region in Romania. In this sense, the data provided by the National Institute of Statistics have been used.

  7. Development of 2.8 V Ketjen black supercapacitors with high rate capabilities for AC line filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongju; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2017-08-01

    Supercapacitors are generally more compact than conventional bulky aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs). Replacement of AECs with supercapacitors can lead to miniaturization of electronic devices. However, even state-of-the-art supercapacitors developed in laboratories are superior to or competitive with AECs only in low voltage applications (values of ∼574 μF cm-2, 2.8 V, and ∼-80°, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate that an AC line filtering circuit with three supercapacitors connected in series can extend the application voltage without significant sacrifice in rate capability (ϕ ∼ -77° at 120 Hz). On the other hand, KBs are much less expensive than carbon materials previously demonstrated for AC line filtering and hence are very attractive for practical applications. We believe that this demonstration of high-performance supercapacitors made from low-cost carbon materials is both scientifically interesting and important for practical applications.

  8. Explosive Resistance Training Increases Rate of Force Development in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Gait Function in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend S; Lorentzen, Jakob; Krarup, Kasper B; Bandholm, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B

    2016-10-01

    Kirk, H, Geertsen, SS, Lorentzen, J, Krarup, KB, Bandholm, T, and Nielsen, JB. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2749-2760, 2016-Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated whether 12 weeks of explosive and progressive heavy-resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function, and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP. Thirty-five adults (age: 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were nonrandomly assigned to a PRT or nontraining control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls, and back extension 3 days per week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12 to 6 repetition maximums. RFDdf, 3-dimensional gait analysis, functional performance, and ankle joint passive and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness were evaluated before and after. RFDdf increased significantly after PRT compared to CON. PRT also caused a significant increase in toe lift late in swing and a significantly more dorsiflexed ankle joint at ground contact and during stance. The increased toe-lift amplitude was correlated to the increased RFDdf (r = 0.73). No other between-group differences were observed. These findings suggest that explosive PRT may increase RFDdf and facilitate larger range of movement in the ankle joint during gait. Explosive PRT should be tested in clinical practice as part of a long-term training program for adults with CP.

  9. Within- and between-session reliability of power, force, and rate of force development during the power clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Although there has been extensive research regarding the power clean, its application to sports performance, and use as a measure of assessing changes in performance, no research has determined the reliability assessing the kinetics of the power clean across testing session. The aim of this study was to determine the within- and between-session reliability of kinetic variables during the power clean. Twelve professional rugby league players (age 24.5 ± 2.1 years; height 182.86 ± 6.97 cm; body mass 92.85 ± 5.67 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] power clean 102.50 ± 10.35 kg) performed 3 sets of 3 repetitions of power cleans at 70% of their 1RM, while standing on a force plate, to determine within-session reliability and repeated on 3 separate occasions to determine reliability between sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients revealed a high reliability within- (r ≥ 0.969) and between-sessions (r ≥ 0.988). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in peak vertical ground reaction force, rate of force development, and peak power between sessions, with small standard error of the measurements and smallest detectable differences for each kinetic variable (3.13 and 8.68 N; 84.39 and 233.93 N·s; 24.54 and 68.01 W, respectively). Therefore, to identify a meaningful change in performance, the strength and conditioning coach should look for a change in peak force ≥8.68 N, rate of force development ≥24.54 N·s, and a change in peak power ≥68.01 W to signify an adaptive response to training, which is greater than the variance between sessions, in trained athletes proficient at performing the power clean.

  10. Development of a super high-rate Anammox reactor and in situ analysis of biofilm structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogasawara, Yuji; Shimokawa, Masaki; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Okabe, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is a new efficient and cost effective method of ammonium removal from wastewater. Under strictly anoxic condition, ammonium is directly oxidised with nitrite as electron acceptor to dinitrogen gas. However, it is extremely difficult to cultivate Anammox bacteria due to their low growth rate. This suggests that a rapid and efficient start-up of Anammox process is the key to practical applications. To screen appropriate seeding sludge with high Anammox potential, a real-time quantitative PCR assay with newly designed primers has been developed. Thereafter, the seeding sludge with high abundance of Anammox bacteria (1.7 x 10(8) copies/mg-dry weight) was selected and inoculated into an upflow anaerobic biofilters (UABs). The UABs were operated for more than 1 year and the highest nitrogen removal rate of 24.0 kg-N m-3 day(-1) was attained. In addition, the ecophysiology of Anammox bacteria (spatial distribution and in situ activity) in biofilms was analysed by combining a full-cycle 16S rRNA approach and microelectrodes. The microelectrode measurement clearly revealed that a successive vertical zonation of the partial nitrification (NH4+ to NO2-), Anammox reaction and denitrification was developed in the biofilm in the UAB. This result agreed with the spatial distribution of corresponding bacterial populations in the biofilm. We linked the micro-scale information (i.e. single cell and/or biofilm levels) with the macro-scale information (i.e. the reactor level) to understand the details of Anammox reaction occurring in the UABs.

  11. A web-based team-oriented medical error communication assessment tool: development, preliminary reliability, validity, and user ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Brock, Doug; Prouty, Carolyn D; Odegard, Peggy Soule; Shannon, Sarah E; Robins, Lynne; Boggs, Jim G; Clark, Fiona J; Gallagher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are not well suited for assessing communication skills. Standardized patient assessments are costly and patient and peer assessments are often biased. Web-based assessment using video content offers the possibility of reliable, valid, and cost-efficient means for measuring complex communication skills, including interprofessional communication. We report development of the Web-based Team-Oriented Medical Error Communication Assessment Tool, which uses videotaped cases for assessing skills in error disclosure and team communication. Steps in development included (a) defining communication behaviors, (b) creating scenarios, (c) developing scripts, (d) filming video with professional actors, and (e) writing assessment questions targeting team communication during planning and error disclosure. Using valid data from 78 participants in the intervention group, coefficient alpha estimates of internal consistency were calculated based on the Likert-scale questions and ranged from α=.79 to α=.89 for each set of 7 Likert-type discussion/planning items and from α=.70 to α=.86 for each set of 8 Likert-type disclosure items. The preliminary test-retest Pearson correlation based on the scores of the intervention group was r=.59 for discussion/planning and r=.25 for error disclosure sections, respectively. Content validity was established through reliance on empirically driven published principles of effective disclosure as well as integration of expert views across all aspects of the development process. In addition, data from 122 medicine and surgical physicians and nurses showed high ratings for video quality (4.3 of 5.0), acting (4.3), and case content (4.5). Web assessment of communication skills appears promising. Physicians and nurses across specialties respond favorably to the tool.

  12. The multiple sclerosis rating scale, revised (MSRS-R: Development, refinement, and psychometric validation using an online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicks Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing the PatientsLikeMe online platform for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, we required a patient-reported assessment of functional status that was easy to complete and identified disability in domains other than walking. Existing measures of functional status were inadequate, clinician-reported, focused on walking, and burdensome to complete. In response, we developed the Multiple Sclerosis Rating Scale (MSRS. Methods We adapted a clinician-rated measure, the Guy’s Neurological Disability Scale, to a self-report scale and deployed it to an online community. As part of our validation process we reviewed discussions between patients, conducted patient cognitive debriefing, and made minor improvements to form a revised scale (MSRS-R before deploying a cross-sectional survey to patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS on the PatientsLikeMe platform. The survey included MSRS-R and comparator measures: MSIS-29, PDDS, NARCOMS Performance Scales, PRIMUS, and MSWS-12. Results In total, 816 RRMS patients responded (19% response rate. The MSRS-R exhibited high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .86. The MSRS-R walking item was highly correlated with alternative walking measures (PDDS, ρ = .84; MSWS-12, ρ = .83; NARCOMS mobility question, ρ = .86. MSRS-R correlated well with comparison instruments and differentiated between known groups by PDDS disease stage and relapse burden in the past two years. Factor analysis suggested a single factor accounting for 51.5% of variance. Conclusions The MSRS-R is a concise measure of MS-related functional disability, and may have advantages for disease measurement over longer and more burdensome instruments that are restricted to a smaller number of domains or measure quality of life. Studies are underway describing the use of the instrument in contexts outside our online platform such as clinical practice or trials. The MSRS-R is released for use under

  13. Evaluating the Role of First Polar Body Morphology on Rates of Fertilization and Embryo Development in ICSI Cycles

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    Iman Halvaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that morphology of the first polar body (1st PBis related to oocyte viability, which can be used as a prognostic tool to predict oocyte performanceand pregnancy outcomes in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI program. According to somestudies, there is a correlation between oocyte performance and 1st PB morphology, while others havenot reported any correlation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of 1st PB morphologyon rates of fertilization and embryo development in ICSI cases.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study morphological characteristics of 470 metaphaseII (MII oocytes were assessed in 80 ICSI cycles. The women were ages 21-42 years (mean 32.6 ±0.2. Their oocytes were retrieved after a hyperstimulation protocol. After denudation, all oocyteswere evaluated for 1st PB morphology. The oocytes were divided into two groups of A (normal 1stPB and B (abnormal fragmented 1st PB. In addition, other abnormalities, such as refractile bodies(RF, wide previtelline space (wPVS, central and general granulation, bull’s eye, vacuole, smoothendoplasmic reticulum cluster (SERc, debris in PVS, shape and dark oocyte were checked. Forverifying of fertilization, about 18-19 hours post-ICSI, oocytes were checked for two-pronuclear.Assessments of embryo quality, development and embryo transfer were done at day two. Chisquare,Fisher’s exact and independent sample t tests were chosen for statistical analysis.Results: Twenty-seven percent of oocytes had fragmented 1st PB, while the remainder was associatedwith other morphological abnormalities. A total of 46.1% and 26.9% of oocytes showed double andmultiple defects, respectively. RF was the most common abnormality observed in group B. Nosignificant differences in women’s’ ages between groups A and B were noted (p=0.3. A total of 179and 107 oocytes (61.5% vs. 59.8% were fertilized in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.7. Therates of

  14. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the human development index: a cross-national study of secondary data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-02-01

    Elderly suicides rates are associated with socio-economic status and life expectancy. Although suicide rates in younger people are associated with both higher and lower levels of educational attainment, little is known about this association in the elderly. The relationship between Human Development Index (HDI)--a composite index measuring average achievements on three basic dimensions of human development (life expectancy, educational attainment and socio-economic status)--and elderly suicide rates was examined in a cross-national study utilizing secondary data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. There was a significant curvilinear (inverted U-shaped curve) relationship between elderly suicide rates in males and the HDI, fitting the quadratic equation y = a + bx - cx2. A similar curvilinear relationship was observed in females, but the significance level only approached 0.05. A model with four sequential stages was proposed to explain the findings: (i) low elderly suicide rate--low human development society; (ii) high elderly suicide rate--low human development society; (iii) high elderly suicide rate--high human development society; and (iv) low elderly suicide rate--high human development society.

  15. Development of 3D ultrasound needle guidance for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of gynaecological cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J.; Tessier, D.; D'Souza, D.; Leung, E.; Hajdok, G.; Fenster, A.

    2016-04-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is often included in standard-of-care for gynaecological cancers. Needles are currently inserted through a perineal template without any standard real-time imaging modality to assist needle guidance, causing physicians to rely on pre-operative imaging, clinical examination, and experience. While two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) is sometimes used for real-time guidance, visualization of needle placement and depth is difficult and subject to variability and inaccuracy in 2D images. The close proximity to critical organs, in particular the rectum and bladder, can lead to serious complications. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) transrectal US system and are investigating its use for intra-operative visualization of needle positions used in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy. As a proof-of-concept, four patients were imaged with post-insertion 3D US and x-ray CT. Using software developed in our laboratory, manual rigid registration of the two modalities was performed based on the perineal template's vaginal cylinder. The needle tip and a second point along the needle path were identified for each needle visible in US. The difference between modalities in the needle trajectory and needle tip position was calculated for each identified needle. For the 60 needles placed, the mean trajectory difference was 3.23 +/- 1.65° across the 53 visible needle paths and the mean difference in needle tip position was 3.89 +/- 1.92 mm across the 48 visible needles tips. Based on the preliminary results, 3D transrectal US shows potential for the development of a 3D US-based needle guidance system for interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy.

  16. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p 4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role.

  17. Defining the genomic signature of totipotency and pluripotency during early human development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Galan

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms governing human pre-implantation embryo development and the in vitro counterparts, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, still remain incomplete. Previous global genome studies demonstrated that totipotent blastomeres from day-3 human embryos and pluripotent inner cell masses (ICMs from blastocysts, display unique and differing transcriptomes. Nevertheless, comparative gene expression analysis has revealed that no significant differences exist between hESCs derived from blastomeres versus those obtained from ICMs, suggesting that pluripotent hESCs involve a new developmental progression. To understand early human stages evolution, we developed an undifferentiation network signature (UNS and applied it to a differential gene expression profile between single blastomeres from day-3 embryos, ICMs and hESCs. This allowed us to establish a unique signature composed of highly interconnected genes characteristic of totipotency (61 genes, in vivo pluripotency (20 genes, and in vitro pluripotency (107 genes, and which are also proprietary according to functional analysis. This systems biology approach has led to an improved understanding of the molecular and signaling processes governing human pre-implantation embryo development, as well as enabling us to comprehend how hESCs might adapt to in vitro culture conditions.

  18. Reshaping the epigenetic landscape during early flower development: induction of attractor transitions by relative differences in gene decay rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Velderrain, Jose; Villarreal, Carlos; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2015-05-13

    Gene regulatory network (GRN) dynamical models are standard systems biology tools for the mechanistic understanding of developmental processes and are enabling the formalization of the epigenetic landscape (EL) model. In this work we propose a modeling framework which integrates standard mathematical analyses to extend the simple GRN Boolean model in order to address questions regarding the impact of gene specific perturbations in cell-fate decisions during development. We systematically tested the propensity of individual genes to produce qualitative changes to the EL induced by modification of gene characteristic decay rates reflecting the temporal dynamics of differentiation stimuli. By applying this approach to the flower specification GRN (FOS-GRN) we uncovered differences in the functional (dynamical) role of their genes. The observed dynamical behavior correlates with biological observables. We found a relationship between the propensity of undergoing attractor transitions between attraction basins in the EL and the direction of differentiation during early flower development - being less likely to induce up-stream attractor transitions as the course of development progresses. Our model also uncovered a potential mechanism at play during the transition from EL basins defining inflorescence meristem to those associated to flower organs meristem. Additionally, our analysis provided a mechanistic interpretation of the homeotic property of the ABC genes, being more likely to produce both an induced inter-attractor transition and to specify a novel attractor. Finally, we found that there is a close relationship between a gene's topological features and its propensity to produce attractor transitions. The study of how the state-space associated with a dynamical model of a GRN can be restructured by modulation of genes' characteristic expression times is an important aid for understanding underlying mechanisms occurring during development. Our contribution offers a

  19. Effects of warm-up on peak torque, rate of torque development, and electromyographic and mechanomyographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Kristianna M; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if an active warm-up affects peak torque (PT), rate of torque development (RTD), and the electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) signals. Twenty-one men (mean age ± SD: 24.0 ± 2.7 years) visited the exercise physiology laboratory on 2 occasions. During the first visit, they either performed an active warm-up (10 minutes of stationary cycling at 70% of predicted maximum heart rate) or sat quietly (no warm-up). Participants were then tested for isometric and isokinetic (60°, 180°, and 300°·s) PT, and RTD (measured as S-gradient) on an isokinetic dynamometer. Electromyographic and MMG sensors were placed over the vastus lateralis muscle to monitor the electrical and mechanical aspects of muscle contractions, respectively. The testing protocol used for the first visit was repeated for the second visit, but the preexercise treatment (warm-up, no warm-up) not given during the first visit was administered. The results indicated that an active warm-up did not affect PT, RTD, or measures of muscle activation as reflected by EMG amplitude, EMG frequency, or MMG frequency (p > 0.05). However, MMG amplitude at 180°·s was significantly greater in the warm-up condition compared with the no warm-up condition. The isolated increase in MMG amplitude suggested that warm-up may have affected the mechanical properties of muscle by reducing muscular stiffness or decreasing intramuscular fluid pressure, but that it was not sufficient to influence performance.

  20. 141 BOVINE EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT RATES ARE AFFECTED WHEN OOCYTES ARE MATURED IN DIFFERENT VIALS CONTAINING HEPES/BICARBONATE BUFFERED MEDIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N; Secher, J O; Pryor, J H; Long, C R; Looney, C R; Avery, B; Hyttel, P; Stroebech, L

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory ware for the in vitro-produced embryos is generally made from embryo-tested plastic instead of glass. The quality of the plastic is crucial for the outcome because plastic is often toxic to gametes (Nijs et al. 2009 Fertil. Steril. 92, 527-535). In addition, gas molecules permeate through the plastic at a rate that depends on a variety of factors, such as diffusion coefficient and thickness of the plastic. In an incubator with appropriate concentration of CO2 and vented culture vessels, the gas permeability of the plastic is not important. When oocytes are transported outside a controlled atmosphere, gas permeability, toxicity, and oocyte cumulus cell CO2 metabolism could perturb the outcome. Medium containing bicarbonate buffer increases pH outside of a controlled atmosphere within minutes, whereas medium buffered with HEPES maintains suitable pH for hours. Previously, we tested that gas permeability differs among plastic vials and glass vials with no cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) by measuring pH after 2, 5, and 24h at the same temperature. The objective of this study was to compare pH post-maturation, blastocyst development rates on Day 8 post-IVF (Day 0=IVF) between 2 different 1.2-mL polypropylene cryovials (A: VWR DK, 479-1219; B: Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, CLS430289), glass vial (VWR DK, NSCAC4015-96), and 4-well plate (4WP) as control (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA, 144444). A total of 1135 abattoir-derived COC in Exp. 1 and 133 in Exp. 2 were divided equally between the treatments (20-25 COC per vessel). Vials/4WP contained 0.8/0.5mL of BO-IVM HEPES, a HEPES/bicarbonate medium (IVF Bioscience; BO-HEPES-IVM, UK). Maturation lasted 22 to 24h at 38.8°C in an incubator with either a humidified atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 in air (Exp. 1) or with no CO2 contact (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, oocyte vials were matured without a vial lid while in Exp. 2 vial lids were closed. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square and mean±SD. In Exp

  1. Effect of flow rate on the enhancement of particulate fouling in the presence of a developing biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G.R.; Blimkie, M.E.; McGarvey, G.B.; Turner, C.W

    2001-03-01

    The rate of magnetite deposition on a heated test section was investigated using radiotracing methods as a function of flow rate in the absence and presence of a growing biofilm of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The flow rate was adjusted to span Reynolds numbers from 2200 to 9600. For all flow rates, there was an increase in the rate of magnetite deposition in the presence of the growing biofilm. In addition, the rate of deposition was 10 times greater for a Reynolds number of 6400 than that observed at lower and higher flow rates with Reynolds numbers of 2200 and 9600, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the shear stress on the biofilm and to the rate of transport of nutrients. (author)

  2. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Heart Rate Acquisition Application for Health Promotion and Wellness Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Gregoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current generation smartphones' video camera technologies enable photoplethysmographic (PPG acquisition and heart rate (HR measurement. The study objective was to develop an Android application and compare HRs derived from a Motorola Droid to electrocardiograph (ECG and Nonin 9560BT pulse oximeter readings during various movement-free tasks. Materials and Methods. HRs were collected simultaneously from 14 subjects, ages 20 to 58, healthy or with clinical conditions, using the 3 devices during 5-minute periods while at rest, reading aloud under observation, and playing a video game. Correlation between the 3 devices was determined, and Bland-Altman plots for all possible pairs of devices across all conditions assessed agreement. Results. Across conditions, all device pairs showed high correlations. Bland-Altman plots further revealed the Droid as a valid measure for HR acquisition. Across all conditions, the Droid compared to ECG, 95% of the data points (differences between devices fell within the limits of agreement. Conclusion. The Android application provides valid HRs at varying levels of movement free mental/perceptual motor exertion. Lack of electrode patches or wireless sensor telemetric straps make it advantageous for use in mobile-cell-phone-delivered health promotion and wellness programs. Further validation is needed to determine its applicability while engaging in physical movement-related activities.

  3. Development of a novel starch-derived porous silica monolith for enhancing the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Chao; Wang Jing; Hu Yanchen [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University P.O. Box 32, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhi Zhuangzhi [Department of Physics, School of Basic Science, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Wenhua Road 103, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China); Jiang Tongying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University P.O. Box 32, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhang Jinghai [Key laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Science and Bio- Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Wang Siling, E-mail: silingwang@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University P.O. Box 32, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China)

    2012-02-01

    A novel starch-derived porous silica monolith (PSM) and porous starch foam (PSF) were developed as a carrier in order to improve the dissolution of lovastatin. PSM was prepared by the starch gel template method and PSF was prepared by the solvent exchange method. The morphology and structure of PSM and PSF were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. Lovastatin was loaded into PSM and PSF by immersion/solvent evaporation. Nano-pore spatial confinement effect on the drug dissolution was systematically studied by SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravametric analysis (TGA), x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and in-vitro drug dissolution studies. Lovastatin adsorbed in PSM was amorphous and lovastatin absorbed on PSF was partially present as microcrystal in the pores of PSF and partially in crystalline form distributed on the surface of PSF. PSM and PSF allowed immediate release of lovastatin and enhanced the dissolution rate. These results provide important information about the mechanism of drug adsorption and release. Accordingly, PSM and PSF have a promising future as a vehicle for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble drugs. Moreover, the effect of PSM is better than that of PSF.

  4. Effects of Rating Training on Inter-Rater Consistency for Developing a Dental Hygiene Clinical Rater Qualification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ran Park

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We tried to develop itemized evaluation criteria and a clinical rater qualification system through rating training of inter-rater consistency for experienced clinical dental hygienists and dental hygiene clinical educators. A total of 15 clinical dental hygienists with 1-year careers participated as clinical examination candidates, while 5 dental hygienists with 3-year educations and clinical careers or longer participated as clinical raters. They all took the clinical examination as examinees. The results were compared, and the consistency of competence was measured. The comparison of clinical competence between candidates and clinical raters showed that the candidate group?占퐏 mean clinical competence ranged from 2.96 to 3.55 on a 5-point system in a total of 3 instruments (Probe, Explorer, Curet, while the clinical rater group?占퐏 mean clinical competence ranged from 4.05 to 4.29. There was a higher inter-rater consistency after education of raters in the following 4 items: Probe, Explorer, Curet, and insertion on distal surface. The mean score distribution of clinical raters ranged from 75% to 100%, which was more uniform in the competence to detect an artificial calculus than that of candidates (25% to 100%. According to the above results, there was a necessity in the operating clinical rater qualification system for comprehensive dental hygiene clinicians. Furthermore, in order to execute the clinical rater qualification system, it will be necessary to keep conducting a series of studies on educational content, time, frequency, and educator level.

  5. Acute effect of static stretching on rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjão, André L D; Gonçalves, Raquel; de Moura, Rodrigo F; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in older women, the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on both muscle activation and force output. Twenty-three older women (64.6 +/- 7.1 yr) participated in the study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) (50, 100, 150, and 200 ms relative to onset of muscular contraction), and peak RFD (PRFD) (the steepest slope of the curve during the first 200 ms) were tested under 2 randomly separate conditions: SS and control (C). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles also was assessed. The MVC was significantly lower (p force decreased after their performance of SS exercises. The mechanisms responsible for this effect do not appear to be related to muscle activation. Thus, if flexibility is to be trained, it is recommended that SS does not occur just before the performance of activities that require high levels of muscular force.

  6. Similar changes in muscle fiber phenotype with differentiated consequences for rate of force development: endurance versus resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Jean; Sørensen, Henrik; Kjølhede, Tue

    2014-04-01

    Resistance training has been shown to positively affect the rate of force development (RFD) whereas there is currently no data on the effect of endurance training on RFD. Subjects completed ten weeks of either resistance training (RT, n=7) or endurance cycling (END, n=7). Pre and post measurements included biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis to quantify fiber phenotype and fiber area and isokinetic dynamometer tests to quantify maximal torque (Nm) and RFD (Nm/s) at 0-30, 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200ms during maximal isometric contraction for both knee extensors and flexors. Both groups increased the area percentage of type IIa fibers (p<.01) and decreased the area percentage of type IIx fibers (p=.05), whereas only RT increased fiber size (p<.05). RT significantly increased eccentric, concentric and isometric strength for both knee extensors and flexors, whereas END did not. RT increased 200ms RFD (p<.01) in knee flexor RFD and a tendency towards an increase at 100ms (p<.1), whereas tendencies towards decreases were observed for the END group at 30, 50 and 100ms (p<.1), resulting in RT having a higher RFD than END at post (p<.01). In conclusion, resistance training may be very important for maintaining RFD, whereas endurance training may negatively impact RFD.

  7. The effect of rate of force development on maximal force production: acute and training-related aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Roeleveld, Karin; Vereijken, Beatrix; Ettema, Gertjan

    2007-04-01

    The force generated during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) is known to increase by resistance training. Although this increase cannot be solely attributed to changes in the muscle itself, many studies examining muscle activation at peak force failed to detect neural adaptations with resistance training. However, the activation prior to peak force can have an impact on maximal force generation. This study aims at investigating the role of rate of force development (RFD) on maximal force during resistance training. Fourteen subjects carried out 5 days of isometric resistance training with dorsiflexion of the ankle with the instruction to generate maximal force. In a second experiment, 18 subjects performed the same task with the verbal instruction to generate maximal force (instruction I) and to generate force as fast and forcefully as possible (instruction II). The main findings were that RFD increased twice as much as the 16% increase in maximal force with training, with a positive association between RFD and force within the last session of training and between training sessions. Instruction II generated a higher RFD than instruction I, with no difference in maximal force. These findings suggest that the positive association between RFD and maximal force is not causal, but is mediated by a third factor. In the discussion, we argue for the third factor to be physiological changes affecting both aspects of a MVC or different processes affecting RFD and maximal force separately, rather than a voluntary strategic change of both aspects of MVC.

  8. The rate of force development obtained at early contraction phase is not influenced by active static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais de Oliveira, André L; Greco, Camila Coelho; Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of active static stretching on the maximal isometric muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) and rate of force development (RFD) determined within time intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. Fifteen men (aged 21.3 ± 2.4 years) were submitted on different days to the following tests: (a) familiarization session to the isokinetic dynamometer; (b) 2 maximal isometric contractions for knee extensors in the isokinetic dynamometer to determine MVC and RFD (control); and (c) 2 active static stretching exercises for the dominant leg extensors (10 × 30 seconds for each exercise with a 20-second rest interval between bouts). After stretching, the isokinetic test was repeated (poststretching). Conditions 2 and 3 were performed in random order. The RFD was considered as the mean slope of the moment-time curve at time intervals of 0-30, 0-50, 0-100; 0-150; and 0200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. The MVC was reduced after stretching (285 ± 59 vs. 271 ± 56 N · m, p 0.05). However, the RFD measured at intervals of 0-150 and 0-200 milliseconds was significantly lower after stretching (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that explosive muscular actions of a very short duration (<100 milliseconds) seem less affected by active static stretching when compared with actions using maximal muscle strength.

  9. An actor-oriented transfer perspective on high school students’ development of the use of procedures to solve problems on “rate of change”.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Gerrit; Goedhart, Martin; Vos, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal observation study about students’ development in their use of procedures to calculate instantaneous rate of change. Different procedures for solving tasks on rate of change are taught in mathematics and physics classes, and together they form a repertoire. Our

  10. An actor-oriented transfer perspective on high school students’ development of the use of procedures to solve problems on “rate of change”.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Gerrit; Goedhart, Martin; Vos, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal observation study about students’ development in their use of procedures to calculate instantaneous rate of change. Different procedures for solving tasks on rate of change are taught in mathematics and physics classes, and together they form a repertoire. Our

  11. An Actor-Oriented Transfer Perspective on High School Students' Development of the Use of Procedures to Solve Problems on Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Gerrit; Vos, Pauline; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal observation study about students' development in their use of procedures to calculate instantaneous rate of change. Different procedures for solving tasks on rate of change are taught in mathematics and physics classes, and together they form a repertoire. Our study took an actor-oriented perspective, which…

  12. Effect of composition, cooling rate, and solidification velocity on the microstructural development of molybdenum-bearing stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Matthew J.

    A series of Mo-bearing stainless steel compositions ranging from 0 to 10 wt% Mo were analyzed over a range of laser welding conditions to evaluate the effect of composition, cooling rate, and solidification velocity on microstructural development. Of particular engineering interest are alloys expected to solidify as primary delta-ferrite and transform in the solid state to gamma-austenite. Such compositions are essentially immune to solidification cracking and can potentially eliminate microsegregation (due to primary ferrite solidification) while still having high toughness and no magnetic signature at room temperature (transformation to austenite). A total of 64 Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo compositions were chosen based on multi-component phase stability diagrams calculated using the CALPHAD method. Alloys were created using the arc button melting process and laser welds were prepared on each alloy at constant power and travel speeds ranging from 4.2 mm/s to 42 mm/s. The cooling rates of these processes were estimated to range from 10 °C/s for are buttons to 105 °C/s for the fastest laser welds. Microstructural analysis was completed to determine primary solidification mode and the nature of solid state transformation behavior. Good agreement was observed between experimental observations and predictions from thermodynamic calculations. No shift in solidification mode was observed from primary delta-ferrite to primary gamma-austenite in the range of welding conditions studied. Metastable microstructural features were observed in many laser weld fusion zones, as well as a massive transformation from delta-ferrite to gamma-austenite in many of the alloys exhibiting primary delta-ferrite solidification. Evidence of epitaxial massive growth without nucleation was also found in primary delta-ferrite alloys with intercellular gamma-austenite already present from a solidification reaction. The resulting single phase gamma-austenite in both cases exhibited a homogenous distribution of

  13. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Valencia María Asunción

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak, a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak and time to RFD (TRFD in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001 in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.01. Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration.

  14. Heart rate and blood pressure interactions in the development of erectile dysfunction in high-risk cardiovascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Mario T; Schumacher, Helmut; Sliwa, Karen; Schmieder, Roland; Pöss, Janine; Mahfoud, Felix; Unger, Thomas; Lonn, Eva; Koon, Teo; Mancia, Guiseppe; Sleight, Peter; Yusuf, Salim; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors as elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), resting high heart rate (HR), and endothelial dysfunction and predicts cardiovascular events. However, the interaction between high HR and SBP and the development of ED remains unclear. We evaluated 1015 male patients enrolled in the ED substudy of ONTARGET and TRANSCEND, examining the influence of mean HR and mean SBP obtained over all study visits (mean 10.9±1.4 study visits) and their interaction with ED. In patients without pre-existing ED, new onset ED was detected in 29% of patients below, and 41% of patients above, the median of mean HR (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.8-2.5, p = 0.0047). In patients with pre-existing ED, high HR had no add-on effect. With or without pre-existing ED, high SBP had no influence after adjustment for covariates (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.66-1.59, p = 0.91). In a continuous model, it was shown that effects of high HR were prominent at low Kölner (Cologne) Evaluation of Erectile Function (KEED) score baseline values and in the presence of SBP above the median. In patients at risk for cardiovascular events, high HR is associated with ED, whereas the effect of high SBP was not significant. High resting HR might represent a cardiovascular risk indicator. Whether HR represents a potential treatment target to improve ED in high-risk individuals must be scrutinized in prospective trials.

  15. Biphasic changes in fetal heart rate variability in preterm fetal sheep developing hypotension after acute on chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Davidson, Joanne O; Booth, Lindsea C; Wassink, Guido; Galinsky, Robert; Drury, Paul P; Fraser, Mhoyra; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2014-08-15

    Perinatal exposure to infection is highly associated with adverse outcomes. Experimentally, acute, severe exposure to gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with increased fetal heart rate variability (FHRV). It is unknown whether FHRV is affected by subclinical infection with or without acute exacerbations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that FHRV would be associated with hypotension after acute on chronic exposure to LPS. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation were exposed to a continuous low-dose LPS infusion (n = 12, 100 ng/kg over 24 h, followed by 250 ng·kg(-1)·24 h(-1) for a further 96 h) or the same volume of saline (n = 10). Boluses of either 1 μg LPS or saline were given at 48, 72, and 96 h. Low-dose infusion was not associated with hemodynamic or FHRV changes. The first LPS bolus was associated with tachycardia and suppression of nuchal electromyographic activity in all fetuses. Seven of twelve fetuses developed hypotension (a fall in mean arterial blood pressure ≥5 mmHg). FHRV was transiently increased only at the onset of hypotension, in association with increased cytokine induction and electroencephalogram suppression. FHRV then fell before the nadir of hypotension, with transient suppression of short-term FHRV. After the second LPS bolus, the hypotension group showed a biphasic pattern of a transient increase in FHRV followed by more prolonged suppression. These findings suggest that infection-related hypotension in the preterm fetus mediates the transient increase in FHRV and that repeated exposure to LPS leads to progressive loss of FHRV.

  16. Modified Glomerular Filtration Rate-Estimating Equations Developed in Asiatic Population for Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate eight modified equations developed in Asiatic populations in type 2 diabetic patients in China. Methods. A total of 209 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Using the technetium—99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid—glomerular filtration rate (GFR to act as the reference, comparisons of their efficiency to estimate GFR in the subjects were made between various equations. Results. Median of difference of the Chinese equation 1 was the lowest (median of difference, 0.51 mL/min/1.73 m2. Median percent of absolute difference of the Chinese equation 2 was less than those of the other equations (26.97 versus ranged from 32.54 to 37.61 mL/min/1.73 m2, [P<0.001 for all]. Precision of the simplified reexpressed MDRD equation was the best (92.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. Accuracies of the Chinese equation 2 were greater (P<0.05 for all. There was also an improvement in chronic kidney disease (CKD stage misclassification of the Chinese equation 2 (55.0 versus ranged from 61.2 to 64.6%, [P<0.001 for all]. However, the 30% accuracies of all the equations were less than 70%. Conclusions. Our study highlighted a limitation in the use of the above equations in the majority of Chinese diabetic subjects. A better equation is needed in order to give an accurate estimation of GFR in type 2 diabetic patients in China.

  17. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Elvira, José L.L.; González-Ravé, José María; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando; Alcaraz, Pedro E.

    2015-01-01

    Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm)) on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg) performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak), a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak) and time to RFD (TRFD) in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001) in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint) for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.01). Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration. PMID:26240657

  18. Maximal strength training improves work economy, rate of force development and maximal strength more than conventional strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Jørn; Fimland, Marius S; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan

    2013-06-01

    This study compared maximal strength training (MST) with equal training volume (kg × sets × repetitions) of conventional strength training (CON) primarily with regard to work economy, and second one repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) of single leg knee extension. In an intra-individual design, one leg was randomized to knee-extension MST (4 or 5RM) and the other leg to CON (3 × 10RM) three times per week for 8 weeks. MST was performed with maximal concentric mobilization of force while CON was performed with moderate velocity. Eight untrained or moderately trained men (26 ± 1 years) completed the study. The improvement in gross work economy was -0.10 ± 0.08 L min(-1) larger after MST (P = 0.011, between groups). From pre- to post-test the MST and CON improved net work economy with 31 % (P < 0.001) and 18 % (P = 0.01), respectively. Compared with CON, the improvement in 1RM and dynamic RFD was 13.7 ± 8.4 kg (P = 0.002) and 587 ± 679 N s(-1) (P = 0.044) larger after MST, whereas isometric RFD was of borderline significance 3,028 ± 3,674 N s(-1) (P = 0.053). From pre- to post-test, MST improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 50 % (P < 0.001) and 155 % (P < 0.001), respectively whereas CON improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 35 % (P < 0.001) and 83 % (P = 0.028), respectively. Anthropometric measures of quadriceps femoris muscle mass and peak oxygen uptake did not change. In conclusion, 8 weeks of MST was more effective than CON for improving work economy, 1RM and RFD in untrained and moderately trained men. The advantageous effect of MST to improve work economy could be due to larger improvements in 1RM and RFD.

  19. Comparisons of peak ground reaction force and rate of force development during variations of the power clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Paul; Allen, Mark; Graham-Smith, Phillip

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the differences in vertical ground reaction forces and rate of force development (RFD) during variations of the power clean. Elite rugby league players (n = 11; age 21 ± 1.63 years; height 181.56 ± 2.61 cm; body mass 93.65 ± 6.84 kg) performed 1 set of 3 repetitions of the power clean, hang-power clean, midthigh power clean, or midthigh clean pull, using 60% of 1-repetition maximum power clean, in a randomized order, while standing on a force platform. Differences in peak vertical ground reaction forces (F(z)) and instantaneous RFD between lifts were analyzed via 1-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p < 0.001) greater peak F(z) during the midthigh power clean (2,801.7 ± 195.4 N) and the midthigh clean pull (2,880.2 ± 236.2 N) compared to both the power clean (2,306.24 ± 240.47 N) and the hang-power clean (2,442.9 ± 293.2 N). The midthigh power clean (14,655.8 ± 4,535.1 N·s⁻¹) and the midthigh clean pull (15,320.6 ± 3,533.3 N·s⁻¹) also demonstrated significantly (p < 0.001) greater instantaneous RFD when compared to both the power clean (8,839.7 ± 2,940.4 N·s⁻¹) and the hang-power clean (9,768.9 ± 4,012.4 N·s⁻¹). From the findings of this study, when training to maximize peak F(z) and RFD the midthigh power clean and midthigh clean pull appear to be the most advantageous variations of the power clean to perform.

  20. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Elvira, José L L; González-Ravé, José María; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2015-06-27

    Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm)) on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg) performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak), a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak) and time to RFD (TRFD) in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001) in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint) for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s-1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s-1, p ≤ 0.01). Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration.

  1. Kinetics analysis for development of a rate constant estimation model for ultrasonic degradation reaction of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Honma, Chiemi; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kuroda, Chiaki; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasound has been used as an advanced oxidation method for wastewater treatment. Sonochemical degradation of organic compounds in aqueous solution occurs by pyrolysis and/or reaction with hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, kinetics of sonochemical degradation has been proposed. However, the effect of ultrasonic frequency on degradation rate has not been investigated. In our previous study, a simple model for estimating the apparent degradation rate of methylene blue was proposed. In this study, sonochemical degradation of methylene blue was performed at various frequencies. Apparent degradation rate constant was evaluated assuming that sonochemical degradation of methylene blue was a first-order reaction. Specifically, we focused on effects of ultrasonic frequency and power on rate constant, and the applicability of our proposed model was demonstrated. Using this approach, maximum sonochemical degradation rate was observed at 490 kHz, which agrees with a previous investigation into the effect of frequency on the sonochemical efficiency value evaluated by KI oxidation dosimetry. Degradation rate increased with ultrasonic power at every frequency. It was also observed that threshold power must be reached for the degradation reaction to progress. The initial methylene blue concentration and the apparent degradation rate constant have a relation of an inverse proportion. Our proposed model for estimating the apparent degradation rate constant using ultrasonic power and sonochemical efficiency value can apply to this study which extended the frequency and initial concentration range.

  2. Effect of combined variation of force amplitude and rate of force development on the modulation characteristics of muscle activation during rapid isometric aiming force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hoon; Stelmach, George E

    2006-01-01

    Studies of rapid target-directed limb movements have suggested that various control schemes can be defined by the modulation pattern of the muscle activity. The present study was aimed to address the question regarding the extent to which a simultaneous control of force amplitude, and rate of force development influences the modulation characteristics of muscle activation associated with producing rapid isometric aiming forces at the elbow joint. The subjects were instructed to produce rapid isometric force pulses to three different force amplitudes (15, 35, and 55% of their maximal voluntary contractions) under systematically varied force-rate conditions ranging from a fast and accurate force-rate to the fastest force-rate possible. The results showed that larger force amplitudes were achieved by increasing the rate of force development (d F/d t) while the time to peak force remained relatively constant. The magnitude of the electromyographic (EMG) burst systematically increased as a function of force amplitude at all force-rate conditions. The primary finding was that the characteristic of the EMG burst duration associated with different force amplitudes showed a significant difference among force-rate conditions. Under a fast and accurate force-rate condition, the duration of the agonist burst increased linearly with force amplitude. A gradual transition into a fixed duration of the agonist burst then was observed over the remaining three force-rate requirements. With increasingly faster force-rates, there were no changes in the agonist burst duration over three force amplitudes. These results indicate that the combined variations in force amplitude and force-rate examined relative to the most rapid force-rate influence the control patterns for the muscle activation during the fast isometric force production. Changes in the EMG modulation patterns observed are likely due to the constraints imposed by muscle contractile properties.

  3. Membrane-aerated biofilms for high rate biotreatment: performance appraisal, engineering principles, scale-up, and development requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syron, Eoin; Casey, Eoin

    2008-03-15

    Diffusion of the electron acceptor is the rate controlling step in virtually all biofilm reactors employed for aerobic wastewater treatment. The membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is a technology that can deliver oxygen at high rates and transfer efficiencies, thereby enhancing the biofilm activity. This paper provides a comparative performance rate analysis of the MABR in terms of its application for carbonaceous pollutant removal, nitrification/denitrification and xenobiotic biotreatment. We also describe the mechanisms influencing process performance in the MABR and the inter-relationships between these factors. The challenges involved in scaling-up the process are discussed with recommendations for prioritization of research needs.

  4. Effects of copper on development and survival rate of Paphia malabarica Chemnitz larvae under low saline condition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gireesh, R.; Gopinathan, C.P.

    . The survival rates decreased considerably with low salinities although the combination of copper and low salinity gave synergistic effects. The reduced survival in low salinities would limit population growth of this species in estuarine areas experiencing low...

  5. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  6. HIGH HEART RATE AS A POTENTIAL RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study relationship between heart rate (HR and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (TRF for CVD, subclinical structural and functional changes in the heart and vessels, as well as the activity and severity of rheumatoid inflammation in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. A total of 291 female patients less than 60 years of age with a definite diagnosis of RA were examined. The control group consisted of 125 women without rheumatic diseases. Aside from clinical symptoms, activity and severity level of RA, the presence of main TRF for CVD were assessed, 24 h Holter ECG monitoring (24-h ECG, duplex scanning of common carotid arteries, transthoracic echocardiography were performed and the serum levels of inflammatory markers were determined.  Results. RA patients compared with the control group women had higher values of minimum (52.3±0.4 vs 47.5±0.4; p<0.001 and mean (78.5±0.5 vs 75.5±0.5; p<0.001 HR according to 24-h ECG, after adjustment for main TRF for CVD (age, arterial hypertension, menopause, levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Accelerated HR in RA directly correlated with an increased joint functional disability index - HAQ, RA severity index, the level of inflammatory markers and administration of leflunomide after adjustment for age (р<0.05. Patients with HR≥86 beats per minute compared with RA patients with values of HR≤71 beats per min had lower total cholesterol (5.84±0.13 vs 5.11±0.17; p=0.001 and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (4.06±0.13 vs 3.28±0.18; p=0.001, longer duration, higher activity (Visual Analog Pain Scale, DAS28, extra-articular manifestations of RA, concentration of proinflammatory markers and severity level of RA (severity index, HAQ, radiological stage III/IV, as well as  higher percentage of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD after adjustment for age. Conclusion. According to 24-h ECG, an

  7. Isothermal thermoluminescence dating of K-feldspar from sediments to determine fault slip rates: development and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. J.; Roder, B. J.; Lawson, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; McGill, S. F.; McAuliffe, L.

    2012-04-01

    Faults in California accommodate most of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates, along either one main strike-slip fault, - the San Andreas fault - or a network of sub-parallel faults (e.g., the San Jacinto, Elsinore and San Andreas faults). Slip is also accommodated along many other associated faults and folds, and the region suffers frequent damaging earthquakes. Contemporary movements of different fault-bounded blocks are relatively well established on decadal timescales using remote sensing and GPS, and on timescales of 106 to 107 years, by dating offset geologic features with radiometric methods. However, on timescales of decades to several hundred thousand years, determining total fault offset and mean slip rate is harder. Critical questions for understanding fault dynamics and improving earthquake risk assessment include the degree to which slip is clustered into episodes of more rapid movement, and how slip is accommodated by different sub-parallel faults. In many cases, streams with offset courses can be recognised, and in some cases offset terrace surfaces can be located, especially when using LiDAR data to complement field mapping. Radiocarbon and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides have been used to date these features, but both have limitations of age range, sample suitability and availability. OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) and IRSL (infra-red stimulated luminescence) have great potential to complement these techniques, though the characteristics of quartz in some parts of southern California are suboptimal, displaying low sensitivity and other limitations. In order to overcome these limitations encountered using quartz OSL, we are developing a new geochronometer based on the isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) signal of K feldspar measured at 250°C. Preliminary ITL age estimates from the paleoseismic site of El Paso Peaks on the Central Garlock fault in the Mojave Desert, California, agree well with a well

  8. Development of a phantom to validate high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning systems with heterogeneous algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Eduardo S., E-mail: emoura@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Micka, John A.; Hammer, Cliff G.; Culberson, Wesley S.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Rostelato, Maria Elisa C. M.; Zeituni, Carlos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: This work presents the development of a phantom to verify the treatment planning system (TPS) algorithms used for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. It is designed to measure the relative dose in a heterogeneous media. The experimental details used, simulation methods, and comparisons with a commercial TPS are also provided. Methods: To simulate heterogeneous conditions, four materials were used: Virtual Water™ (VM), BR50/50™, cork, and aluminum. The materials were arranged in 11 heterogeneity configurations. Three dosimeters were used to measure the relative response from a HDR {sup 192}Ir source: TLD-100™, Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT3 film, and an Exradin™ A1SL ionization chamber. To compare the results from the experimental measurements, the various configurations were modeled in the PENELOPE/penEasy Monte Carlo code. Images of each setup geometry were acquired from a CT scanner and imported into BrachyVision™ TPS software, which includes a grid-based Boltzmann solver Acuros™. The results of the measurements performed in the heterogeneous setups were normalized to the dose values measured in the homogeneous Virtual Water™ setup and the respective differences due to the heterogeneities were considered. Additionally, dose values calculated based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine-Task Group 43 formalism were compared to dose values calculated with the Acuros™ algorithm in the phantom. Calculated doses were compared at the same points, where measurements have been performed. Results: Differences in the relative response as high as 11.5% were found from the homogeneous setup when the heterogeneous materials were inserted into the experimental phantom. The aluminum and cork materials produced larger differences than the plastic materials, with the BR50/50™ material producing results similar to the Virtual Water™ results. Our experimental methods agree with the PENELOPE/penEasy simulations for most setups and dosimeters. The

  9. Increasing the success rate of groundwater exploration in developing nation using geophysical methods: Case of a small community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiorho, S. A.; Omole, D.; Aizebeokhai, A.

    2016-12-01

    About 35 percent of Nigeria's population of the more than 180 M relies on groundwater. Due to the lack of an adequate water supply system within Ogun State, many homes result to drilling their own private wells. Most groundwater is sourced from shallow wells (less than 30 m) and is often of poor water quality. The number of borehole failures is also alarming. Several entrepreneurs have seized on the lack of adequate water supply to drill for groundwater. Several of these wells have either failed or are not adequate for the purposed use of the water. There also appears to be no proper coordination of the citing of these wells. To increase the success rates of the boreholes, the use of geophysical methods amongst others is recommended. This study examines the exploration for groundwater and water quality in Ogun State in Nigeria, using Ota as an example. Ogun State has both significant surface and groundwater resources. However, due to the indiscriminate and lack of proper waste disposal, the vast majority of the surface waters and shallow well waters are impaired making them unsuitable for many users. To access a deeper groundwater source, a geophysical survey was performed to assist in finding a possible location for a borehole. A geophysical survey using the vertical electric sounding (VES) with Schlumberger configuration was carried out. The data shows that there are five layers within the proposed borehole site. Based on the data, it was suggested that a well be placed at a depth between 65-75 m (213-246 ft.). The borehole was drilled to 67m. This depth, from the literature, corresponds to the Abeokuta formation. A pump was installed at 66 m (217 ft.) depth and the first 50 feet of the borehole was grouted to prevent surface water from getting into the hole. A pumping test was performed for about two hours. While this was noteworthy, the data is not made available to any centralized body. No water chemistry was undertaken and more still needs to be done with

  10. Influence of muscle-tendon unit structure on rate of force development during the squat, countermovement, and drop jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E; Kraemer, William J; Cormie, Prue; Volek, Jeffery S; Maresh, Carl M; Joseph, Michael; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of muscle and tendon structure to stretch shortening cycle performance. However, the relationships between muscle and tendon structure to performance are highly dependent on the speed and intensity of the movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle and tendon structure is associated with the rate of force development (RFD) throughout static squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ; 30-cm height). Twenty-five strength- and power-trained men participated in the study. Using ultrasonography, vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) pennation (PEN) and fascicle length (FL), and Achilles tendon (AT) thickness and length were measured. Subjects then performed SJ, CMJ, and DJ, during which RFD was calculated over time 5 distinct time intervals. During CMJs, early RFD could be predicted between 0 and 10 milliseconds by both GAS-FL (r² = 0.213, β = 0.461) and AT-length (r² = 0.191, β = 20.438). Between 10 and 30 milliseconds GAS-FL was a significant predictor of CMJ-RFD (r² = 0.218, β = 0.476). During DJ, initial RFD (0-10 milliseconds) could be significantly predicted by GAS-FL (r² = 0.185, β = 20.434), VL-PEN (r² = 0.189, β = 0.435), and GAS-PEN (r² = 0.188, β = 0.434). These findings suggest that longer ATs may have increased elasticity, which can decrease initial RFD during CMJ; thus, their use in talent identification is not recommended. The GAS fascicle length had an intensity-dependent relationship with RFD, serving to positively predict RFD during early CMJs and an inverse predictor during early DJs. During DDJs, subjects with greater PEN were better able to redirected initial impact forces. Although both strength and plyometric training have been shown to increase FL, only heavy strength training has been shown to increase PEN. Thus, when a high eccentric load or multiple jumps are required, heavy strength training might be used to elicit muscular adaptations

  11. Development of a Rating Tool for Mobile Cancer Apps: Information Analysis and Formal and Content-Related Evaluation of Selected Cancer Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Cathleen; von Osthoff, Marc Baron; Frey, Katrin; Hübner, Jutta

    2017-08-17

    Mobile apps are offered in large numbers and have different qualities. The aim of this article was to develop a rating tool based on formal and content-related criteria for the assessment of cancer apps and to test its applicability on apps. After a thorough analysis of the literature, we developed a specific rating tool for cancer apps based on the MARS (mobile app rating system) and a rating tool for cancer websites. This instrument was applied to apps freely available in stores and focusing on some cancer topic. Ten apps were rated on the basis of 22 criteria. Sixty percent of the apps (6/10) were rated poor and insufficient. The rating by different scientists was homogenous. The good apps had reliable sources were regularly updated and had a concrete intent/purpose in their app description. In contrast, the apps that were rated poor had no distinction of scientific content and advertisement. In some cases, there was no imprint to identify the provider. As apps of poor quality can give misinformation and lead to wrong treatment decisions, efforts have to be made to increase usage of high-quality apps. Certification would help cancer patients to identify reliable apps, yet acceptance of a certification system must be backed up.

  12. TRPM7-like channels are functionally expressed in oocytes and modulate post-fertilization embryo development in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvacho, Ingrid; Ardestani, Goli; Lee, Hoi Chang; McGarvey, Kaitlyn; Fissore, Rafael A.; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are a family of cationic ion channels widely distributed in mammalian tissues. In general, the global genetic disruption of individual TRP channels result in phenotypes associated with impairment of a particular tissue and/or organ function. An exception is the genetic ablation of the TRP channel TRPM7, which results in early embryonic lethality. Nevertheless, the function of TRPM7 in oocytes, eggs and pre-implantation embryos remains unknown. Here, we described an outward rectifying non-selective current mediated by a TRP ion channel in immature oocytes (germinal vesicle stage), matured oocytes (metaphase II eggs) and 2-cell stage embryos. The current is activated by specific agonists and inhibited by distinct blockers consistent with the functional expression of TRPM7 channels. We demonstrated that the TRPM7-like channels are homo-tetramers and their activation mediates calcium influx in oocytes and eggs, which is fundamental to support fertilization and egg activation. Lastly, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of the channel function delays pre-implantation embryo development and reduces progression to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate functional expression of TRPM7-like channels in mouse oocytes, eggs and embryos that may play an essential role in the initiation of embryo development. PMID:27681336

  13. The effect of heat developed during high strain rate deformation on the constitutive modeling of amorphous polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.

    2016-02-01

    An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.

  14. 78 FR 50410 - Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC's application...

  15. Implementation of a High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Program for Carcinoma of the Cervix in Senegal: A Pragmatic Model for the Developing World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einck, John P., E-mail: jeinck@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Hudson, Alana [Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shulman, Adam C. [Overlook Medical Center, Summit, New Jersey (United States); Yashar, Catheryn M. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Dieng, Mamadou M.; Diagne, Magatte; Gueye, Latifatou; Gningue, Fama; Gaye, Pape M. [Départemént de Radiothérapie, Institut Joliot-Curie, Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar (Senegal); Fisher, Brandon J. [GammaWest Cancer Services, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Mundt, Arno J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Brown, Derek W. [Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    West Africa has one of the highest incidence rates of carcinoma of the cervix in the world. The vast majority of women do not have access to screening or disease treatment, leading to presentation at advanced stages and to high mortality rates. Compounding this problem is the lack of radiation treatment facilities in Senegal and many other parts of the African continent. Senegal, a country of 13 million people, had a single {sup 60}Co teletherapy unit before our involvement and no brachytherapy capabilities. Radiating Hope, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide radiation therapy equipment to countries in the developing world, provided a high-dose-rate afterloading unit to the cancer center for curative cervical cancer treatment. Here we describe the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in Senegal requiring a nonstandard fractionation schedule and a novel treatment planning approach as a possible blueprint to providing this technology to other developing countries.

  16. Implementation of a high-dose-rate brachytherapy program for carcinoma of the cervix in Senegal: a pragmatic model for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einck, John P; Hudson, Alana; Shulman, Adam C; Yashar, Catheryn M; Dieng, Mamadou M; Diagne, Magatte; Gueye, Latifatou; Gningue, Fama; Gaye, Pape M; Fisher, Brandon J; Mundt, Arno J; Brown, Derek W

    2014-07-01

    West Africa has one of the highest incidence rates of carcinoma of the cervix in the world. The vast majority of women do not have access to screening or disease treatment, leading to presentation at advanced stages and to high mortality rates. Compounding this problem is the lack of radiation treatment facilities in Senegal and many other parts of the African continent. Senegal, a country of 13 million people, had a single (60)Co teletherapy unit before our involvement and no brachytherapy capabilities. Radiating Hope, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide radiation therapy equipment to countries in the developing world, provided a high-dose-rate afterloading unit to the cancer center for curative cervical cancer treatment. Here we describe the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in Senegal requiring a nonstandard fractionation schedule and a novel treatment planning approach as a possible blueprint to providing this technology to other developing countries.

  17. Development and performance evaluation of a novel knowledge guided artificial neural network (KGANN model for exchange rate prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradyot Ranjan Jena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new adaptive forecasting model using a knowledge guided artificial neural network (KGANN structure for efficient prediction of exchange rate. The new structure has two parallel systems. The first system is a least mean square (LMS trained adaptive linear combiner, whereas the second system employs an adaptive FLANN model to supplement the knowledge base with an objective to improve its performance value. The output of a trained LMS model is added to an adaptive FLANN model to provide a more accurate exchange rate compared to that predicted by either a simple LMS or a FLANN model. This finding has been demonstrated through an exhausting computer simulation study and using real life data. Thus the proposed KGANN is an efficient forecasting model for exchange rate prediction.

  18. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    OpenAIRE

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key role in MCDA, and our rating tool could be used as part of a broader priority setting exercise in a local setting. This tool may contribute to a more transparent priority-setting process and fairer...

  19. Suicide rate in relation to the Human Development Index and other health related factors: A global ecological study from 91 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Armanmehr, Vajihe; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh

    2017-06-01

    There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI) and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study, we obtained the data from the World Bank Report 2013. The analysis was restricted to 91 countries for which both the epidemiologic data from the suicide rates and HDI were available. Overall, the global prevalence of suicide rate was 10.5 (95% confidence intervals: 8.8, 12.2) per 100,000 individuals, which significantly varied according to gender (16.3 in males vs. 4.6 in females, phuman development (11.64/100,000 individuals in very high development countries, 7.93/100,000 individuals in medium development countries, and 13.94/100,000 individuals in high development countries, p=0.004). In conclusion, the suicide rate varies greatly between countries with different development levels. Our findings also suggest that male gender and HDI components are associated with an increased risk of suicide behaviors. Hence, detecting population subgroups with a high suicide risk and reducing the inequality of socioeconomic determinants are necessary to prevent this disorder around the world. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting the indicators of development of the Emba deposits with high visocity oils based on models of the flow rate and accumulated extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhakiyev, K.T.

    1983-01-01

    Two types of curves of flow rate and accumulated extraction are identified on the basis of processing and analysis of actual data from the operation of the Emba deposits with increased and high viscosity oils. This made it possible to acquire two models of flow rate and accumulated extraction for deposits being developed in a water and pressure mode of mean activity and close to hard activity. An expression is acquired of the evaluation coefficient of extraction which is used in rating the annual (maximal) extraction and in designing a model of the flow rate and the accumulated extraction. A comparison of the actual curves of flow rate and accumulated extraction is given with models which are built based on an assigned volume of the extractable reserves and the parameters of the stratum and the fluids. A good convergence is noted between the calculated and factual curves of flow rate and accumulated extraction. The acquired models are recommended in rating the volumes of oil extraction by deposits which have left the stage of commercial exploration and by deposits which are entering the latter stage of development.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a New Air Exchange Rate Algorithm for the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    between-home and between-city variability in residential pollutant infiltration. This is likely a result of differences in home ventilation, or air exchange rates (AER). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model is a population exposure model that uses a pro...

  2. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hutchinson, S.W. [Mead Johnson Nutritional Group, Evansville, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  3. Checklist development for assessing the dental students\\' clinical skills in oral and maxillofacial medicine course and comparison with global rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mansourian

    2017-02-01

    (Wilcoxon P=0.06. The mean score of students who assessed by checklist was higher than global rating with no significant differences (P=0.06. Conclusion: Regarding the higher students’ satisfaction from checklist and more attention to component of assessment and more objectivity of this method and also higher score in checklist, it seems that the use of a checklist is more proper method for assessing the students’ clinical skills.

  4. Geographic Distribution of Habitat, Development, and Population Growth Rates of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J.; Robles-García, Pedro L.; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses...

  5. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K.; Cameron, Cate M.; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Australia’s coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995–2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of “low”, “medium”, “high”, and “intense” activity compared to a period of “very low” activity, adjusting for covariates. “All-cause” hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for “Blood/immune” conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for “Circulatory” conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows. PMID:28524113

  6. Weight development and survival rate of reindeer calves treated against Oedemagena tarandi L and Cephenemyia trompe L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Persen

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Three trials with treatment of reindeer warbles are carried out. All treated groups were injected intramuscularly with Warbex (35%, American Cyanamid, dosage 10 mg active ingredient/10 kg live weight. In total 911 calves and 403 adult females were included in the experiments. All animals were individually marked with plastic eartags. The trials tried to give answers as to the effect of treatment on: a weight development during winter, b weight development to the normal age of slaughter (18 months and c loss rate during winter. One trial deals with the effect of weight loss during winter by different date of treatment. All studies are undertaken within sex. Generelly the trials show that treated animals lost more weight during winter than untreated. There was found significant higher weight loss for treated female calves (0.7 kg, p=0.005 in the period January 13. — April 28. in trial I and for male calves (0.8 kg, p=0.01 in the period February 14. — April 4. in trial II. There is a trend that treatment increases the slaughter weight. A significant higher increase in the slaughter weight (0.8 kg, p=0.05 of treated male calves was found in trial III. No effect was found by treatment in the loss of animals in winter. The calves lossed during winter had a significant lower live weight at the start of the trial compared to those which survived. In the period February 14. — April 4. there was a higher weight loss in the male calves which were treated on February 14. compared to those treated on November 27. (0.5 kg, p=0.01. Forsøk med behandling av reinkalver mot reinbremslarver (Oedemagena tarandi L og Cephenemyia trompe L.Effekt på kalvens kondisjon målt ved levende vekt og overlevingsevne.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er utført tre forsøk med behandling av rein mot reinbremselarver (Oedemagena tarandi L. og Cephenemyia trompe L.. I alle forsøk er brukt intramuskulær injeksjon av Warbex (Am. Cyanamid 35% med dosering 30 mg

  7. Fertility of Czech Females Could Be Lower than Expected: Trends in Future Development of Age-Specific Fertility Rates up to the Year 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šimpach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility is an essential aspect of reproduction or population replacement of each country. The challenge for demographers is to model fertility and also to estimate its potential future level for the purposes of population projections. In the case of the Czech Republic we have the population projections provided by the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO with overlooking of the total fertility rate in low, medium and high variant. These estimates despite being based on expert judgments, seem to be too positive compared to the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation of fertility in the Czech Republic, to analyse the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates using one-dimensional Box-Jenkins models and multidimensional stochastic Lee-Carter approach. Together with found trend in time series and principal components estimated by Lee-Carter’s model a forecasts of age-specific fertility rates up to the year 2050 is constructed. Th ese rates are lower than those provided by CZSO in its three variants of the Czech Republic’s population projection, and therefore we discuss the causes at the end of the paper. We would like to point out that the potential future development of Czech females fertility could be lower than which are currently expected.

  8. Mapping and conservation importance rating of the South African coastal vegetation as an aid to development planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raal, PA

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available , more meaningful spatial scale, for example bio-geographical regions, was rarely established. Based on the needs and the recognised problems, the CSIR developed a protocol for coastal vegetation mapping which included the following: (1) Simplification...

  9. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek-uma Imkome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.

  10. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Here, we investigated if 12 weeks of progressive and explosive resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force...... dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls and back extension 3 days/week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12-6 RM. RFDdf, 3-D gait analysis, functional performance and ankle joint passive- and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness...

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key

  12. Combined Heart Rate- and Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Associations With Glucose Homeostasis Markers in a Population at High Risk of Developing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Carstensen, Bendix; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    energy expenditure (PAEE) with detailed measures of glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 1,531 men and women, with low to high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, we measured 7 days of PAEE using a combined accelerometry and heart rate monitor (ActiHeart). Measures and indices of glucose...

  13. Developing Stimulus Control of the High-Rate Social-Approach Responses of an Adult with Mental Retardation: A Multiple-Schedule Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Laura L.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a multiple schedule in which the extinction (S-) components were signaled overtly by a black lanyard and the reinforcement (S+) components were not correlated with any programmed stimuli in developing stimulus control over the high-rate social-approach responses of an adult with mental retardation. Responding was consistently low in…

  14. Infant diet sets the tone for parasympathetic regulation of resting heart rate: Development of vagal tone from 3 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasympathetic nervous system (PS) influences are critical in the autonomic control of the heart. To examine how early postnatal diet affects PS development, we used a measure of tonic PS control of cardiac activity, vagal tone, derived from resting heart rate recordings in 158 breastfed (BF), ...

  15. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key

  16. Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    of exposure to antiretrovirals and the development of chronic kidney disease in people with initially normal renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: In this prospective international cohort study, HIV-positive adult participants (aged ≥16 years) from the D...

  17. Elevated rates of force development and MgATP binding in F764L and S532P myosin mutations causing dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bradley M; Schmitt, Joachim P; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, J G; Wang, Yuan; Bell, Stephen P; Lewinter, Martin M; Maughan, David W

    2013-04-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease characterized by dilation of the ventricular chambers and reduced contractile function. We examined the contractile performance of chemically-skinned ventricular strips from two heterozygous murine models of DCM-causing missense mutations of myosin, F764L/+ and S532P/+, in an α-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) background. In Ca(2+)-activated skinned myocardial strips, the maximum developed tension in F764L/+ was only ~50% that of litter-mate controls (+/+). The F764L/+ also exhibited significantly reduced rigor stiffness, loaded shortening velocity and power output. Corresponding indices for S532P/+ strips were not different from controls. Manipulation of MgATP concentration in conjunction with measures of viscoelasticity, which provides estimates of myosin detachment rate 2πc, allowed us to probe the molecular basis of changes in crossbridge kinetics that occur with the myosin mutations. By examining the response of detachment rate to varying MgATP we found the rate of MgADP release was unaffected by the myosin mutations. However, MgATP binding rate was higher in the DCM groups compared to controls (422±109mM(-1)·s(-1) in F764L/+, 483±74mM(-1)·s(-1) in S532P/+ and 303±18mM(-1)·s(-1) in +/+). In addition, the rate constant of force development, 2πb, was significantly higher in DCM groups compared to controls (at 5mM MgATP: 36.9±4.9s(-1) in F764L/+, 32.9±4.5s(-1) in S532P/+ and 18.2±1.7s(-1) in +/+). These results suggest that elevated rates of force development and MgATP binding are features of cardiac myofilament function that underlie the development of DCM.

  18. The potential role of granulosa cells in the maturation rate of immature human oocytes and embryo development: A co-culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Bahia Namavar; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Matloob, Najmeh; Davari, Maryam; Ghobadifar, Mohamed Amin

    2015-09-01

    In order to increase the number of mature oocytes usable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), we aimed to investigate the effect of co-culturing granulosa cells (GCs) on human oocyte maturation in vitro, the fertilization rate, and embryo development. A total of 133 immature oocytes were retrieved and were randomly divided into two groups; oocytes that were cultured with GCs (group A) and oocytes that were cultured without GCs (group B). After in vitro maturation, only oocytes that displayed metaphase II (MII) underwent the ICSI procedure. The maturation and fertilization rates were analyzed, as well as the frequency of embryo development. The mean age of the patients, their basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, and the number of oocytes recovered from the patients were all comparable between the two study groups. The number of oocytes that reached MII (mature oocytes) was 59 out of 70 (84.28%) in group A, compared to 41 out of 63 (65.07%) in group B (p=0.011). No significant difference between fertilization rates was found between the two study groups (p=0.702). The embryo development rate was higher in group A (33/59, 75%) than in group B (12/41, 42.85%; p=0.006). The proportion of highest-quality embryos and the blastocyst formation rate were significantly lower in group B than in group A (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). The findings of the current study demonstrate that culturing immature human oocytes with GCs prior to ICSI improves the maturation rate and the likelihood of embryo development.

  19. 75 FR 61624 - Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy Oil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Part 3100 RIN 1004-AE04 Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty..., both sections authorize termination if oil prices exceed specific thresholds. Section 3103.4-2(b)(4... the oil price, adjusted for inflation by the BLM and the ONRR, using the implicit price deflator...

  20. Development of methods and procedures for high rate low energy expenditure fabrication of solar cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, A.R.; Minnucci, J.A.; Greenwald, A.C.

    1976-11-01

    A one year program to develop a new concept for silicon solar cell production based upon the use of pulsed electron beam processes combined with ion implantation has been completed. Feasibility of producing solar cells at high speed by a simplified vacuum-room temperature processing sequence has been demonstrated. The method has many advantages, particularly for large scale production at lowest possible cost.

  1. Increased Saccadic Rate during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Patients at Ultra High Risk for Developing a Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tricht, M. J.; Nieman, D. H.; Bour, L. J.; Boeree, T.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in eye tracking are consistently observed in schizophrenia patients and their relatives and have been proposed as an endophenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis on a task of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM). Forty-six UHR…

  2. Development and applications of the SWAN rating scale for assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brites

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the use of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-symptoms and Normal-behaviors (SWAN rating scale in diagnostic and evolutive approaches to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and in correlational studies of the disorder. A review of articles published in indexed journals from electronic databases was conducted and 61 articles on the SWAN scale were analyzed. From these, 27 were selected to a examine use of SWAN in research on attention disorders and b verify evidence of its usefulness in the areas of genetics, neuropsychology, diagnostics, psychiatric comorbidities, neuroimaging, pharmacotherapy, and to examine its statistical reliability and validity in studies of diverse populations. This review of articles indicated a growing use of the SWAN scale for diagnostic purposes, for therapy, and in research on areas other than ADHD, especially when compared with other reliable scales. Use of the scale in ADHD diagnosis requires further statistical testing to define its psychometric properties.

  3. Development and applications of the SWAN rating scale for assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, C; Salgado-Azoni, C A; Ferreira, T L; Lima, R F; Ciasca, S M

    2015-11-01

    This study reviewed the use of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-symptoms and Normal-behaviors (SWAN) rating scale in diagnostic and evolutive approaches to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in correlational studies of the disorder. A review of articles published in indexed journals from electronic databases was conducted and 61 articles on the SWAN scale were analyzed. From these, 27 were selected to a) examine use of SWAN in research on attention disorders and b) verify evidence of its usefulness in the areas of genetics, neuropsychology, diagnostics, psychiatric comorbidities, neuroimaging, pharmacotherapy, and to examine its statistical reliability and validity in studies of diverse populations. This review of articles indicated a growing use of the SWAN scale for diagnostic purposes, for therapy, and in research on areas other than ADHD, especially when compared with other reliable scales. Use of the scale in ADHD diagnosis requires further statistical testing to define its psychometric properties.

  4. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimoto, Takeshi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)], E-mail: iimoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Akasaka, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Koike, Yuya [Radioisotope Center, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kosako, Toshiso [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    A simple system to evaluate the {sup 222}Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m{sup -3}/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 deg. C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  5. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2008-04-01

    A simple system to evaluate the 222Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m(-3)/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 degrees C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  6. Production rates and turnover of triiodothyronine in rat-developing cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Responses to hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.E.; Matthews, P.S.

    1984-09-01

    Local 5'-deiodination of serum thyroxine (T4) is the main source of triiodothyronine (T3) for the brain. Since we noted in previous studies that the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats tolerated marked reductions in serum T4 without biochemical hypothyroidism, we examined the in vivo T4 and T3 metabolism in that tissue and in the cerebellum of euthyroid and hypothyroid 2-wk-old rats. We also assessed the contribution of enhanced tissue T4 to T3 conversion and decreased T3 removal from the tissues to the T3 homeostasis in hypothyroid brain. Congenital and neonatal hypothyroidism was induced by adding methimazole to the drinking water. Serum, cerebral cortex (Cx), cerebellum (Cm), liver (L) and kidney (R) concentrations of 125I-T4, 125I-T3(T4), and 131I-T3 were measured at various times after injecting 125I-T4 and 131I-T3. The rate of T3 removal from the tissues was measured after injecting an excess of anti-T3-antibody to rats previously injected with tracer T3. In hypothyroidism, the fractional removal rates and clearances were reduced in all tissues, in cortex and cerebellum by 70%, and in liver and kidney ranging from 30 to 50%. While greater than 80% of the 125I-T3(T4) in the brain tissues of euthyroid rats was locally produced, in hypothyroid cerebral cortex and cerebellum the integrated concentrations of 125I-T3(T4) were 2.7- and 1.5-fold greater than in euthyroid rats.

  7. Analysis of the Development of Chinese Pension Replacement Rate%中国养老金替代率发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞敏

    2016-01-01

    养老金替代率是整个社会养老保险制度体系的关键点,与一个国家的经济增长、财政收支和社会保险制度设置有关;也是衡量养老保障水平的重要标志,是制定养老保险政策必须考虑的关键因素。从养老金替代率概念辨析出发,分析中国养老金替代率发展情况,探究养老金替代率低的原因,并从质性研究和量化分析两个角度概述养老金替代率的研究情况,得出提高养老金替代率是未来发展趋势。%Being the key point of the whole system of social endowment insurance system, pension replacement rate is related to a country's economic growth, fiscal revenue and expenditure, and the setting up of the social insurance system, and is an important symbol of measuring the old-age security level. The pension replacement rate is the key factor which must be considered in the process of making endowment insurance policy. Starting from analyzing the concept of pension replacement rate, this paper analyzes the development of Chinese pension replacement rate, and probes into the cause of the low pension replacement rate. This paper summarizes the research situation of pension replacement rate from the angles of qualitative and quantitative analysis, and concludes that raising pension replacement rate is the future development trend.

  8. Business Cycles in Small Developed Economies; The Role of Terms of Trade and Foreign Interest Rate Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Empirical evidence for small developed economies finds that consumption is procyclical and as volatile as output, and real net exports are coutercyclical. Earlier studies have not been able to reproduce these regularities in a DSGE small open economy model when productivity shocks drive the business cycles and households have a normal intertemporal elasticity of substitution. Instead, these studies have reduced this elasticity to make consumption more procyclical and volatile and real net exp...

  9. Redox Dynamics and Oxygen Reduction Rates of Infiltrating Urban Stormwater beneath Low Impact Development (LID)

    OpenAIRE

    Mays N. Danfoura; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Low impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs) collect, infiltrate, and treat stormwater runoff, and increase recharge to aquifers. Understanding the controls on reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions within LID BMPs is important for groundwater management because outflow from some LID BMPs can recharge aquifers and affect groundwater quality. Here we evaluate redox conditions of urban stormwater runoff in a LID infiltration trench in San Francisco, California, and quantify the re...

  10. Drug-Susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Does Not Develop Mutation-Conferred Resistance to Rifampin at an Elevated Rate

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype has drawn attention because it is often strongly associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). A possible reason is that the Beijing strains may have an enhanced capacity to develop drug resistance. In this study, we used the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test to investigate whether strains of Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes exhibit differences in the acquisition of drug resistance. The M. tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv and 12 f...

  11. Comparative analyses by sequencing of transcriptomes during skeletal muscle development between pig breeds differing in muscle growth rate and fatness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of muscle transcriptome during development and between breeds differing in muscle growth is necessary to uncover the complex mechanism underlying muscle development. Herein, we present the first transcriptome-wide longissimus dorsi muscle development research concerning Lantang (LT, obese and Landrace (LR, lean pig breeds during 10 time-points from 35 days-post-coitus (dpc to 180 days-post-natum (dpn using Solexa/Illumina's Genome Analyzer. The data demonstrated that myogenesis was almost completed before 77 dpc, but the muscle phenotypes were still changed from 77 dpc to 28 dpn. Comparative analysis of the two breeds suggested that myogenesis started earlier but progressed more slowly in LT than in LR, the stages ranging from 49 dpc to 77 dpc are critical for formation of different muscle phenotypes. 595 differentially expressed myogenesis genes were identified, and their roles in myogenesis were discussed. Furthermore, GSK3B, IKBKB, ACVR1, ITGA and STMN1 might contribute to later myogenesis and more muscle fibers in LR than LT. Some myogenesis inhibitors (ID1, ID2, CABIN1, MSTN, SMAD4, CTNNA1, NOTCH2, GPC3 and HMOX1 were higher expressed in LT than in LR, which might contribute to more slow muscle differentiation in LT than in LR. We also identified several genes which might contribute to intramuscular adipose differentiation. Most important, we further proposed a novel model in which MyoD and MEF2A controls the balance between intramuscular adipogenesis and myogenesis by regulating CEBP family; Myf5 and MEF2C are essential during the whole myogenesis process while MEF2D affects muscle growth and maturation. The MRFs and MEF2 families are also critical for the phenotypic differences between the two pig breeds. Overall, this study contributes to elucidating the mechanism underlying muscle development, which could provide valuable information for pig meat quality improvement. The raw data have been submitted to Gene

  12. Development and improvement of measuring method for growth rate of intracellular symbiotic acid-fast bacteria using radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Noboru; Fukutomi, Yasuo [National Inst. for Leprosy Research, Higashimurayama, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this research group was to investigate the factors which might mediate the growth of mycobacterium lepra and relate to its affinity to the nerve tissue. In this year, constructions of a mycobacterium smegmatis mutant having a high transform ability and a shuttle vector between E. coli and acid-fast bacteria was attempted. From the wild type of m. smegmatis, a highly transformable mutant was obtained and the rate of transformation of the mutant was ca. 10{sup 5} times higher than the parent. And two shuttle vectors for E. coli/acid-fast bacteria; pALKMZErO (6.2 kb) and pHSGM59 (5.4 kb) were constructed. Since the former was unstable in M. smegmatis, the latter vector was used for the following experiments. Expression of `cat` gene cloned by pHSGM59 was identified in M. smegmatis. Further, DNA library of M. leprae was prepared by the use of the vector. Approximately, 1 x 10{sup 4} transformed clones were obtained. The analysis of the plasmids recovered from the clones is under way. (M.N.)

  13. Reduction in single muscle fiber rate of force development with aging is not attenuated in world class older masters athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Geoffrey A; Minozzo, Fábio C; Spendiff, Sally; Filion, Marie-Eve; Konokhova, Yana; Purves-Smith, Maddy F; Pion, Charlotte; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Morais, José A; Herzog, Walter; Hepple, Russell T; Taivassalo, Tanja; Rassier, Dilson E

    2016-02-15

    Normal adult aging is associated with impaired muscle contractile function; however, to what extent cross-bridge kinetics are altered in aging muscle is not clear. We used a slacken restretch maneuver on single muscle fiber segments biopsied from the vastus lateralis of young adults (∼23 yr), older nonathlete (NA) adults (∼80 yr), and age-matched world class masters athletes (MA; ∼80 yr) to assess the rate of force redevelopment (ktr) and cross-bridge kinetics. A post hoc analysis was performed, and only the mechanical properties of "slow type" fibers based on unloaded shortening velocity (Vo) measurements are reported. The MA and NA were ∼54 and 43% weaker, respectively, for specific force compared with young. Similarly, when force was normalized to cross-sectional area determined via the fiber shape angularity data, both old groups did not differ, and the MA and NA were ∼43 and 48% weaker, respectively, compared with young (P < 0.05). Vo for both MA and NA old groups was 62 and 46% slower, respectively, compared with young. Both MA and NA adults had approximately two times slower values for ktr compared with young. The slower Vo in both old groups relative to young, coupled with a similarly reduced ktr, suggests impaired cross-bridge kinetics are responsible for impaired single fiber contractile properties with aging. These results challenge the widely accepted resilience of slow type fibers to cellular aging.

  14. Predicting impacts of future human population growth and development on occupancy rates of forest-dependent birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle L.; Donovan, Therese; Schwenk, W. Scott; Theobald, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Forest loss and fragmentation are among the largest threats to forest-dwelling wildlife species today, and projected increases in human population growth are expected to increase these threats in the next century. We combined spatially-explicit growth models with wildlife distribution models to predict the effects of human development on 5 forest-dependent bird species in Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, USA. We used single-species occupancy models to derive the probability of occupancy for each species across the study area in the years 2000 and 2050. Over half a million new housing units were predicted to be added to the landscape. The maximum change in housing density was nearly 30 houses per hectare; however, 30% of the towns in the study area were projected to add less than 1 housing unit per hectare. In the face of predicted human growth, the overall occupancy of each species decreased by as much as 38% (ranging from 19% to 38% declines in the worst-case scenario) in the year 2050. These declines were greater outside of protected areas than within protected lands. Ninety-seven percent of towns experienced some decline in species occupancy within their borders, highlighting the value of spatially-explicit models. The mean decrease in occupancy probability within towns ranged from 3% for hairy woodpecker to 8% for ovenbird and hermit thrush. Reductions in occupancy probability occurred on the perimeters of cities and towns where exurban development is predicted to increase in the study area. This spatial approach to wildlife planning provides data to evaluate trade-offs between development scenarios and forest-dependent wildlife species.

  15. Effects of three PBDEs on development, reproduction and population growth rate of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitholtz, M.; Wollenberger, Leah

    2003-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on aquatic organisms is very limited. A full life-cycle (less than or equal to 26 days exposure) ecotoxicity test with the particle-feeding copepod Nitocra spinipes was therefore used to study effects of BDE-47, -99...... and that ingestion of particle-adsorbed PBDEs most likely is the predominant route of exposure in N. spinipes. However, to further improve the usefulness of laboratory effect levels of PBDEs and other lipophilic substances for environmental risk assessment, it is important to develop ecotoxicological tools, which...

  16. Development of a selftriggered high counting rate ASIC for readout of 2D gas microstrip neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brogna, AS; Dabrowski, W; Fiutowski, T; Gebauer, B; Mindur, B; Schmidt, Ch J; Schulz, Ch; Soltveit, H K; Szczygiel, R; Trunk, U; Wiacek, P

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the DETNI project a 32-channel ASIC suitable for readout of a novel 2D thermal neutron detector based on a hybrid low-pressure Micro-Strip Gas Chamber with solid 157Gd converter has been developed. Each channel delivers position information, a fast time stamp of 2 ns resolution and the signal amplitude (called energy below). The time stamp is used for correlating the signals from X and Y strips while the amplitude is used for finding the center of gravity of a cluster of strips. The timing and energy information are stored in derandomizing buffers and read out via token ring architecture.

  17. The development and validation of the Dormitory Observation Report: a behavioral rating instrument for juvenile delinquents in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Louis; Veneziano, Carol

    2002-09-01

    In order to provide an objective measure of problematic behavioral patterns among juvenile delinquents in residential facilities, the Dormitory Observation Report (DOR) was developed. The DOR assesses 11 dimensions of problematic behavioral patterns (e.g., physical assaultiveness, manipulativeness), as well as three dimensions of desirable behavioral patterns expected in an institutional setting (e.g., independent functioning, personal hygiene, care of surroundings). Empirical study regarding the reliability and validity of the DOR are reported, and the results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical implications of this instrument.

  18. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lun-Hsien; Barron, Andrew B; Cheng, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Worker honey bees change roles as they age as part of a hormonally regulated process of behavioural development that ends with a specialised foraging phase. The rate of behavioural development is highly plastic and responsive to changes in colony condition such that forager losses, disease or nutritional stresses accelerate behavioural development and cause an early onset of foraging in workers. It is not clear to what degree the behavioural development of workers can be accelerated without there being a cost in terms of reduced foraging performance. Here, we compared the foraging performance of bees induced to accelerate their behavioural development by treatment with the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene with that of controls that developed at a normal rate. Methoprene treatment accelerated the onset of both flight and foraging behaviour in workers, but it also reduced foraging span, the total time spent foraging and the number of completed foraging trips. Methoprene treatment did not alter performance in a short-range navigation task, however. These data indicate a limitation to the physiological plasticity of bees, and a trade off between forager performance and the speed at which bees begin foraging. Chronic stressors will be expected to reduce the mean age of the foraging force, and therefore also reduce the efficiency of the foraging force. This interaction may explain why honey bee colonies react to sustained stressors with non-linear population decline.

  19. InGaAsP/InP laser development for single-mode, high-data-rate communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladany, I.; Levin, E. R.; Magee, C. W.; Smith, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    Materials studies as well as general and specific device development were carried out in the InGaAsP system. A comparison was made of three standard methods of evaluating substrate quality by means of dislocation studies. A cause of reduced yield of good wafers, the pullover of melt from one bin to the next, has been analyzed. Difficulties with reproducible zinc acceptor doping have been traced to segregation of zinc in the In/Zn alloy used for the doping source. Using EBIC measurments, the pn junction was shown to drift in location depending on factors not always under control. An analysis of contact structures by SIMS showed that the depth to which the sintered Au/Zn contact penetrates into the structure is typically 0.13 microns, or well within the cap layer and out of the p-type cladding and thus not deleterious to laser prformance. The problem of single-mode laser development was investigated and it was shown to be related to the growth habit over four different possible substrate configurations. The fabrication of constricted double heterojunctions, mesa stripe buried heterostructures, and buried heterostructures was discussed, and measurements were presented on the device properties of single-mode buried heterostructure lasers. Results include single spectral line emission at 3 mW and a threshold current of 60 mA.

  20. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.