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Sample records for pr eu er

  1. Formation of La3+, Pr3+, Eu3+, Er3+, and Lu3+ complexes with chloride ions, in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez R, E.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.

    2007-01-01

    The constants of stability of the complexes of La 3+ , Pr 3+ , Eu 3+ , Er 3+ , and Lu 3+ with Cl - ions, its were determined, in the aqueous medium of HCI - HClO 4 and by a solvent extraction method. The dinonyl naphtalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanides concentration, it was measured by a VIS spectrophotometry method and by another radiochemical. The ions specific interaction theory (SIT) it was used for the extrapolation to ionic force 0 M. The results indicate that the stability constants of the LnCI 2+ species diminishes when increasing the ion force and the charge density. (Author)

  2. Síntesis hidrotermal de monocristales LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Señarís Rodríguez, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten single crystals of the series LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er were synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis in a single step and without subsequent thermal treatments from aqueous solutions of metals salts at 240 ºC. The obtained single crystals have a size of various micrometers and their morphology changes throughout the serie: they are polygonal in the case of the compounds with Ln= Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd and needle-like in the case of the compounds with Ln= Y, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. After the analysis of the obtained products employing different conditions of synthesis we attributed the different morphology to a greater growth rate along the c axis when the smaller ions (Y, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er are involved, due to their better adaptation to the compound’s crystal structure.Se han conseguido preparar monocristales de 10 óxidos mixtos de la serie LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er mediante síntesis hidrotermal optimizada, en un único paso y sin tratamientos térmicos posteriores partiendo de las correspondientes sales metálicas en disolución acuosa a 240 ºC. Los monocristales obtenidos son relativamente grandes, de varias micras y su morfología varía a lo largo de la serie: es poligonal en el caso de los compuestos de los lantánidos del inicio de la serie (Ln= Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu y Gd y acicular en el caso de los compuestos de Y y de los lantánidos del final de la serie (Ln= Tb, Dy, Ho y Er. Tras el análisis de los productos obtenidos empleando distintas condiciones de síntesis atribuimos la diferente morfología a una mayor velocidad de crecimiento cristalino a lo largo del eje c cuando intervienen los iones más pequeños (Y, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er debido a la mejor adaptación de éstos últimos a la estructura cristalina del compuesto.

  3. Solubility of La, Pr, Eu, Er and Lu in a media of 1M ionic force of NaCl by 303 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, J.J.; Solache R, M.J.; Jimenez R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    2002-01-01

    The solubility and the solubility product of La, Pr, Eu, Er and Lu in media of 1M ionic force of NaCl by 303 K was determined, by means of a radiochemical method and the pLn - pCH diagrams in free conditions of CO 2 were constructed. Moreover, the non saturation and the saturated zones and with them the pCH precipitation bound were determined. Finally a comparison among the obtained data in this work and those reported in the literature in several media was realized. (Author)

  4. Solubility of La, Pr, Eu, Er and Lu in a media of 1M ionic force of NaCl by 303 K; Solubilidad de La, Pr, Eu, Er y Lu en medio de fuerza ionica 1M de NaCl, a 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, J.J.; Solache R, M.J.; Jimenez R, M.; Rojas H, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The solubility and the solubility product of La, Pr, Eu, Er and Lu in media of 1M ionic force of NaCl by 303 K was determined, by means of a radiochemical method and the pLn{sup -}pCH diagrams in free conditions of CO{sub 2} were constructed. Moreover, the non saturation and the saturated zones and with them the pCH precipitation bound were determined. Finally a comparison among the obtained data in this work and those reported in the literature in several media was realized. (Author)

  5. Formation of La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and Lu{sup 3+} complexes with chloride ions, in aqueous medium; Formacion de complejos de La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} y Lu{sup 3+} con iones cloruro, en medio acuoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The constants of stability of the complexes of La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and Lu{sup 3+} with Cl{sup -} ions, its were determined, in the aqueous medium of HCI - HClO{sub 4} and by a solvent extraction method. The dinonyl naphtalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanides concentration, it was measured by a VIS spectrophotometry method and by another radiochemical. The ions specific interaction theory (SIT) it was used for the extrapolation to ionic force 0 M. The results indicate that the stability constants of the LnCI{sup 2+} species diminishes when increasing the ion force and the charge density. (Author)

  6. Kinetics of electrophilic exchange of lanthanide(3) and copper(2) ions in aqueous solutions of ethylenediaminetetraacetates. [Rare earths: La,Pr,Nd,Eu,Gd,Tb,Er,Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Spitsyn, V.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1984-05-01

    Electrophilic exchange in the MA/sup -/ - Cu/sup 2 +/ (M/sup 3 +/=La/sup 3 +/, PUPSILON/sup 3 +/, Nd/sup 3 +/, Eu/sup 3 +/, Gd/sup 3 +/, Tb/sup 3 +/, Er/sup 3 +/, Yb/sup 3 +/, A/sup 4 -/=ethylenediaminetetraacetate) systems is studied. Copper is chosen as a constituent cation, because the stability of the CuA/sup 2 +/- complex is higher than that of the MA/sup -/ complex, besides the CuA/sup 2 -/, is characterized by a high extinction coefficient E/sub 280/=3200. Electrophilic exchange in the systems is shown to be realized through the acid dissociation mechanism and through the association mechanism. Consideration of the acid dissociation mechanism assumes that the exchange is limited by a break in the metal-oxygen bond in the intermediate protonated complex. In case of the association mechanism it is limited by a break in the metal-nitrogen bond in the intermediate binuclear complex. Rate constants of the limiting stage are calculated. Dependences of the rate constants of exchange on the stability of the complexes, the order number of the element, acidity of medium, Cu/sup 2 +/ concentration are given. Differences are shown to exist between the exchange mechanisms in the studied: systems for the REE of cerium and yttrium subgroups.

  7. Insight into Eu redox and Pr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Rongfu; Lin, Litian; Liu, Chunmeng; Dorenbos, P.; Tao, Ye; Huang, Yan; Liang, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    A series of Ln-doped KSrPO4 (Ln = Ce3+, Eu3+, Eu2+, Pr3+) phosphors are prepared through a high-temperature solid-state method. The KSrPO4 compound is confirmed to possess a β-K2SO4 structure with the Pnma

  8. Er aftalelovens § 36 internationalt præceptiv?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eric Aa.; Werlauff, Erik

    2014-01-01

    underlagt fremmed ret som følge af parternes vedtagelse. Særligt analyseres det, i hvilket omfang aftalelovens § 36 kan kvalificeres som internationalt ufravigelig, og dette besvares benægtende. Udviklingen i EU, både lovgivningsmæssigt og i retspraksis, viser, at en internationalt præceptiv regel skal...... varetage en almen interesse, og at det således ikke er tilstrækkeligt, at en regel udelukkende varetager stærke private interesser. I lighed med fransk og tysk retspraksis kan en regel som aftalelovens § 36 derfor ikke anses for at være internationalt præceptiv....

  9. ER and PR expression and survival after endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah; Stewart, Colin J R; Clarke, Edward M; Lose, Felicity; Davies, Claire; Armes, Jane; Obermair, Andreas; Brennan, Donal; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2018-02-01

    To measure association between endometrial carcinoma ER and PR status and endometrial cancer (EC) survival, accounting for inter-observer variation. The intensity and proportion of tumor cell expression of ER and PR in ECs were assessed independently and semi-quantitatively by two pathologists using digital images of duplicate tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Cases with inconsistent initial assessment were reviewed and final scoring agreed. The association between overall and EC-specific survival and hormone receptor expression (intensity, proportion and combined) was assessed using Cox regression analysis. The C-index was used to evaluate model discrimination with addition of ER and PR status. Tumor ER and PR analysis was possible in 659 TMAs from 255 patients, and in 459 TMAs from 243 patients, respectively. Initial ER and PR scoring was consistent in 82% and 80% of cases, respectively. In multivariate analyses decreased ER and PR expression was associated with increased tumor-related mortality. Associations reached statistical significance for ER proportion score (P=0.05), ER intensity score (P=0.003), and PR combined score (P=0.04). Decreased expression of combined ER/PR expression was associated with poorer EC-specific survival than decreased expression of either hormone receptor alone (P=0.005). However, hormone receptor status did not significantly improve mortality prediction in individual cases. ER and PR expression combined, using cut-points that capture variation in scoring and across cores, is significantly associated with EC-specific survival in analyses adjusting for known prognostic factors. However, at the individual level, ER and PR expression does not improve mortality prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparative Study of Er3+, Er3+-Eu3+, Er3+-Tb3+, and Er3+-Eu3+-Tb3+ Codoped Y2O3 Nanoparticles as Optical Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Sobral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR technique, based on the thermal coupling of H11/22 and S3/24 energy levels of erbium ions, was used to study the optical heating behavior of rare earth doped yttrium oxide nanophosphors (Y2O3:Er3+, Y2O3:Er3+-Eu3+, Y2O3:Er3+-Tb3+, and Y2O3:Er3+-Eu3+-Tb3+ synthesized via PVA-assisted sol-gel route. The samples were optically heated by an 800 nm CW diode laser, while the upconverted green emissions were used to measure their temperatures in real time. The experimental results indicate that the studied nanoparticles are promising candidates to applications such as photothermal treatments and hyperthermia.

  11. Study of quantitative analysis of rare earth elements (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in soil samples by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Duc Toan; Nguyen Giang; Vo Tran Quang Thai; Do Tam Nhan; Nguyen Le Anh; Nguyen Viet Duc; Luong Thi Tham; Truong Thi Phuong Mai

    2015-01-01

    Method for the determination of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in soil samples without separating by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been studied at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. The optimal conditions for ICP-MS NexION 300X with three modes: Standard, Collision (KED), and Reaction (DRC) have been studied on the Montana II soil reference material. The result analysis shows that: DRC mode only gives good analysis result for Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tm, Yb, and Lu; Standard mode exhibits good analysis results for all elements with error from 1.2 - 29.0% and KED mode is the best one with error less than 15%. The concentrations of elements in the soil samples of Cau Dat, Bao Loc, and Da Lat were determined, which concentrations of REEs in soil samples of Cau Dat are higher than that of the other areas in Lam Dong Province. (author)

  12. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  13. Yb3+,Er3+,Eu3+-codoped YVO4 material for bioimaging with dual mode excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thao, Chu Thi Bich; Huy, Bui The; Sharipov, Mirkomil; Kim, Jin-Ik.; Dao, Van-Duong; Moon, Ja-Young; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2017-01-01

    We propose an efficient bioimaging strategy using Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ -triplet doped YVO 4 nanoparticles which were synthesized with polymer as a template. The obtained particles possess nanoscale, uniform, and flexible excitation. The effect of Eu 3+ ions on the luminescence properties of YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ was investigated. The upconversion mechanism of the prepared material was also discussed. The structure and optical properties of the prepared material were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) upconversion and photoluminescence spectra. The Commission International de I′Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates was investigated to confirm the performance of color luminescent emission. The prepared YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ nanoparticles could be easily dispersed in water by surface modification with cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH). The aqueous dispersion of the modified YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ exhibits bright upconversion and downconversion luminescence and has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cells. Our developed material with dual excitation offers a promising advance in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Prepared particles possess nanoscale size, uniform, and larger scale. • The material exhibits strong emission under dual mode excitations. • The surface material has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cell. • Low cytotoxicity, no auto-fluorescence

  14. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  15. Nitrate-assisted photocatalytic efficiency of defective Eu-doped Pr(OH)3 nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aškrabić, S; Araújo, V D; Passacantando, M; Bernardi, M I B; Tomić, N; Dojčinović, B; Manojlović, D; Čalija, B; Miletić, M; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z D

    2017-12-06

    Pr(OH) 3 one-dimensional nanostructures are a less studied member of lanthanide hydroxide nanostructures, which recently demonstrated an excellent adsorption capacity for organic pollutant removal from wastewater. In this study, Pr 1-x Eu x (OH) 3 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) defective nanostructures were synthesized by a facile and scalable microwave-assisted hydrothermal method using KOH as an alkaline metal precursor. The phase and surface composition, morphology, vibrational, electronic and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman, infrared (IR), photoluminescence (PL), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). It was deduced that the incorporation of Eu 3+ ions promoted the formation of oxygen vacancies in the already defective Pr(OH) 3 , subsequently changing the Pr(OH) 3 nanorod morphology. The presence of KNO 3 phase was registered in the Eu-doped samples. The oxygen-deficient Eu-doped Pr(OH) 3 nanostructures displayed an improved photocatalytic activity in the removal of reactive orange (RO16) dye under UV-vis light irradiation. An enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Eu-doped Pr(OH) 3 nanostructures was caused by the synergetic effect of oxygen vacancies and Eu 3+ (NO 3 - ) ions present on the Pr(OH) 3 surface, the charge separation efficiency and the formation of the reactive radicals. In addition, the 3% Eu-doped sample exhibited very good adsorptive properties due to different morphology and higher electrostatic attraction with the anionic dye. Pr 1-x Eu x (OH) 3 nanostructures with the possibility of tuning their adsorption/photocatalytic properties present a great potential for wastewater treatment.

  16. Completing the series. New coordination networks of composition {sup 3}{sub ∞}[RE{sub 2}(ADC){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O with RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Y and ADC{sup 2-} = acetylenedicarboxylate ({sup -}O{sub 2}C-C≡C-CO{sub 2}{sup -})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramm, Verena K.; Schuy, Andrea; Ruschewitz, Uwe [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Koeln Univ. (Germany); Suta, Markus; Wickleder, Claudia [Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Sternemann, Christian [Fakultaet Physik / DELTA, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany)

    2018-02-01

    The crystal structures of {sup 3}{sub ∞}[RE{sub 2}(ADC){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy) were solved and refined from X-ray single crystal data. They crystallize in a structure type already known for RE = La, Ce and Gd (P1, no. 2, Z = 2), which is characterized by REO{sub 9} polyhedra forming dimeric units being the nodes of a 3D framework structure linked by ADC{sup 2-} anions ({sup -}O{sub 2}C-C≡C-CO{sub 2}{sup -} = acetylenedicarboxylate). From synchrotron powder diffraction data it was shown that isostructural coordination networks are formed for RE = Ho, Er, Y, whereas for RE = Tm, Yb, Lu a new structure type crystallizing in a highly complex crystal structure with a large orthorhombic unit cell is found. All compounds are obtained by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing RE(OAc){sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O and acetylenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}ADC). The coordination networks of composition {sup 3}{sub ∞}[RE{sub 2}(ADC){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O were thoroughly investigated by thermal analysis and for RE = Eu, Tb, a strong red and green photoluminescence was observed and investigated by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Familial CJD Associated PrP Mutants within Transmembrane Region Induced Ctm-PrP Retention in ER and Triggered Apoptosis by ER Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Qi; Xu, Kun; Gao, Chen; Chen, Cao; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Gui-Rong; Tian, Chan; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrPC) to the pathogenic one (PrPSc). The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K) into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL) and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV) were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP) were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and capase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V) induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K) failed. Conclusions/Significance The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them the mutants

  18. Familial CJD associated PrP mutants within transmembrane region induced Ctm-PrP retention in ER and triggered apoptosis by ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrP(C to the pathogenic one (PrP(Sc. The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and caspase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K failed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY ON CARCINOMA BREAST IN RELATION TO ER AND PR STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaiah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor and the leading cause of death in women worldwide 1 . It accounts for 15 % of all cancer deaths 2 . According to the World Health Organisation (WHO, approximately 70% of breast cancers occur in women with none of the known risk factors. Only about 5% of breast cancers are inherited. Various protocols are in use for the assessment of prognosis, and also to assist further management of these cases. Of various parameters, expression of hormonereceptors Estrogen receptor (ER and Progesterone receptor (PR ar e significant AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the occurrence of ER and PR status in breast cancer patients attending S.V.R.R.G.G. Hospital. To correlate the expression of prognostic factors like age at presentation menarche, menopause, parity, tumor size, number of lymph nodes, metastasis histology, grading with ER and PR status. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This clinic opathological study of carcinoma breast was carried out in patients admitted to SVRRGG Hospital, Tirupati during the period from September 2011 to August 2013 after obtaining approval from scientific committee and ethical committee .Forty cases of breast carcinoma were taken into study. The clinical study done by interviewing, detailed examination and subjecting to relevant investigations and surgeries depending upon the stage of the disease. Excised specimen is sent for Histopathological examination in 10% formaline Reports of light microscopy (Hematoxilin and Eosin and immunohistochemistry on tumor histology including MBR (Modified Bloom Richardson grading and Estrogen and Progesterone status is analysed. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ER and PR status correlates well with histopathological grading and other clinico - pathological parameters. Higher grade is associated with ER PR negativity. Hence. Immunohistochemical assessment of ER and PR status should be incorporated as a routine investigation. This along with

  20. Efficient 1.54-μm emission through Eu2+ sensitization of Er3+ in thin films of Eu2+/Er3+ codoped barium strontium silicate under broad ultraviolet light excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Leliang; Zheng, Jun; Zuo, Yuhua; Cheng, Buwen; Wang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of Eu 2+ /Er 3+ codoped barium strontium silicate were deposited on a thermal oxide Si substrate by magnetron sputtering. Optical properties suggest that after a rapid annealing process, these films can lead to efficient Er 3+ emission at 1.54 μm with a lifetime of about 7.9 ms. Intense 1.54-μm light emission was achieved under broad ultraviolet light excitation through efficient energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Er 3+ . These results indicate that the Eu 2+ /Er 3+ thin films have potential applications as low cost and compact erbium doped waveguide amplifiers pumped by LEDs. - Highlights: • The Er 0.07 Eu 0.14 Sr 1.14 Ba 0.79 SiO 4 films are fabricated by magnetron sputtering. • Efficient energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Er 3+ ions by the dipole–dipole interaction. • Intense 1.54 μm emission is achieved under broad excitation spectrum. • The films have potential applications as low cost and compact EDWAs

  1. Luminescent properties of LuPO4-Pr and LuPO4-Eu nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vistovskyy, V.; Malyi, T.; Vas’kiv, A.; Chylii, M.; Mitina, N.; Zaichenko, A.; Gektin, A.; Voloshinovskii, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spectral-luminescence parameters of LuPO 4 -Eu and LuPO 4 -Pr nanoparticles of different sizes are studied upon excitation by the synchrotron radiation with photon energies 4–40 eV. Influence of the nanoparticle size on Eu 3+ and Pr 3+ impurity luminescence is analyzed for intracenter and recombination excitation. It is shown that the luminescence intensity of impurities in the case of recombination excitation significantly stronger decreases with decreasing of nanoparticle size compared to intracenter excitation. This feature is explained by the influence of thermalization length to nanoparticle size ratio on the recombination luminescence. Electron recombination luminescence inherent for LuPO 4 -Eu nanoparticles shows a weaker dependence on the nanoparticle size than the hole one in LuPO 4 -Pr nanoparticles. The difference between energy states of praseodymium impurity ions in nanoparticles of different sizes is revealed.

  2. Re-Appraisal of Estrogen Receptor Negative/Progesterone Receptor Positive (ER-/PR+) Breast Cancer Phenotype: True Subtype or Technical Artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Niamh M; Coll, J M; Lowery, A J; Hynes, S O; Kerin, M J; Sheehan, M; Brodie, C; Sweeney, K J

    2017-09-11

    Expression of the ER and PR receptors is routinely quantified in breast cancer as a predictive marker of response to hormonal therapy. Accurate determination of ER and PR status is critical to the optimal selection of patients for targeted therapy. The existence of an ER-/PR+ subtype is controversial, with debate centred on whether this represents a true phenotype or a technical artefact on immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim of this study was to investigate the true incidence and clinico-pathological features of ER-/PR+ breast cancers in a tertiary referral symptomatic breast unit. Clinico-pathological data were collected on invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2005. IHC for ER and PR receptors was repeated on all cases which were ER-/PR+, with the same paraffin block used for the initial diagnostic testing. Concordance between the diagnostic and repeat IHC was determined using validated testing. Complete data, including ER and PR status were available for 697 patients diagnosed during the study period. On diagnostic IHC, the immunophenotype of the breast tumours was: ER+/PR+ in 396 (57%), ER-/PR- in 157 (23%), ER+/PR- in 88 (12%) and ER-/PR+ in 56 (8.6%) patients. On repeat IHC of 48/56 ER-/PR+ tumours 45.8% were ER+/PR+, 6% were ER+/PR- and 43.7% were ER-/PR- None of the cases were confirmed to be ER-/PR+. The ER-/PR+ phenotypic breast cancer is likely to be the result of technical artefact. Prompt reassessment of patients originally assigned to this subtype who re-present with symptoms should be considered to ensure appropriate clinical management.

  3. Energy Transfer between Er3+ and Pr3+ for 2.7 μm Fiber Laser Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangtan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy transfer mechanisms between Er3+ and Pr3+ in Er3+/Pr3+ codoped germinate glass are investigated in detail. Under 980 nm LD pumping, 2.7 μm fluorescence intensity enhanced greatly. Meanwhile, 1.5 μm lifetime and fluorescence were suppressed deeply due to the efficient energy transfer from Er3+:4I13/2 to Pr3+:3F3,4, which depopulates the 4I13/2 level and promotes the 2.7 μm transition effectively. The obvious change in J-O parameters indicates that Pr3+ influences the local environment of Er3+ significantly. The increased spontaneous radiative probability in Er3+/Pr3+ glass is further evidence for enhanced 4I11/2 → 4I13/2 transition. The Er3+:4I11/2→Pr3+:1G4 process is harmful to the population accumulation on 4I11/2 level, which inhibits the 2.7 μm emission. The microscopic energy transfer coefficient of Er3+:4I13/2→Pr3+:3F3,4 is 42.25 × 10−40 cm6/s, which is 11.5 times larger than that of Er3+:4I11/2→Pr3+:1G4. Both processes prefer to be non-phonon assisted, which is the main reason why Pr3+ is so efficient in Er3+:2.7 μm emission.

  4. Effect of additionally introduced Zn and Eu dopants on the photoluminescence spectra of Er-Doped GaN crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezdrogina, M. M.; Krivolapchuk, V. V.; Petrov, V. N.; Rodin, S. N.; Cherenkov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of dopants on the photoluminescence spectrum depends on the conductivity type of the initial GaN crystals. Sensitization of emission is observed in wurtzite p-GaN crystals doped with Er. The same effect was previously observed in such crystals doped with Eu and Zn. In n-type GaN crystals sequentially doped with Eu, Zn, and Er, emission is observed in the visible (λ = 360-440 and 530-560 nm) and IR (λ = 1.54 μm) spectral regions

  5. Effect of additionally introduced Zn and Eu dopants on the photoluminescence spectra of Er-doped GaN crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezdrogina, M.M.; Krivolapchuk, V.V.; Petrov, V.N.; Rodin, S.N.; Cherenkov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of dopants on the photoluminescence spectrum depends on the conductivity type of the initial GaN crystals. The sensitizing effect of emission is observed in wurtzite p-GaN crystals doped with Er. The same effect was previously observed in such crystals doped with Eu and Zn. In n-type GaN crystals sequentially doped with Eu, Zn, and Er, the emission is observed in visible and infrared ranges of the photoluminescence spectrum [ru

  6. Lifetime moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and ER/PR/HER-defined post-menopausal breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Joy; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; SenGupta, Sandip K; Lohrisch, Caroline A; Spinelli, John J; Aronson, Kristan J

    2017-08-01

    To assess the relationship of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in leisure-time, household, and occupational domains across the total lifetime and in four age periods with breast cancer risk, as defined by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status and ER/PR/human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) status, among post-menopausal women. Data were from 692 women with incident breast cancer and 644 controls in the Canadian Breast Cancer Study, a case-control study of women aged 40-80 years in British Columbia and Ontario. Mean metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week for questionnaire-assessed leisure-time, household, and occupational MVPA were calculated for the total lifetime and four age periods (12-17, 18-34, 45-49, and ≥50 years). Odds ratios (ORs) for the relationships between domain-specific MVPA at each lifetime period and risks of ER/PR-defined and ER/PR/HER2-defined breast cancers were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Trend tests for dose-response relationships were calculated for the ORs across increasing tertiles of mean MET-hours/week of MVPA. Total lifetime leisure-time MVPA was associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- breast cancer in a dose-response fashion (p trend  = 0.014). In contrast, total lifetime household MVPA was associated with reduced risk of ER+ and/or PR+ breast cancer (p trend  trends were observed when stratified by age period. Lifetime leisure-time MVPA appeared to be associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR-/HER2- breast cancers and lifetime household MVPA was associated with reduced risk of ER+ and/or PR+ breast cancer, regardless of HER2 status.

  7. Online PR in the EU. A Study about Online Communication in Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Veghes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The “Online PR in EU” research aimed to review online communication in PR activity across the EU. The results have shown that in today’s PR, at least in the reviewed space, the main communication channel is Internet, as, in average, 59% of the specific activity happens online. We see that PR has adapted their techniques to the new requirements of the networked society. Two other important conclusions which can be drawn from this study: the first regards the availability of a cultural unity of the European area, as the results of the research have been surprisingly consistent across the analyzed countries. The second conclusion concerns the existence of “One of Many” communication model (the interactive-informal communication which, in the context of the interconnected society, places the organizations on equal footing with the connected individuals (both mentioned types of social actors having the same communication power in the online social systems.

  8. Risk of mortality of node-negative, ER/PR/HER2 breast cancer subtypes in T1, T2, and T3 tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Carol A; Caggiano, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in breast cancer-specific mortality within tumors of the same size when breast cancer was defined using the three tumor markers estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We identified 104,499 cases of node-negative primary female invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry. Tumor size was categorized as T1a, T1b, T1c, T2, and T3. Breast cancer was defined using ER, PR, and HER2. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was conducted and Cox Regression was used to compute the adjusted risk of mortality for the ER+/PR+/HER2+, ER-/PR-/HER2- (TNBC), and ER-/PR-/HER2+ (HER2-overexpressing) subtypes when compared with the ER+/PR+/HER2-. Separate models were computed for each tumor size. Unadjusted survival analysis showed that for all tumor sizes, the ER+/PR+ subtypes regardless of HER status have better breast cancer-specific survival than ER-/PR- subtypes. Subtype was not an important factor for risk of mortality for T1a tumors. The ER+/PR+/HER2+ subtype was only a risk for mortality in T1b tumors that were unadjusted for treatment. For all other tumor sizes, the ER+/PR+/HER2+ had the same mortality as the ER+/PR+/HER2- subtype regardless of adjustment for treatment. The HER2-overexpressing subtype had a higher risk of mortality than the ER+/PR+/HER2- subtype except for T1b tumors that were adjusted for treatment. For all tumor sizes, the TNBC had higher hazard ratios than all other subtypes. T1a tumors have the same risk of mortality regardless of ER/PR/HER2 subtype, and ER and PR negativity plays a stronger role in survival than HER2 positivity for tumors of all size.

  9. Superstructure formation in PrNi_2Al_3 and ErPd_2Al_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Janka, Oliver; Oldenburg Univ.

    2017-01-01

    The intermetallic phase ErPd_2Al_3 was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The sample was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The structure of ErPd_2Al_3 was refined from X-ray diffraction data and revealed a superstructure of PrNi_2Al_3 - a CaCu_5 derivative (P6/m, a=1414.3(1), c=418.87(3) pm wR=0.0820, 1060 F"2 values, 48 variables). The same superstructure was subsequently found for PrNi_2Al_3 (P6/m, a=1407.87(4), c=406.19(2) pm, wR=0.0499, 904 F"2 values, 47 variables). In the crystal structure, the aluminium and transition metal atoms form a polyanionic network according to [T_2Al_3]"δ"-, while rare earth atoms fill cavities within the networks. They are coordinated by six transition metal and twelve aluminum atoms. In contrast to the PrNi_2Al_3 type structure reported so far, two crystallographic independent rare-earth sites are found of which one (1b) is shifted by 1/2 z, causing a distortion in the structure along with a recoloring of the T and Al atoms in the network.

  10. Photoabsorption by the 3d shell in Ce, Pr, Ho, and Er: Observations and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar, J.; Brewer, W.D.; Kalkowski, G.; Kaindl, G.; Paparazzo, E.

    1985-01-01

    Improved 3d photoabsorption spectra of the series of rare-earth fluorides have been obtained by recording total electron yield and using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. They are compared with predicted spectra resulting from an average-of-configuration calculation of wave functions employing radial integrals adjusted to the observed spectrum in each case; results are presented here for Ce, Pr, Ho, and Er spectra. Improved resolution of the Ce spectrum permitted for the first time a determination of the proper scaling for all of the electrostatic parameters

  11. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of RCu5-xPdx (R=Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.V.; Bonville, P.; Manfrinetti, P.; Provino, A.; Dhar, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    We report the effect of replacing Cu by Pd in RCu 5 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu). The parent RCu 5 compounds crystallize in the hexagonal CaCu 5 -type structure. The hexagonal symmetry is retained in PrCu 4 Pd and EuCu 5-x Pd x (x=1 and 2) but the crystal structure changes to cubic AuBe 5 -type in PrCu 3 Pd 2 , NdCu 5-x Pd x (x=1 and 2) and SmCu 4 Pd. Substitution with Pd leads to lattice expansion and modifies the magnetic behavior. While PrCu 5 is known to be a van-Vleck paramagnet with a singlet ground state, PrCu 4 Pd and PrCu 3 Pd 2 show ferromagnetic-like behavior at low temperatures. SmCu 4 Pd orders ferromagnetically near 28 K in contrast to the antiferromagnetic nature of the parent SmCu 5 . The divalent nature of the Eu ions in EuCu 5 is retained in the ternary alloys, but the Curie temperature is reduced from 57 to 24.5 and 14.5 K in EuCu 4 Pd and EuCu 3 Pd 2 , respectively, inferred from the location of peak in the heat capacity of these two compounds. The magnetic hyperfine field at the Eu nucleus measured with 151 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy in the ternary Eu-alloys is comparable to that in EuCu 5 . The magnetic behavior of NdCu 4 Pd is similar to that reported in NdCu 5 . The zero-field-cooled, low-field magnetization of NdCu 3 Pd 2 shows a region of diamagnetic behavior roughly between 21 and 4 K, but the field-cooled response is positive.

  12. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Racial/Ethnic Disparities among the ER/PR/HER2 Breast Cancer Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, C. A.; Caggiano, V.Caggiano

    2015-01-01

    Background. The eight ER/PR/HER2 breast cancer subtypes vary widely in demographic and clinico pathologic characteristics and survival. This study assesses the contribution of SES to the risk of mortality for blacks, Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians when compared with white women for each ER/PR/HER2 subtype. Methods. We identified 143,184 cases of first primary female invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry between 2000 and 2012. The risk of mortality was computed for each race/ethnicity within each ER/PR/HER2 subtype. Models were adjusted for tumor grade, year of diagnosis, and age. SES was added to a second set of models. Analyses were conducted separately for each stage. Results. Race/ethnicity did not contribute to the risk of mortality for any subtype in stage 1 when adjusted for SES. In stages 2, 3, and 4, race/ethnicity was associated with risk of mortality and adjustment for SES changed the risk only in some subtypes. SES reduced the risk of mortality by over 45% for American Indians with stage 2 ER+/PR+/HER2-cancer, but it decreased the risk of mortality for blacks with stage 2 triple negative cancer by less than 4%. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities do not exist in all ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and, in general, SES modestly alters these disparities.

  13. The influence of Pr3+ co-doping on the photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2:Eu3+/Tb3+

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tb3+-Pr3+, and Eu3+-Pr3+ ion pairs co-doped in a SiO2 matrix were prepared by a sol-gel method. Co-doping of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions with Pr3+ in SiO2 resulted in the quenching of Eu3+ and Tb3+ emissions with increasing Pr3+ concentrations. The quenching...

  14. Multifunctional Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle method

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović, Tamara V.; Jovanović, Dragana J.; Lojpur, Vesna; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles in reverse micelles and their multifunctional luminescence properties are presented. Using cyclohexane, Triton X-100, and n-pentanol as the oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively, crystalline nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter are prepared at low temperatures. The particle size assessed using transmission electron microscopy is similar to the crystallite size obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements, suggesting that each ...

  15. Breast Cancer Survival Defined by the ER/PR/HER2 Subtypes and a Surrogate Classification according to Tumor Grade and Immunohistochemical Bio markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, C. A.; Caggiano, V.

    2014-01-01

    ER, PR, and HER2 are routinely available in breast cancer specimens. The purpose of this study is to contrast breast cancer-specific survival for the eight ER/PR/HER2 subtypes with survival of an immunohistochemical surrogate for the molecular subtype based on the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and tumor grade. Methods. We identified 123,780 cases of stages 1-3 primary female invasive breast cancer from California Cancer Registry. The surrogate classification was derived using ER/PR/HER2 and tumor grade. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess differences in survival and risk of mortality for the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and surrogate classification within each stage. Results. The luminal B/HER2− surrogate classification had a higher risk of mortality than the luminal B/HER2+ for all stages of disease. There was no difference in risk of mortality between the ER+/PR+/HER2− and ER+/PR+/HER2+ in stage 3. With one exception in stage 3, the ER-negative subtypes all had an increased risk of mortality when compared with the ER-positive subtypes. Conclusions. Assessment of survival using ER/PR/HER2 illustrates the heterogeneity of HER2+ subtypes. The surrogate classification provides clear separation in survival and adjusted mortality but underestimates the wide variability within the subtypes that make up the classification.

  16. Breast Cancer Survival Defined by the ER/PR/HER2 Subtypes and a Surrogate Classification according to Tumor Grade and Immunohistochemical Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Parise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ER, PR, and HER2 are routinely available in breast cancer specimens. The purpose of this study is to contrast breast cancer-specific survival for the eight ER/PR/HER2 subtypes with survival of an immunohistochemical surrogate for the molecular subtype based on the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and tumor grade. Methods. We identified 123,780 cases of stages 1–3 primary female invasive breast cancer from California Cancer Registry. The surrogate classification was derived using ER/PR/HER2 and tumor grade. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess differences in survival and risk of mortality for the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and surrogate classification within each stage. Results. The luminal B/HER2− surrogate classification had a higher risk of mortality than the luminal B/HER2+ for all stages of disease. There was no difference in risk of mortality between the ER+/PR+/HER2− and ER+/PR+/HER2+ in stage 3. With one exception in stage 3, the ER-negative subtypes all had an increased risk of mortality when compared with the ER-positive subtypes. Conclusions. Assessment of survival using ER/PR/HER2 illustrates the heterogeneity of HER2+ subtypes. The surrogate classification provides clear separation in survival and adjusted mortality but underestimates the wide variability within the subtypes that make up the classification.

  17. HER-2, ER, PR status concordance in primary breast cancer and corresponding metastatic lesion in lymph node in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min Hua; Hou, Chuan Ling; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Ai Jing

    2016-04-01

    To compare the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) in the primary site and the metastatic lesion of lymph nodes in invasive breast cancer for investigating whether the expression of these biomarkers in the primary site could act as a surrogate to the lymphatic metastatic lesion in the same patient. In lymphatic metastatic lesion and corresponding primary lesion of 107 cases of invasive breast cancer, ER and PR statuses were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER-2 expression level was evaluated by IHC and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the primary lesions, 43.9% were ER positive; 46.7% were PR positive; 34.6% were HER-2 positive. In corresponding lymphatic metastatic lesions, the HER-2 status was concordant in 90 patients; 9 patients were diagnosed positive in metastatic lesion while negative in primary lesion; 8 patients were negative in metastatic lesion while positive in primary site (agreement, 84.1%; κ=0.647). A change in ER status was observed in 24 cases: 17 cases positive in metastatic site while negative in primary site; 7 cases negative in metastatic site while positive in primary site (agreement, 77.6%; κ=0.534). PR status discordance between the primary lesion and the metastatic regional lymph nodes was reported in 19 cases (agreement, 82.2%; κ=0.640). This study revealed that there was only a moderate concordance of ER, PR and HER-2 status between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. These results indicate that it was inappropriate to predict the status of ER, PR and HER-2 in metastatic lymph nodes based on the results of evaluation of that in primary lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulsed-laser deposition of smooth thin films of Er, Pr and Nd doped glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epurescu, G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail: george@nipne.ro; Vlad, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Bodea, M.A. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Vasiliu, C. [National Institute for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 05, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dumitrescu, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials Department, Polizu Str. 1, sect. 1, Bucharest (Romania); Niciu, H. [National Institute of Glass, Department for Laser Glass Technology, 47 Th. Pallady Str., Sect.3, Bucharest (Romania); Elisa, M. [National Institute for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 05, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Siraj, K.; Pedarnig, J.D.; Baeuerle, D. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Filipescu, M.; Nedelcea, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Galca, A.C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, P.O. Box MG 07, RO- 77125, Magurele (Romania); Grigorescu, C.E.A. [National Institute for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 05, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2009-03-01

    Thin films of complex oxides have been obtained by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) from glass targets belonging to the system Li{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(RE){sub 2}O{sub 3}, with RE = Nd, Pr, Er. The films were deposited on quartz, silicon and ITO/glass substrates using a F{sub 2} laser ({lambda} = 157 nm, {iota} {approx} 20 ns) for ablation in vacuum. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the oxide films were investigated through IR and UV-VIS spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The laser wavelength was found to be the key parameter to obtain thin films with very smooth surface. In this way new possibilities are opened to grow multilayer structures for photonic applications.

  19. Multifunctional Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, Tamara V; Jovanović, Dragana J; Lojpur, Vesna; Dramićanin, Miroslav D

    2014-02-27

    Synthesis of Eu(3+)- and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles in reverse micelles and their multifunctional luminescence properties are presented. Using cyclohexane, Triton X-100, and n-pentanol as the oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively, crystalline nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter are prepared at low temperatures. The particle size assessed using transmission electron microscopy is similar to the crystallite size obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements, suggesting that each particle comprises a single crystallite. Eu(3+)-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles emit red light through downconversion upon UV excitation. Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles exhibit several functions; apart from the downconversion of UV radiation into visible green light, they act as upconvertors, transforming near-infrared excitation (980 nm) into visible green light. The ratio of green emissions from (2)H11/2 → (2)I15/2 and (4)S3/2 → (4)I15/2 transitions is temperature dependent and can be used for nanoscale temperature sensing with near-infrared excitation. The relative sensor sensitivity is 1.11%K(-1), which is among the highest sensitivities recorded for upconversion-luminescence-based thermometers.

  20. Template-free synthesis and luminescent properties of hollow Ln:YOF (Ln = Eu or Er + Yb) microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Castro, E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, Isla de La Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); García-Sevillano, J.; Cussó, F. [Dpto. Física de Materiales, C-04, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Francisco Tomás y Valiente, 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ocaña, M., E-mail: mjurado@icmse.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, Isla de La Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Hollow lanthanide doped YOF spheres have been synthesised through a template-free procedure. • Strong red emissions are observed for Eu-doped spheres under UV illumination. • Concentration quenching of luminescence takes place in the spheres at very high Eu doping levels. • Bright red emission is observed for Er, Yb codoped spheres, making this matrix advantageous for biomedical imaging. - Abstract: A method for the synthesis of hollow lanthanide doped yttrium oxyfluoride (YOF) spheres in the micrometer size range with cubic structure based on the pyrolysis at 600 °C of liquid aerosols generated from aqueous solutions containing the corresponding rare earth chlorides and trifluoroacetic acid has been developed. This procedure, which has been used for the first time for the synthesis of YFO based materials, is simpler and advantageous when compared with other methods usually employed for the production of hollow spheres since it does not require the use of sacrificial templates. In addition, it is continuous, which is desirable because of practical reasons. The procedure is also suitable for doping the YOF spheres with europium cations resulting in down converting red phosphors when activated with UV light, or for co-doping with both Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} giving rise to up-converting phosphors, which emit intense red light under near infrared (NIR) irradiation. Because of their optical properties and hollow architecture, the developed materials may find applications in optoelectronic devices and biotechnology.

  1. Multifunctional Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, Tamara V.; Jovanović, Dragana J.; Lojpur, Vesna; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2014-02-01

    Synthesis of Eu3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles in reverse micelles and their multifunctional luminescence properties are presented. Using cyclohexane, Triton X-100, and n-pentanol as the oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively, crystalline nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter are prepared at low temperatures. The particle size assessed using transmission electron microscopy is similar to the crystallite size obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements, suggesting that each particle comprises a single crystallite. Eu3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles emit red light through downconversion upon UV excitation. Er3+/Yb3+-doped GdVO4 nanoparticles exhibit several functions; apart from the downconversion of UV radiation into visible green light, they act as upconvertors, transforming near-infrared excitation (980 nm) into visible green light. The ratio of green emissions from 2H11/2 --> 2I15/2 and 4S3/2 --> 4I15/2 transitions is temperature dependent and can be used for nanoscale temperature sensing with near-infrared excitation. The relative sensor sensitivity is 1.11%K-1, which is among the highest sensitivities recorded for upconversion-luminescence-based thermometers.

  2. Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and Breast Cancer Risk by ER and PR Subtype: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Overvad, Kim; Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; His, Mathilde; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Mark; Rinaldi, Sabina; Merritt, Melissa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2017-09-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. This study included 1,976 incident invasive breast cancer cases [estrogen receptor positive (ER+), n = 1,598], matched 1:1 to controls. Women were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Serum sRANKL was quantified using an ELISA, serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Associations between sRANKL and breast cancer risk differed by tumor hormone receptor status ( P het = 0.05). Higher concentrations of sRANKL were positively associated with risk of ER+ breast cancer [5th vs. 1st quintile RR 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01-1.63); P trend = 0.20], but not ER- disease. For both ER+ and estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer, results considering the sRANKL/OPG ratio were similar to those for sRANKL; we observed a suggestive inverse association between the ratio and ER-PR- disease [5th vs. 1st quintile RR = 0.60 (0.31-1.14); P trend = 0.03]. This study provides the first large-scale prospective data on circulating sRANKL and breast cancer. We observed limited evidence for an association between sRANKL and breast cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 525-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. The expression of ER, PR in endometrial cancer and analysis of their correlation with ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Xu, Lina; Tang, Liang

    2017-12-12

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a common malignant tumor in gynecology. Its incidence and development are closely associated with the levels of estrogenic and progesterone hormone. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway abnormity is associated with a variety of tumors. This study detected estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), ERK1, and ERK2 expression in EC and analyzed their correlations. A total of 40 EC patients in our hospital were selected as test group, while another 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled as control group. ER, PR, ERK1, and ERK2 expression in EC tissue, para-carcinoma tissue, and normal endometrial tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The positive rate of ER, PR, ERK1, and ERK2 in the test group was 50%, 40%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control (PPR, ERK1, and ERK2 protein expressions in EC cell were significantly higher than those in the control (PPR (PPR, which were correlated with higher levels of ERK1 and ERK2, suggesting they might be involved in the pathogenesis of EC.

  4. FLI1 Expression in Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Primary Breast Carcinomas is Correlated with ER, PR and HER2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inam Jasim Lafta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available FLI1 is a member of ETS family of transcription factors that regulate a variety of normal biologic activities including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The expression of FLI1 and its correlation with well-known breast cancer prognostic markers (ER, PR and HER2 was determined in primary breast tumors as well as four breast cancer lines including: MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 using RT-qPCR with either 18S rRNA or ACTB (β-actin for normalization of data. FLI1 mRNA level was decreased in the breast cancer cell lines under study compared to the normal breast tissue; however, Jurkat cells, which were used as a positive control, showed overexpression compared to the normal breast. Regarding primary breast carcinomas, FLI1 is significantly under expressed in all of the stages of breast cancer upon using 18S as an internal control. This FLI1 expression was correlated with ER, PR and HER2 status. In conclusion FLI1 can be exploited as a preliminary marker that can predict the status of ER, PR and HER2 in primary breast tumors.

  5. Early Delivery of Misfolded PrP from ER to Lysosomes by Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Constanza J.; Qin, Kefeng; Norstrom, Eric M.; Green, William N.; Bindokas, Vytautas P.; Mastrianni, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are linked to the accumulation of a misfolded isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein (PrP). Evidence suggests that lysosomes are degradation endpoints and sites of the accumulation of PrPSc. We questioned whether lysosomes participate in the early quality control of newly generated misfolded PrP. We found PrP carrying the disease-associated T182A mutation (Mut-PrP) was delivered to lysosomes in a Golgi-independent manner. Time-lapse live cell imaging revealed early formation and uptake of GFP-tagged Mut-PrP aggregates into LysoTracker labeled vesicles. Compared with Wt-PrP, Mut-PrP expression was associated with an elevation in several markers of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, and it extensively colocalized with the autophagosome-specific marker, LC3B. In autophagy deficient (ATG5−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or in normal cells treated with the autophagy-inhibitor 3-MA, Mut-PrP colocalization with lysosomes was reduced to a similar extent. Additionally, 3-MA selectively impaired the degradation of insoluble Mut-PrP, resulting in an increase in protease-resistant PrP, whereas the induction of autophagy by rapamycin reduced it. These findings suggest that autophagy might function as a quality control mechanism to limit the accumulation of misfolded PrP that normally leads to the generation of PrPSc. PMID:24454378

  6. Spectroscopic and radiation-resistant properties of Er,Pr:GYSGG laser crystal operated at 2.79 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xu-Yao; Sun Dun-Lu; Luo Jian-Qiao; Zhang Hui-Li; Fang Zhong-Qing; Quan Cong; Li Xiu-Li; Cheng Mao-Jie; Zhang Qing-Li; Yin Shao-Tang

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the spectroscopic and laser performance before and after 100 Mrad gamma-ray irradiation on an Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal grown by the Czochralski method. The additional absorption of Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal is close to zero in the 968 nm pumping and 2.7–3 μm laser wavelength regions. The lifetimes of the upper and lower levels show faint decreases after gamma-ray irradiation. The maximum output powers of 542 and 526 mW with the slope efficiencies of 17.7% and 17.0% are obtained, respectively, on the GYSGG/Er,Pr:GYSGG composite crystal before and after the gamma-ray irradiation. These results suggest that Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal as a laser gain medium possesses a distinguished anti-radiation ability for application in space and radiant environments. (paper)

  7. Study on the relationship between the growth of uterine leiomyoma and the level of hormone in serum and the content of ER and PR in uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Manhua; Cheng Ying; Guan Weiqun; Tao Qian; Zheng Yanli; Yang Qichang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between expressions of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in uterine leiomyoma, its adjacent sites and myometrium with the uterine leiomyoma. Methods: Expressions of ER and PR in uterine leiomyoma, its adjacent site and myometrium were determined by immunohistochemical SP method in 30 patients with uterine leiomyoma and serum prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured with radioimmunoassay, with normal cycling women served as the controls. Results: (1) contents of ER and PR were significantly higher in leiomyoma than in its adjacent site and myometrium (P 0.05). Conclusion: The growth of uterine leiomyoma is associated with strong expression of ER, PR in uterine tissue. When myometrectomy is performed, the myometrium around the leiomyoma should be cut at the same time

  8. Cell-specific regulation of proliferation by Ano1/TMEM16A in breast cancer with different ER, PR, and HER2 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huizhe; Wang, Hui; Guan, Shu; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Qiuchen; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Ke; Zhao, Pengfei; Zhao, Haishan; Yao, Weifan; Jin, Feng; Xiao, Qinghuan; Wei, Minjie

    2017-10-17

    The calcium-activated chloride channel Ano1 (TMEM16A) is overexpressed in many tumors. However, conflicting data exist regarding the role of Ano1 in cell proliferation. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in 403 patients with breast cancer, and analyzed the association between the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in breast cancer subtypes categorized according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Ano1 expression was negatively correlated with Ki67 expression. Ano1 overexpression more frequently occurred in ER-positive or HER2-negative patients with the low expression of Ki67. Ano1 overexpression was associated with longer overall survival (OS) in breast cancer with the low expression of Ki67, especially in ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Ano1 overexpression was a prognostic factor for longer overall survival in ER-positive, PR-positive, or HER2-negative patients with the low expression of Ki67. Furthermore, Ano1 promoted cell proliferation in ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative MCF7 cells, but inhibited cell proliferation in ER-negative, PR-negative, and HER2-negative MDA-MB-435S cells. Our findings suggest that Ano1 may differentially regulate cell proliferation in a subtype of breast cancer defined by ER, PR, and HER2. Combined expression of Ano1 and Ki67 may be used for predicting clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients with different subtypes of ER, PR, and HER2.

  9. Satellite line mapping in Eu3+–Ce3+ and Pr3+–Ce3+ codoped Y2SiO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, D.; Karlsson, J.; Zheng, L.; Dong, Y.; Ferrier, A.; Goldner, P.; Walther, A.; Rippe, L.; Kröll, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we perform a high-resolution spectroscopic investigation of Eu 3+ –Ce 3+ and Pr 3+ –Ce 3+ codoped Y 2 SiO 5 crystals. Satellite line spectra were recorded at low temperatures around the Eu 3+ : 7 F 0 → 5 D 0 and the Pr 3+ : 3 H 4 → 1 D 2 transitions. It is observed that the incorporation of Ce 3+ as a codopant notably changes the Eu 3+ and Pr 3+ satellite line patterns. Satellite lines measured in singly doped Eu 3+ :Y 2 SiO 5 were found at the same spectral positions in Eu 3+ –Ce 3+ codoped crystals. These coincident lines were concluded to be due to pairs of Eu 3+ ions. Extra satellite lines appeared in the codoped crystals, which were assigned to Ce 3+ related structures such as Ce 3+ –Eu 3+ pairs. The analysis of the Pr 3+ satellite line spectra presents further challenges. Satellite lines associated to Pr 3+ pairs show weaker intensity, presumably due to the efficient quenching of the Pr 3+1 D 2 emission through cross-relaxation paths ( 1 D 2 → 1 G 4 ; 3 H 4 → 3 F 4 ). The investigation of the Eu 3+ and Pr 3+ satellite line patterns in Y 2 SiO 5 is particularly interesting for their exploitation in rare-earth based quantum computation schemes. - Highlights: • We recorded Eu and Pr satellite lines in Y 2 SiO 5 with and without Ce as a codopant. • The presence of Ce leads to the appearance of extra satellite lines in the spectra. • The satellite lines are associated to minor crystal sites such as ion pairs. • Less than 100 ion pairs were detected per satellite line. • The exploitation of the satellite line structure is proposed for quantum computing.

  10. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  11. Use of ER/PR/HER2 subtypes in conjunction with the 2007 St Gallen Consensus Statement for early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parise Carol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2007 St Gallen international expert consensus statement describes three risk categories and provides recommendations for treatment of early breast cancer. The set of recommendations on how to best treat primary breast cancer is recognized and used by clinicians worldwide. We now examine the variability of five-year survival of the 2007 St Gallen Risk Classifications utilizing the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes. Methods Using the population-based California Cancer Registry, 114,786 incident cases of Stages 1-3 invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 were identified. Cases were assigned to Low, Intermediate, or High Risk categories. Five-year-relative survival was computed for the three St Gallen risk categories and for the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes for further differentiation. Results and Discussion There were 9,124 (13% cases classified as Low Risk, 44,234 (65% cases as Intermediate Risk, and 14,340 (21% as High Risk. Within the Intermediate Risk group, 33,735 (76% were node-negative (Intermediate Risk 2 and 10,499 (24% were node-positive (Intermediate Risk 3. For the High Risk group, 6,149 (43% had 1 to 3 positive axillary lymph nodes (High Risk 4 and 8,191 (57% had four or more positive lymph nodes (High Risk 5. Using five-year relative survival as the principal criterion, we found the following: a There was very little difference between the Low Risk and Intermediate Risk categories; b Use of the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes within the Intermediate and High Risk categories separated each into a group with better five-year survival (ER-positive and a group with worse survival (ER-negative, irrespective of HER2-status; c The heterogeneity of the High Risk category was most evident when one examined the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes; (d HER2-positivity did not always translate to worse survival, as noted when one compared the triple positive subtype (ER+/PR+/HER2+ to the triple negative subtype

  12. Equiatomic indides REIrIn (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Er-Yb). Crystal and electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaremba, Nazar [Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Chemie; Muts, Ihor; Zaremba, Vasyl [Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Hlukhyy, Viktor [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Chemie; Stein, Sebastian; Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Pavlyuk, Volodymyr [Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Czestochowa Jan Dlugosz Univ., Czestochowa (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry, Environmental Protection and Biotechnology

    2017-10-01

    The equiatomic rare earth iridium indides REIrIn (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Er-Yb) were synthesized by reaction of the elements in induction or muffle furnaces and were characterized through X-ray powder patterns. The structures of LaIr{sub 0.86}In{sub 1.14}, PrIr{sub 0.89}In{sub 1.11}, NdIr{sub 0.94}In{sub 1.06}, ErIrIn (all ZrNiAl type, P anti 62m), and YbIrIn (TiNiSi type, Pnma) were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. Refinements of the occupancy parameters revealed small degrees of solid solutions with indium substitution on the iridium sites. Chemical bonding analyses and electronic structure calculations indicate the dominance of metallic bonding in addition to partial ionic interactions between the cations and polyanions, as well as covalent contributions between the indium and iridium atoms.

  13. Optical analysis of RE(3+) (RE = Pr(3) (+) , Er(3) (+) and Nd(3) (+) ):cadmium lead boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Bhushana Reddy, M; Neelima, G; Ramanaiah, R; Nagamuni Reddy, K; Sahadeva Reddy, V; Sudhakar Reddy, B

    2016-09-01

    This article reports on the optical characterization of Pr(3) (+) -, Er(3) (+) - and Nd(3) (+) -doped cadmium lead boro tellurite (CLBT) glasses prepared using the melt quenching method. The visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) absorption spectra of these glasses were analyzed systematically. On measuring the NIR emission spectra of Er(3) (+) :CLBT glasses, a broad emission band centered at 1536 nm ((4) I13 /2  → (4) I15 /2 ) was observed, as were three NIR emission bands at 900 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I9 /2 ), 1069 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I11 /2 ) and 1338 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I13 /2 ) from Nd(3) (+) :CLBT glasses and an NIR emission band at 1334 nm ((1) G4  → (3) H5 ) from Pr(3) (+) :CLBT glasses at an excitation wavelength (λex ) of 514.5 nm (Ar(+) laser). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the CaO-REOx-CuO Systems (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu and Sc) at 900 °C in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the CaO-REOx-CuO systems (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu and Sc) were investigated in air at 900 °C. The pseudo-ternary sections with RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu have a similar structure. They have in common with the RE = Eu system a solid solution of Ca0.833−xRExCuO2......+y composition but the system with RE = Eu differs by the presence of an Eu2CuO4 phase instead of RE2Cu2O5 for RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu. In contrast, the CaO-ScO1.5-CuO section does not contain a Ca0.833−xScxCuO2+y solid solution and is dominated by the CaSc2O4 phase, which has no equivalent...... in the other systems at 900 °C in air....

  15. Strong broad green UV-excited photoluminescence in rare earth (RE = Ce, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) doped barium zirconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: ditlacio@cio.mx [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Ciudad de Mexico, D. F. 07730 (Mexico); Meza, O. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiales Avanzados y Nanoestructurados (EMANA), Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: > Trivalent rare earth (RE) substitution on Zr{sup 4+} sites in BaZrO{sub 3} lead to band gap narrowing. > RE substitution lead to enhanced blue-green intrinsic emission of nanocrystalline BaZrO{sub 3} > Blue-green hue of BaZrO3:RE depends on RE dopant and excitation UV wavelength > BaZrO3: Dy{sup 3+} PL chromatic coordinates correspond to pure white color coordinates of CIE 1931 model - Abstract: The wet synthesis hydrothermal method at 100 deg. C was used to elaborate barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}) unpurified with 0.5 mol% of different rare earth ions (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Ce). Morphological, structural and UV-photoluminescence properties depend on the substituted rare earth ionic radii. While the crystalline structure of RE doped BaZrO{sub 3} remains as a cubic perovskite for all substituted RE ions, its band gap changes between 4.65 and 4.93 eV. Under 267 nm excitation the intrinsic green photoluminescence of the as synthesized BaZrO{sub 3}: RE samples is considerably improved by the substitution on RE ions. For 1000 deg. C annealed samples, under 267 nm, the photoluminescence is dominated by the intrinsic BZO emission. It is interesting to notice that Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} doped samples present whitish emissions that might be useful for white light generation under 267 nm excitation. CIE color coordinates are reported for all samples.

  16. Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+}-codoped YVO{sub 4} material for bioimaging with dual mode excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thao, Chu Thi Bich [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Huy, Bui The [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Sharipov, Mirkomil [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Ik. [Department of Biochemistry and Health Science, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Dao, Van-Duong [Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Ja-Young [Department of Biochemistry and Health Science, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Ill, E-mail: yilee@changwon.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We propose an efficient bioimaging strategy using Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+}-triplet doped YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles which were synthesized with polymer as a template. The obtained particles possess nanoscale, uniform, and flexible excitation. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} ions on the luminescence properties of YVO{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} was investigated. The upconversion mechanism of the prepared material was also discussed. The structure and optical properties of the prepared material were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) upconversion and photoluminescence spectra. The Commission International de I′Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates was investigated to confirm the performance of color luminescent emission. The prepared YVO{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles could be easily dispersed in water by surface modification with cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH). The aqueous dispersion of the modified YVO{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} exhibits bright upconversion and downconversion luminescence and has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cells. Our developed material with dual excitation offers a promising advance in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Prepared particles possess nanoscale size, uniform, and larger scale. • The material exhibits strong emission under dual mode excitations. • The surface material has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cell. • Low cytotoxicity, no auto-fluorescence.

  17. Photoluminescence of rare-earth ion (Eu3+, Tm3+, and Er3+)-doped and co-doped ZnNb2O6 for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sen-Pei; Qian, Yan-Nan; Wang, Biao

    2015-08-01

    Visible converted emissions produced at an excitation of 286 nm in ZnNb2O6 ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (RE = Eu3+, Tm3+, Er3+ or a combination of these ions) were investigated with the aim of increasing the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells. The structure of RE:ZnNb2O6 ceramics was confirmed by x-ray diffraction patterns. The undoped ZnNb2O6 could emit a blue emission under 286-nm excitation, which is attributed to the self-trapped excitons’ recombination of the efficient luminescence centers of edge-shared NbO6 groups. Upon 286-nm excitation, Eu:ZnNb2O6, Tm:ZnNb2O6, and Er:ZnNb2O6 ceramics showed blue, green, and red emissions, which correspond to the transitions of 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1-4) (Eu3+), 1G4 → 3H6 (Tm3+), and 2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2 (Er3+), respectively. The calculated CIE chromaticity coordinates of Eu:ZnNb2O6, Tm:ZnNb2O6, and Er:ZnNb2O6 are (0.50, 0.31), (0.14, 0.19), and (0.29, 0.56), respectively. RE ion-co-doped ZnNb2O6 showed a combination of characteristic emissions. The chromaticity coordinates of Eu/Tm:ZnNb2O6, Eu/Er:ZnNb2O6, and Tm/Er:ZnNb2O6 were calculated to be (0.29, 0.24), (0.45, 0.37), and (0.17, 0.25). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10572155 and 10732100) and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. 20130171130003).

  18. Association of body mass index with ER, PR and 14-3-3σ expression in tumor and stroma of type I and type II endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peevey, Joseph F; Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Maniar, Kruti P; Kim, J Julie

    2017-06-27

    Obesity is a prominent risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC) and can impede on surgical and hormonal treatments. Markers of EC, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), phospho(Ser473)-AKT (pAKT) and 14-3-3 sigma (14-3-3σ) were measured in EC tissues in both the tumor and stroma and grouped by body mass index (BMI). Immunohistochemical scoring of 82 cases of Type 1 and Type II EC tissues revealed a significantly increased tumor expression of ER, PR and 14-3-3σ in women with Type I (BMI PR and 14-3-3σ in the tumor epithelium was significantly higher in Type I than Type II. In particular, Type I EC exhibited significantly increased levels of only PR from patients with BMI > 40 compared to BMI PR, PIK3CA, PTEN and SFN (gene for 14-3-3σ) confirmed increased PR expression in EC of obese women. In conclusion, ER, PR and 14-3-3σ are differentially regulated in Type I compared to Type II EC while PR is dysregulated in obese women with Type I EC. These findings have potential implications for efficacy of progestin treatment in obese women.

  19. Luminescent properties and quenching effects of Pr3+ co-doping in SiO2:Tb3+/Eu3+ nanophosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of Pr(sup3+) single doped SiO2 and Pr(sup3+) co-doped SiO(sub2):Tb(sup3+)/Eu(sup3+) nanophosphors synthesized using sol–gel method were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used...

  20. Svobodná povolání v právu EU

    OpenAIRE

    Veverová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Free-lance professions under the law of the EU The free-lance professions under the law of the EU serve for the topic of the present thesis. They represent a special category of occupations playing though a significant role in the daily life of the society and in the economic events of both the state and the European Union. They distinguish from other forms of businesses by the "liberty" of carrying out, i.e. the independence on the direct state supervision. It is impossible to find among EU ...

  1. Yellow light emission from Ta2O5:Er, Eu, Ce thin films deposited using a simple co-sputtering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium, europium, and cerium co-doped tantalum oxide (Ta2O5:Er, Eu, Ce thin films were prepared using a simple co-sputtering method, and yellow light emission was observed by the naked eye from a sample annealed at 900 °C for 20 min. The hexagonal Ta2O5 phase is very important, but the hexagonal CeTa7O19 phase should be avoided to obtain strong yellow light emission from Ta2O5:Er, Eu, Ce films. The co-sputtered films can be used as high-refractive-index and yellow-light-emitting materials of autocloned photonic crystals that can be applied to novel light-emission devices, and they will also be used as anti-reflection and down-conversion layers toward high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  2. Teoria e prática na formação de professores: a prática como tecnologia do eu docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Alves Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a relação teoria e prática nas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Formação dos Professores da Educação Básica, no início da década de 2000. Tem como fonte de dados a legislação curricular que instituiu a reforma e os Projetos Pedagógicos de quatro cursos de licenciatura da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Educação Física, Artes Visuais, Matemática e Ciências Sociais. A partir dos estudos de Michel Foucault sobre a governamentalidade e a ética e de estudos sobre as políticas educacionais e curriculares contemporâneas, mostra os efeitos da nova matriz curricular nos currículos dos cursos investigados. O estudo demonstra que a política oficial reforça o pragmatismo na educação de professores e problematiza a prática como tecnologia do eu docente implicada na formação de um professor prático-reflexivo, em uma visão reducionista das competências e habilidades docentes.

  3. Defects and color centers in SrTiD/sub 3/ monocrystals. [Pr, Nb Sm, Er, Tm additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulagin, N A

    1983-11-01

    Results are presented of investigation into crystal defects of nominally pure and activated SrTiO/sub 3/ monocrystals. It is shown that blue and yellow colour of the crystals is caused bt transition of some Ti/sup 4 +/ ions to Ti/sup 3 +/ which takes place against the background of essential change in the phase composition of crystals. Ions of iron group (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) in SrTiO/sub 3/ mainly form centres Me/sup 3 +/:(O/sup 2 -/)/sub 6/ with compensation of charge deficit by anion vacancies. Ti/sup 3 +/ ions serve as compensators at non-isovalent substitution for SrTiO/sub 3/:REI/sup 3 +/ (Pr, Nd, Er, Tm). It is shown that the presence of impurity in concentration up to 10/sup -1/ % does not affect the temperature of the phase transformation in the range of 106 K.

  4. Influence of clinical, societal, and treatment variables on racial differences in ER-/PR- breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseland, M E; Schwartz, K; Ruterbusch, J J; Lamerato, L; Krajenta, R; Booza, J; Simon, Michael S

    2017-08-01

    African American (AA) women with breast cancer have persistently higher mortality compared to whites. We evaluated racial disparities in mortality among women with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast cancer. The study population included 542 women (45% AA) diagnosed with ER/PR-negative Stage I through III breast cancer treated at the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) between 1996 and 2005. Linked datasets from HFHS, Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System, and the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical information. Economic deprivation was categorized using a previously validated deprivation index, which included 5 categories based on the quintile of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between race and mortality. AA women were more likely to have larger tumors, have higher Charlson Comorbidity Indices (CCI), and to reside in economically deprived areas. In an unadjusted analysis, AA women demonstrated a significantly higher risk of death compared to whites [hazard ratio (HR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.00]. Following adjustment for clinical factors (age, stage, CCI) and treatment (radiation and chemotherapy), AA race continued to have a significant impact on mortality (HR 1.51, CI 1.10-2.08 and HR 1.63, CI 1.20-2.21). Only after adjusting for deprivation was race no longer significant (HR 1.26, CI 0.84-1.87). Social determinants of health play a large role in explaining racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes, especially among women with aggressive subtypes.

  5. Thermoelectric properties, crystal and electronic structure of semiconducting RECuSe{sub 2} (RE = Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy and Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Tseng, Yu-Chih [CANMET Materials, Natural Resources Canada, 183 Longwood Road South, Hamilton, Ontario L8P 0A5 (Canada); Mozharivskyj, Yurij, E-mail: mozhar@mcmaster.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic structure of monoclinic and trigonal RECuSe{sub 2} phases. • Thermoelectric properties of the RECuSe{sub 2} phases. • Temperature stability of the RECuSe{sub 2} phases. - Abstract: The ternary RECuSe{sub 2} phases have been prepared and structurally characterized. They adopt either a monoclinic structure (P2{sub 1}/c, z = 4) for lighter rare earths (RE = Pr, Sm and Gd) or Cu-disordered trigonal structure for heavier rare-earths (P3{sup ¯}m1, z = 1, RE = Dy and Er). The resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements on GdCuSe{sub 2}, DyCuSe{sub 2} and ErCuSe{sub 2} indicate that the studied phases are p-type semiconductors with relatively small activation energies (0.045–0.11 eV). However, their electrical resistivities are too high (0.45–220 Ω cm at room temperature) to make them competitive thermoelectric materials. Electronic structure calculations indicate presence of a band gap in the RECuSe{sub 2} phases.

  6. Thermoelectric properties, crystal and electronic structure of semiconducting RECuSe2 (RE = Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy and Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Mehdi; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic structure of monoclinic and trigonal RECuSe 2 phases. • Thermoelectric properties of the RECuSe 2 phases. • Temperature stability of the RECuSe 2 phases. - Abstract: The ternary RECuSe 2 phases have been prepared and structurally characterized. They adopt either a monoclinic structure (P2 1 /c, z = 4) for lighter rare earths (RE = Pr, Sm and Gd) or Cu-disordered trigonal structure for heavier rare-earths (P3 ¯ m1, z = 1, RE = Dy and Er). The resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements on GdCuSe 2 , DyCuSe 2 and ErCuSe 2 indicate that the studied phases are p-type semiconductors with relatively small activation energies (0.045–0.11 eV). However, their electrical resistivities are too high (0.45–220 Ω cm at room temperature) to make them competitive thermoelectric materials. Electronic structure calculations indicate presence of a band gap in the RECuSe 2 phases

  7. Potentiometric investigation into complexing of Pr,Eu,Yb with new β-diketones containing oxygen atom in fluorinated radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsenko, T.V.; Lozinskij, M.O.; Panyushkin, V.T.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Berenblit, V.V.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii)

    1983-01-01

    Potentiometric method in the aqueous-methanol media at 25 deg and ionic torce of 0.15 (NaCl) has been used to determine the constants of acidic dissociation of the next β-diketones; Rsub(F)-CO-CHsub(2)-CO-R, where R=-C 6 H 5 , Rsub(F) C 3 F 7 OCF(CF 3 ) - (1), CF 3 O(CF 2 ) 3 OCF(CF 3 ) - (2), CF 3 O(CF 2 O) 4 CF 2 - (3), CF 3 O(CF 2 ) 2 - (4) and R=-C 4 H 3 S, Rsub(F) CF 3 O(CF 2 ) 3 OCF(CF 3 ) - (5), CF 3 O(CF 2 O) 4 CF 2 - (6). Synthesis of the 1-3, 5, 6 is described. Stability constants of Pr 3+ , Eu 3+ , Yb 3+ with 1-6 are calculated. Stability of the complexes for the each β-diketone increases in Pr-Eu-Yb series. Correlation between stability of the chelates and acidic properties of the β-diketonates is traced for the complexes of one metal with different ligands. Thus, the acidic properties of the β-diketones increase in the 1, 6-4 series; stability of their complexes with rare earths decreases in such order

  8. Dvoustranné dohody o ochraně investic a právo EU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    -, č. 1 (2010), s. 3-11 ISSN 1337-6810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/09/0760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : Bilateral investment treaties * EU law * Lisbon Treaty Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  9. Effect of Modified and accumulated decoction on serum ER, PR, sex hormone, IGF-I and IGF-I in patients with uterine fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Sha Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Modified and accumulated Decoction on serum ER, PR, sex hormone, IGF-I and IGF-I in patients with uterine fibroids. Method: A total of 90 patients with uterine fibroids in our hospital from January 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into the control group (n=45 and the treatment group (n=45 randomly. The control group was treated with mifepristone, the treatment group was treated with Modified and accumulated Decoction combined with mifepristone, and both the two groups were treated for 3 months. The uterine fibroid volume and uterine volume of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. The serum ER, PR, P, E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I and IGF-IR of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Result: There were no significantly differences of the uterine fibroid volume and uterine volume of the two groups before treatment. The uterine fibroid volume and uterine volume of the two groups after treatment were significantly less than before treatment, and that of the treatment group after treatment were significantly less than the control group. There were no significantly differences among the serum ER, PR, P, E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I and IGF-IR of the two groups before treatment. The serum ER, PR, P, E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I and IGF-IR of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Modified and accumulated Decoction combined with mifepristonecan significantly reduce the uterine fibroid volume, improve the serum ER, PR, sex hormone, IGF-I and IGF-I levels of the patients with uterine fibroids, and it was worthy clinical application.

  10. Electronic and crystal structure, EPR and magnetic investigations of YF{sub 3}:1%RE (RE = Pr, Ho, Er and Tm) and LaF{sub 3}:1%Pr nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, E., E-mail: talik@us.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zajdel, P.; Guzik, A.; Skrzypek, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Lipińska, L.; Michalska, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The thermal decomposition method was successfully applied for the first time in order to obtain the good quality nanocrystals of YF{sub 3}:1%RE. • For YF{sub 3}:1%Pr and LaF{sub 3}:1%Pr extra phase PrF{sub 3} was found. • The XPS energy gap is about 10 eV. • Surface contamination can be responsible for the deterioration of the optical properties of the composites. - Abstract: A new chemical synthesis route by a thermal decomposition of nitrates and acetates, preceded by solution displacement reaction, was successfully applied to obtain the YF{sub 3}:1%RE (RE = Pr, Ho, Er and Tm) and LaF{sub 3}:1%Pr nanocrystals. The samples were characterized by the following methods: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), magnetic susceptibility thermal dependence measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The obtained YF{sub 3}:1%RE (RE = Pr, Ho, Er and Tm) materials crystallized with orthorhombic symmetry, whilst LaF{sub 3}:1%Pr exhibits hexagonal structure. Chemical composition determined by EDX, XPS and magnetic measurements was close to nominal formula. SEM images show the nanometric size of the grains. Surface contamination can be suggested to be responsible for the deterioration of the optical properties of the composites.

  11. A first-principles study of B2 NiAl alloyed with rare earth elements Pr, Pm, Sm, and Eu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jun-Qi; Wang You; Yan Mu-Fu; Pan Zhao-Yi; Guo Li-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The structural,elastic,and electronic properties of NiAl alloyed with rare earth elements Pr,Pm,Sm,and Eu are investigated by using density functional theory (DFT).The study suggests that Pr,Pm,Sm,and Eu all tend to be substituted for an Al site.Ni8Al7Pm possesses the largest ductility.Only the hardness and ductility of Ni8Al7Eu are enhanced simultaneously.The covalency strength of the Ni-Al bond in Ni8Al7Pm is higher than that in Ni8Al7Eu.The covalency strength of an Al-Al bond and that of a Ni-Ni bond in Ni8Al7Eu are higher than that in Ni8Al7Pm.The Ni-Pm bond and the Ni-Eu bond are covalent,and the covalency strength of the Ni-Pm bond is greater.The Al-Pm bond and the Al-Eu bond show great covalency strength and ionicity,respectively.

  12. Potentiometric investigation into complexing of Pr,Eu,Yb with new. beta. -diketones containing oxygen atom in fluorinated radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, T.V.; Lozinskij, M.O.; Panyushkin, V.T.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Berenblit, V.V. (Kubanskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Krasnodar (USSR); AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii)

    1983-01-01

    Potentiometric method in the aqueous-methanol media at 25 deg and ionic torce of 0.15 (NaCl) has been used to determine the constants of acidic dissociation of the next ..beta..-diketones; Rsub(F)-CO-CHsub(2)-CO-R, where R=-C/sub 6/H/sub 5/, Rsub(F) C/sub 3/F/sub 7/OCF(CF/sub 3/) - (1), CF/sub 3/O(CF/sub 2/)/sub 3/OCF(CF/sub 3/) - (2), CF/sub 3/O(CF/sub 2/O)/sub 4/CF/sub 2/ - (3), CF/sub 3/O(CF/sub 2/)/sub 2/ - (4) and R=-C/sub 4/H/sub 3/S, Rsub(F) CF/sub 3/O(CF/sub 2/)/sub 3/OCF(CF/sub 3/) - (5), CF/sub 3/O(CF/sub 2/O)/sub 4/CF/sub 2/ - (6). Synthesis of the 1-3, 5, 6 is described. Stability constants of Pr/sup 3 +/, Eu/sup 3 +/, Yb/sup 3 +/ with 1-6 are calculated. Stability of the complexes for the each ..beta..-diketone increases in Pr-Eu-Yb series. Correlation between stability of the chelates and acidic properties of the ..beta..-diketonates is traced for the complexes of one metal with different ligands. Thus, the acidic properties of the ..beta..-diketones increase in the 1, 6-4 series; stability of their complexes with rare earths decreases in such order.

  13. Crystal structures of double vanadates Ca9R(VO4)7. 1. R = La, Pr and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belik, A.A.; Morozov, V.A.; Lazoryak, B.I.; Khasanov, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Crystalline structures of Ca 9 R(VO 4 ) 7 (R = La(1), Pr(2), Eu(3)) were studied by means of the complete profile analysis. The compounds crystallize in trigonal syngony (sp.gr. R3c, Z=6) with the following parameters of the elementary cells: 1 - a=10.8987(5), c = 38.147(1) A, V = 3924.1(3) A; 2 - a 10.8808(7), c = 38.135(1) A, V = 3910.0(3) A; 3 - a = 10.8651(1), c 38.089(1) A, V = 3894.0(3) A 3 . The rare-earth element cations together with calcium population density of the rare-earth element cations in the positions changes regularly depending on their radius. In some compounds starting from La up to Eu the population density of the rare-earth element cations in M(3) position decreases, while that in M(1) and M(2) position - increases

  14. The equiatomic intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and magnetic properties of CeAuCd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnscher, Michael; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Tappe, Frank [Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt, Hamm (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The cadmium intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and CeAuCd were synthesized by induction-melting of the elements in sealed niobium ampoules followed by annealing in muffle furnaces. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structures of CePtCd (ZrNiAl type, P anti 62m, a = 763.8(6), c = 409.1(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0195, 298 F{sup 2} values, 14 variables) and EuPtCd (TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 741.3(2), b = 436.4(1), c = 858.0(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0385, 440 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables) were refined from single-crystal data. The REPtCd structures exhibit three-dimensional networks of corner- and edge-sharing Cd rate at Pt{sub 2/6}Pt{sub 2/3} and Cd rate at Pt{sub 4/4} tetrahedra, which leave cages for the rare earth atoms. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of CeAuCd reveal a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition at T{sub N} = 3.7(5) K.

  15. The equiatomic intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and magnetic properties of CeAuCd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnscher, Michael; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The cadmium intermetallics REPtCd (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu) and CeAuCd were synthesized by induction-melting of the elements in sealed niobium ampoules followed by annealing in muffle furnaces. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structures of CePtCd (ZrNiAl type, P anti 62m, a = 763.8(6), c = 409.1(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0195, 298 F 2 values, 14 variables) and EuPtCd (TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 741.3(2), b = 436.4(1), c = 858.0(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0385, 440 F 2 values, 20 variables) were refined from single-crystal data. The REPtCd structures exhibit three-dimensional networks of corner- and edge-sharing Cd rate at Pt 2/6 Pt 2/3 and Cd rate at Pt 4/4 tetrahedra, which leave cages for the rare earth atoms. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of CeAuCd reveal a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition at T N = 3.7(5) K.

  16. Hypermethylation pattern of ESR and PgR genes and lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors in human breast cancer tumors: ER/PR subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Taleban, Forough-Azam; Mehdipour, Parvin; Sabour, Siamak; Atri, Morteza

    2018-02-14

    The option of endocrine therapy in breast cancer remains conventionally promising. We aimed to investigate how accurately the pattern of hypermethylation at estrogen receptor (ESR) and progesterone receptor (PgR) genes may associate with relative expression and protein status of ER, PR and the combinative phenotype of ER/PR. In this consecutive case-series, we enrolled 139 primary diagnosed breast cancer. Methylation specific PCR was used to assess the methylation status (individual test). Tumor mRNA expression levels were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry data was used to present hormonal receptor status of a tumor (as test reference). Methylation at ESR1 was comparably frequent in ER-breast tumors (83.0%, PPR- conditions (Cramer's V= 0.44, PPR (77.1%, PPR expressions (55.6%, PPR- (64.4%, PPR-, the hypermethylation of PgRb seem another epigenetic signalling variable actively associate with methylated ESR1 to show lack of ER+/PR+ tumors in breast cancer.

  17. Ternary phosphates in Ca3(PO4)2-Na3Ln(PO4)2 (Ln-Nd, Eu, Er) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazoryak, B.I.; Ivanov, L.N.; Strunenkova, T.V.; Golubev, V.N.; Viting, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Ternary phosphates, formed in Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -Na 3 Ln(PO 4 ) 2 (Ln-Nd, Eu, Er) systems were investigated by the methods of X-ray phase, luminescent analyses and IR spectroscopy. 5 regions of homogeneity were found. Two of them (I and II) were distinguished for all systems. Samples in the region of up to 14.285 mol.% Na 3 Ln(PO 4 ) 2 crystallize on the basis of β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 structure, and in other homogeneity regions - on the basis of β-K 2 SO 4 structure

  18. Structures, magnetic, and thermal properties of Ln3MoO7 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, and Eu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimine, Hiroaki; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Ternary lanthanide-molybdenum oxides Ln 3 MoO 7 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu) have been prepared. Their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction measurements. They crystallize in a superstructure of cubic fluorite and the space group is P2 1 2 1 2 1 . The Mo ion is octahedrally coordinated by six oxygens and the slightly distorted octahedra share corners forming a zig-zag chain parallel to the b-axis. These compounds have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. The La 3 MoO 7 shows complex magnetic behavior at 150 and 380K. Below these temperatures, there is a large difference in the temperature-dependence of the magnetic susceptibility measured under zero-field-cooled condition and under field-cooled condition. The Nd 3 MoO 7 show a clear antiferromagnetic transition at 2.5K. From the susceptibility measurements, both Pr 3 MoO 7 and Sm 3 MoO 7 show the existence of magnetic anomaly at 8.0 and 2.5K, respectively. The results of the specific heat measurements also show anomalies at the corresponding magnetic transition temperatures. The differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicate that two phase-transitions occur for any Ln 3 MoO 7 compound in the temperature range between 370 and 710K

  19. Eu, tu, ele(s, ela(s: cartografando heteroconjugalidades na prática do swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Marília Alves de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo As experimentações da sexualidade produzidas nas heteroconjugalidades contemporâneas têm vivido transições nos seus suportes afetivo-relacionais, maior flexibilização em suas hierarquias de gênero e enriquecimento das suas possibilidades institucionais. Problematizaremos a prática do swing como uma das linhas de tensionamento produzidas nesta agonística cultural, tomando como objeto de estudo hetero/casais em cenas eróticas ‘dissidentes’. Nesta cena da pesquisa nos valemos de conversações entre interlocutoras/res swingers cearenses e uma das pesquisadoras. Os princípios do método do nosso estudo se (desacomodam em perspectivas feministas e desde os estudos queer, assumindo um modo de análise em posição discursivo-desconstrucionista, a partir dos pressupostos foucaultianos da análise do discurso. Esta cartografia íntima nos permitiu acompanhar algo dos/nos trânsitos das relações hetero/conjugais contemporâneas e suas (dissidentes performances de gênero e experimentações das sexualidades. De modo que assumimos, pelo instante, a ideia do swing como prática de subjetivação e modo de experimentação da heteroconjugalidade.

  20. Enhanced ~2.7 µm emission investigation of Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition in Yb,Er,Pr:SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Baotong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Li, Jianfu; Zhu, Zhaojie; You, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Tu, Chaoyang, E-mail: tcy@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The bulk crystal of 5at% Yb{sup 3+}, 20 at% Er{sup 3+} and 0.2 at% Pr{sup 3+} triply doped SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} (abbr. as Yb,Er,Pr:SLGO) was grown by the Czochralski method. The effects of co-dopant Yb{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} on the spectroscopic properties and the mutual energy transfer mechanism were investigated, via the measurements of its absorption, near-infrared and mid-infrared fluorescence spectra, as well as the fluorescence decay curves of Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} levels at room temperature. As compared with 20at% Er{sup 3+} singly doped SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystal, ~2.7 µm emission intensity corresponding to Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition is enhanced greatly in the Yb,Er,Pr:SLGO crystal. Spectral analyses indicate that the sensitization of Yb{sup 3+} to Er{sup 3+} improves the ~2.7 µm emission in Yb,Er,Pr:SLGO crystal, meanwhile, the depopulation of Pr{sup 3+} from Er{sup 3+} decreases the ~1.5 µm emission and inhibits the self-termination effect. The energy transfer efficiencies of Yb{sup 3+}→Er{sup 3+} (ET1), Er{sup 3+}→Pr{sup 3+} (ET2) and Er{sup 3+}→Pr{sup 3+} (ET3) were estimated and discussed. The above results conclude that Yb,Er,Pr:SLGO crystal is a good candidate for LD pumped mid-infrared laser. - Graphical abstract: As compared with Er: SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystal, ~2.7 µm MIR emissions corresponding to Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition were enhanced in Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} triply doped SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystal owing to the sensitization of co-dopant Yb{sup 3+} via ET1, at the same time, ~1.5 µm NIR emissions were weakened owing to the depopulation of co-dopant Pr{sup 3+} via ET3.

  1. Effect of Chinese Herbs Bu-shen on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of Decidue in Bromocriptine-induced Hypoprolactin Rat Abortion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-ming LI; Sui-qi GUI; Li-hui JIANG; Li-min LU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Chinese herbs on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of decidue in Bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactin abortion rat model from gene transcription level, and observe the changes of blood PRL, P, E2.Methods RT-PCR method was taken to analyses the differences of PRLR, PR, ER mRNA in decidue between model group (A group) and model + herbs group (A + H group); RIA was taken to measure the serum levels of PRL, P, E2.Results PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue of Group A was significantly lower than the A+H group (P0.05); the abortion rate of Group A was 67%, Group A+H was 17%, the difference was significant; as for the PRL and P level of day 7~10, the A group was significantly lower than the A+H group (P<0.05).Conclusion Bromocriptine could induce abortion by declining the blood PRL, P level and downregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue. Chinese herbs might maintain pregnancy by promoting PRL, P secretion and upregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue.

  2. Synthesis under ambient pressure and tri-axial magnetic orientation in REBa2Cu4O8 (RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, M.; Horii, S.; Haruta, M.; Maeda, T.; Shimoyama, J.

    2011-01-01

    REBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 (RE124) was synthesized by a flux method in ambient pressure for RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er. Tri-axial orientation of RE124 was achieved in a modulated rotating magnetic field of 10 T. Orientation axes in RE124 depended on the type of RE. Magnetization axes were determined from magnetic anisotropies of Cu and RE ions. We report the rare-earth (RE)-dependent magnetization axes of REBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , which was synthesized by a flux method under ambient pressure, using powder samples tri-axially oriented in a modulated rotating magnetic field of 10 T. By optimizing the growth temperature and cooling rate, RE124 crystals were successfully grown for RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, and Er. From the X-ray diffraction measurement, the magnetically oriented directions were largely dependent on the type of RE ions of RE124. However, the tri-axial magnetic anisotropies of RE124 could be qualitatively understood in terms of the magnitude relation between the single-ion magnetic anisotropy of RE 3+ ions and the magnetic anisotropy generated by the CuO 2 plane and Cu-O chain. For the practical use of this magneto-scientific process, the control of magnetization axes and tri-axial magnetic anisotropies through crystallochemical control is indispensable.

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity of Ln0.01Sn0.99Se (Ln-Pr,Tb,Er) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseynov, D.I.; Murguzov, M.I.; Ismaylov, Sh.S.; Mamedova, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper contains research results on the effect of gamma irradiation on thermal electromotive force and thermal conductivity of Ln 0 .01Sn 0 .99Se (Ln-Pr,Tb,Er) crystals. It is studied some electrical properties of the samples obtained before and after irradiation in a wide temperature range (80-420 K). As a source it was used an isotope 60Co with photon energies 1.25 MeV, the radiation dose was 65 Mrad

  4. AutoIHC-scoring: a machine learning framework for automated Allred scoring of molecular expression in ER- and PR-stained breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, S; Arun, I; Ahmed, R; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, C

    2017-11-01

    In prognostic evaluation of breast cancer Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers namely, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are widely used. The expert pathologist investigates qualitatively the stained tissue slide under microscope to provide the Allred score; which is clinically used for therapeutic decision making. Such qualitative judgment is time-consuming, tedious and more often suffers from interobserver variability. As a result, it leads to imprecise IHC score for ER and PR. To overcome this, there is an urgent need of developing a reliable and efficient IHC quantifier for high throughput decision making. In view of this, our study aims at developing an automated IHC profiler for quantitative assessment of ER and PR molecular expression from stained tissue images. We propose here to use CMYK colour space for positively and negatively stained cell extraction for proportion score. Also colour features are used for quantitative assessment of intensity scoring among the positively stained cells. Five different machine learning models namely artificial neural network, Naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbours, decision tree and random forest are considered for learning the colour features using average red, green and blue pixel values of positively stained cell patches. Fifty cases of ER- and PR-stained tissues have been evaluated for validation with the expert pathologist's score. All five models perform adequately where random forest shows the best correlation with the expert's score (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.9192). In the proposed approach the average variation of diaminobenzidine (DAB) to nuclear area from the expert's score is found to be 7.58%, as compared to 27.83% for state-of-the-art ImmunoRatio software. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Does Metformin affect ER, PR, IGF-1R, β-catenin and PAX-2 expression in women with diabetes mellitus and endometrial cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, Anna; Pawałowska, Monika; Filas, Violetta; Korski, Konstanty; Gryboś, Marian; Sajdak, Stefan; Olejek, Anita; Bednarek, Wiesława; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Lubin, Jolanta; Markowska, Janina

    2013-12-05

    Diabetes mellitus, as a risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC), causes an increase in insulin and IGF-1 concentrations in the blood serum. The increase in insulin and IGF-1 are considered mitogenic factors contributory to cancer development. Studies suggest that metformin has preventive activity, decreasing mortality and the risk of neoplasms. Since estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and IGF-1 (IGF-1R) receptor expression and β-catenin and PAX-2 mutations are significant in the development of endometrial cancer, it was decided to study these factors in patients with endometrial cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to establish the effects of metformin on their expression. The expression of ER, PR, IGF-1R, β-catenin and PAX-2 have been immunohistochemically investigated in 86 type I endometrial cancer specimens. Patients were grouped according to the presence of DM2 and the type of hypoglycemic treatment administered. Comparing EC patients with DM2 and normal glycemic status, we found increased IGF-1R expression in women with DM2. A decrease in ER expression was noted in women with EC and DM2 receiving metformin as compared to women treated with insulin (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in PR, IGF-1R, β-catenin and PAX-2 expression among women receiving metformin and other hypoglycemic treatment. Although epidemiological studies suggest the beneficial role of metformin in many human cancers, there are still few studies confirming its favorable effect on endometrial cancer. Decreased ER expression in patients receiving metformin needs further research to allow evaluation of its clinical significance.

  6. Photoluminescence quenching by OH in Er- and Pr-doped glasses for 1.5 and 1.3 μm optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Anne J.; Simons, Dennis R.; Yan, Yingchao; de Waal, Henk

    1994-09-01

    In this paper we report on the effect of hydroxyl (OH) groups on the photoluminescence in the near IR (1.5 and 1.3 micrometers ) in rare earth (Er, Pr)-doped glasses. The 1.5 micrometers emission of Er-doped phosphate glasses was studied, before and after a special heat treatment. The luminescent lifetime of the 1.5 micrometers emission increases substantially, typically from 3 ms up to 7.2 ms for a 2 mole% Er2O3-doped phosphate glass, due to the controlled heat treatment. The increase in lifetime is ascribed to a decrease in OH- concentration, which is confirmed by IR-absorption spectroscopy. The quenching by OH is described by a simplified quenching model, which predicts the 1.5 micrometers emission lifetime as a function of Er- concentration with the OH-concentration as parameter. It appears that the larger part of the OH groups is coupled to Er ions and thus acts as quenching center. Photoluminescence quenching by OH groups is also reported for the 1.3 micrometers emission of Pr in GeS2-glasses: In pure OH-free GeS2 glass the 1.3 micrometers emission lifetime is as high as 350 microsecond(s) , for a 400 ppm dopant level. In GeS2 glasses containing only small amounts of OH (approximately 100 ppm), this lifetime is less than 200 microsecond(s) . Both examples demonstrate that for the fabrication of efficient glass optical amplifiers at the telecommunication windows 1.3 and 1.5 micrometers , the OH-impurity level of the host glass must be kept as low as possible.

  7. Ortho-vanadates K3RE(VO4)2 (RE = La, Pr, Eu, Gd, Dy, Y) for near UV-converted phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lin; Wei, Dong-Lei; Huang, Yanlin; Qin, Chuanxiang; Cai, Peiqing; Kim, Sun-Il; Seo, Hyo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The orthovanadate poly-crystals K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = La, Pr, Eu, Gd, Dy, Y) were synthesized via the solid-state reaction route. The crystal phase formation was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and was performed by structural refinements. The optical properties were also investigated in detail. K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) phosphors present different luminescence behaviors: the profiles of excitation and emission spectra, the spectra shift, the luminescence decay lifetimes, the absolute quantum efficiency (QE), and the CIE color coordinates are very different. The luminescence of K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = La, Gd, Y, Pr) presents yellow or yellowish green color, while, K 3 Dy(VO 4 ) 2 and K 3 Eu(VO 4 ) 2 show white and red luminescence, respectively. This was discussed on the base of the different micro-structure, activator centers, and the charge transfer transitions from [VO 4 ] 3− groups in the lattices. K 3 Y(VO 4 ) 2 and K 3 Eu(VO 4 ) 2 show higher QE values of 47.0% and 45.0% at room temperature, respectively. All the phosphors have efficient absorption in the region of near-UV wavelengths or blue wavelength region. This can well match with the light from UV-LED (360–400 nm) or blue LED chips (450–480 nm) based on GaN semiconductor. K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 could be suggested to be a potential candidate to give further investigations for the application on near-UV excited white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: A series of orthovanadates K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) have been developed to be new phosphors with rich luminescence colors; there are efficiency excitation in the near UV wavelength region. Compared with the reported vanadate phosphors K 3 R(VO 4 ) 2 has rich luminescence color, rich color, no concentration quenching, and comparable luminescence QE. - Highlights: • A new phosphor of non-doped of K 3 R(VO 4 ) 2 (R = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) were developed by solid-state reaction route. • The phosphor

  8. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of microcrystalline Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm and Pr) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabre, K.V. [Department of Physics, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Koradi, Nagpur 441111 (India); Park, K. [Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2014-12-25

    Graphical abstract: CIE chromaticity coordinate diagram (1931) indicating different colors of Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu (a), Dy (b and c), Sm (d–f) and Pr (g and h)) phosphor under different excitation 466 nm (a), 312 nm (b), 454 nm (c), 313 nm (d), 408 nm (e), 482 nm (f), 315 nm (g) and 450 nm (h). - Highlights: • Microcrystalline Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm and Pr) phosphors were synthesized by solid state method. • Photoluminescence properties of phosphor were investigated. • Color of the phosphor for different excitation has been verified by chromaticity diagram. • The host absorption and energy transfer were investigated. - Abstract: The novel microcrystalline Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm and Pr) phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction method at 1250 °C and their photoluminescence properties were investigated. The Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} activated phosphors show intense red (616 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emission respectively; which indicate that the rare earth ions are substituted at non-centrosymmetric site in the host lattice. Near white (Dy{sup 3+}) and reddish-orange (Sm{sup 3+}) emissions of rare earth ions in the host lattice show strong host absorption and energy transfer from the host to activator ion. Pr{sup 3+} activated phosphor shows a series of emission peaks in the visible region with the most intense peak in the blue region at 491 and 499 nm.

  9. Crystal structure of RCoIn5 (R - Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Y) and R2CoIn8 (R - Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalychak, Ya.M.; Zaremba, V.I.; Baranyak, V.M.; Bruskov, V.A.; Zavalij, P.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    Usng X-ray diffraction method of monocrystal, crystal structure of HoCoIn 5 compound belonging to the HoCoGa 5 structural type is determined. Using the method of powder belonging of CeCoIn 5 structure to the HoCoGa 5 structural type is confirmed. Isostructural compounds with Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy are detected. Their lattice periods are determined. Using the method of powder belonging of Ce 2 CoIn 8 compound structure to Ho 2 CoGa 8 structural type is determined. Isostructural compounds with Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm are detected and their lattice periods are determined

  10. Phase transition of the orthorhombic fluorite-related compounds Ln{sub 3}IrO{sub 7} (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinatsu, Yukio, E-mail: hinatsu@sci.hokudai.ac.j [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doi, Yoshihiro; Nishimine, Hiroaki; Wakeshima, Makoto [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Sato, Mineo [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2009-12-04

    Rare earth iridium oxides Ln{sub 3}IrO{sub 7} (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, and Eu) were prepared and their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction measurements. At room temperature, Pr{sub 3}IrO{sub 7} crystallized in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) and specific heat measurements for Ln{sub 3}IrO{sub 7} (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, and Eu) showed a phase transition at 262, 342, 420, and 485 K, respectively. At low temperatures, Ln{sub 3}IrO{sub 7} crystallized in a monoclinic structure with the space group P2{sub 1}/n. The transition temperatures increased with decreasing the ionic radius of rare earths, which indicates that the transition is stress-induced and occurs with the lattice contraction on cooling. These results for Ln{sub 3}IrO{sub 7} were compared with the phase transitions observed for Ln{sub 3}MoO{sub 7}, Ln{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, Ln{sub 3}ReO{sub 7}, and Ln{sub 3}OsO{sub 7}.

  11. Superstructure formation in PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-09-01

    The intermetallic phase ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The sample was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The structure of ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} was refined from X-ray diffraction data and revealed a superstructure of PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} - a CaCu{sub 5} derivative (P6/m, a=1414.3(1), c=418.87(3) pm wR=0.0820, 1060 F{sup 2} values, 48 variables). The same superstructure was subsequently found for PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} (P6/m, a=1407.87(4), c=406.19(2) pm, wR=0.0499, 904 F{sup 2} values, 47 variables). In the crystal structure, the aluminium and transition metal atoms form a polyanionic network according to [T{sub 2}Al{sub 3}]{sup δ-}, while rare earth atoms fill cavities within the networks. They are coordinated by six transition metal and twelve aluminum atoms. In contrast to the PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} type structure reported so far, two crystallographic independent rare-earth sites are found of which one (1b) is shifted by 1/2 z, causing a distortion in the structure along with a recoloring of the T and Al atoms in the network.

  12. Synthesis and magnetism of μ-oxamido-bridged Cu2IILnIII - type heterotrinuclear complexes (Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.T.; Yan, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Eight new Cu 2 II Ln III - type (Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er) heterotrinuclear complexes bridged by N,N'-bis (2-aminopropyl)oxamidocopper(II) [Cu(oxdn)], namely Cu 2 (oxdn)Ln(NO 3 ) 3 , have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements and spectroscopic (IR, UV, ESR) studies. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (4.2 ∼300 K) and studies of Cu 2 (oxdn)Gd(NO 3 ) 3 complex have revealed that the central gadolinium(III) and terminal copper(II) ions are ferromagnetically coupled with the exchange integral J (Cu-Gd) = +2.98 cm -1 , while an antiferromagnetic coupling is detected between the terminal copper(II) metal ions with the exchange integral J' (Cu-Gd) = -0.75 cm -1 , on the basis of the spin Hamiltonian operator [H -2J(S Cu1 -S Gd +S Cu2 +S Gd )-2J'(S Cu1 S Cu2 )]. (author)

  13. Interrelation of androgen receptor and miR-30a and miR-30a function in ER-, PR-, AR+ MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shuhua; Liu, Han; Liu, Xia; Liu, Shan; Wang, Yahong; Yu, Qi; Niu, Yun

    2017-10-01

    The association between androgen-induced androgen receptor (AR) activating signal and microRNA (miR)-30a was investigated, as well as the function of miR-30a in estrogen receptor-negative (ER - ), progesterone receptor-negative (PR - ), and AR-positive (AR + ) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Androgen-induced AR activating signal upregulated the expression of AR, and downregulated the expression of miR-30a, b and c. Bioinformatics analysis indicated a putative miR-30a, b and c binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of AR mRNA. It was confirmed that the AR gene is a direct target of miR-30a, whereas AR does not target the miR-30a promoter, and AR activating signal may indirectly downregulate miR-30a through other cell signaling pathways. In this positive feedback mechanism AR is then upregulated through miR-30a. Overexpression of miR-30a inhibited cell proliferation, whereas inhibition of miR-30a expression by specific antisense oligonucleotides, increased cell growth. Previously, androgen-induced AR activating signal was demonstrated to inhibit cell proliferation in ER - , PR - and AR + MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, but AR activating signal downregulated the expression of miR-30a, relieving the inhibition of MDA-MB-453 cell growth. Therefore, in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, miR-30a has two different functions regarding cell growth: Inhibition of cell proliferation through a positive feedback signaling pathway; and the relative promotion of cell proliferation through downregulation of miR-30a. Thus, the association between AR activating signal and microRNAs is complex, and microRNAs may possess different functions due to different signaling pathways. Although the results of the present study were obtained in one cell line, they contribute to subsequent studies on ER - , PR - and AR + breast cancer.

  14. The PrPS4 type structure and a filled variant: the compounds TbPS4 and LiEuPS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergens, S.; Alili, L.; Mewis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Colourless single crystals of TbPS 4 (a = 10.696(2), c = 19.053(4) Aa) were obtained by reaction of the elements (750 C; 30 h). The compound crystallizes with the PrPS 4 type structure (I4 1 /acd; Z = 16). The structure consists of isolated PS 4 tetrahedra each surrounded by four Tb 3+ cations. Both crystallographically different Tb 3+ cations are coordinated by eight sulfur atoms which are part of four PS 4 tetrahedra. Orange single crystals of LiEuPS 4 (a = 11.498(2), c = 19.882(4) Aa) were prepared by reaction of Eu and P with Li 2 S 4 (700 C; 20 h). The crystal structure corresponds to the PrPS 4 type, in which tubes running along [001] are occupied by Li atoms, which are surrounded by four S atoms in strongly distorted tetrahedra. LiS 4 and PS 4 tetrahedra are connected via common edges into alternating chains. (orig.)

  15. Magnetism of cyano-bridged Ln3+-M3+ complexes. Part II: one-dimensional complexes (Ln3+ = Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm; M3+ = Fe or Co) with bpy as blocking ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, Albert; Ribas, Joan; Casanova, David; Maestro, Miguel; Alvarez, Santiago; Diaz, Carmen

    2005-10-03

    The reaction of Ln(NO3)3(aq) with K3[Fe(CN)6] or K3[Co(CN)6] and 2,2'-bipyridine in water/ethanol led to 13 one-dimensional complexes: trans-[M(CN)4(mu-CN)2Ln(H2O)4(bpy)]n.4nH2O.1.5nbpy (Ln = Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, Tm3+, Lu3+; M = Fe3+, Co3+). The structures for [EuFe]n (1), [TbFe]n (2), [DyFe]n (3), [HoFe]n (4), [ErFe]n (5), [TmFe]n (6), [LuFe]n (7), [EuCo]n (8), [TbCo]n (9), [DyCo]n (10), [HoCo]n (11), [ErCo]n (12), and [TmCo]n (13) have been solved: they crystallize in the triclinic space group P and are isomorphous. They exhibit a supramolecular architecture created by the interplay of coordinative, hydrogen bonding, and pi-pi interactions. A stereochemical study of the eight-vertex polyhedra of the lanthanide ions, based on continuous shape measures, is presented. The Ln3+-Fe3+ interaction is antiferromagnetic in [DyFe]n and [TbFe]n. For [EuFe]n, [HoFe]n, [ErFe]n, and [TmFe]n, there is no sign of any significant interaction. The magnetic behavior of [DyFe]n suggests the onset of weak long-range ferromagnetic ordering at 2.5 K.

  16. An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Amplification Loop That Enforces Cell Migration in ER-/PR-/Her2- Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Olga; Wang, Zhongyan; Stanford, Elizabeth A; Parks, Ashley J; Ramirez-Cardenas, Alejandra; Landesman, Esther; Laklouk, Israa; Sarita-Reyes, Carmen; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Li, Amy; Monti, Stefano; Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum; Sherr, David H

    2016-11-01

    The endogenous ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in numerous biologic processes. As the known number of AHR-mediated processes grows, so too does the importance of determining what endogenous AHR ligands are produced, how their production is regulated, and what biologic consequences ensue. Consequently, our studies were designed primarily to determine whether ER - /PR - /Her2 - breast cancer cells have the potential to produce endogenous AHR ligands and, if so, how production of these ligands is controlled. We postulated that: 1) malignant cells produce tryptophan-derived AHR ligand(s) through the kynurenine pathway; 2) these metabolites have the potential to drive AHR-dependent breast cancer migration; 3) the AHR controls expression of a rate-limiting kynurenine pathway enzyme(s) in a closed amplification loop; and 4) environmental AHR ligands mimic the effects of endogenous ligands. Data presented in this work indicate that primary human breast cancers, and their metastases, express high levels of AHR and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO); representative ER - /PR - /Her2 - cell lines express TDO and produce sufficient intracellular kynurenine and xanthurenic acid concentrations to chronically activate the AHR. TDO overexpression, or excess kynurenine or xanthurenic acid, accelerates migration in an AHR-dependent fashion. Environmental AHR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene mimic this effect. AHR knockdown or inhibition significantly reduces TDO2 expression. These studies identify, for the first time, a positive amplification loop in which AHR-dependent TDO2 expression contributes to endogenous AHR ligand production. The net biologic effect of AHR activation by endogenous ligands, which can be mimicked by environmental ligands, is an increase in tumor cell migration, a measure of tumor aggressiveness. Copyright © 2016 by The Author(s).

  17. Effects of Er3+ and Pr3+ Substitution on Structural, Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Photoluminescence Properties of the BaTi0.9Zr0.1O3 Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, I.; Sassi, Z.; Seveyrat, L.; Perrin, V.; Zghal, S.; Abdelmoula, N.; Lebrun, L.; Khemakhem, H.

    2017-07-01

    BaTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (BZT), Ba1- x Ln2 x/3□ x/3Ti0.9Zr0.1O3 (with x = 0.5% mol and Ln = Er3+) (BZT-Er) and Ba1- x Ln2 x/3□ x/3Ti0.9Zr0.1O3 (with x = 0.5% mol and Ln = Pr3+) (BZT-Pr) were prepared via the conventional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction showed that all these ceramics were in the single perovskite phase at room temperature (RT). The temperature dependence of dielectric behavior was investigated in the temperature range 25-225°C and exhibited a classical ferroelectric behavior. A slight decrease of the Curie temperature ( T C) with Pr3+ and Er3+ substitution was observed in addition to an increase in the maximum dielectric permittivity ( \\varepsilon_{r {max} }^' }} ) of about 40% for the BZT-Er. At RT, the ferroelectric and piezoelectric coefficients were decreased for BZT-Pr, but were maintained for BZT-Er with a piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33) of 185 pC/N, a planar electromechanical coupling factor of 30%, and a remanent polarization of 11.6 μC/cm2. The Raman bands as a function of temperature confirmed the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition of all those ceramics. The photoluminescence spectra showed that strong red (615 nm and 645 nm) and bright green (523 nm and 545 nm) emission bands were obtained, under excitation by laser at 488 nm at RT, for BZT-Pr and BZT-Er, respectively. These multifunctional materials showed a significant technological promise in coupling device applications.

  18. Correlation of clinicopathological outcomes with changes in IHC4 status after NACT in locally advanced breast cancers: do pre-NACT ER/PR status act as better prognosticators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanjoy Chatterjee,1 Animesh Saha,1 Indu Arun,2 Sonali Susmita Nayak,2 Subir Sinha,3 Sanjit Agrawal,4 Mayur Parihar,5 Rosina Ahmed4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Medical Statistics, 4Department of Breast Surgery, 5Department of Molecular Pathology, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, West Bengal, India Background: Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT for breast cancer, changes in estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2 status, and Ki-67 index (IHC4 status and its correlation with pathological complete response (pCR or relapse-free survival (RFS rates could lead to better understanding of tumor management. Patients and methods: Pre- and post-NACT IHC4 status and its changes were analyzed in 156 patients with breast cancer. Associations between pCR, RFS rates to IHC4 status pre- and post-NACT were investigated. Results: pCR was found in 25.3% patients. Both ER and PR positive tumors had the lowest (14.3% pCR compared to ER and PR negative (29% or either ER-/PR-positive (38.6% tumors. PR positivity was significantly associated with less likelihood of pCR (15% versus 34%. The pCR rate was low for luminal A subtype (13.68% compared to 24.36%, 26.31%, and 33.33% for luminal B, HER2-enriched, and triple-negative subtypes, respectively. There was significant reduction in ER expression and Ki-67 index post-NACT. RFS of patients in whom the hormonal status changed from positive to negative was better compared to those of patients in whom the hormonal status changed from negative to positive. Conclusion: Although changes in IHC4 occurred post-NACT, pre-NACT hazard ratio status prognosticated RFS better. pCR and RFS rates were lower in PR-positive tumors. Keywords: neoadjuvant chemotherapy, IHC4 status changes, survival 

  19. Impact of chemotherapy relative dose intensity on cause-specific and overall survival for stage I-III breast cancer: ER+/PR+, HER2- vs. triple-negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Loch, Michelle; Chen, Vivien W; Fontham, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Tekeda

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the impact of chemotherapy relative dose intensity (RDI) on cause-specific and overall survival for stage I-III breast cancer: estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive, human epidermal-growth factor receptor negative (ER+/PR+ and HER2-) vs. triple-negative (TNBC) and to identify the optimal RDI cut-off points in these two patient populations. Data were collected by the Louisiana Tumor Registry for two CDC-funded projects. Women diagnosed with stage I-III ER+/PR+, HER2- breast cancer, or TNBC in 2011 with complete information on RDI were included. Five RDI cut-off points (95, 90, 85, 80, and 75%) were evaluated on cause-specific and overall survival, adjusting for multiple demographic variables, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, use of granulocyte-growth factor/cytokines, chemotherapy delay, chemotherapy regimens, and use of hormone therapy. Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated and adjusted by stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) of propensity score. Of 494 ER+/PR+, HER2- patients and 180 TNBC patients, RDI PR+, HER2- patients, 85% was the only cut-off point at which the low RDI was significantly associated with worse overall survival (HR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.09-3.40). Among TNBC patients, 75% was the cut-off point at which the high RDI was associated with better cause-specific (HR = 2.64; 95% CI 1.09, 6.38) and overall survival (HR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.04-5.51). Higher RDI of chemotherapy is associated with better survival for ER+/PR+, HER2- patients and TNBC patients. To optimize survival benefits, RDI should be maintained ≥ 85% in ER+/PR+, HER2- patients, and ≥ 75% in TNBC patients.

  20. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6} phosphors for phosphor converted LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabre, K.V. [Department of Physics, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Koradi, Nagpur-441111, Maharashtra (India); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report on the synthesis and photoluminescence (PL) properties of rare earth (Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+}) doped double perovskite tungstate Ca{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6} phosphor. The phosphors were synthesized by two step modified solid state method. Phase purity and formation of phosphor were confirmed by XRD technique. PL spectra of Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} doped phosphor show intense emission peaks in red region at 615, 604 and 650 nm respectively, upon the visible excitation of 466 nm (Eu{sup 3+}), 410 nm (Sm{sup 3+}) and 491 nm (Pr{sup 3+}). The CIE coordinates of the phosphors are in the yellow (Sm{sup 3+} doped sample) and orange (Eu{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} doped sample) regions near the edge of color space which confirms their applicability in LEDs. -- Highlights: •Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} doped and undoped samples of Ca{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6} phosphor synthesized by Solid state method. •The phosphors have intense excitation in violet and blue region of visible spectrum. •Phosphors show intense emission peaks in red region. •CIE coordinates of phosphors are lie in yellow (Sm{sup 3+} doped phosphor) and orange (Eu{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} doped phosphor) region near to edge of color space.

  1. En 'dansk' immigrationspakke til EU - uden Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    og den franske immigrationspagt i Danmark, skyldes, som så ofte før, at vi her i landet har en Europadebat, der er vendt på hovedet i forhold til den, der føres i de andre EU-lande. Mens danske politikere hen over sensommeren har diskuteret, hvordan man kan minimere EU's indflydelse på dansk......I dag præsenterer Kommissionen en ambitiøs pakke om lovlig og ulovlig indvandring og integration. Målet er, at den skal vedtages sammen med det franske formandskabs immigrationspagt af EU's stats- og regeringschefer den 15.-16. oktober 2008. At der ikke har været mere debat om Kommissionens pakke...... indvandringspolitik og særligt familiesammenføringsreglerne, har resten af EU diskuteret, hvordan man fortsat kan styrke EU's rolle i indvandrings- og immigrationspolitikken og skabe en højere grad af solidaritet mellem medlemslandene. Udgivelsesdato: 8. oktober...

  2. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  3. Ion-irradiation resistance of the orthorhombic Ln_2TiO_5 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughterson, Robert D.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Ionescu, Mihail; Reyes, Massey de los; Gault, Baptiste; Whittle, Karl R.; Smith, Katherine L.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of Ln_2TiO_5 (where Ln is a lanthanide) compounds exposed to high-energy ions was used to test their suitability for nuclear-based applications, under two different but complementary conditions. Eight samples with nominal stoichiometry Ln_2TiO_5 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy), of orthorhombic (Pnma) structure were irradiated, at various temperatures, with 1 MeV Kr"2"+ ions in-situ within a transmission electron microscope. In each case, the fluence was increased until a phase transition from crystalline to amorphous was observed, termed critical dose D_c. At certain elevated temperatures, the crystallinity was maintained irrespective of fluence. The critical temperature for maintaining crystallinity, T_c, varied non-uniformly across the series. The T_c was consistently high for La, Pr, Nd and Sm_2TiO_5 before sequential improvement from Eu to Dy_2TiO_5 with T_c's dropping from 974 K to 712 K. In addition, bulk Dy_2TiO_5 was irradiated with 12 MeV Au"+ ions at 300 K, 723 K and 823 K and monitored via grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). At 300 K, only amorphisation is observed, with no transition to other structures, whilst at higher temperatures, specimens retained their original structure. The improved radiation tolerance of compounds containing smaller lanthanides has previously been attributed to their ability to form radiation-induced phase transitions. No such transitions were observed here. - Highlights: • First ion-irradiation studies on a number of novel compounds including Pr_2TiO_5, Eu_2TiO_5 and Tb_2TiO_5. • Systematic in-situ ion-irradiation study of almost complete Ln_2TiO_5 series (Ln = lanthanides) with orthorhombic crystal structure type. • The first grazing incidence study of bulk irradiated Dy_2TiO_5 looking for irradiation induced phase transition.

  4. Effect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borlaf, Mario, E-mail: mborlaf@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen, 5, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Caes, Sebastien; Dewalque, Jennifer [LCIS-GREENMAT, Institute of Chemistry, University of Liege, B6 Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Colomer, María Teresa; Moreno, Rodrigo [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen, 5, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Cloots, Rudi; Boschini, Frederic [LCIS-GREENMAT, Institute of Chemistry, University of Liege, B6 Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); APTIS, Institute of Physics, University of Liege, B5 Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-02

    Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO{sub 2} and RE{sub 2}O{sub 3–}TiO{sub 2} (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. - Highlights: • Eu and Er–TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films were prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly. • Influence of humidity on porosity and photoluminescent properties has been tested. • Influence of calcination on structural and textural properties has been also studied. • f–f transitions indicate that the thin films are active photoluminescent materials.

  5. Effect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sebastien; Dewalque, Jennifer; Colomer, María Teresa; Moreno, Rodrigo; Cloots, Rudi; Boschini, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO 2 and RE 2 O 3– TiO 2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er 3+ and Eu 3+ was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu 3+ and Er 3+ f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. - Highlights: • Eu and Er–TiO 2 mesoporous films were prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly. • Influence of humidity on porosity and photoluminescent properties has been tested. • Influence of calcination on structural and textural properties has been also studied. • f–f transitions indicate that the thin films are active photoluminescent materials

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the tripod-kagome-lattice family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Z. L.; Trinh, J.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Li, K.; Hu, Y. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Blanc, N.; Ramirez, A. P.; Zhou, H. D.

    2017-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the rare-earth tripod-kagome-lattice (TKL) family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb; here, we use abbreviation A-R, as in MgPr for Mg2Pr3Sb3O14 ), which complements our previously reported work on MgDy, MgGd, and MgEr [Z. L. Dun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 157201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.157201]. The present susceptibility (χdc, χac) and specific-heat measurements reveal various magnetic ground states, including the nonmagnetic singlet state for MgPr, ZnPr; long-range orderings (LROs) for MgGd, ZnGd, MgNd, ZnNd, and MgYb; a long-range magnetic charge ordered state for MgDy, ZnDy, and potentially for MgHo; possible spin-glass states for ZnEr, ZnHo; the absence of spin ordering down to 80 mK for MgEr, MgTb, ZnTb, and ZnYb compounds. The ground states observed here bear both similarities as well as striking differences from the states found in the parent pyrochlore systems. In particular, while the TKLs display a greater tendency towards LRO, the lack of LRO in MgHo, MgTb, and ZnTb can be viewed from the standpoint of a balance among spin-spin interactions, anisotropies, and non-Kramers nature of single-ion state. While substituting Zn for Mg changes the chemical pressure, and subtly modifies the interaction energies for compounds with larger R ions, this substitution introduces structural disorder and modifies the ground states for compounds with smaller R ions (Ho, Er, Yb).

  7. Crystalline behaviour and electrical properties of manganese perovskites substituted on A or B sites: ErMnO3 modified by Ca and EuMnO3 modified by Co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartaj, J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural and electrical features of the manganites solid solutions (Er,CaMnO3 and Eu(Co,MnO3, have been studied by X-ray diffraction and conductivity measurements. Powders were prepared by solid-state reaction between the component oxides and Calcium carbonate. Incorporation of Co2+ on the lattice in the B sites or the Ca2+ on the A sites leads to changes in the parameters and symmetry of the perovskite compound EuMnO3 and hexagonal ErMnO3 respectively. The phase transition depends on the amount of substituted Jahn-Teller Mn3+ cations. Solid solutions based on Eu(Mn,CoO3 perovskite compound change from O’-type to O-type orthorhombic perovskite symmetry when the Mn3+ cation amount decreases, because of the progressive substitution by Co. This transition occurs for an amount of Co2+ as low as ~10 at% Co2+ cation. The (Er,CaMnO3 based solid solutions showed a different behaviour. From x=0.25 there is a change in the symmetry of the solid solution from hexagonal to orthorhombic, O’-type perovskite. Steric influence seems to play a secondary role on the lattice distortion of manganites. Sintered samples of the perovskite solid solutions were measured for establishing their electrical properties. All the samples showed semiconducting behaviour.

    Las características estructurales y eléctricas de las soluciones sólidas de manganitas (Er,CaMnO3 y Eu(Co,MnO3, han sido estudiadas por difracción de rayos X y medidas de la conductividad en continua. Los polvos fueron preparados por reacción en estado sólido entre los óxidos componentes y carbonato de calcio. La incorporación de Co2+ en la red en los sitios B o de Ca2+ en los sitios A conduce a cambios en los parámetros y la simetría de EuMnO3 perovskita y ErMnO3 hexagonal, respectivamente

  8. Fluxus-øer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2008-01-01

    "Fluxus-øer" er en introduktion til Fluxus med udgangspunkt i den tyske galleri-ejer René Blocks samling, som udstillingen "Food for Thought" i Sukkerfabrikken i Stege (Møn) præsenterede et udvalg af. Artiklen beskriver Fluxus som et heterotopi som beskrevet af Michel Foucault i "Of Other Spaces"...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomplexes of Eu(III) and Er(III) coordinate with 2(4-clorophenil)-3-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoleo-5-tiolate mesoionic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taveira Rocha do Nascimento, Railda Shelsea; Rodrigues da Silva Morais, Crislene; Lucena Lira, Helio de; Alves de Morais, Soraya; Filgueiras de Athayde Filho, Petronio; Figueiredo Lopes Lucena, Luciana de; Gouveia de Souza, Antonio; Brasileiro Campos, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The solids achieved in nanometric scale have been demanding scientific and technological interest due to the significant alterations in physical and chemical properties observed in such kind of materials, potentializing their technological applications. The nanocomplexes produced by lanthanide ions with the mesoionic compounds 2(4-clorophenil)-3-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-tiolate (M-1) were achieved in a powdered yellowed way. These compounds were characterized through X-ray diffraction, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The X-ray diffractograms of the M-1 compound and of Er(M-1) 3 .3H 2 O, Eu(M-1) 3 .3H 2 O complexes, presented more than one phase and a crystalline structure. The disappearance and appearance of new peaks, as well as the variation on the intensity of the M-1 majoritary peaks as compared to the complexes' peaks can also be observed. The IR spectra indicate that the coordination of M-1 with the cations Eu +3 e Er +3 probably happens due to the sulfur exocyclic atom, where a considerable displacement in the carbon-sulfur (C-S)-ligation can be perceived. Comparing the DSC curves of the M-1, Er(M-1) 3 .3H 2 O and Eu(M-1) 3 .3H 2 O, a displacement of the complexes peaks in relation to M-1 can be observed, suggesting the achievement of new specimens. Thus, it can be concluded that the formation of two new organic nanocomplexes with crystalline characteristics which may be used as a pharmacy, is quite evident.

  10. Spectroscopy features of Pr{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} ions in Li{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} glass matrices mixed with some sesquioxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasa Rao, Ch. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University - Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid-521201, A.P. (India); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: iwank74@gmail.com [Electrical Engineering Department, Technical University of Czestochowa, Aleja Armii, Krajowej 17/19, PL-42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Srikumar, T.; Naga Raju, G.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Gandhi, Y.; Veeraiah, N. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University - Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid-521201, A.P. (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Optical spectra of Pr{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} ions in Li{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}: Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} with sesquioxides (viz., Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) studied. > The highest branching ratios {beta}{sub r} and quantum efficiencies of {sup 3}P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 4} (Pr{sup 3+}) and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (Er{sup 3+}) emissions have shown principal role of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. > Principal role of disorder around rare earth is established. - Abstract: The glasses of the composition Li{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}: Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed with three interesting sesquioxides (viz., Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were synthesized. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra (in the spectral range 350-2100 nm were studied at ambient temperature. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to characterize the absorption and luminescence spectra of Pr{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} ions in these glasses. Following the luminescence spectra, various radiative properties like transition probability A, branching ratio {beta} and the radiative life time {tau} for different emission levels of two rare earth ions have been evaluated. The radiative life times for the upper levels {sup 3}P{sub 0} (Pr{sup 3+}) and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} (Er{sup 3+}) have also been measured and quantum efficiencies were estimated. The variations observed in these parameters were discussed in the light of changing environment of rare earth ions due to mixing of different sesquioxides in the glass network.

  11. EU ligger i Danmark!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    EU må ikke reduceres til et spørgsmål om folkeafstemninger. Den virkelige udfordring handler om, hvordan EU-beslutninger om alt fra dyretransporter til terrorbekæmpelse kan kontrolleres på en demokratisk måde. De beslutninger, der bliver truffet i Bruxelles er i højeste grad en del af den nationa...

  12. Byg EU om

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Der argumenteres for en række påstande vedrørende en mulig ombygning af EU med henblik på at håndtere den krise, som unionen står i. Grundlæggende for dem alle er, at enten ombygges EU på disse områder, eller også smuldrer samarbejdet. Et internationalt samarbejde som EU kollapser ikke; det mister...

  13. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  14. Luminescence of (Ca,Sr)3(VO4)2: Pr3+, Eu3+ phosphor for use in CuPc-based solar cells and white light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Han-Yu; Chang, Wei-Fu; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the red emission intensity and expand the blue excitation band of a (Ca,Sr) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.12Eu 3+ phosphor for use in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based solar cells and white light-emitting diodes. It was found that substitution of 3% Sr 2+ replacing Ca 2+ enhanced red emission intensity of Ca 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.12Eu 3+ by 14% under 465-nm by excitation. The Pr 3+ co-doping effect was realized when blue excitation intensity of (Ca 0.97 Sr 0.03 ) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.12Eu 3+ , located in the weakest absorption of CuPc, was improved by 126% with the addition of 0.6 mol% Pr 3+ . The absorption spectrum of CuPc/optimized (Ca 0.9668 Sr 0.03 ) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.006Pr 3+ , 0.12Eu 3+ mixtures provided evidence that the (Ca 0.9668 Sr 0.03 ) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.006Pr 3+ , 0.12Eu 3+ phosphor could increase the efficiency of incident photons on CuPc-based solar cells. Moreover, the good temperature stability of emission intensity and chromaticity of (Ca 0.9668 Sr 0.03 ) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.006Pr 3+ , 0.12Eu 3+ indicated a potential for this phosphor to be applied on the white light-emitting diodes. - Highlights: ► Substitution of 3% Sr 2+ replacing Ca 2+ enhanced red emission intensity of Ca 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.12Eu 3+ by 14% under 465 nm by excitation. ► Addition of 0.6 mol% Pr 3+ enhanced blue excitation intensity of (Ca 0.97 Sr 0.03 ) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.12Eu 3+ , located in the weakest absorption of CuPc, by 126%. ► According to absorption measurements of CuPc/optimized (Ca 0.9668 Sr 0.03 ) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.006Pr 3+ , 0.12Eu 3+ mixtures for the first time, the feasibility of our phosphor to assist CuPc in converting blue-wavelength photons was proved. ► High temperature stability of emission intensity and chromaticity of (Ca 0.9668 Sr 0.03 ) 2.82 (VO 4 ) 2 :0.006Pr 3+ , 0.12Eu 3+ indicated our phosphor is acceptable for WLED applications.

  15. Lobular breast cancers lack the inverse relationship between ER/PR status and cell growth rate characteristic of ductal cancers in two independent patient cohorts: implications for tumor biology and adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilda; Lau, Silvia; Cheung, Polly; Wong, Ting Ting; Parker, Andrew; Yau, Thomas; Epstein, Richard J

    2014-11-10

    Although invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast differs from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in numerous respects - including its genetics, clinical phenotype, metastatic pattern, and chemosensitivity - most experts continue to manage ILC and IDC identically in the adjuvant setting. Here we address this discrepancy by comparing early-stage ILC and IDC in two breast cancer patient cohorts of differing nationality and ethnicity. The clinicopathologic features of 2029 consecutive breast cancer patients diagnosed in Hong Kong (HK) and Australia (AUS) were compared. Interrelationships between tumor histology and other clinicopathologic variables, including ER/PR and Ki67, were analysed. Two hundred thirty-nine patients were identified with ILC (11.8%) and 1790 patients with IDC. AUS patients were older (p patients. As expected, ILC tumors were lower in grade and proliferative rate, and more often ER-positive and HER2-negative, than IDC (p 0.7). Moreover, whereas IDC tumors exhibited a strongly negative relationship between ER/PR and Ki67 status (p 0.6). These data imply that the primary adhesion defect in ILC underlies a secondary stromal-epithelial disconnect between hormonal signaling and tumor growth, suggesting in turn that this peritumoral feedback defect could reduce both the antimetastatic (adjuvant) and tumorilytic (palliative) efficacy of cytotoxic therapies for such tumors. Hence, we caution against assuming similar adjuvant chemotherapeutic survival benefits for ILC and IDC tumors with similar ER and Ki67, whether based on immunohistochemical or gene expression assays.

  16. General synthesis and structural evolution of a layered family of Ln8(OH)20Cl4 x nH2O (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fengxia; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Ma, Renzhi; Xin, Hao; Tanaka, Masahiko; Izumi, Fujio; Iyi, Nobuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2008-12-03

    The synthesis process and crystal structure evolution for a family of stoichiometric layered rare-earth hydroxides with general formula Ln(8)(OH)(20)Cl(4) x nH(2)O (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Y; n approximately 6-7) are described. Synthesis was accomplished through homogeneous precipitation of LnCl(3) x xH(2)O with hexamethylenetetramine to yield a single-phase product for Sm-Er and Y. Some minor coexisting phases were observed for Nd(3+) and Tm(3+), indicating a size limit for this layered series. Light lanthanides (Nd, Sm, Eu) crystallized into rectangular platelets, whereas platelets of heavy lanthanides from Gd tended to be of quasi-hexagonal morphology. Rietveld profile analysis revealed that all phases were isostructural in an orthorhombic layered structure featuring a positively charged layer, [Ln(8)(OH)(20)(H(2)O)(n)](4+), and interlayer charge-balancing Cl(-) ions. In-plane lattice parameters a and b decreased nearly linearly with a decrease in the rare-earth cation size. The interlamellar distance, c, was almost constant (approximately 8.70 A) for rare-earth elements Nd(3+), Sm(3+), and Eu(3+), but it suddenly decreased to approximately 8.45 A for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), and Er(3+), which can be ascribed to two different degrees of hydration. Nd(3+) typically adopted a phase with high hydration, whereas a low-hydration phase was preferred for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+), and Tm(3+). Sm(3+), Eu(3+), and Gd(3+) samples were sensitive to humidity conditions because high- and low-hydration phases were interconvertible at a critical humidity of 10%, 20%, and 50%, respectively, as supported by both X-ray diffraction and gravimetry as a function of the relative humidity. In the phase conversion process, interlayer expansion or contraction of approximately 0.2 A also occurred as a possible consequence of absorption/desorption of H(2)O molecules. The hydration difference was also evidenced by refinement results. The number of coordinated water

  17. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. [Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm, Lu, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Yb, Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baar, H J.W. de; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G; Bruland, K W

    1985-09-01

    The first profiles of Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu in the Pacific Ocean, as well as profiles of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb are reported. Concentrations of REE (except Ce) in the deep water are two to three times higher than those observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Surface water concentrations are typically lower than in the Atlantic Ocean, especially for the heavier elements Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu. Cerium is strongly depleted in the Pacific water column, but less so in the oxygen minimum zone. The distribution of the REE group is consistent with two simultaneous processes: (1) cycling similar to that of opal and calcium carbonate, and (2) adsorptive scavenging by settling particles and possibly by uptake at ocean boundaries. However, the first process can probably not be sustained by the low REE contents of shells, unless additional adsorption on surfaces is invoked. The second process, adsorptive scavenging, largely controls the oceanic distribution and typical seawater pattern of the rare earths. (author).

  18. Magnetic and electronic properties of RNiO{sub 3} (R = Pr, Nd, Eu, Ho and Y) perovskites studied by resonant soft x-ray magnetic powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenthin, Y; Staub, U; Piamonteze, C; Garcia-Fernandez, M [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Martinez-Lope, M J; Alonso, J A, E-mail: urs.staub@psi.ch [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-26

    Soft x-ray resonant magnetic powder diffraction of the (1/2 0 1/2) reflection at the Ni L{sub 2,3} edges is used to study the magnetic and electronic properties of a series of RNiO{sub 3} materials (with R = Pr, Nd, Eu, Ho and Y) below the metal-insulator transition. The polarization and energy dependence of the reflection gives further support for a non-collinear magnetic structure and charge disproportionation in the whole RNiO{sub 3} series. Only small changes in the spectra of the magnetic (1/2 0 1/2) reflection and in the absorption spectra could be detected. The results are discussed with comparison to charge transfer multiplet calculations. Our results emphasize that the lighter and heavier RNiO{sub 3} compounds are very similar from the point of view of their local electronic and magnetic state despite the strong change of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature.

  19. EU's 2015 Strategi for et Digitalt Indre Marked - mere usikre regelsæt, der er sværere at overholde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the 2015 EU Digital Single Market Strategy from the perspective of strategic compliance. Although the purpose of the Strategy is to stimulate investment and increase certainty, this article argues that this will be difficult to achieve. This is a result of three factors...

  20. Crystal structure of the compounds R8Ga3Co (R=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grin', Yu.N.; Sichevich, O.M.; Gladyshevskij, R.E.; Yarmolyuk, Ya.P.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pr 8 Ga 3 Co compounds is studied by the method of monocrystal (autodiffractometer, MoKsub(α)): space group P6 3 mc, a=10.489, c=6.910 A, Z=2. Coordination numbers of atoms are 11-14 for Pr, 11 for Ga, 7 for Co. The shortest interatomic distances are 3.365 for Pr-Pr, 3.047 for Pr-Ga, 2.75 A for Pr-Co. Pr 3 Ga 3 Co structure is akin to structures of R 2 In compounds (Ni 2 In type) and R 2 Ga (Cl 2 Pb type). Isostructural compounds form in systems of other rare earth metals with gallium and cobalt

  1. Thermal expansion of phosphates with the NaZr2(PO4)3 structure containing lanthanides and zirconium: R0.33Zr2(PO4)3 (R = Nd, Eu, Er) and Er0.33(1–x) Zr0.25xZr2(PO4)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volgutov, V. Yu.; Orlova, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphates R 0.33 Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (R = Nd, Eu, or Er) and Er 0.33(1–x) Zr 0.25 Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) of the NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 family have been synthesized and investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The crystallochemical approach is used to obtain compounds with expected small and controllable thermal-expansion parameters. Phosphates with close-to-zero thermal-expansion parameters, including those with low thermal-expansion anisotropy, have been obtained: Nd 0.33 Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 with α a =–2.21 × 10 −6 °C −1 , α c = 0.81 × 10 −6 °C −1 , and Δα = 3.02 × 10 −6 °C –1 and Er 0.08 Zr 0.19 Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 with α a =–1.86 × 10 −6 °C −1 , α c = 1.73 × 10 −6 °C −1 , and Δα = 3.58 × 10 −6 °C −1

  2. An ER activity profile including ER, PR, Bcl-2 and IGF-IR may have potential as selection criterion for letrozole or tamoxifen treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Katrine L; Rasmussen, Birgitte B; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E

    2009-01-01

    microarrays from formalin fixed paraffin embedded primary tumor material from a subgroup of patients (9.4%), who have participated in the international, randomized, phase III clinical trial PO25 comparing letrozole with tamoxifen in 907 patients with advanced breast cancer. The expression levels of ER...

  3. Disfunción eréctil en pacientes intervenidos de cáncer de próstata: Revisión sistemática de la literatura médica

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Aragón, J.; Márquez-Peláez, S.; Luque Romero, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la aparición de la disfunción eréctil en pacientes con cáncer de próstata sometidos a prostatectomía radical (PR) retropúbica, prostatectomía laparoscópica y/o prostatectomía robótica. Material y métodos: Revisión sistemática de la literatura médica mediante búsqueda bibliográfica (2000-2010) en MedLine, Embase, Cochrane Library, Center for Review Dissemination, ECRI y Hayes. Los términos Mesh fueron "Prostatectomy", "Prostatic neoplasm", "Transuretral resection prostate", "...

  4. Riget - alt er tilladt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Riget indtager en nøglestilling, når overgangen mellem faser i Triers produktion skal karakteriseres. Riget danner bro mellem den billedfascination og de radikale stileksperimenter, der præger Triers tidlige produktion, og den genre- og plotbevidsthed, der er typisk for film som Breaking the Waves...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of heterobinuclear (La-Zn, Pr-Zn, Nd-Zn, Sm-Zn, Eu-Zn, Gd-Zn, Tb-Zn, Dy-Zn) azine-bridged complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bachcha; Srivastav, A.K.; Singh, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc(II) complex of 2-acetylpyridine salicyl aldazine (Haps) of the type Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 has been synthesised. The reaction of Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 with lanthanide chlorides, LnCl 3 (where Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) yields azine-bridged heterobinuclear complexes of the formulae LnCl 3 Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 . These complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight, conductance (solid and solution) and magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR and electronic spectral data. X-ray powder diffraction data indicate the tetragonal unit lattice for Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 and PrCl 3 Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 . (author)

  6. Hvorfor er sygeplejersker usynlige i offentlige medier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Annemi Lund; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Når der er sygeplejerelevante emner til debat i de offentlige medier på Færøerne, bærer debatten præg af sygeplejerskers manglende deltagelse. Sygeplejerskerne er usynlige. Et eksempel på dette er en debat om besparelser inden for ældreomsorgen. Til trods for at besparelsen fik omfattende konsekv...

  7. Cuerpo y género: apuntes para pensar prácticas eróticas de mujeres jóvenes. Aportes de Judith Butler y Pierre Bourdieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Bianciotti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trabaja sobre dos conceptos: el de habitus, de Pierre Bourdieu, y el de performatividad de género, de Judith Butler, los cuales se desarrollan con el objetivo de comprender prácticas de seducción de jóvenes universitarias que viven en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina. Los discursos de estas jóvenes respecto de sus propias prácticas eróticas se analizan bajo los aportes de cada uno de los conceptos, mientras que los mismos se desarrollan en conversación y tensión con los datos empíricos recabados. En dichas prácticas el cuerpo ocupa un rol central: el cuerpo se muestra, se estiliza, desea e intenta ser deseado, significa y (resignifica… A la par, tanto en el concepto de habitus como en el de performatividad de género, el cuerpo ocupa un rol central, siendo lugar de somatización de las relaciones de poder -en el primero-, y medio y agente de devenires identitarios -en el segundo-. Una pregunta transversaliza el ensayo: de qué formas estas jóvenes están sujetándose/sometiéndose al orden heteronormativo de dominación masculina y qué posibilidades de desobediencia y transgresión de mandatos socio-culturales tienen en el marco de sus propias prácticas de seducción, usos y disfrutes del cuerpo.

  8. Jaká je míra tolerance práva EU vůči sportovním asociacím?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamerník, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 5 (2011), s. 482-498 ISSN 0231-6625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP408/10/P539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : sport law * EU law * sport association Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  9. Bruken av nasjonale prøver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver resultater fra en omfattende evaluering af brugen af de nationale prøver i norsk grundskole. De nationale prøver er blevet modtaget positivt af mange kommuner og skoleledere og i mindre grad af lærerne. Resultaterne viser også, at prøverne er styrende for undervisningen, at bru...

  10. Color tunable green–yellow–orange–red Er{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+}-codoped PbGeO{sub 3}:PbF{sub 2}:CdF{sub 2} glass phosphor for application in white-LED technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, W.S.; Domingues, R.O.; Bueno, L.A.; Costa, E.B. da; Gouveia-Neto, A.S., E-mail: artur@df.ufrpe.br

    2013-12-15

    Color tunable wide gamut light covering the greenish, yellow–green, yellow, orange, and reddish tone chromaticity region in Er{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+}-codoped lead–cadmium–germanate PbGeO{sub 3}:PbF{sub 2}:CdF{sub 2} glass phosphor is presented. The phosphors were synthesized, and their light emission properties examined under UV and blue LED excitation. Luminescence emission around 525, 550, 590, 610, and 660 nm was obtained and analyzed as a function of Eu/Er concentration, excitation wavelength, and glass host composition. The color tunability was actually obtained via proper combination of Er{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} active ions concentration. The combination of the emission tone with blue LEDs in the region of 400–460 nm, yielded a mixture of light with color in the white-light region presenting a color correlated temperature in the range of 2000–4000 K. Results indicate that the color-tunable fluorolead germanate erbium/europium co-doped glass phosphor herein reported is a promising novel contender for application in LED-based solid-state illumination technology -- Highlights: • Color tunability in the red–orange–yellow–green spectral region. • White-light generation presenting a CCT in the range of 2000–4000 K. • New europium/erbium co-doped lead–cadmium–germanate glass phosphor.

  11. Studies of the energy transfer processes from Er3+ and Ho3+ to Nd3+, Tb3+ or Eu3+ in LiYF4 crystal and ZBLAN glass for the laser media optimization operating near 3μm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagosich, Fabio Henrique

    2006-01-01

    The energy transfer processes (ET) from the 4 I 13/2 ; 4 I 11/2 levels of Er 3+ and 5 I 6 levels of Ho 3+ ions in LiYF 4 (YLF) crystal and ZBLAN glass to Nd 3+ , Tb 3+ or Eu 3+ deactivators ions were studied. The micro parameters of these energy transfer processes were determined using the overlap integral method, and showed that Eu 3+ ion is the best deactivator of the first excited state of the Ho 3+ in YLF, and Nd 3+ is the best deactivator of the Er 3+ in YLF and ZBLAN materials. The 1.5 and 2.7μm emissions of Er 3+ and 2.1 and 2.9μm fluorescence of Ho 3+ were measured using short laser pulses excitations from a tunable OPO pumped 2w-Nd:YAG laser system. We proposed a criterion for discriminating the energy transfer processes assisted by excitation migration (diffusion or hopping) among donors. It was observed that diffusion model describes the ET process from the second excited state of the donor (Er 3+ or Ho 3+ ) independently of the C D-D /C D-A ratio, while the hopping model can describe the ET process involving the first excited state of donor. We proposed a modification of the hopping model in order to describe the experimental results for systems having C D-D /C D-A ≥ 10. Using the ET parameters, we determined that the best systems for laser action at 3μm are the Ho:Eu:YLF, Ho:Nd:YLF and Er:Nd:YLF systems. On the other hand, we found that Er 3+ doped (1.5 mol%) ZBLAN glasses, single and co-doped with Nd 3+ , Tb 3+ or Eu 3+ , do not show potential for laser action at 2.8μm. The up-conversion processes were studied in Er:YLF systems as a function of the Er 3+ concentration, and the excited state absorption (ESA) and up conversion by energy transfer (ETU) processes were discriminated using a time resolved fluorescence decays. It was observed that 980 nm is the most convenient wavelength for pumping the Er:YLF system for quasi cw laser operation at 2.8μm. The pump-probe technique was used to investigate the lifetime effects in Er:YLF system showing

  12. Synthesis and characterization of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) complexes of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Singh, Praveen K.

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone(afth) with Ln(III) trichlorides yields complexes of the type [Ln(afth)Cl 2 (H 2 O)(EtOH)]Cl, [Ln(III) = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy]. The complexes have been characterized by molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, FAB mass, infrared, proton NMR, electronic absorption and emission spectra. The terbium complex is found to be monomer from the FAB mass spectrum. The IR and NMR spectra suggest neutral tridentate behaviour of the Schiff base. A coordination number seven is proposed around the metal ions. Emission spectra suggest C 3v , symmetry around the metal ion with capped octahedron geometry for the europium complex. (author)

  13. A novel fluorescent probe (dtpa-bis(cytosine)) for detection of Eu(III) in rare earth metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ren, Peipei; Liu, Guanhong; Song, Youtao; Bu, Naishun; Wang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel fluorescent probe, dtpa-bis(cytosine), was designed and synthesized for detecting europium (Eu3 +) ion. Upon addition of Eu3 + ions into the dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity can strongly be enhanced. Conversely, adding other rare earth metal ions, such as Y3 +, Ce3 +, Pr3 +, Nd3 +, Sm3 +, Gd3 +, Tb3 +, Dy3 +, Ho3 +, Er3 +, Yb3 + and Lu3 +, into dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity is decreased slightly. Some parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity of dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution in the presence of Eu3 + ions were investigated, including solution pH value, Eu3 + ion concentration and interfering substances. The detection mechanism of Eu3 + ion using dtpa-bis(cytosine) as fluorescent probe was proposed. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence emission intensities of EuIII-dtpa-bis(cytosine) at 375 nm in the concentration range of 0.50 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1-5.00 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1 of Eu3 + ion display a better linear relationship. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined as 8.65 × 10- 7 mol • L- 1 and the corresponding correlation coefficient (R2) of the linear equation is 0.9807. It is wished that the proposed method could be applied for sensitively and selectively detecting Eu3 + ion.

  14. Hvorfor er danske fødevarer dyre?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    De danske fødevarepriser er generelt høje set i forhold til resten af EU og også i forhold til lande uden for EU. Overordnet set er der en række forklaringer på internationale prisforskelle, og der er også flere mulige årsager til de høje danske fødevarepriser. Forskelle i moms, kvalitet...

  15. Monodisperse and hollow structured Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Dy, Er, Tm) nanospheres: A facile synthesis and multicolor-tunable luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruiqing; Zi, Wenwen; Li, Linlin; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Junjun [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zou, Lianchun, E-mail: zoulianchun@126.com [Teaching Center of Basic Courses, Jilin University, Changchun 130062 (China); Gan, Shucai, E-mail: gansc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • We reported a simple route to synthesize the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs. • A possible formation mechanism of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs was proposed. • The Ln-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs exhibit characteristic emission with different colors. • White-light-emitting phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} was also successfully synthesized. - Abstract: A novel, fast and simple method was developed to synthesize the undoped and lanthanide-doped yttrium oxide hollow nanospheres (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅HNSs) with multicolored downconversion emission under mild conditions by employing poly (acrylic acid sodium salt) microspheres (PAAS MSs) as active templates followed by a subsequent calcination process. The structure, morphology, formation process, and fluorescent properties are well investigated using various techniques. The results show that the samples can be well indexed to the pure cubic phase of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The possible formation mechanism of the PAAS MSs, PAA-Y precursor, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs are proposed and discussed in detail. Upon ultraviolet excitation, the obtained Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Dy, Er, Tm) HNSs exhibit strong red, yellow–green, blue, yellow emission, respectively. Moreover, a novel single-phased and near-UV-pumped white-light-emitting phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} was also successfully fabricated through optimizing the molar ratio among Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} in the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} host. This material may find potential applications in field-emission display devices and white ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs). Furthermore, this synthesis route may be of great significance in the preparation of other hollow spherical materials.

  16. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  17. The oxonitridoborate Eu{sub 5}(BO{sub 2.51(7)}N{sub 0.49(7)}){sub 4} and the mixed-valent borates Sr{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (Ln = Ho, Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppe, Henning A.; Kazmierczak, Karolina; Grumbt, Christine; Schindler, Lisa [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Schellenberg, Inga; Poettgen, Rainer [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie (Germany)

    2013-11-04

    The crystal structures of the mixed borates Sr{sub 3}Er{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} [Pnma, no. 62, Z = 4, a = 738.08(2), b = 1588.94(4), c = 867.81(2) pm, 683 reflections, 70 parameters, R1 = 0.037, wR2 = 0.077] and Sr{sub 3}Ho{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} [Pnma, no. 62, Z = 4, a = 738.45(7), b = 1591.55(12), c = 871.03(9) pm, 691 reflections, 59 parameters, R1 = 0.069, wR2 = 0.098] and europium oxonitridoborate Eu{sub 5}(BO{sub 2.51(7)}N{sub 0.49(7)}){sub 4} [Pnma, no. 62, Z = 12, a = 2232.2(5), b = 1603.1(3), c = 879.59(18) pm, 2880 reflections, 313 parameters, R1 = 0.027, wR2 = 0.059] were solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Eu{sub 5}(BO{sub 2.51(7)}N{sub 0.49(7)}){sub 4} adopts a threefold superstructure of the structure of Sr{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (Ln = Ho, Er). In both structure types, the different cations are situated on common sites with a pronounced preferential occupation but no complete ordering. These conclusions are based on the crystal structure refinement, {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy and MAPLE (Madelung part of lattice energy) calculations. The proposed Eu{sub 5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} contains nitrogen and has a formula Eu{sub 5}(BO{sub 2.51(7)}N{sub 0.49(7)}){sub 4} as confirmed by {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy. The optical reflectance spectrum of Eu{sub 5}(BO{sub 2.51(7)}N{sub 0.49(7)}){sub 4} is in accordance with the yellow colour of the compound. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Er danskerne racister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Henning; Necef, Mehmet Ümit

    Igennem de seneste årtier er det blevet almindeligt at tale om, at der er en udbredt racisme i Danmark. Påstande om danskernes racisme, fremmedhad og diskrimination optræder dagligt i offentligheden og i medierne, og der henvises ofte til, hvad ’forskerne’ og de ’videnskabelige undersøgelser’ siger...... om emnet. Der kan da næppe heller være tvivl om, at der forekommer racistiske holdninger hos nogle danskere. Men er problemet så stort, som det gøres til i den offentlige debat? Bogen ønsker at afklare, hvorvidt der er videnskabelig dokumentation for påstandene om danskernes racisme. Den går i dybden...... med en række forskeres og eksperters udtalelser på området og præsenterer en grundig analyse af deres fremstilling af dansk racisme i forhold til emner som kultur, seksualitet, kriminalitet og arbejdsmarked....

  19. Distribution of K, eU and Th and evaluation of annual radiation dose in the region of the Serra do Carambei Granite - PR; Distribuicao de K, eU e eTh e avaliacao da dose anual de radiacao na regiao do Granito Serra do Carambei - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Luiz C., E-mail: luizcgodoy@brturbo.com.br [Departamento de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, Andre V.L., E-mail: andre@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas Hidrogeologicas - LPH, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Santos, Leonardo J.C., E-mail: santos@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Biogeografia e Solos - LABS, Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco J.F., E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada - LPGA, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    is study was conducted in an area of 14 km in length oriented in the NNE direction by 7.3 km wide, covering the totality of the Serra do Carambei Granite and adjacent units. Located in the northern region of the Alagados dam, Parana State, this granite contains relatively high concentrations of K, eU and eTh, known since the 1970s through airborne and terrestrial gamma-ray spectrometry surveys. Recent radiochemical tests conducted on 61 samples of geological materials such as rocks (17 samples) and material of the weathering mantle and alluvial deposits (44 samples), confirmed the occurrence of radioactive anomalies in this granite, especially in thorium and uranium. The contents of K, eU and eTh obtained in gamma-ray spectrometry survey and radiochemical tests, converted to annual radiation dose (ARD), allowed to evaluate the intensity of natural radiation, whose levels relatively high in certain regions of the study area, can offer hazard to the local populations. The analysis and interpretation of data, as well the preparation of contour maps of K, eU and eTh were fundamental to understand the behavior and mobility of radionuclides in different environmental compartments of the area. (author)

  20. Reaction kinetics of H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O with rare earths (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er) at 298 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, M.; Ohata, Y. [Course of Applied Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Uchida, H., E-mail: huchida@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Course of Applied Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► H{sub 2} molecules react with a clean surface of each RE sample at the highest reactivity even at 298 K. ► The H{sub 2} reactivity becomes reduced by the formation of dihydrides of each RE sample. ► The RE with a clean surface adsorb O{sub 2} more than one monolayer of O{sub 2} even at 298 K. ► The quantitative reactivity of the H atoms dissociated from H{sub 2}O was calculated. -- Abstract: High reactivity of rare earths (RE) with H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O is well known even at room temperature. The formation of stable surface oxides/hydroxides on the surface is the one of serious problems in the production and use of materials containing RE. We have investigated the quantitative reactivities of H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O with the surface of Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er under ultra high vacuum condition. The H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gases exhibited the highest reactivity on the clean surface of the RE at 298 K. This means that all gas molecules impinging the surface dissociate and chemisorbed. The O atoms dissociated from O{sub 2} adsorb to for oxides layers of the metals. The H atoms dissociated from H{sub 2} diffuse into the metals to form hydrides which were found to decrease the H{sub 2} reactivity. The H atoms dissociated form H{sub 2}O diffuse into the metals or form hydroxides of the metals. With increasing coverage of each gas molecules, the reactivity of each gas was decreased by several orders of magnitude.

  1. Is the EU Harmonization of Excise Taxes on Tobacco Products a Barrier to Health Promotion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    Verden over er der enighed om, at tobaksforbruget til stadighed er et sundhedsproblem, der skal bekæmpes. På EU-plan er der enighed om at tobaksrygningens sundhedsskadelige virkning bør bekæmpes gennem lovgivningsmæssige tiltag. Spørgsmålet er imidlertid, hvilke lovgivningsmæssige tiltag der skal...

  2. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  3. Studies of the energy transfer processes from Er{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} in LiYF{sub 4} crystal and ZBLAN glass for the laser media optimization operating near 3{mu}m region; Estudos dos processos de transferencia de energia dos ions de Er{sup 3+} e Ho{sup 3+} para os ions de Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} e Eu{sup 3+} no cristal de LiYF{sub 4} e no vidro ZBLAN para a otimizacao de meios laser ativos que operam na regiao de 3{mu}m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagosich, Fabio Henrique

    2006-07-01

    The energy transfer processes (ET) from the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}; {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} and {sup 5}I{sub 6} levels of Ho{sup 3+} ions in LiYF{sub 4} (YLF) crystal and ZBLAN glass to Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} deactivators ions were studied. The micro parameters of these energy transfer processes were determined using the overlap integral method, and showed that Eu{sup 3+} ion is the best deactivator of the first excited state of the Ho{sup 3+} in YLF, and Nd{sup 3+} is the best deactivator of the Er{sup 3+} in YLF and ZBLAN materials. The 1.5 and 2.7{mu}m emissions of Er{sup 3+} and 2.1 and 2.9{mu}m fluorescence of Ho{sup 3+} were measured using short laser pulses excitations from a tunable OPO pumped 2w-Nd:YAG laser system. We proposed a criterion for discriminating the energy transfer processes assisted by excitation migration (diffusion or hopping) among donors. It was observed that diffusion model describes the ET process from the second excited state of the donor (Er{sup 3+} or Ho{sup 3+}) independently of the C{sub D-D}/C{sub D-A} ratio, while the hopping model can describe the ET process involving the first excited state of donor. We proposed a modification of the hopping model in order to describe the experimental results for systems having C{sub D-D}/C{sub D-A} {>=} 10. Using the ET parameters, we determined that the best systems for laser action at 3{mu}m are the Ho:Eu:YLF, Ho:Nd:YLF and Er:Nd:YLF systems. On the other hand, we found that Er{sup 3+} doped (1.5 mol%) ZBLAN glasses, single and co-doped with Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+}, do not show potential for laser action at 2.8{mu}m. The up-conversion processes were studied in Er:YLF systems as a function of the Er{sup 3+} concentration, and the excited state absorption (ESA) and up conversion by energy transfer (ETU) processes were discriminated using a time resolved fluorescence decays. It was observed that 980 nm is the most convenient wavelength for pumping the Er

  4. Giv Kejseren hvad Kejserens er - på langt sigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Fra OECD over EU til det danske videnskabsministerium er der en mængde magtfulde instanser, som i det seneste årti har stillet en række nye krav til universiteterne. Kravene kan i korthed sammenfattes som en fordring om samfundsmæssig og økonomisk relevans. Artiklen argumenterer for, at det er le...

  5. Body mass index at age 18 years and recent body mass index in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes in white women and African-American women: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiyan; Ursin, Giske; Xu, Xinxin; Lee, Eunjung; Togawa, Kayo; Malone, Kathleen E; Marchbanks, Polly A; McDonald, Jill A; Simon, Michael S; Folger, Suzanne G; Lu, Yani; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Deapen, Dennis M; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie

    2018-01-22

    Although it has been well-documented that obesity is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, it is unclear whether these associations differ among breast cancer subtypes defined by the tumor protein expression status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years and recent BMI in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes, in 6320 women (3934 case-patient participants, 2386 control participants) aged 35-64 years, who participated in one of three population-based case-control studies. We estimated multivariable-adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods for case-control comparisons in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. BMI at age 18 years was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly among premenopausal women (≥ 25 vs. women, African-American women). Recent BMI was not associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer after adjustment for BMI at age 18 years; nevertheless, the analysis for the joint effects of BMI at age 18 years and recent BMI showed that premenopausal women in the highest categories of the two BMI measures (≥ 25 kg/m 2 at age 18 years and ≥ 30 kg/m 2 for recent BMI) had 46% lower risk of breast cancer than premenopausal women in the lowest categories of the two BMI measures (breast cancer. Our findings indicate that high BMI near the end of adolescence decreases risk of all ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes of premenopausal breast cancer and also suggest that this benefit could be maximized among premenopausal women who consistently have high BMI during their premenopausal years.

  6. Hvilke Dødehavstekster er "sekteriske"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2003-01-01

    Skønt Dødehavsrullerne antageligt tilhørte en gruppering, der boede i Qumran, tyder alt på, at mange af teksterne er forfattet andre steder. Artiklen undersøger den særlige sprogbrug, som antageligt er typisk for Qumran-samfundet, og som præger forbavsende få af tekserne. En meget stor del af...

  7. Exchange-rate policy in eastern Europe and EU integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef M. Van Brabant

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines potential conflicts between rapid EU integration of economies in transition (EiTs and their pursuing catch-up by focusing on exchange-rate policies. After justifying the proposed inquiry, official pronouncements on ER policies that EUcandidates are expected to pursue in the run-up to and upon their accession are summarized, and the salient features of recent debates on ER regimes recalled. Inasmuch as EiTs must modernize and reconcile this obligation with EU membership, in spite of the EU's cohesion experience, the paper combines real and nominal convergence issues with institutional changes upon EU accession to draw a novel perspective on the desirable postaccession transition regime for EiTs with a fairly active ER policy and the EU's cohesion strategy. Core components of such a strategy are advocated.

  8. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  9. Psyken er en grænseflade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    En computer er i sig selv blot et stykke mekanik. Det afgørende sker i mødet mellem maskinen, mennesker og fællesskaber: på grænsefladen. Præcis som hos levende væsner......En computer er i sig selv blot et stykke mekanik. Det afgørende sker i mødet mellem maskinen, mennesker og fællesskaber: på grænsefladen. Præcis som hos levende væsner...

  10. Alternatieve instrumenten voor het EU-landbouwbeleid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Het EU-landbouwbeleid staat met de parallel lopende onderhandelingen over de uitbreiding en een nieuw WTO-akkoord voor verdere hervormingen. Dit rapport behandelt de vraag of er voor de instrumenten van dit beleid alternatieven kunnen worden aangereikt. Daarbij wordt de aandacht gericht op

  11. Vejen til helvede er brolagt med frelste intentioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2013-01-01

    Det åbenlyse spørgsmål omkring, hvorfor vi er i Afghanistan (eller hvorfor vi bliver?) er bestemt et relevant spørgsmål, men at klæbe et prædikat på om krigens manglende moralske troværdighed kræver mere end blot sure opstød. Er vi netop ikke blevet i Afghanistan grundet moralske principper?...

  12. Præverbalitet i Musikterapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hannibal

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikel er en oversættelse af mit foredrag på verdenskongressen i musikterapi i Oxford 2002. Den er baseret på min ph.d. afhandling »Præverbal Overføring i Musikterapi«, der blev forsvaret juni 2001. Formålet med artiklen er at validere min forskning om præverbal overføring i musikterapi i den musikalske interaktion gennem formidling af den pragmatiske anvendelse. I artiklen argumenterer jeg for anvendelse af Sterns psykologiske udviklingsteori og Sotolorow & Atwoodes teori om psykoterapi som fortolkningskontekst for musikalsk interaktion, når fokus er interaktion, relation og overføring. Det illustreres gennem en case analyse hvorledes begreberne kan anvendes på kliniske data. Det konkluderes at psykologisk teori og tænkning er nødvendig for at kunne forstå og beskrive musikalsk interaktion i et psykologisk perspektiv.

  13. Ungdomslitteratur former(er) sig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    2016-01-01

    Igennem en 'mediesensitiv' analyse af romanen "Akavet" af Ronnie Andersen (2014) og perspektivering til andre aktuelle romaner for og med unge undersøger artiklen, hvordan ungdomslitteratur udvikler sig i dialog med digitale og mediebaserede impulser, og hvilke konsekvenser for udsigelserne om...... ungdomsliv og ungdomslitteraturens æstetik og mulige egenart, denne udvikling har. Artiklen baserer sig på en materialitetstilgang særligt inspireret af N. Katherine Hayles, som ikke tidligere har fået opmærksomhed i læsninger af ungdomslitteratur eller i diskussioner af ungdomslitteraturens mulige egenart......, at ungdomslitteratur drejer sig om unges udviklingsproces fra barndom og til voksenhed og dermed skildrer en overgang præget af linearitet, modning og vækst. Artiklen konkluderer, at der er ungdomslitteratur, der realiseres på andre præmisser, og Akavet kan ses som eksponent for en bevægelse fra ungdomslitteratur som...

  14. Lisabonská smlouva a závaznost Listiny základních práv EU pro Českou republiku vzhledem k tzv.výjimce (opt-out)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 191-194 ISSN 1210-6410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : the Lisbon Treaty * the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  15. Hvad er smag, og hvordan underviser man i og med smag?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Lars; Wistoft, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Hvad er smag, og hvordan underviser man i smag som undervisningens genstand eller med smag som et virkemiddel i undervisningen? Det er denne artikels to hovedspørgsmål. Formålet er at præsentere det, der kaldes en smagsdidaktisk refleksionsteori, dvs. en teori der reflekterer over, hvordan man un...

  16. Politik er ikke lykken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenbuch, Johannes Aakjær

    2011-01-01

    Der er ikke længere nogen højere sandhed i livet end den, flertallet bestemmer sig for – og dermed ingen del af livet, der ikke er politisk. Højre- og venstrefløjen er i bund og grund enige - enige om, at det er politikernes opgave at forære os det gode liv. Dermed bliver demokratiet totalitært. ...

  17. Man er aldrig alene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Nu ved vi, at der er mange slags DNA i vores krop, og at samarbejdet mellem de organismer, som bærer alt dette DNA, er essentielt for vores overlevelse" … "Kroppen er en slags økosystem, hvor alle slags samarbejde hen ad vejen bliver afprøvet"...

  18. Právní úprava statusu osob se zvláštními potřebami v azylových směrnicích EU

    OpenAIRE

    Neumannová, Jiřina

    2011-01-01

    Legal regulation of the status of persons with special needs in the EU Asylum directives (Abstract) By the very nature of their status, applicants for international protection and recognized refugees are among the most vulnerable persons. Within this group, there is also a subgroup of persons with special problems, risks and needs that make them even more vulnerable. This subgroup of persons with special needs is provided special protection within the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). The...

  19. Hvordan kan jeg ane det jeg gør er rigtigt?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Dømmekraft er i vælten. Men hvad er dømmekraft, og hvordan er det muligt at udvikle sin dømmekraft i en virkelighed, hvor målstyring fylder stadigt mere? Artiklen tager med dømmekraftbegrebet afsæt i den nye pædagoguddannelse. Bekendtgørelsen er præget af en opfordring til at have mere opmærksomh...

  20. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  1. Friluftsinstallationer i træer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Simon; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    2015-01-01

    Abebaner, treetop walking, high rope adventure, slackline, træhuse og parkour-baner er alle installationer, som bruger træerne som støtte, enten midlertidigt eller permanent. Den nye sport, turistattraktionen eller team building-redskabet sætter i alle tilfælde træerne på prøve. Der følger positiv...

  2. Vreden er over os

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    Urolige elever, cyklister - der giver fuck-finger, aggressive demonstranter. Samtiden er på vej ind i en æra domineret af vrede, siger rektor Lars-Henrik Schmidt, der er aktuel med bogen 'Om vreden'. Udgivelsesdato: Juni......Urolige elever, cyklister - der giver fuck-finger, aggressive demonstranter. Samtiden er på vej ind i en æra domineret af vrede, siger rektor Lars-Henrik Schmidt, der er aktuel med bogen 'Om vreden'. Udgivelsesdato: Juni...

  3. GR and ER co-activation alters the expression of differentiation genes and associates with improved ER+ breast cancer outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Diana C.; Pan, Deng; Tonsing-Carter, Eva Y.; Hernandez, Kyle M.; Pierce, Charles F.; Styke, Sarah C.; Bowie, Kathleen R.; Garcia, Tzintzuni I.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    In estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer (BC), high tumor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression has been associated with a relatively poor outcome. In contrast, using a meta-analysis of several genomic datasets, here we find that tumor GR mRNA expression is associated with improved ER+ relapse-free survival (RFS) (independently of progesterone receptor (PR) expression). To understand the mechanism by which GR expression is associated with a better ER+ BC outcome, the global effect of GR-mediated transcriptional activation in ER+ BC cells was studied. Analysis of GR chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) in ER+/GR+ MCF-7 cells revealed that upon co-activation of GR and ER, GR chromatin association became enriched at proximal promoter regions. Furthermore, following ER activation, increased GR chromatin association was observed at ER, FOXO, and AP1 response elements. In addition, ER associated with GR response elements, suggesting that ER and GR interact in a complex. Co-activation of GR and ER resulted in increased expression (relative to ER activation alone) of transcripts that encode proteins promoting cellular differentiation (e.g. KDM4B, VDR) and inhibiting the Wnt-signaling pathway (IGFBP4). Finally, expression of these individual pro-differentiation genes was associated with significantly improved RFS in ER+ BC patients. Together, these data suggest that the co-expression and subsequent activity of tumor cell GR and ER contribute to the less aggressive natural history of early-stage BC by coordinating the altered expression of genes favoring differentiation. Implications The interaction between estrogen and glucocorticoid receptor activity highlights the importance of context-dependent nuclear receptor function in cancer. PMID:27141101

  4. Zdanění příjmů obchodních společností a jejich účastníků (srovnání právní úpravy v ČR a ve vybraných státech EU - SR a PR)

    OpenAIRE

    Boháček, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    87 Resumé This diploma thesis named "Taxation of income of companies and their participants (comparison of legal regulations in the selected EU states - the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland)". The thesis is divided into a theoretical and practical part. Chapters 1 - 6 form the theoretical part and chapters 7 - 9 form the practical part. The theoretical part contains a definition of tax, possible division of taxes, definition of a tax system and description of the structure of tax systems i...

  5. Hvad f er meningen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Ringberg, Torsten; Wilke, Ricky

    En forskningsrapport fra CBS om danske lederes opfattelse af sociale medier i detail- og servicebranchen. Rapporten er udarbejdet i regi af Service Platform.......En forskningsrapport fra CBS om danske lederes opfattelse af sociale medier i detail- og servicebranchen. Rapporten er udarbejdet i regi af Service Platform....

  6. Præstationsledelse gentænkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Sørensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    smidige styrings- og vurderingssystemer, som er integreret i en dagligdags ledelsespraksis, der nedbryder KPI’er, opstiller meningsfulde mål og giver kontinuerlig, konkret og konstruktiv feedback. Vi diskuterer, med afsæt i tre caseeksempler, faldgruber i en klassisk tilgang til præstationsledelse og...

  7. MIT HJEM ER HVOR MIT HJERTE ER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2014-01-01

    Ideen om at arbejde med det man kalder de stedbundne ressourcer på en ny måde, er relevant på Bornholm hvor events som blandt andet festivalen ’Wonderfestiwall’, strandfesten ’Vang Pier Beach Party’, karnevallet ’Svaneke Beach Party, kokkekonkurrencen ’Sol over Gudhjem’ og filmfestivalen ’Bornsho...

  8. Progesterone receptors (PR) mediate STAT actions: PR and prolactin receptor signaling crosstalk in breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehy, Katherine A; Truong, Thu H; Mauro, Laura J; Lange, Carol A

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen is the major mitogenic stimulus of mammary gland development during puberty wherein ER signaling acts to induce abundant PR expression. PR signaling, in contrast, is the primary driver of mammary epithelial cell proliferation in adulthood. The high circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy signal through PR, inducing expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Cooperation between PR and prolactin (PRL) signaling, via regulation of downstream components in the PRL signaling pathway including JAKs and STATs, facilitates the alveolar morphogenesis observed during pregnancy. Indeed, these pathways are fully integrated via activation of shared signaling pathways (i.e. JAKs, MAPKs) as well as by the convergence of PRs and STATs at target genes relevant to both mammary gland biology and breast cancer progression (i.e. proliferation, stem cell outgrowth, tissue cell type heterogeneity). Thus, rather than a single mediator such as ER, transcription factor cascades (ER>PR>STATs) are responsible for rapid proliferative and developmental programming in the normal mammary gland. It is not surprising that these same mediators typify uncontrolled proliferation in a majority of breast cancers, where ER and PR are most often co-expressed and may cooperate to drive malignant tumor progression. This review will primarily focus on the integration of PR and PRL signaling in breast cancer models and the importance of this cross-talk in cancer progression in the context of mammographic density. Components of these PR/PRL signaling pathways could offer alternative drug targets and logical complements to anti-ER or anti-estrogen-based endocrine therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  10. Monitoring the entry of young people into labour market: the potential of the EU-LFS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, P.H.G.; Berkhout, E.E.; Biermans, M.L.; van der Valk, J.

    2006-01-01

    Om beter zicht te krijgen op de toetreding van jonge mensen op de arbeidsmarkt in de EU is er in de 'EU Labour Force Study 2000' een ad hoc module geïntroduceerd. Deze module, 'School-To-Work Transition', staat in 2009 opnieuw gepland. Vooruitlopend hierop is SEO Economisch Onderzoek door Eurostat

  11. Hvor anvendelig er PKI?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jon Magne

    2006-01-01

    Denne oppgaven ser på bruken av elektronisk ID i statlige etater i Norge i dag. Det ses spesielt på om bruken av tekologien PKI er en god løsning på etatenes behov på dette området. Som utgangspunkt for analysen er det sett spesielt på to statlige etater. Disse etatenes behov og bruk av elektronisk ID generelt og PKI spesielt blir undersøkt. Det er videre gjort rede for hvilke lover, forskrifter og andre førende dokumenter som danner de formelle rammebetingelsene for etaters bruk av PKI. ...

  12. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    In this article I study the long-term evolution of the main categories of expenditure of the European Union (EU) budget (1984-2011). The aim is to assess the extent to which the EU is affected by a structural form of policy inertia, and to investigate the general pattern of policy stability...... and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...

  13. Innovation er brugerdreven!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Brugerdreven innovation er blevet svaret på mange af de udfordringer, som vores moderne samfund står overfor.Det er skrevet ind i såvel regeringsgrundlaget som i de forskellige tiltag, som skal ruste Danmark i forhold til globaliseringen. Vi har ifølge argumentationen her enrække særlige forudsæt....... Udgivelsesdato: marts 2008...

  14. Metabolomics er fremtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersern, Birger

    2010-01-01

    Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet......Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet...

  15. Er KU et mobbeuniversitet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Ansatte på KU mobber hverken mere eller mindre end på andre danske arbejdspladser. Mediernes dækning af APV-undersøgelsens resultater mht. mobning er sensationalistisk og delvis vildledende.......Ansatte på KU mobber hverken mere eller mindre end på andre danske arbejdspladser. Mediernes dækning af APV-undersøgelsens resultater mht. mobning er sensationalistisk og delvis vildledende....

  16. Er jeres ledere 'likeable'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Færdigheder: Oftest er lederne langtfra de første til at kaste sig over ny teknologi. It-kundskaberne på chefgangen trænger til en opgradering.......Færdigheder: Oftest er lederne langtfra de første til at kaste sig over ny teknologi. It-kundskaberne på chefgangen trænger til en opgradering....

  17. er 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. P.; Søndergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.

    små cladoceer og hjuldyr, og især er maksimumsforekom-sterne af calanoide vandlopper og de små og store cladoceer og daf-nier gået tilbage. Den gennemsnitlige biomasse af dafnier er derimod øget især p.g.a. stigning i de 25 % af søerne med størst forekomster. Dyreplanktons græsning Betragtet under et...

  18. er 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. P.; Søndergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.

    styrke det fagli-ge grundlag for de mil-jøpolitiske prioriteringer og beslut-ninger. En væsentlig del af denne opgave er overvågning af miljø og natur. Det er derfor et naturligt led i Danmarks Miljø-undersø-gelsers opgave at forestå den landsdækkende rapportering af overvågnings-program-met inden...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} co-doped with different rare earth ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lephoto, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Private bag X 13, Phuthaditjaba 9866, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M., E-mail: ntwaeab@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Private bag X 13, Phuthaditjaba 9866, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Pitale, Shreyas S.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Private bag X 13, Phuthaditjaba 9866, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, ZA 6031 (South Africa); Mothudi, B.M. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Pretoria, ZA 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Combustion method was used in this study to prepare BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors co-doped with different trivalent rare-earths (Re{sup 3+}=Dy{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) ions at an initiating temperature of 600 Degree-Sign C. The phosphors were annealed at 1000 Degree-Sign C for 3 h. As confirmed from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, both as prepared and post annealed samples crystallized in the well known hexagonal structure of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. All samples exhibited bluish-green emission associated with the 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1}{yields}4f{sup 7} transitions of Eu{sup 2+} at {approx}500 nm. Although the highest intensity was observed from Er{sup 3+} co-doping, the longest afterglow (due to trapping and detrapping of charge carriers) was observed from Nd{sup 3+} followed by Dy{sup 3+} co-doping. The traps responsible for the long afterglow were studied using thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy.

  20. In situ hydrothermal syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of four novel metal-organic frameworks constructed by lanthanide (Ln=Ce(III), Pr(III), Eu(III)) and Cu(I) metals with flexible dicarboxylate acids and piperazine-based ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ay, Burak; Karaca, Serkan [Department of Chemistry, Arts and Science Faculty, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Yildiz, Emel, E-mail: eeyildiz@cu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Arts and Science Faculty, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Lopez, Valerie [Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Nanao, Max H. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); University Grenoble Alpes-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-EMBL Unit of Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Zubieta, Jon [Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Université Grenoble Alpes Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire & Végétale, Institut de Recherches en Technologies et Sciences pour le Vivant, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2016-01-15

    Four novel metal-organic frameworks,[Cu{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(pyrz)]{sub n} (1) and (H{sub 2}pip){sub n}[Ln{sub 2}(pydc){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (Ln=Ce (2), Pr (3) and Eu (4), H{sub 2}pzdc=2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid, pyrz=pyrazine, H{sub 2}pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}pip=piperazine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the elemental analysis, ICP, Far IR (FIR), FT-IR spectra, TGA, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is two-dimensional containing Cl-Cu-Cl sites, while the lanthanide complexes contain one-dimensional infinite Ln–O-Ln chains. All the complexes show high thermal stability. The complexes 1–3 exhibit luminescence emission bands at 584, 598 and 614 nm at room temperature when excited at 300 nm. Complex 4 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four novel metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Thermal and luminescent properties of the compounds have been investigated.

  1. ADHD er ikke hysteri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Anders; Tranæs, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan.......Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan....

  2. Er nogen mere lige end andre?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    normativ fordring. Kohlis (2007) formulering af normalbiografien er en tredeling af livsforløbet (uddannelse – arbejdsliv - pension). En tredeling der bliver kritiseret for at være køns- og familieblind, hvorfor linked lives-begrebet bliver introduceret. Begrebet har den teoretiske implikation...... analyser tager højde for afhængighed over tid i den afhængige variabel. Overordnet set er det tre aspekter af datas karakteristika, der fordrer specielle metoder. Det er censurering af data, tidsmæssig variation i de uafhængige variable samt potentiel korrelation mellem målingerne af den afhængige variabel...... for disse ændringer, hvorved risikoen for en given transition beregnes mere præcist. Afhandlingens empiriske grundlag er registerdata for alle personer i Danmark, der tilhører fødselskohorterne 1968, 1972 og 1976. Data dækker over personlige, familiære forhold og oplysninger på arbejdspladsniveau, hvor den...

  3. Danske 4. klasseelever er bedre end gennemsnittet til matematik og natur/teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Vibe Abildtrup

    2016-01-01

    En ny undersøgelse af 4. klasseelevers præstationer i fagene matematik og natur/teknologi viser, at danske elever klarer sig godt internationalt set, og at vi i Danmark har mange elever, der er meget dygtige til matematik. Men den negative sociale arv er fortsat stærk, og lærerne oplever mere stø...

  4. Rab7a modulates ER stress and ER morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Duarte; Marini, Elettra Sara; Progida, Cinzia; Bakke, Oddmund

    2018-05-01

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a membranous organelle with diverse structural and functional domains. Peripheral ER includes interconnected tubules, and dense tubular arrays called "ER matrices" together with bona fide flat cisternae. Transitions between these states are regulated by membrane-associated proteins and cytosolic factors. Recently, the small GTPases Rab10 and Rab18 were reported to control ER shape by regulating ER dynamics and fusion. Here, we present evidence that another Rab protein, Rab7a, modulates the ER morphology by controlling the ER homeostasis and ER stress. Indeed, inhibition of Rab7a expression by siRNA or expression of the dominant negative mutant Rab7aT22 N, leads to enlargement of sheet-like ER structures and spreading towards the cell periphery. Notably, such alterations are ascribable neither to a direct modulation of the ER shaping proteins Reticulon-4b and CLIMP63, nor to interactions with Protrudin, a Rab7a-binding protein known to affect the ER organization. Conversely, depletion of Rab7a leads to basal ER stress, in turn causing ER membrane expansion. Both ER enlargement and basal ER stress are reverted in rescue experiments by Rab7a re-expression, as well as by the ER chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). Collectively, these findings reveal a new role of Rab7a in ER homeostasis, and indicate that genetic and pharmacological ER stress manipulation may restore ER morphology in Rab7a silenced cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Jeg Er blevet FRANKofil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    afhængig af Frank Underwood fra serien House of Cards på den fremadstormende TV-streamingstjenesten Netflix. Jeg har opdaget et nyt internetbaseret datingforhold. Et surrealt, fedt miks af det kyniske og joviale personificeret i karakteren Frank Underwood, som er helt igennem ubehagelig, men fantastisk...... spillet af Kevin Spacey. Og tak til Spacey der for en tid har forladt teateret ’The Old Vic’ i London for at begejstre mig. Der er generelt to årsager til mine FRANKofile tilbøjeligheder. For det første er Netflix’s remake af den tyve år gamle BBC serie House of Cards efter min menig et stykke tv...... anden grund, til at jeg er blevet Frankofil, er, at jeg ikke skal sidde og vente på næste søndag efter søndag efter søndag for at få lov at se næste afsnit. Netflix lagde alle tretten timer af sæson 2 ud på nettet. Jeg afgør selv, hvornår jeg skal have mere Frank! Men på trods af mit narkomanlignende...

  6. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...... of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law framework...

  7. Ondskaben er fortryllende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer.......Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer....

  8. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  9. OpenLaws.eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wass, C.; Dini, P.; Eiser, T.; Heistracher, T.J.; Lampoltshammer, T.J.; Marcon, G.; Sageder, C.; Tsiavos, P.; Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E.; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The OPENLAWS.eu project aims to linking existing laws, cases and legal literature throughout the EU and member states and potentially worldwide and at adding new user-friendly functionality for a higher productivity. Furthermore, the project should make it possible to easily publish new legal

  10. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  11. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  12. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  13. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  14. Heat pumps barometer - EurObserv'ER - September 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    Heat pumps have moved up the ranks of renewable energy - producing heating technologies since the mid-2000's. The EU Member States' individual market trends are characterised by the technologies used and their heating and cooling needs. More than 1.7 million systems were sold in the European Union in 2014. According to EurObserv'ER, several market factors were responsible for sales dipping slightly below their 2013 level of just under 2 million

  15. Scenen er blevet din

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Verden kan betragtes som en skueplads med mange forskellige scener. I bidrgaet vil læseren kunne stifte bekendtskab med forskellige refleksioner over netop denne metaforik som analyseoptik i forhold til begrebet innovation. Afsættet er ønsket om at finde en måde at analysere og begrebsliggøre inn...

  16. Er tang fremtidens superfood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    seneste år fået øjnene op for tang indenfor områderne: biokemikalier og bioaktive stoffer, ekstraktion, gastronomi, produktudvikling, foder, bioraffinaderier, dyrkning osv. Men hvad er det tang kan? Dette foredrag vil vise at vi med tangdyrkning kan rykke mere bæredygtig fødevareproduktion ud på havet...

  17. Ideologi er noget bras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    fra den slovenske filosof Slavoj Zizek stilles imidlertid det spørgsmål i bogen, om ideologien idag ikke blot har taget en anden form. Vi lever i dag ikke i post-ideologiske tider. Snarere er braset selv – X Factor, forbrugsobjekter, underholdning, følelser og balloner – blevet den næsten usynlige...

  18. Hvad er tidligt sprog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver Jensen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Forfatteren argumenterer for at "early literacy" kan oversættes til "tidligt sprog"; særligt når der er tale om en helhedsorienteret tilgang med vægt på sprog som et alsidigt medie for kommunikation- og betydningsskabelse. Med inspiration fra Jerome Bruners kulturpsykologi diskuteres mulige...

  19. Trump har droppet fløjlshandskerne, nu da han er slået tilbage til start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2016-01-01

    Donald Trump vandt primærvalget ved hjælp af personangreb. I præsidentvalgkampens slutspurt har han nu taget den strategi op igen, selvom alle dømte den ude – og det er måske slet ikke så dumt, for det er det, Trump kan......Donald Trump vandt primærvalget ved hjælp af personangreb. I præsidentvalgkampens slutspurt har han nu taget den strategi op igen, selvom alle dømte den ude – og det er måske slet ikke så dumt, for det er det, Trump kan...

  20. Structural trends in a series of isostructural lanthanide-copper metallacrown sulfates (Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho): hexaaquapentakis[μ3-glycinehydroxamato(2-)]sulfatopentacopper(II)lanthanide(III) heptaaquapentakis[μ3-glycinehydroxamato(2-)]sulfatopentacopper(II)lanthanide(III) sulfate hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlishchuk, Anna V; Kolotilov, Sergey V; Fritsky, Igor O; Zeller, Matthias; Addison, Anthony W; Hunter, Allen D

    2011-07-01

    The seven isostructural complexes, [Cu(5)Ln(C(2)H(4)N(2)O(2))(5)(SO(4))(H(2)O)(6.5)](2)(SO(4))·6H(2)O, where Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho, are representatives of the 15-metallacrown-5 family. Each dianion of glycinehydroxamic acid (GlyHA) links two Cu(II) cations forming a cyclic [CuGlyHA](5) frame. The Ln(III) cations are located at the centre of the [CuGlyHA](5) rings and are bound by the five hydroxamate O atoms in the equatorial plane. Five water molecules are coordinated to Cu(II) cations, and one further water molecule, located close to an inversion centre between two adjacent [Cu(5)Ln(GlyHA)(5)](2+) cations, is disordered around this inversion centre and coordinated to a Cu(II) cation of either the first or second metallacrown ether. Another water molecule and one of the two crystallographically independent sulfate anions are coordinated, the latter in a bidentate fashion, to the Ln(III) cation in the axial positions. The second sulfate anion is not coordinated to the cation, but is located in an interstitial position on a crystallographic inversion centre, thus leading to disorder of the O atoms around the centre of inversion. The Ln-O bond distances follow the trend of the lanthanide contraction. The apical Ln-O bond distances are very close to the sums of the ionic radii. However, the Ln-O distances within the metallacrown units are slightly compressed and the Ln(III) cations protrude significantly from the plane of the otherwise flat metallacrown ligand, thus indicating that the cavity is somewhat too small to accommodate the Ln(III) ions comfortably. This effect decreases with the size of the lanthanide cation from complex (I) (Ln(III) = Pr; 0.459) to complex (VII) (Ln(III) = Ho; 0.422), which indicates that the smaller lanthanide cations fit the cavity of the pentacopper metallacrown ring better than the larger ones. The diminished contraction of Ln-O distances within the metallacrown planes leads to an aniostropic contraction of the unit

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel 2D kagome materials RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho): Comparison to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14} family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.B.; Baroudi, K.M.; Krizan, J.W.; Mukadam, O.A.; Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho) with a perfect kagome lattice are presented and compared to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}. Rietveld structure refinements were performed using X-ray diffraction data, indicating that the layered compounds are fully structurally ordered. The compounds crystallize in a rhombohedral supercell of the cubic pyrochlore structure, in the space group R-3m. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show no signs of magnetic ordering above 2 K. The RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} family is similar to that of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}; however, the series reported here features a fully ordered distribution of cations in both the nonmagnetic antimony and magnetic rare earth kagome lattices. Unlike the offsite disorder that Zn{sup 2+} experiences in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}, the magnesium sites in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} are completely ordered. Here we compare the magnetic properties in both series of kagome compounds to determine how significant Zn{sup 2+}'s positional ordering is within this structure type. The compounds reported here appear to be relatively defect-free and are therefore model systems for investigating magnetic frustration on an ideal 2D rare earth kagome lattice. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Er HR ude i tovene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    HR: Er der behov for nytænkning i HR-land? Artikler i Harvard Business Review - bakket op af en dansk undersøgelse - konkluderer, at HR stadig mangler gennemslagskraft i virksomhederne. Er HR ude i tovene? ... For i undersøgelsen "Ny Dansk Ledelse" (maj 2015), som er baseret på danske lederes...

  3. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  4. Facebook er internettet nu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Den store vision for world wide web var, at alle kunne få ubegrænset adgang til alverdens information. www var mangfoldigt og anarkistisk. I dag er der rigtig mange, der kun bruger nettet til at være på Facebook. Hvad bruger Facebook det til? Og hvad gør det ved vores udsyn?......Den store vision for world wide web var, at alle kunne få ubegrænset adgang til alverdens information. www var mangfoldigt og anarkistisk. I dag er der rigtig mange, der kun bruger nettet til at være på Facebook. Hvad bruger Facebook det til? Og hvad gør det ved vores udsyn?...

  5. Pensionisters levevilkår i seks EU-lande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    I arbejdspapiret beskrives økonomiske forhold, sociale relationer og helbredsmæssige forhold for pensionister i seks EU-lande. Sammenligningen sker på flere måder. Dels sammenlignes niveauerne i de seks lande; er danske pensionister fx rigere, eller mere ensomme end i andre lande? Dels sammenlignes....... Arbejdet er i tidligere udgaver kommenteret af forfatterne bag omtalte rapport, dvs. Jacob Nielsen Arendt, Eigil Boll Hansen og Brian Rimdal fra AKF, Ole Gregersen, Henning Olsen og Jeanet Bentzen fra SFI, og desuden af fuldmægtig Torben Hede, Socialministeriet, specialkonsulent Anne Kirstine Høj, Det...

  6. Hvad er en by?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parby, Jakob; Thelle, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Nytænkning. Med de moderne megabyer er det slut med at forestille sig byen som noget, man planlægger og giver form. Vi skal lære at se dem som vildtvoksende urbane landskaber. Artikel om megabyer, byudvikling og forestillingen om byen gennem tiderne. Skrevet delvist i anledning af åbningen af...... udstillingen Citambulos på Københavns Museum, der handlede om Mexico City....

  7. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  8. Iran : Præstestyret - under udvikling eller afvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Man hører ikke længere om gadeprotester i Teheran. Efter de voldsomme kampe i Teheran først på året, er det tilsyneladende lykkedes den Islamiske Republik at tvinge oppositionen til tavshed. Ifølge lederen af 'den grønne bevægelse' og tidligere præsidentkandidat, Mousavi, er det islamiske regimes...

  9. 2002 electricity statistics: EU and EU+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Electricity generation in the European Union (EU) decreased by 0,7% in the period of 2001 to 2002, reaching 2521,3 billion kWh. Developments varied in different countries. Conventional thermal power plants generated 1340,1 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 53.0% share in the total generation and an increase by 2.7% over the level in the previous year. Generation in nuclear power plants increased by 2.7% to 855.5 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 33,8% share in EU-wide generation. Hydroelectric plants and other plants supplied 15.2% less electricity. Eurostat statistics do not differentiate these data any further. The volume of 332.2 kWh is tantamount to a 13.1% share. In the new EU member countries and the candidate countries, electricity generation showed a moderate increase by 0.4% and 2.1%, respectively. While generation both in conventional power plants and in other plants decreased, a considerable increase is shown for nuclear power generation of +13.5% and +10.6%, respectively [de

  10. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  11. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  12. EU Nuclear vs. Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, Jean-Pol

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: • The Fukushima-Daiichi accident represents an opportunity for the nuclear industry to demonstrate its ability to learn from experience through “a continuous improvement strategy”; • Inside the EU: which legal framework for nuclear safety - harmonisation of licensing procedures - EU-level reactor design clearance?; • No way forward without public support: how to address, explain, convince?; • Greater cooperation between industry and international organizations: FORATOM available to contribute

  13. Man er mere fri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen belyser community psykologisk praksis gennem en præsentation af det community psykologiske perspektiv i psyko-sociale programmer, der iværksættes for at fremme mental og social trivsel hos individer,i familier og i lokalsamfund og netværk. Der gives en beskrivelse og analyse af projektet...

  14. Farmakologisk behandling af præmatur ejakulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Ida Berglund; Hedegaard, Ulla; Christensen, Mette Marie H

    2017-01-01

    Forfatterne anbefaler lokalanæstesi med lidokain og/eller prilokain som førstevalg. Andet valg til behandling vil være dapoxetin, som er en korttidsvirkende SSRI med indikationen præmatur ejakulation. Som tredje valg kan overvejes SSRI'et sertralin......Forfatterne anbefaler lokalanæstesi med lidokain og/eller prilokain som førstevalg. Andet valg til behandling vil være dapoxetin, som er en korttidsvirkende SSRI med indikationen præmatur ejakulation. Som tredje valg kan overvejes SSRI'et sertralin...

  15. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    ème dont deux ont été ouvertes au grand public et destinées plus particulièrement aux lycéens et aux étudiants des premiers cycles universitaires et des classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles. Les deux conférences grand public qui ont connu un vif succès ont été données par Michel BLAY : ”La lumière de Newton à Einstein” et Alain ASPECT : ”Des objections d'Einstein aux bits quantiques : stupéfiante intrication”. La présentation de Michel Blay, toute en couleur, a éclairé le public sur l'histoire des théories de la lumière. La conférence d'Alain Aspect a enthousiasmé aussi bien chercheurs confirmés que jeunes chercheurs et lycéens. La veille, nous avions eu l'immense plaisir d'apprendre, en avant-première qu'Alain Aspect, qui a présidé le comité scientifique des quatre précédentes éditions de COLOQ, était lauréat de la médaille d'or 2005 du CNRS. Sa conférence a su nous faire partager sa passion exceptionnelle de la physique et, à n'en pas douter, elle a suscité des vocations pour la physique chez les plus jeunes. Les autres thèmes scientifiques majeurs qui ont été abordés sont l'auto-organisation de la lumière (avec un accent particulier porté sur les solitons, thème important pour les physiciens dijonnais), les phénomènes fondamentaux, les nanostructures et l'optique quantique, et un thème aux frontières de l'optique. En outre, afin de marquer de façon spécifique l'année mondiale de la physique, quelques expériences didactiques de physique (avec l'intervention en particulier de l'Expérimentarium de l'Université de Bourgogne), ainsi qu'une démonstration sur les ondes non linéaires dans un canal hydrodynamique (Onde solitaire et Tsunami) ont été présentées aux participants et au grand public. COLOQ9 a également offert l'opportunité à la commission d'enseignement de la Société Française d'Optique d'organiser des rencontres entre enseignants d'optique autour d'affiches ”pédagogiques”. Ces

  16. Overvågning af orkidéer 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, P.

    resultaterne af orkidéovervågningen (Wind 2001). Hertil kommer præsentationen af projektet og dets resultater efter forløbet af de første tre år (Løjtnant 1991a) og en bearbejdning af projektets resultater for årene 1987-1995 (Wind 1997). I nærværende rapport undersøges skov-hullæbe for en eventuel sammenhæng...... mellem skudanlæggelsen udtrykt ved antallet af blomstrende og vegetative skud i et givet år og nedbørsmængder i august og september året før. Det er en udbredt antagelse at der er en sammenhæng mellem skudanlæggelse og mængden af nedbør det foregående år. Undersøgelser af skov-hullæbe populationer i...... truet og sårbar samt de to arter der er omfattet af Habitatdirektivets bilag 2. I 2000 kan det i forhold til 1999 konstateres at der i 15 bestande er optalt et øget antal skud. I 11 bestande er der noteret en nedgang i antallet af skud sammenlignet med optællingerne i 1999. Af disse er der 2 be...

  17. equitytools.eu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer-Pedersen, Lasse; Kruse, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Valg af materiale/medie/form: Hjemmeside Valg af arbejdsform: Udvikling og opsætning Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Målgruppens præference......Valg af materiale/medie/form: Hjemmeside Valg af arbejdsform: Udvikling og opsætning Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Målgruppens præference...

  18. Hvad er tekstfiktion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    artiklen er et bidrag til belysningen af genteori og bygger på ideen om at karakterisere skønlitteratur som et restringeret sæt af universelle tekstparametre. Artiklen fokuserer især på parametren tekstfiktion, hvor jeg forsvarer den position, at en fiktiv tekst hverken kan karakteriseres som en ...... intentioner. Det betyder dog ikke, at sandhed og mening ikke spiller noget rolle ved identifikationen af fiktion, sådan som det hævdes af Walsh og andre....

  19. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  20. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is a breakthrough in prenatal screening Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very...

  1. 29 August 2013 - J.-F. Jauslin, Directeur de l’Office fédéral de la culture (OFC) Ambassadeur suisse auprès de l’UNESCO et de l’OIF au 1er septembre 2013 Confédération suisse visite le centre visiteurs de l’expérience ATLAS ainsi que la caverne expérimentale d'ATLAS avec P. Jenny, ancien Porte-parole d'ATLAS. M. Bona, Conseiller du Directeur général pour les relations avec les Organisations internationales présent tout au long.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    29 August 2013 - J.-F. Jauslin, Directeur de l’Office fédéral de la culture (OFC) Ambassadeur suisse auprès de l’UNESCO et de l’OIF au 1er septembre 2013 Confédération suisse visite le centre visiteurs de l’expérience ATLAS ainsi que la caverne expérimentale d'ATLAS avec P. Jenny, ancien Porte-parole d'ATLAS. M. Bona, Conseiller du Directeur général pour les relations avec les Organisations internationales présent tout au long.

  2. 152Eu decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, K.P.; Vinogradov, V.M.; Grigor'ev, E.P.; Zolotavin, A.V.; Makarov, V.M.; Sergeev, V.O.; Usynko, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the measurement of the relative intensities of the most intensive conversion lines of 152 Eu, the determination of as reliable as possible magnitudes of the intensities of γ-quanta using all the available data on γ-radiation of 152 Eu, the measurement of the interval conversion coefficients (ICC) for the most intensive γ-transitions, the determination of the probabilities of the 152 Eu β-decays to the 152 Sm and 152 Gd levels. The conversion lines of the most intensive γ-transitions in the 152 Eu decay are studied and the corresponding ICC are measured on the beta-spectrometers of π√2 and UMB type. The balance for the γ-transitions in the 152 Sm and 152 Gd daughter nuclei are presented. This balance is used to determine the absolute intensities of γ-rays (in terms of the percentage of the 152 Eu decays) and the probabilities of β-transitions to the levels of daughter nuclei. More accurate data on γ-rays and conversion electrons obtained can be used for the calibration of gamma and beta spectrometers

  3. The EU agencies’ role in policy diffusion beyond the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    and health quality within the risk assessment. This paper shows that the EU agencies develop various entrepreneurial methods and that they actively promote policy diffusion beyond the EU through socialisation and learning within international arrangements and collaborations. However, variations......The extensive literature on the EU agencies has mainly focused on their role in the harmonisation and expansion of regulatory standards within the EU. This paper joins this literature and investigates the role of EU agencies in policy diffusion beyond the EU borders. To operationalise this...

  4. Alternative crystal field parameters for rare-earth ions obtained from various techniques: IV. Comparative analysis of crystal field parameters obtained from inelastic neutron scattering and related studies of RE ions (RE = Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}) in REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czeslaw, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Modeling in Spectroscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, al. Piastow 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland); Lewandowska, Monika [Modeling in Spectroscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, al. Piastow 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland)

    2012-11-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orthorhombic crystal field parameters (CFPs) for RE3{sup +} in REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparative analysis of CFP sets for Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, and Pr{sup 3+} ions performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aspects related to CFP standardization considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several problems identified due to comparative CFP analysis clarified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correct comparison of different CFP sets must be based on standardization. - Abstract: This is fourth paper in a series devoted to reanalysis of the non-standard and standard crystal-field (CF) parameter (CFP) sets obtained from various experimental techniques and theoretical models for trivalent rare-earth (RE) ions in high-critical-temperature (high-T{sub c}) superconductors and related systems. In this paper the experimental orthorhombic CFPs, obtained mostly by inelastic neutron scattering techniques and to a lesser extent by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements as well as the respective theoretical CFPs for Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, and Pr{sup 3+} ions in REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} compounds, are considered. Several problems identified due to the comparative CFP analysis: (i) confusing notations used for operators and CFPs, (ii) different scaling factors and units used for CFPs, and (iii) lack of clear definitions of the axis systems used to express CFPs, were clarified. For each ion studied the available experimental and theoretical CFP sets are analyzed, standardized, and presented in a unified way. The large number of CFP sets prevents calculation of the five additional alternative sets for each originally reported CFP set. Instead, the alternative CFP sets are determined using the package CST for an average set calculated for selected compatible sets for each ion. These alternative CFP sets may be utilized in the multiple correlated

  5. Hvad er psykologien bag stærke brands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stasiak, Adam; Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2018-01-01

    Der findes ikke kun én, men flere typer af stærke brands. Denne artikel præsenterer 4 overordnede branding strategier, med hver deres rationale og bagvedliggende psykologi. Det er kendetegnende for disse 4 strategier, at de repræsenterer en bevægelse i marketing og branding, der går fra en snæver...

  6. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In this paper I try to explore whether the EU can go on expanding and thereby become culturally ever more diversified, and at the same retain its stability. The answer is, in principle, affirmative. Europe has always been much diversified, and therefore it is not possible to define a European...... identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  7. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  8. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  9. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  10. Rouw mag er zijn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke Moors

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrieving is allowedGrief is a human experience. Every form of loss shapes you into the human being you are today. Contrary to what earlier, unproven grief models postulate, grief does not have an end point. That is, bereavement does not have to be completely processed, but it should be integrated into someone’s life. The outdated grief models were often interpreted and used in a normative way, which led to a normative standard model. This portraits the belief that every mourner would experience similar symptoms and would go through a fixed pattern of phases. However, the updated vision emphasizes the individual and unique process of coping with loss: norms concerning grief should be banned. By means of literature research, interviews with professionals and personal experiences, it became clear that finding an equilibrium between restoration-orientated and loss-orientated coping styles is most beneficial. An important aspect in finding this balance is meaningfulness. Furthermore, the ability to bear a loss and to adapt accordingly are important components. Lastly, attaching significance to a loss is a constructive way of integrating the loss into one’s life. The death of a loved one should therefore not be forgotten or tucked away. After all, grief is the price we pay for love. SAMENVATTINGRouw mag er zijnRouw is een menselijke ervaring en elk verlies vormt je als mens. Rouw heeft, in tegenstelling tot wat de verouderde, niet bewezen rouwmodellen beweren, geen eindpunt. Verlies hoeft namelijk niet verwerkt te worden, maar moet juist geïntegreerd worden in iemands leven. De verouderde rouwmodellen zijn vaak normatief opgevat en toegepast, waaruit een normatief standaardmodel is ontstaan. Daarbij werd gedacht dat elke rouwende dezelfde symptomen zou vertonen en het rouwproces volgens vaste fasen zou verlopen. Binnen de vernieuwde visie wordt er juist van uitgegaan dat elk individu een unieke manier van reageren op rouw heeft. Er zou

  11. Han er her endnu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Interview med den kinesiske aktivist og billedkunstner Ai Weiwei, der sad fængslet i 81 dage i 2011. Hans pas er stadig (i februar 2014) inddraget af myndighederne, så han kan ikke forlade landet, selv om han har betalt en bøde på 13 mio. kr. for ”skatteunddragelse”. Både i sin kunst og i sine...... mange aktioner retter han en hård kritik af det korrupte kinesiske styre, som træder menneskerettighederne under fode. Men uretfærdighedsfølelsen har sin pris i et totalitært og topstyret samfund. Ligegyldigt, hvor mange vigtige udstillinger han har i udlandet, må han blive hjemme og styre aktiviteterne...... via cyberspace. I interviewet fortæller Ai Weiwei om de personlige omkostninger, som hans kamp mod systemet indebærer....

  12. Hvor er pisken og hatten?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothstein, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    En kort præsentation af forf. religionshistoriske forskningsarbejde blandt penan-folket i Sarawak.......En kort præsentation af forf. religionshistoriske forskningsarbejde blandt penan-folket i Sarawak....

  13. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  14. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  15. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  16. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  17. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  18. The EU's Biofuel Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EU is supporting biofuels, with the aim of reducing greenhouse-gas emission, encouraging the decarbonisation of fuels used in transportation, diversifying energy procurement, offering new earning opportunities in rural areas, and developing long-term replacements for oil. We publish lengthy excerpts from the recent Communication, COM(2006) 34def. which describes the strategy adopted by the Commission [it

  19. De 9 P’er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Ledere skal i dag selv skabe deres eget rum til ledelse, men hvad er med til at sætte det, hvilke betingelser og udfordringer er der, og hvordan kan lederne skabe sig selv i et hav af forventninger? Dette katalog inviterer til refleksion herom....

  20. Fremtidens undervisningsmiljøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Som oplægget til dette temanummer af LOM også indikerede, så sætter vi fokus på fremtidens undervisningsmiljøer på universiteter og UCer. Fremtidens undervisningsmiljøer har mange facetter, hvilket samlingen af artikler også illustrerer. “Fremtidens Undervisningsmiljø” handler om eksisterende erf...

  1. Den rige personlighed er livsduelig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    For omtrent 160 år siden formulerede Karl Marx forestillingen om en rig individualitet som det kommunistiske samfunds individideal. I dag får forestillingen relevans. Lyder det lidt besynderligt, er det ikke mærkeligt. For de fleste af os går næppe rundt og tror, at vi er lige på trapperne til...

  2. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  3. Brandulykker er et socialt problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    1999-01-01

    Det er de gamle, de syge, de handicappede og alkoholikerne, der brænder inde. Typisk har de tabt en cigaret eller tændstik på tøjet. En del af disse brandulykker opstår på plejehjem og andre institutioner, hvor det ofte er plejepersonalet, der opdager og slukker branden....

  4. Svimlende direktørlønninger er vor tids afguderi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Det er en ofte gentaget pointe at se valget af Donald Trump til USA's præsident og briternes nej til EUmedlemskabet som den lille mands forsøg på at forsvare sine nationale følelser og sit lokale tilhørsforhold, men man glemmer ofte belejligt, at den lille mands reaktion i lige så høj grad er imod...

  5. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  6. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    6.8% the drop in biofuel consumption in European Union transport between 2012 and 2013. The growth of biofuel consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU -28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to EurObserv'ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe. Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe

  7. Solar thermal barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, the European Union saw its solar thermal market contract for the seventh year in a row. EurObserv'ER puts sales of solar thermal capacity installed for the heating market (hot water and space heating) at 1861 MWth, equivalent to a 2.7 million m"2 of collectors... a further 8.6% decrease on the previous year's poor performance. Combined solar thermal capacity installed to date in the EU stands at 34.3 GWth, or 49 million m"2 of collectors

  8. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  9. Ny EU-dom om afgifter på motorkøretøjer - en bombe under de nationale registreringsafgifter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    Gennem tiden har EU-Domstolen, i en mængde sager, taget stilling til medlemsstaternes ret til at opkræve afgift af motorkøretøjer. EU-Domstolen har således taget stilling til, om afgift på motorkøretøjer er forenelig med EU-retten i forbindelse med arbejdskraftens frie bevægelighed, etableringsre...

  10. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    2002-01-01

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  11. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ ph...

  12. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  13. Min mentor er min voksenven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Birte

    2009-01-01

    En artikel i bogen: 6 belysninger af vejledning, brydninger, forståelser & praksis. Artiklen er et sammendrag af en diskursanalyse fra 2008 fra projetrapporten: Ind under huden, www.vejledning.net...

  14. Das Kapital e Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schweickart

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir da sua própria biografia, o autor ensaia sobre sua interpretação de Das Kapital, de Karl Marx. Argumenta sobre a exploração capitalista, sobre o fetichismo e aponta para o problema central do capitalismo: a falta de controle dos concernidos sobre a produção de produtor úteis.

  15. Forenklingens fire F'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Tina Øllgaard

    2017-01-01

    At fjerne styring er det, man ofte forbinder med afbureaukratisering, men det er ikke tilstrækkeligt, når man vil gå fra flotte ambitioner til en styring, som reelt opleves enklere. For at forenkle må man også forandre, forankre og fastholde styring, og det må ske i et samspil mellem de aktører, ...

  16. Luminescence properties of different Eu sites in LiMgPO4:Eu2+, Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A; Mahlik, S; Grinberg, M; Cai, P; Kim, S I; Seo, H J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the luminescence properties of LiMgPO 4 doped with Eu 3+ and Eu 2+ are presented. Depending on the excitation wavelength, luminescence spectra consist of two distinct broad emission bands peaking at 380 nm and 490 nm related to 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) luminescence of Eu 2+ and to europium-trapped exciton, respectively, and/or several sharp lines between the 580 nm and 710 nm region, ascribed to the 5 D 0  →  7 F J (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions in Eu 3+ . To explain all the features of the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ luminescence we discussed the existence of two different Eu sites substituting for Li + , with short and long distance compensation. The evident effect of increasing the intensity of the Eu 2+ luminescence with increasing temperature was observed. It was considered that the charge compensation mechanism for Eu 3+ and Li + as well as Eu 2+ replacing Li + in the LiMgPO 4 is a long distance compensation that allows for the existence of some of the europium ions either as Eu 3+ at low temperature or as Eu 2+ at high temperature. We concluded that Eu 2+ in the Li + site with long distance compensation yields only 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence, whereas Eu 2+ in the Li + site with short distance compensation yields 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence and europium-trapped exciton emission. (paper)

  17. Computerbasiert prüfen [Computer-based Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Computer-based testing in medical education offers new perspectives. Advantages are sequential or adaptive testing, integration of movies or sound, rapid feedback to candidates and management of web-based question banks. Computer-based testing can also be implemented in an OSCE examination. In e-learning environments formative self-assessment are often implemented and gives helpful feedbacks to learners. Disadvantages in high-stake exams are the high requirements as well for the quality of testing (e.g. standard setting as additionally for the information technology and especially for security. [german] Computerbasierte Prüfungen im Medizinstudium eröffnen neue Möglichkeiten. Vorteile solcher Prüfungen liegen im sequentiellen oder adaptiven Prüfen, in der Integration von Bewegtbildern oder Ton, der raschen Auswertung und zentraler Verwaltung der Prüfungsfragen via Internet. Ein Einsatzgebiet mit vertretbarem Aufwand sind Prüfungen mit mehreren Stationen wie beispielsweise die OSCE-Prüfung. Computerbasierte formative Selbsttests werden im Bereiche e-learning häufig angeboten. Das hilft den Lernenden ihren Wissensstand besser einzuschätzen oder sich mit den Leistungen anderer zu vergleichen. Grenzen zeigen sich bei den summativen Prüfungen beim Prüfungsort, da zuhause Betrug möglich ist. Höhere ärztliche Kompetenzen wie Untersuchungstechnik oder Kommunikation eigenen sich kaum für rechnergestützte Prüfungen.

  18. Hvad er inklusion, og hvordan leder man det?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Qvortrup, Lars

    2014-01-01

    En fundamental forudsætning for at inklusion både kan gøres til et centralt tema og at medarbejdernes kompetencer kan styrkes, er, at alle medarbejdere ved, hvad man snakker om, og at man har en fælles, operationaliserbar forståelse af, hvad inklusion er. Der skal formuleres en definition af...... definition, som både er bredt, præcist og operationaliserbart. Derefter fremlægges forslag til, hvad man kan gøre som ledelse for at få inklusionsindsatsen til at lykkes....... inklusion i det enkelte dagtilbud, der både kan anerkendes af alle, så den gøres til et fælles anliggende, og kan operationaliseres, så alle kan se, hvad de skal gøre for at få indsatsen til at lykkes. Artiklen indledes med at diskutere de gængse definitioner af inklusion og præsentere et nyt forslag til en...

  19. European ErP Directive. Total condensing technology: the solution for heating and DHW units in the hotel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, G.

    2016-01-01

    Since 26 September 2015, the Ecodesign ErP Directive has been of compulsory application for EU Member States as regards the design of Energy-related Products (ErP) and as from its entry into force only those products manufactured according to the ErP requirements can be sold with the EC label. Although this directive affects over 1,000 product categories, for those relating to HVAC and DHW production, it covers boilers, heat pumps, accumulators, cogeneration systems, combined products systems, establishing their minimum efficiency levels, the maximum levels of NOX emissions, the minimum insulation for accumulators and the maximum level of acoustic emissions for heat pumps. (Author)

  20. The combined status of estrogen receptor (ER) and epidermal growth factor (EGFR) predicts a poor outcome in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artagaveytia, N.; Román, E.; Alonso, I.; Sabini, G.; Garófalo, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate retrospectively the presence of ER, PR, Db Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR) in 678 patients carrying primary breast cancer, its correlation with clinic pathological parameters and evolution. the determination of ER, PR and EGFR was performed by Scatchard biochemical technique, based cutoff 10 fmoles / mg of protein. The RE-b detection performed by RT-PCR from total RNA, using the GAPDH gene as a control. Statistical analyzes were applied the Chi2 tests, Spearman and Kruskal-Wallis. The disease-free survival (SVLE) and survival overall (SVG) were analyzed using Kaplan Meier / Log Rank Test and analysis Cox regression. Median follow-up was 28 months (range 1-218 months). sixty Four percent of the patients were post-menopausal and 83% occurred in stages Early disease (I-II, pTNM UICC). The receptor positivity was 68%, 47%, 23% and 58% for ER, PR, EGFR and ER-b-mRNA, respectively. A correlation was found positive between the content of ER and PR (p = 1.10-5) and negative between these receptors and EGFR (n = 359, p = 0.014 and p = 0.018, respectively). We observed a trend to increased expression ER-b when ER, PR or both receptors were negative comparable to that observed with EGFR. Also, a gradual decrease in the content of ER and PR was observed with the progression to more advanced stages (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03). Of a total of 501 evaluable patients 23% relapsed and 12% died. ER positivity was associated with a greater SVLE and SVG 24 and 60 months follow up (p = 0.06). A major impact did the RE content, levels less than 45 fmol / mg protein were associated with disease recurrence (p = 0.03 and p = 0.006 for 24 and 60 months). Although less significant EGFR status influenced SVLE and SVG. In particular, the presence of EGFR in ER + group affected the evolution tripling relapses and deaths (p = 0.058). The presence of ER-b also had a negative impact on this patient group. In Cox regression analysis, N + and T> 2cm

  1. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  2. Development of EU Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    En tematiseret gennemgang af udviklingstrinene i EU's miljøpolitik fra de allerførste skirdt i 1970-72, der måtte basere sig på EU-traktatens generalklausul i Artikel 235, over declarationen på EU-topmødet i Paris i 1972, der kædede økonomisk udvikling sammen med et krav om hensyntagen til miljøet...

  3. Er frække reklamer forførende - eller bare spildte anstrengelser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2009-01-01

      Det er blevet mere og mere almindeligt at reklamebranchen prøver kræfter med konventionerne for at tiltrække sig opmærksomhed. De kontroversielle reklameudformninger giver da også ofte noget presseomtale, men hvordan virker de egentlig i forhold til forbrugerne?   I undersøgelsen af, hvordan...

  4. Diaspora. Somalia er ved at vågne op - overalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib; Farah, Abdulkadir Osman; Farah Aden, Mahad

    2013-01-01

    I efteråret 2012 fik Somalia for første gang en parlamentsformand, en præsident og en statsminister fra civilsamfundet. Den føderale regering beskyttes af ca. 18.000 afrikanske tropper fra Uganda, Kenya mv. Ekstremistiske grupper er i defensiven, men ikke nedkæmpet. 6. marts 2013 ophævede Sikkerh...

  5. Strategic neighbourhood: EU-Europe versus EU-East

    OpenAIRE

    Rahr, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    "Russia and the EU are the strongest actors on the European continent of the 21st century. Will the strategic partnership between the EU and Russia unite the entire continent under a 'common European home' or will the continent be split in two? Russia joining the rest of Europe is set to proceed initially through the Energy Alliance." (author's abstract)

  6. Low temperature magnetic characterization of EuO1-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, Gaurab; Tang, Jinke

    EuO is a widely studied magnetic semiconductor. It is an ideal case of a Heisenberg ferromagnet as well as a model magnetic polaron system. The interesting aspect of this material is the existance of magnetic polarons in the low temperature region. We study the properties of oxygen deficient EuO prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Besides normal ferromagnetic transitions near 70K and 140K, we observe a different transition at 16K. We also observe a shift in the coercivity for field cooling versus zero field cooling. Possible mechanisms driving these behaviors will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DEFG02-10ER46728) and by the School of Energy Resources of the University of Wyoming.

  7. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States' pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012-2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (-€9,367 million), France (-€5,589 million), and, far behind them

  8. Den universelle velfærdsstat er under pres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Hvordan kan man hjælpe uden at ødelægge selv-ansvaret? Hvilke krav skal der være for at få hjælp? Og hvad er skadevirkningerne af en generøs og let opnåelig hjælp? Mange af de spørgsmål, der præger dagens debat, gjorde sig også gældende, da den universelle velfærdsstat dukkede op i starten af 1900...

  9. Zdanění příjmů obchodních společností a jejich společníků (srovnání právní úpravy v ČR a ve vybraných zemích EU)

    OpenAIRE

    Bobek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is comparison of income taxation of companies and their shareholders or partners in Czech republic and other EU countries. For purposes of this thesis Czech legislation is compared to legislation of Slovak republic and Netherlands. The aim of the thesis is to give a complex overview and comparison of different tax legislations. The reason for choosing this topic is that knowledge of tax burden in particular country is important for making a decision where to start a c...

  10. Tvořivá destrukce uvnitř automobilového a energetického průmyslu - udržitelná elektromobilita jako politicko-hospodářská výzva EU

    OpenAIRE

    Vejbor, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis "Creative Destruction Within The Automotive and Energy Industry - Sustainable Electric Mobility As a Political And Economic Challenge for the EU" deals with the issue of the impacts on the political and economic area caused by technological innovations. The subject of the study is the personal motorised transport with its key elements: automotive industry, oil industry, energy industry and state administration. The goal is to introduce the reader the development of the pers...

  11. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  12. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  13. Hvis en kartoffel er forkert, hvad er en Mars-bar så?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Thomsen, Freja; Hinze, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Danske unge er de slankeste af 41 europæiske unge, men de føler sig ofte tykke og går på slankekur. Hvad er årsagen, og hvorfor er det et problem?......Danske unge er de slankeste af 41 europæiske unge, men de føler sig ofte tykke og går på slankekur. Hvad er årsagen, og hvorfor er det et problem?...

  14. Den sproglige leg er super fly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2013-01-01

    Man kan rappe om alt. I hvert fald hvis man er Marvelous Mosell. I spændingsfeltet mellem fiktion og virkelighed skaber Mosell sin persona i et forjættende 80' er-univers der på en og samme tid er vildt overdrevet og helt autentisk.......Man kan rappe om alt. I hvert fald hvis man er Marvelous Mosell. I spændingsfeltet mellem fiktion og virkelighed skaber Mosell sin persona i et forjættende 80' er-univers der på en og samme tid er vildt overdrevet og helt autentisk....

  15. Monodisperse and core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Tb, Dy, Sm, Er, Ho, and Tm) spherical particles: A facile synthesis and luminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhe, E-mail: xuzh056@163.com [College of Applied Chemistry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 100142 (China); Feng, Bin [China National Aviation Fuel Group Corporation, Planning and Development Department, Beijing 100088 (China); Bian, Shasha; Liu, Tao; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Yu; Sun, Di; Gao, Xin [College of Applied Chemistry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 100142 (China); Sun, Yaguang, E-mail: yaguangsun@yahoo.com.cn [College of Applied Chemistry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 100142 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} particles were realized by coating the Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} phosphors onto the surface of non-aggregated, monodisperse and spherical SiO{sub 2} particles by the Pechini sol-gel method. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photolumiminescence (PL), and low-voltage cathodoluminescence (CL). The results indicate that the 800 Degree-Sign C annealed sample consists of crystalline Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} shells and amorphous SiO{sub 2} cores, in spherical shape with a narrow size distribution. The as-obtained particles show strong light emission with different colors corresponding to different Ln{sup 3+} ions under ultraviolet-visible light excitation and low-voltage electron beams excitation, which have potential applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays. - Graphical Abstract: Representative SEM and TEM images of the core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} particles; CIE chromaticity diagram showing the emission colors for SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+}; Multicolor emissions of SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} particles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The core-shell particles were realized by coating the phosphors onto the surface of SiO{sub 2} particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample consists of crystalline Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} shells and amorphous SiO{sub 2} cores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles show different light emission colors corresponding to Ln{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They have potential applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays.

  16. N-ov-emb-er

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    " to. Andrew Z Fire - Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, CA, USA. Craig C Mello - University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester, MA, USA. -96----------------------------~~--------R-ES-O-N-A-N-C-E--1 -N-ov-e-m-b-er--2-oo-6.

  17. Hvad er ledelse af brugerinddragelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Petersen, Christina; Navne, Laura Emdal

    2015-01-01

    Brugerinddragelse i det danske sundhedsvæsen står højt på den politiske dagsorden, men det er stadig en udfordring at implementere visionen i klinisk praksis. Ledelse af brugerinddragelse bliver aktuelt udpeget som en central nøgle til at føre visionen ud i livet. Samtidig er der kun relativt lidt......, at brugerinddragelse skal implementeres i en verden, hvor der allerede er en række andre mål tilstede. En central ledelsesudfordring er derfor, at nogle af målene med brugerinddragelse forudsætter nye måder at organisere ikke bare arbejdet og kompetencer på, men også relationer til patienter og pårørende. En væsentlig...... that organize relations Patient involvement in the health services in Denmark is high on the political agenda, though continues to be a challenge to implement. It is increasingly said that leadership is crucial to the implementation process. However, research into the role of leaders in patient involvement...

  18. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  19. Controlling organised crime : Organisational changes in the law enforcement and prosecution services of the EU member states: final report on the research project 98/FAL/145 funded by the EU 'Falcone programme and the Dutch Ministry of Justice (WODC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Monica den; Doelle, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is na te gaan of de strafrechtelijke systemen van de EU-lidstaten naar elkaar toegroeien, onder invloed van samenwerking in de bestrijding van criminaliteit. Voor elk van de lidstaten zijn ontwikkelingen geanalyseerd en beschreven. Er is geen sprake van een algehele integratie

  20. ER2OWL: Generating OWL Ontology from ER Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Muhammad

    Ontology is the fundamental part of Semantic Web. The goal of W3C is to bring the web into (its full potential) a semantic web with reusing previous systems and artifacts. Most legacy systems have been documented in structural analysis and structured design (SASD), especially in simple or Extended ER Diagram (ERD). Such systems need up-gradation to become the part of semantic web. In this paper, we present ERD to OWL-DL ontology transformation rules at concrete level. These rules facilitate an easy and understandable transformation from ERD to OWL. The set of rules for transformation is tested on a structured analysis and design example. The framework provides OWL ontology for semantic web fundamental. This framework helps software engineers in upgrading the structured analysis and design artifact ERD, to components of semantic web. Moreover our transformation tool, ER2OWL, reduces the cost and time for building OWL ontologies with the reuse of existing entity relationship models.

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  3. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  4. Hvornår er man ung?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Nørregård-Nielsen, Esther C.

    2002-01-01

    Hvornår er man ung, og hvornår er man voksen? Er der forskelle i befolkningens værdier i forhold til arbejde og politik, når det undersøges ud fra henholdsvis et alders- eller generationsperspektiv? Baseret på data fra den danske del af den internationale værdiundersøgelse vises at der er så store...

  5. Digitale prøver – et litteraturstudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Louise Møller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Digitale prøveformer bliver efterhånden mere og mere udbredte. Denne artikel er baseret på et litteraturstudie foretaget for at få indsigt i primært forskningslitteraturen om digitale prøveformer. I artiklen præsenterer vi de forskellige typer digitale prøver, der omtales og diskuteres i litteraturen, og vi beskriver de potentielle fordele af bl.a. økonomisk, administrativ og pædagogisk karakter, der ifølge litteraturen kan opnås ved at bruge digitale prøver. Vi beskriver endvidere de udfordringer og potentielle ulemper, der kan være forbundet med indførelse af digitale prøver. Det drejer sig bl.a. om udfordringer hvad angår prøvesystem, organisation, teknologi, kompetenceudvikling og uddannelseskultur. Vi beskriver i artiklen en række konkrete eksempler på digitale prøver, og vi præsenterer resultater fra undersøgelser af underviseres og studerendes oplevelser med digitale prøveformer. Against the backdrop of the rapid spread of digitized tests and exams, this article sets out to present some of the results of a literature study carried out with the aim of gaining insight into the research literature on this topic. The article presents different types of tests, focusing on the financial, administrative, and pedagogical advantages described and discussed in the literature as potentially attainable through the use of digitized exams. In addition, the challenges and potential problems connected with the introduction of digitized tests are described. Among these are challenges related to the test system or to competence development as well as organizational, technological, and cultural challenges. Finally, the article provides concrete descriptions of tests and presents results from select studies of teacher and student experiences of digitized tests.

  6. Ordered perovskites with cationic vacancies. 9. Compounds of the type Sr/sub 2/Srsub(1/4)Bsub(1/2)sup(III)vacantsub(1/4)WO/sub 6/ equivalent to Sr/sub 8/SrB/sub 2/sup(III)vacantW/sub 4/O/sub 24/ (Bsup(III) = La, Pr, Nd, Sm - Tm, Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmler-Sack, S; Ehmann, A [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1981-08-01

    The compounds Sr/sub 2/Srsub(1/4)Bsub(1/2)sup(III)vacantsub(1/4)WO/sub 6/ equivalent to Sr/sub 8/SrB/sub 2/sup(III)vacantW/sub 4/O/sub 24/ belong to the group of perovskites with octahedral cationic vacancies (cation/vacancy ratio (CN 6) = 7:1). For the larger Bsup(III) ions (La, Pr, Nd, Sm-Dy) different ordering effects are observed. The perovskites with Bsup(III) = Sm, Eu, Gd are polymorphic too (HT modification: higher ordered cubic perovskite (Bsup(III) = Gd: a = 2 x 8.23/sub 4/ A); LT modification: hexagonal perovskite stacking polytype (Bsup(III) = Gd: a = 9.95/sub 4/ A; c = 19.0/sub 4/ A)). With the smaller Bsup(III) ions (Ho, Er, Tm and Y) a cubic, 1:1 ordered perovskite type is observed.

  7. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Når det er svært at være ung i DK – viden og råd om unges trivsel og mistrivsel er afslutningen på et større forskningsprojekt om unges trivsel og mistrivsel. Hæftet præsenterer forskningsprojektets hovedkonklusioner og giver desuden en række råd og ideer til, hvordan voksne kan hjælpe unge med...... at håndtere mistrivsel. Hæftet er udarbejdet af forskerne Jens Christian Nielsen og Niels Ulrik Sørensen fra Center for Ungdomsforskning. Det er den sidste publikation i forskningsprojektet Når det er svært at være ung i DK, der fra 2008-2011 har belyst unges trivsel og mistrivsel. Projektet bygger både på en...

  8. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  9. Jordkvalitetskriterier for PAH'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    For to år siden forhøjede Miljøstyrelsen den administrativt fastsatte grænseværdi for polycycliske hydrocarboner (PAH’er) i jord med en faktor 3, hvilket i praksis betød at en række grunde, der tidligere var klassifi ceret som forurenede, nu ikke klassifi ceres sådan. Den hidtidige og den nye met...

  10. Der er liv i historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Anette; Müller Glibstrup, Tine; Roj Søndergaard, Anja

    I denne antologi præsenteres de første konkrete bud på, hvordan en senmoderne og konstruktivistisk historieundervisning kan tage sig ud i praksis. Der tages udgangspunk i bl.a. Bernard Eric Jensen "Historie - livsverden og fag" og Carlo Grevy "Historie og livsverden - en historiedidaktik"...

  11. Følelser er kommentarer ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Artikeloverskriften præsenteres som en nøgleformulering, der kan bygge teoretisk bro mellem forståelser af det menneskelige følelsesliv som afspejlet i henholdsvis (1) evolutionspsykologisk inspireret almenpsykologi med forankring i George Herbert Mead; (2) moderne psyko-biologisk emotionsforskning...

  12. EU-lande i fælles front mod kartoffelskimmel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    resistente kartoffelsorter. Hvis udbyttetab og sprøjtemiddelforbrug skal begrænses, er det nødvendigt at følge og forstå ændringer i den måde kartoffelskimmel opfører sig på og at udvikle nye resistente kartoffelsorter. Et fælles EU-projekt ved navn Eucablight samler trådene. Udgivelsesdato: januar 2006...

  13. EU-Verordnung zu "Konfliktmineralien": Ein Schritt zu höherer Rechenschaftspflicht im Rohstoffsektor?

    OpenAIRE

    Küblböck, Karin; Grohs, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    "No blood in my cell phone" - Anfang der 2000er-Jahre zeigten Kampagnen von Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NGOs) Verbindungen zwischen Rohstoffen in Elektronikprodukten und der Finanzierung des Krieges in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (DRC) auf. In diesem Zusammenhang rückte auch die Verantwortung von Unternehmen für die Gestaltung ihrer Lieferkette verstärkt ins öffentliche Bewusstsein. 2017 tritt nun eine EU-Verordnung in Kraft, die verhindern soll, dass Unternehmen durch ihre Rohstoffb...

  14. PR-PR: cross-platform laboratory automation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Goyal, Garima; Bi, Changhao; Poust, Sean; Sharma, Monica; Mutalik, Vivek; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-08-15

    To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English. While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform. Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PR, and demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms. To further test PR-PR cross-platform performance, we then implement and assess PR-PR protocols for Kunkel DNA mutagenesis and hierarchical Gibson DNA assembly for microfluidic and manual platforms.

  15. Study on GIF PR/PP evaluation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. H.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Proliferation resistance (PR) and physical protection (PP) is one of the four technology goals of generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). The PR component of the goal focuses on providing strong assurance that generation IV NESs are the least desirable sources for the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear materials, whereas the PP portion of the goal ensures that generation IV NESs are robust against theft and sabotage. In 2002, the road map of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) envisioned that the R and D program for PR and PP would have three areas: 1) safeguards and physical protection technology R and D for each GIF system; 2) formulation of PR and PP criteria and metrics; and 3) evaluation of the criteria and metrics. To cover these R and D items, the PR and PP Working Group (PRPPWG) was formed in late 2002 and has since developed a methodology for PR and PP evaluation. In a succession of revisions beginning in 2004, consensus was achieved amongst all participating GIF countries and related organizations (i.e., IAEA and EU), and Revision 6 of the methodology report was approved by GIF for open distribution in 2011. The paper describes in detail the methodology developed by the PRPPWG and discusses its applicability to the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with pyro processing currently under development in Korea.

  16. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  17. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  18. Test og prøvelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Test i forskellige former og afskygninger spiller i dag en markant rolle indenfor mange forskellige områder i samfundet. De bliver anvendt til at evaluere og bedømme børn, unge og voksne i forskellige kontekster og med forskellige formål og konsekvenser. I mange tilfælde er der tale om test, hvis...... udfald – direkte eller indirekte - vil kunne få vidtrækkende følger for dem, der testes. Test kan sætte sig spor livet igennem og udsætte de testede for prøvelser, idet de påvirker deres selvopfattelser og udstikker bestemte livsbaner og muligheder. Med afsæt i uddannelsesområdet sætter denne bog fokus...... på test i historisk og nutidig belysning. Den behandler spørgsmål som: Hvordan kom test ind i feltet? Hvilke test anvendes? Hvem tester man? Hvorfor vil man gerne teste? Hvad er de direkte og indirekte sociale konsekvenser af at anvende test? Besvarelsen af disse spørgsmål kan på den ene side bidrage...

  19. Snyd er ikke bare snyd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Gina

    2008-01-01

    I efteråret 2008 lanceres hjemmesiden http://www.stopplagiat.nu/ , der skal hjælpe studerende til at undgå at plagiere. Her kan studerende bl.a. teste, om de kender reglerne for korrekt kildehåndtering godt nok. Og hvis ikke, kan de få helt konkrete redskaber til, hvordan de laver præcise kildehe...

  20. Quem é bom (e eu gosto é bonito: efeitos da familiaridade na percepção de atratividade física em pré-escolares Who is good (and i like is beautiful: effects of familiarity on preschoolers' perception of physical attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Landgraf Lee-Manoel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo procurou determinar a relação entre julgamentos de atratividade física, indicadores sociométricos e atributos comportamentais em pré-escolares. A atratividade das crianças foi avaliada por três adultas familiarizadas com elas, por três adultas que não as conheciam, por seus colegas e por elas próprias. Foram apuradas as escolhas positivas e negativas que cada criança recebeu. As crianças julgaram o comportamento dos colegas dentro de quatro dimensões: alegre/ triste; agressivo/ não agressivo; sociável/ isolado; colaborador/ perturbador. Para avaliar a autopercepção das crianças, aplicou-se a Escala Ilustrada de Competência e Aceitação Social Percebidas para Crianças. Encontraram-se correlações significativas entre a avaliação de atratividade física segundo adultas familiarizadas e segundo os colegas com escolhas positivas e com atributos comportamentais pró-sociais. Os resultados denotam ligações entre afeto, julgamento de atratividade e avaliações comportamentais bem estabelecidas em crianças de 5 anos, indicando que o efeito do estereótipo torna-se menor à medida que aumenta o grau de informação sobre a pessoa que está sendo julgada.This study examined the correlation between preschool judgements of physical attractiveness, sociometric choices and behavioral descriptions of peers. Children's physical attractiveness was evaluated by three adults acquainted with the children, three not acquainted with the children, peers and by the children themselves. Peer's behavioral descriptions were related to: sadness/ happiness; aggression/ not aggression; sociability/ withdrawal; and cooperation/ disturbance. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance was administered in order to evaluate children's self-perception. Significant correlations between adults acquainted with the children and peer's evaluations of physical attractiveness and sociometric choices and prosocial behavioral

  1. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  2. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  4. Muskel-skeletbesvær i tandplejen: Prævalens, forebyggelse og rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Gitte Hansen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Introduktion: Prævalensen af muskel-skeletbesvær (MSB) i lænd, nakke, skuldre og underarme/hænder er meget høj hos tandlæger, klinikassistenter og tandplejere. Dette kan skyldes ensidigt gentaget arbejde og meget fastlåste arbejdsstillinger. Formål: At give et indblik i hvilke jobsituationer der ...

  5. Spilscenarier i undervisningen - præsentation af en didaktisk model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    I takt med den stigende interesse for brugen af spil på videregående uddannelser er der behov for at udvikle tilsvarende didaktisk tænkning, som kan hjælpe undervisere med at integrere spil i deres undervisning. I denne artikel præsenteres en didaktisk model, der antager at spilbaseret undervisning...

  6. Metoder til måling af ketose hos søer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anja Kibsgaard; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    kunne være en laboratoriebaseret, enzymatisk målemetode på plasma eller serum. Denne metode kræver dog, at der udtages blodprøver af søerne, samt at disse prøver sendes til et laboratorium og centrifugeres. Denne form for analyse er dermed meget ressourcekrævende, og resultaterne fås ikke samme dag. Der...

  7. Det er på tide at begynde et dansk pilotprojekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Det er velkendt, at CO2 kan bruges i oliefelter til at øge den mængde olie, man kan udvinde. Erfaringer fra Canada og USA viser, at brugen af CO2 i Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), kan øge olieudvindingsgraden med ca. ti pct. Af Energistyrelsens reseveopgørelse pr. 1. januar 2008 fremgår, at ved en...

  8. Optimal fodring af goldkøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Et forsøg har vist, at køer på lavt energiniveau i goldperioden var fysiologisk sundere og havde mindre risiko for at udvikle stofskiftesygdomme end køer på et højt energiniveau. Forsøget viste også, at køer på et normalt energiniveau i senlaktationen gav mere mælk i den efterfølgende laktation e...

  9. Neutron Scattering from fcc Pr and Pr3Tl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1972-01-01

    Elastic-neutron-scattering measurements on the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3 Tl are reported. Both exhibit magnetic phase transitions, possibly to a simple ferromagnetic state at 20 and 11.6 °K, respectively. The transitions appear to be of second order although that in fcc Pr...

  10. Er moral bare noget vi leger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2014-01-01

    Hvis man er skeptiker, så er moral nemlig altid kun et udtryk for psykologi og kultur, også når det handler om for eksempel misbrug af børn i Tønder-sagen eller terror-angreb i Madrid, London og Mumbai .......Hvis man er skeptiker, så er moral nemlig altid kun et udtryk for psykologi og kultur, også når det handler om for eksempel misbrug af børn i Tønder-sagen eller terror-angreb i Madrid, London og Mumbai ....

  11. PR, Lobbyism and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Willig, Ida; Pedersen, Leif Hemming

    2017-01-01

    The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector. In this st......The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector....... Still, 89 percent of all the registered job positions fall outside of lobbyism. 11 percent of the job positions fall within the wider field associated with the emerging field of policy professionals (including lobbyism), while lobbyism on its own accounts for 2 percent of the job positions....

  12. Thermodynamic assessments of the Ag-Er and Er-Y systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Wang, C.P.; Liu, X.J.; Tang, A.T.; Pan, F.S.; Ishida, K.

    2010-01-01

    The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the Ag-Er and Er-Y binary systems have been assessed by using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method on the basis of the experimental data including the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. The Gibbs free energies of the liquid, bcc, fcc, and hcp phases were described by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation, and those of intermetallic compounds (Ag 2 Er and AgEr phases) were treated as stoichiometric compounds, and Ag 51 Er 14 phase was modeled by the sublattice model in the Ag-Er binary system. The thermodynamic parameters of the Ag-Er and Er-Y binary systems were obtained, and an agreement between the calculated results and experimental data was obtained for each binary system.

  13. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  14. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  15. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  16. Implementatie van EU-handhavingsvoorschriften

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, P.C.; Barkhuysen, T.; Boswijk, P.; Habib, K.; Kruif, C. de; Luchtman, M.J.J.P.; Ouden, W. den; Prechal, A.; Steunenberg, B.; Vervaele, J.A.E.; Voermans, W.J.M.; Vries, S.A. de; Widdershoven, R.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Na een verkennend onderzoek op twaalf beleidsterreinen naar aard, wijze en variatie van de EU/EG-beïnvloeding van nationale handhaving, zijn aan de hand van ‘beïnvloedingsscores’ acht beleidsterreinen geselecteerd voor nadere analyse. In het onderzoek staan de volgende vragen centraal:Hoe is de

  17. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  18. The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and ER status in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weisun; Nie, Weiwei; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Yanru; Zhu, Aiyu; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    The ER signaling pathway plays a critical role in breast cancer. ER signaling pathway-related proteins, such as TRX, AR, and cyclin D1, may have an important function in breast cancer. However, the ways that they influence breast cancer development and progression are still unclear. A total of 101 Chinese female patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast adenocarcinoma were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The expression levels of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed via correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and the expression status of ER, PR, and HER2. The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 was not associated with the patient's age, menopausal status, tumor size, or histological differentiation (P>0.05), but was positively correlated with ER and PR (PTRX-positive patients were also HER2-positive (P=0.003). Of AR- or cyclin D1-positive patients, most had relatively earlier I-II tumor stage (P=0.005 and P=0.047, respectively) and no metastatic lymph node involvement (P=0.008 and P=0.005, respectively). TRX was found to be positively correlated with ER and PR expression, whereas it was negatively correlated with HER2 expression. In addition, we found that the positive expression of AR and cyclin D1 was correlated with lower TNM stage and fewer metastatic lymph nodes, and it was more common in ER-positive breast cancer than in the basal-like subtype. This may indicate that AR and cyclin D1 are good predictive and prognostic factors and closely interact with ER signaling pathway. Further studies will be necessary to investigate the response and clinical outcomes of treatment targeting TRX, AR, and cyclin D1.

  19. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  20. European ErP Directive. Total condensing technology: the solution for heating and DHW units in the hotel sector; Directiva Europea ErP. Tecnología de condensación total, solución para equipos productores de calefacción y ACS en el sector hotelero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín, G.

    2016-07-01

    Since 26 September 2015, the Ecodesign ErP Directive has been of compulsory application for EU Member States as regards the design of Energy-related Products (ErP) and as from its entry into force only those products manufactured according to the ErP requirements can be sold with the EC label. Although this directive affects over 1,000 product categories, for those relating to HVAC and DHW production, it covers boilers, heat pumps, accumulators, cogeneration systems, combined products systems, establishing their minimum efficiency levels, the maximum levels of NOX emissions, the minimum insulation for accumulators and the maximum level of acoustic emissions for heat pumps. (Author)

  1. em cristais de Ho:YLF e Er:YLF na região de 3m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique Jagosich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the deactivation energy transfer mechanisms of 4I13/2 of Er3+ and 5I7 of Ho3+ levels in crystals of LiYF4 (YLF co-doped with Nd3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+ are studied. It was determined the best combination with deactivator ions, capable to maximize the laser gain in the middle of the Ho3+ in 2.9 micrometers (mm and the Er3+ in 2.75 mm operation. The results showed that the Tb3+ and Eu3+ are the best deactivators to the Ho3+ laser operation, while for the Ho3+ laser operation, the best ion deactivator is the Nd3+. The energy transfer characterizations were carried out using the Förster-Dexter method, which consists in the determination of the interaction critic ray, to start from the integral superposition of the absorption cross section spectrum and the involved ions emission.

  2. Neoclassical transport in ERS regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.; Lee, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The core ion thermal conductivity has been observed to fall below the standard neoclassical level in recent TFTR reversed magnetic shear discharges. Due to the combination of high central q and small local inverse aspect ratio, the ion poloidal gyroradius can be larger than the minor radius and comparable to the pressure gradient scale length in this ERS regime. It is then expected that finite orbit width effects play a key role in modifying the standard picture of neoclassical transport. Specifically, both the trapped particle fraction and the banana orbit width axe reduced by the finite minor radius and possibly by the pressure-gradient-driven radial electric field. In addition, the steep pressure gradient can generate neoclassical poloidal flows which, in turn, could reduce the particle and heat transports. Results from analytic estimates as well as those from full toroidal gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations will be presented

  3. Low Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive Breast Cancer and Neoadjuvant Systemic Chemotherapy: Is Response Similar to Typical ER-Positive or ER-Negative Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Alessandra; Farrugia, Daniel J; Zhu, Li; Diego, Emilia J; Johnson, Ronald R; Soran, Atilla; Dabbs, David J; Clark, Beth Z; Puhalla, Shannon L; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Brufsky, Adam M; Ahrendt, Gretchen M; McAuliffe, Priscilla F; Bhargava, Rohit

    2018-05-08

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was compared between 141 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (43%), 41 low ER+ (13%), 47 moderate ER+ (14%), and 98 high ER+ (30%) tumors. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cases, cases without semiquantitative ER score, and patients treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy alone were excluded. The pCR rate of low ER+ tumors was similar to the pCR rate of ER- tumors (37% and 26% for low ER and ER- respectively, P = .1722) but significantly different from the pCR rate of moderately ER+ (11%, P = .0049) and high ER+ tumors (4%, P < .0001). Patients with pCR had an excellent prognosis regardless of the ER status. In patients with residual disease (no pCR), the recurrence and death rate were higher in ER- and low ER+ cases compared with moderate and high ER+ cases. Low ER+ breast cancers are biologically similar to ER- tumors. Semiquantitative ER H-score is an important determinant of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Hvorfor er F-ordet så farligt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise

    2017-01-01

    Dette essay dokumenterer den fortsat svigtende ligestilling mellem kønnene, noterer sig de allestedsnærværende og begrænsende kønsstereotyper og den på én gang usynlige og ganske bastante hverdagsdiskrimination overfor kvindelige ledere. Vi gøres klogere på feminismens fire former og der agiteres...... for, at et feministisk syn på organisationer og ledelse kan gøre en forskel på mindst fire fundamentale områder. Essayet er et lettere redigeret talepapir præsenteret til Copenhagen Science Slam, Folkemødet på Bornholm 16.06.2017....

  5. Rebalancing EU Interest Representation? Assocative Democracy and EU funding of Civil Society Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) funding of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a substantial and important part of EU governance, but study of such funding is scarce and theoretically underdeveloped. To fill this gap, this article analyzes the main features of EU funding of CSOs and its effects on the EU

  6. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  7. EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pe'er, G.; Dicks, L.V.; Visconti, A.; Arlettaz, R.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.; Scott, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the European Union (EU) enacted the reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, allocating almost 40% of the EU's budget and influencing management of half of its terrestrial area. Many EU politicians are announcing the new CAP as “greener,” but the new environmental

  8. Contentious terrain in EU information society policies: Media pluralism and freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyase Christensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In an EU context, the benefits attributed to new communication technologies are many: the creation of employment and economic growth; the enrichment of cultural/political dialogue and civic engagement; and, the permeation of a sense of European identity across the region. However, in the face of an increased emphasis on economic competitiveness both globally and at the EU policy level, there exists an unmistakable convergent approach to audiovisual/communications, cultural and competition policies. Parallel to this is an upsurge of concern—voiced by, for example, the European Parliament—over media pluralism and freedom of expression. Although the virtues of safeguarding “media pluralism” and “freedom of speech” in a healthy democracy are axiomatic, in the face of current dynamics, their meaning is widely contested. The purpose of this article is to offer an analysis of recent EU Information Society (IS policies in relation to media pluralism and freedom of speech. Mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed: Et omstridt felt inden for EU-informationssamfundspolitikker I en EU-kontekst er der mange fordele, som tilskrives nye kommunikationsteknologier: Skabelsen af beskæftigelse og økonomisk vækst; berigelsen af kulturel/politisk dialog og borgerengagement; og udbredelsen af en fornemmelse af europæisk identitet på tværs af regionerne. Men i lyset af en øget vægtning af økonomisk konkurrence, såvel globalt som i relation til EU's politikker, eksisterer der en umiskendelig sammensat tilgang til politikker for audiovisuel kommunikation, kultur og konkurrence. Parallelt med dette findes en pludselig stigning i interessen omkring mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed. Skønt værdien af at beskytte ”mediepluralisme” og ”ytringsfrihed” i lyset af aktuelle dynamikker er aksiomatisk i et sundt demokrati, udfordres betydningen af dette i udstrakt grad. Formålet med denne artikel er at give en analyse af nyere EU

  9. Contentious terrain in EU information society policies: Media pluralism and freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyase Christensen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an EU context, the benefits attributed to new communication technologies are many: the creation of employment and economic growth; the enrichment of cultural/political dialogue and civic engagement; and, the permeation of a sense of European identity across the region. However, in the face of an increased emphasis on economic competitiveness both globally and at the EU policy level, there exists an unmistakable convergent approach to audiovisual/communications, cultural and competition policies. Parallel to this is an upsurge of concern—voiced by, for example, the European Parliament—over media pluralism and freedom of expression. Although the virtues of safeguarding “media pluralism” and “freedom of speech” in a healthy democracy are axiomatic, in the face of current dynamics, their meaning is widely contested. The purpose of this article is to offer an analysis of recent EU Information Society (IS policies in relation to media pluralism and freedom of speech. Mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed: Et omstridt felt inden for EU-informationssamfundspolitikker I en EU-kontekst er der mange fordele, som tilskrives nye kommunikationsteknologier: Skabelsen af beskæftigelse og økonomisk vækst; berigelsen af kulturel/politisk dialog og borgerengagement; og udbredelsen af en fornemmelse af europæisk identitet på tværs af regionerne. Men i lyset af en øget vægtning af økonomisk konkurrence, såvel globalt som i relation til EU's politikker, eksisterer der en umiskendelig sammensat tilgang til politikker for audiovisuel kommunikation, kultur og konkurrence. Parallelt med dette findes en pludselig stigning i interessen omkring mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed. Skønt værdien af at beskytte ”mediepluralisme” og ”ytringsfrihed” i lyset af aktuelle dynamikker er aksiomatisk i et sundt demokrati, udfordres betydningen af dette i udstrakt grad. Formålet med denne artikel er at give en analyse af nyere EU

  10. Multiple band structure in 156Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyar, A.W.; Der Mateosian, E.; Kistner, O.C.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thieberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    The 142 Nd( 18 O,4n) 156 Er reaction at 90-95 MeV was used to study 156 Er high-spin states to spin 24. In addition to the background ground-state band, two well developed off-spin side bands, one of each parity, were observed. (Auth.)

  11. Er der en underviser til stede?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Rosenlund, Lea Tilde

    2015-01-01

    I de senere år er MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) blevet en faktor på uddannelsesområdet. MOOC-forskning er et forholdsvist nyt felt, men har inden for de seneste 2-3 år udviklet sig med hastige skridt (Liyanagunawardena et al. 2013, Bayne & Ross 2014). En stor del af denne forskning har haft...

  12. Coronavirus infection, ER stress and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TO SING eFUNG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR, a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus-host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases activation, autophagy, apoptosis and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling.

  13. Led strategisk med 3 F'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Kurt Klaudi

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår kort de tre F'er: at fremskrive, forudse og forestille som strategiske værktøjer til strategic forecast......Artiklen gennemgår kort de tre F'er: at fremskrive, forudse og forestille som strategiske værktøjer til strategic forecast...

  14. Et kors er ikke bare et kors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Nielsen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Om et kors, der er rejst uden for den danske kirke i Bruxelles; formodentlig en afledning af det såkaldte Brabanterkors.......Om et kors, der er rejst uden for den danske kirke i Bruxelles; formodentlig en afledning af det såkaldte Brabanterkors....

  15. Er formen blevet vigtigst i politik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etemadi, Maziar Haghpaidar

    2005-01-01

    RETORIK: Retorikken er kunsten at tage ordet - skriftligt eller mundtligt - og udtrykke sig smukt og velformuleret. Gorgias (ca. 490-ca. 390 f. Kr.) fra Leontinoi på Sicilien betragtes som ophavsmanden til den første endelige formulering af retorikkens virke og muligheder: "Talen er en mægtig...

  16. En isoleret verden er en bedre verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enrum, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Man skal ikke kaste med sten, hvis man bor i et hus med energimærke D ... Men problemet med varmetab fra danske boliger er til at løse......Man skal ikke kaste med sten, hvis man bor i et hus med energimærke D ... Men problemet med varmetab fra danske boliger er til at løse...

  17. "Det man siger er man selv..."

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Nørgaard, Britta; Uddholm, Mats

    forhold, der er hermeneutisk, strukturelt og relationelt bestemt. Praksisviden kan ikke være objektiv i gængs forstand, men det behøver ikke at diskvalificere denne viden. Forståelse er altid knyttet til den sag og bundet til den situation man står overfor og i som professionel og som menneske....

  18. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Courrént

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitruve, architecte romain, a rédigé, sous Auguste, un traité en dix livres dans lequel il expose les règles de son art et qu’il destine aux commanditaires de réalisations architecturales publiques ou privées. Cette œuvre, qui propose une théorie de l’architecture en relation avec un savoir de type encyclopédique, a eu une influence considérable chez les lettrés du Moyen Âge et les architectes de la Renaissance et de l’époque classique. Mais sa lecture semble actuellement réservée aux spécial...

  19. "Kven er det som skriv?" Skriveren i romanen Naustet av Jon Fosse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Reinhoff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Når det gjelder romanen Naustet av Jon Fosse er det ikke tvil om at det blant annet – og kanskje hovedsaklig – er „dette noko / skrifta berettar om“. Det er derfor denne romanen også kan kalles for en metaroman. Tematiseringen av skriveren og skriveprosessen i romanen tar ikke bare mye plass på historienivå: Den gjennomsyrer romanen. Nært forbundet med denne tematikken er et fenomen jeg ville kalle for „dobbeltperspektivet i romanen“, og det er dette jeg vil se litt nærmere på her. Selv om romanen Naustet – i god postmoderne tradisjon – i siste – og kanskje allerede i første – instans unndrar seg en fast og entydig tilskrivning av betydning – og slik bevarer sin magi – skal jeg prøve å nærme meg skriveren og dobbeltperspektivet „eit stykke på veg“. Men først et par ord om begrepet skriver.

  20. MappERS-C and MappERS-V. The crowd source for prevention and crisis support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities within natural hazards at local/regional levels involve citizens and volunteers as first actors of civil protection and territorial management. The prevention implicates the capacities of professional operators and technical volunteers, but the priority implies now the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. The involvement of population creates context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management, skipping the limit to face risks only when they have to bear impacts on their lives. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone applications and sensors, with geo-tagged information, detailed gathered parameters, field-check survey in a contest of geospatial response. The process of development includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring as long term objective (raising public awareness and participation). The project deals with the development and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to Android SDK environment. A first research described a desk-based investigation on consequences of disasters impacts and costs of prevention strategies in pilot countries. Furthermore a review of state-of-the-art of database management systems (DBMS) in pilot countries and involvement of volunteers/citizens in data collection/monitoring collected basic info on data structure for the development. A desk-based research proposed communication methods/graphic solutions within mobile technologies for disaster management in pilot countries and available smartphone applications linked to centralized web/server database. A technical review is compulsory for a useful design-line for MappERS development, and it is linked with on

  1. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  2. Patient participation in ERS guidelines and research projects: the EMBARC experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, James D; Timothy, Alan; Polverino, Eva; Almagro, Marta; Ruddy, Thomas; Powell, Pippa; Boyd, Jeanette

    2017-09-01

    The European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) is a European Respiratory Society (ERS) Clinical Research Collaboration dedicated to improving research and clinical care for people with bronchiectasis. EMBARC has created a European Bronchiectasis Registry, funded by the ERS and by the European Union (EU) Innovative Medicines Initiative Programme. From the outset, EMBARC had the ambition to be a patient-focussed project. In contrast to many respiratory diseases, however, there are no specific patient charities or European patient organisations for patients with bronchiectasis and no existing infrastructure for patient engagement. This article describes the experience of EMBARC and the European Lung Foundation in establishing a patient advisory group and then engaging this group in European guidelines, an international registry and a series of research studies. Patient involvement in research, clinical guidelines and educational activities is increasingly advocated and increasingly important. Genuine patient engagement can achieve a number of goals that are critical to the success of an EU project, including focussing activities on patient priorities, allowing patients to direct the clinical and research agenda, and dissemination of guidelines and research findings to patients and the general public. Here, we review lessons learned and provide guidance for future ERS task forces, EU-funded projects or clinical research collaborations that are considering patient involvement. To understand the different ways in which patients can contribute to clinical guidelines, research projects and educational activities.To understand the barriers and potential solutions to these barriers from a physician's perspective, in order to ensure meaningful patient involvement in clinical projects.To understand the barriers and potential solutions from a patient's perspective, in order to meaningfully involve patients in clinical projects.

  3. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Haber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Les articles réunis dans ce dossier de la revue Astérion portent sur la première génération de la Théorie critique (dont Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Theodor W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse et Erich Fromm constituent sans doute les figures principales. Ils se concentrent plus précisément sur les contributions philosophiques qui marquèrent la période ouverte par l’accession de Horkheimer à la direction de l’Institut de recherches sociales (1931 et close par la publication en 1944 de Dialektik...

  4. EU focus on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Faced with the mounting evidence of the harmful effects of climate change, the European Union is convinced that the world must take urgent action to tackle the problem. That is why the EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to deal with climate change for well over a decade. The EU is convinced that the status quo is simply not an option. Without urgent, concerted action, the problem will continue to get worse with potentially disastrous consequences. That is why the European Union has consistently taken the lead in international moves to tackle climate change and why it will continue to develop this strategy for as long as it takes to guarantee a world for ourselves and our children where everyone can grow, breathe and live in safety

  5. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    to food, the right heat, the right to have a job"; we still live with this division today. There have been a number of attempts over the last 10-15 years, who have tried to work around these problems. One of them is a movement within the UN are trying to reinterpret what it means to have 'development...... point for reaction against the liberalization of the global economy. It is extremely interesting. Again this demonstrates the complexity of EU policy. Some Member States were quite supportive of the WTO, while others expected the ILO to take the lead. See, for example, the declaration on "Core Labour...... is this contradiction "free and fair trade" in the same sentence becomes, in an attempt both economically and politically to get it to make sense within the EU. Ian Manners is a professor and works at Roskilde University, the Institute for society and globalization. His research is globalization and Europeanisation...

  6. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  7. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    638,4 MWe The CSP plant electrical generating capacity in the EU at the end of 2010 As could be expected, the recession cast long shadows over the European solar thermal market throughout 2010. For the second year running, new installations for hot water production and space heating (collectors) decreased. According to the EurObserv'ER survey the newly-assigned surface area was 3.8 million m2 in 2010, down from 4.2 million m2 in 2009 and 4.6 million m2 in 2008. At the same time, the European high-temperature solar sector related to electricity production has been taking shape alongside the heat-producing applications, with 638.4 MW already installed. Spain accounts for almost all of this capacity, and a further five EU countries, mostly Mediterranean, intend to develop the sector

  8. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  9. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  10. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  11. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    27545 MWth: the EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2011. After two years of sharp decline, the European solar thermal market is bottoming out. The EurObserv'ER survey findings are that the installation figure fell just 1.9% in comparison with 2010, giving a newly-installed collector area of 3.7 million m 2 . The concentrated solar power sector has been forging ahead alongside the heat production applications, and at the end of 2011 installed capacity passed the one gigawatt mark in Spain for the first time with 1157.2 MWe

  12. On PR group classes and PR algebra membership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedenko, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions are found for the membership of Lee algebras to PR algebra class, to algebras with commutation relations of [Hsub(i), Hsub(j)]=rsub(ij)Hsub(i) (i< j) type. Due to this, a criterion is obtained for the membership of the Lee froups to PR group classes, connected and simply connected Lee groups, which Lee algebras are PR algebras

  13. Supervision og de tre k´er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Benedicte; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Nielsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Kontrol, kontrakt og kontekst er supervisionens tre k'er. Men hvad er supervision i det hele taget for en størrelse, der spillerså central en rolle for den psykologfaglige profession?......Kontrol, kontrakt og kontekst er supervisionens tre k'er. Men hvad er supervision i det hele taget for en størrelse, der spillerså central en rolle for den psykologfaglige profession?...

  14. Streaming video - præsentation af trailere over internettet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    interaktiv tjeneste baseret på realtidsfremvisning af videotrailere, såkaldt streaming video og audio, og hvor brugeren kan få information om en film der tænkes udbudt på en pay-per-view kanal. Der i arbejdets forløb blevet opbygget en demo, der implementerer en sådan tjeneste.......Som et led i Tele Danmark Kabel TV's markedsføring ønsker man at kunne præsentere filmtrailere og andet materiale i form af levende billeder til kunderne via Wold Wide Web (WWW). Dette projekts hovedformål er at undersøge eksisterende metoder og udvikle redskaber til at præsentere en tilsvarende...

  15. En hat er vel en hat ... eller?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøilerehauge, Dorrit

    2007-01-01

    Mens vi kører i høj fart på "the information highway" - i den helt store bus midt på vejen - glemmer vi ofte noget meget vigtigt i vores glæde over, at verden tilsyneladende åbner sig for os, og vi kan kommunikere med hele verden med ét klik. Vi glemmer, at selvom trafikskilte som oftest er ens -...... - så er selve trafikken og forventningerne blandt medtrafikanterne helt forskellige fra det, vi er vant til. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  16. Ytringsfriheden er ikke nødvendig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Pia

    2008-01-01

    nemlig godt konstatere, at ytringsfriheden ikke er nødvendig uden dermed at give afkald på frihed og demokrati.Vi kan oven i købet mene, at ytringsfriheden ophører med at være frihed, når vi betragter den som nødvendig. Og det er lige nøjagtig det, jeg efterlyser: at vi bruger filosoffer som Immanuel...... Kant og Luigi Pareyson til at forstå, at friheden er betydelig mere kompleks, end vi gør den til i øjeblikket....

  17. Hvordan er det å leve med CRPS?

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med denne studien er å se på hvordan pasienter med komplekst regionalt smertesyndrom (CRPS) opplever å leve med tilstanden og hvordan disse pasientene har opplevd å bli møtt i helsevesenet. CRPS er en langvarig tilstand med sterke smerter som kan medføre økt smerterespons, redusert funksjon og nedsatt livskvalitet hos pasientene. Studien er en kvalitativ undersøkelse basert på dybdeintervju av fire pasienter med CRPS. Pasientene ble rekruttert fra en smerteavdeling i Nord-Norge og u...

  18. Branding er ikke til at komme udenom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Søren Askegaard definerer branding som "et iscenesat og afkodet symbolunivers". Det vil sige, at vi på den ene side har virksomhedens strategiske profilering, hvor den forsøger at skabe sig en særlig differentieret og positioneret profil, som adskiller den fra andre virksomheder. "Og det er denne...... strategiske kommunikation, der gør at branding er et ledelsesbegreb og ikke kun et markedsføringsbegreb. Det er ikke staffage, men værdier, som skal gennemsyre alle organisationens aktiviteter." Udgivelsesdato: maj...

  19. STRATEGIJSKA ULOGA PR U SPORTU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Tomić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available PR in the modern world are developed with rapid speed and become important aspect of strategic management. Modern menagers are very interesting in PR and they observe that there is not successful strategy without experiance theory and practice in PR. The goals must be defined, basic phylosophy to, and managers must take responsability and describe everithing what they have to do. It must be financial fond and evaluation must be done

  20. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Duvillard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le moment est opportun, la question foncière est de retour, légitimée par presque une décennie (2001-2008 d’augmentation continue des prix de l’immobilier. De « sommets » , en articles de presse, la montagne et les Alpes en particulier font l’objet, dans ce domaine, d’une attention toute particulière. Le contexte est ici délicat. Les sociétés alpines sont partagées entre désir de préservation d’une forte identité montagnarde et crainte d’une « déprise » économique (agricole, touristique et/...

  1. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Hitzel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available « À ma connaissance, il n'est pas de compagnon plus fidèle à ses engagements, plus prompt à honorer les faveurs reçues, plus empressé à offrir ses services, et ce à moindre frais, que le livre. Je ne connais aucun arbre qui ait un fruit plus succulent, plus précoce, plus aisé à cueillir, plus disponible à tout moment, comme le livre. Je ne sais pas de produit qui, malgré son jeune âge et la proximité de sa naissance, la facilité avec laquelle on peut se le procurer, la modicité de son prix, a...

  2. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bouvier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Le 7 juin 1844, Flaubert écrit à Louis de Cormenin : « J’ai lu Candide vingt fois, je l’ai traduit en anglais et je l’ai encore relu de temps à autre. » Quel que soit le degré de sérieux de cette affirmation, elle témoigne d’un intérêt précoce de Flaubert pour l’acte de traduire. De même, l’écrivain attachait de l’importance aux traductions qu’il lisait : « Je relis maintenant Don Quichotte dans la nouvelle traduction de Damas Hinard » écrit-il à Louise Colet en novembre 1847. Il lui arrivait...

  3. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Monod Becquelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches présentées dans ce volume sont issues des travaux de chercheurs qui se réunissent régulièrement depuis 2005 sur le thème de l’« Agentivité ». Ce groupe rassemble des ethnologues et des linguistes du Laboratoire d’ethnologie et de sociologie comparative (umr 7186, cnrs/université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, du Laboratoire d’anthropologie sociale (umr 7130, Collège de France/ehess Paris/cnrs, de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, de l’Institut des hautes étude...

  4. State diagram of Pr-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulkhaev, V.L.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    By means of thermal differential analysis, X-ray and microstructural analysis the state diagram of Pr-Bi system was studied. Following intermetallic compounds were defined in the system: Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 , Pr Bi, PrBi 2 , Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 and PrBi 2 . The data analysis on Ln-Bi diagram allowed to determine the regularity of change of properties of intermetallic compounds in the line of rare earth elements of cerium subgroup.

  5. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-12-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV-1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(α)( 151 Eu) = 9180+-150 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)( 153 Eu) = 375+-20 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)(Eu) = 4600+-120 b at 0.0253 eV

  6. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  7. 151Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu3Pd20Ge6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, S.; Yoda, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Higashitaniguchi, S.; Seto, M.; Kitagawa, J.; Takabatake, T.

    2010-01-01

    151 Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 . The Eu partial phonon density of states (DOS) in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 are investigated using 151 Eu nuclear resonance inelastic scattering (NRIS). 151 Eu NRIS was carried out at BL09XU of SPring-8. Significant temperature dependence was found in the partial phonon DOS. Judging from the valence change at the Eu 4a site and the comparison with the ab initio calculation of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 , the change of the Eu DOS is caused by the electronic states. On the other hand, significant acoustic contribution was found even at the guest site of the Eu ones. In addition, slower average velocity than transverse sound velocity was obtained by Eu partial phonon DOS. Considering that heat is carried by the acoustic phonon in materials, the present results demonstrate that the moderate thermal insulation in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 is connected with the observation of slow average sound velocity at the Eu sites. (K.F.)

  8. Er iPad digital udeskole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Hvor ’konkret’ skal en oplevelse være, for at intuitionen om, at det selvoplevede styrker læringen, holder? Er brug af tablets (e.g. iPads) et ligebyrdigt alternativ til den konkrete oplevelse?......Hvor ’konkret’ skal en oplevelse være, for at intuitionen om, at det selvoplevede styrker læringen, holder? Er brug af tablets (e.g. iPads) et ligebyrdigt alternativ til den konkrete oplevelse?...

  9. Snip snap snude - dobbelthagerne er ude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte; Kofoed, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Det handler om at være grim. Det står i skarp kontrast til det pæne og polerede på Instagram. Det er flygtigt, useriøst og ligegyldigt. Og så forsvinder det heldigvis igen, så man behøver kun at forholde sig til det i de få sekunder, det foregår. Snapchat vokser i popularitet og er nu det...

  10. Håndbold er en praksis!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Dansk håndbold er en kæmpemæssig succeshistorie. Ser man snævert på den udvikling, elitedelen af sporten har gennemlevet de seneste 15 år, viser stort set alle tænkelige parametre fremgang. De internationale resultater for lands og klubhold er med få udfald blevet stadigt bedre, omsætningen i klu...

  11. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  12. Bæredygtighed hos SMV'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Valg af materiale/medie/form: YouTube Valg af arbejdsform: Videoerne kan bruges som caseundervisning Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Caseundervisning er velegnet til at lære om praksis......Valg af materiale/medie/form: YouTube Valg af arbejdsform: Videoerne kan bruges som caseundervisning Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Caseundervisning er velegnet til at lære om praksis...

  13. Hvad litteraturen kan, er ofte det rigtige ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Kühn, Lisbet

    2010-01-01

    Læsning i dansk handler i første omgang om at blive god til at læse, men på mellemtrinnet er det ved at være tiden til også at bruge skønlitteraturen til det, den er god til, nemlig til at få indsigt i menneskelivets kompleksitet. I dette kapitel anbefales det at gøre noget med litteraturen, fx f...

  14. Trump er godt nyt for verdensfreden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden......Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden...

  15. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  16. Electronic Structure of Eu6C60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Xiong; LI Hong-Nian; XU Ya-Bo; WANG Peng; ZHANG Wen-Hua; XU Fa-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We study the valence band of Eu-intercalated C60 by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy to un-derstand the ferromagnetism (FM) and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Eu6C60. The results reveal the semiconducting property and the remarkable 5d6s-π hybridization. Eu-C60 bonding has both ionic and covalent contributions. No more than half the 5d6s electrons transfer from Eu to the LUMO derived band of C60, and the LUMO+1 derived band is not filled. The remaining valence electrons of Eu, together with some π (LUMO, HOMO and HOMO-1) electrons, constitute the covalent bond. The electronic structure implies that the magnetic coupling in Eu6C60 should be through the intra-atomic f-sd exchange and the medium of the π electrons. The possibility of the GMR being tunnelling magnetoresistance is ruled out.

  17. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  18. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca2+ Probe D4ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Greotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER represents the major intracellular Ca2+ store and the free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] within its lumen ([Ca2+]ER can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca2+ sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca2+ probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd for Ca2+, low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca2+] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca2+ affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca2+] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca2+]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca2+ homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer’s Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2. The lower Ca2+ affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca2+ content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls.

  19. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  20. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  1. Understanding the DNA of EU's GDPR

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Team, IndraStra Global

    2018-01-01

    On May 25, 2018, a new data protection regulation touted as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Regulation (European Union - EU) 2016/689, will come into force in the European Union (EU) and its 28 Member States. It will replace the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR will have a significant impact in protecting the data and digital footprint of users of apps and another digital platform. It will provide significant new data privacy protections for individuals res...

  2. ER-to-plasma membrane tethering proteins regulate cell signaling and ER morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manford, Andrew G; Stefan, Christopher J; Yuan, Helen L; Macgurn, Jason A; Emr, Scott D

    2012-12-11

    Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions are conserved structures defined as regions of the ER that tightly associate with the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the mechanisms that tether these organelles together and why such connections are maintained. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified three families of ER-PM tethering proteins in yeast: Ist2 (related to mammalian TMEM16 ion channels), the tricalbins (Tcb1/2/3, orthologs of the extended synaptotagmins), and Scs2 and Scs22 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins). Loss of all six tethering proteins results in the separation of the ER from the PM and the accumulation of cytoplasmic ER. Importantly, we find that phosphoinositide signaling is misregulated at the PM, and the unfolded protein response is constitutively activated in the ER in cells lacking ER-PM tether proteins. These results reveal critical roles for ER-PM contacts in cell signaling, organelle morphology, and ER function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EU Energy Law. Volume 4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.; Hartridge, O.; Lefevere, J.; Meadows, D.; Runge-Metzger, A.; Slingenberg, Y.; Vainio, M.; Vis, P.; Zapfel, P.

    2006-06-01

    Gives valuable insights in the why's, how's, trade-offs, and critical design choices of the Emission Trading System of the European Union (EU ETS). The chapters deal with (1) The EU ETS: the result of a decade of policy action on the economic dimension of EU environmental policy; (2) The international climate policy developments of the 1990s: UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Agreements and the EU's Kyoto ratification decision; (3) Emissions trading: What is it? Design options and misconceptions; (4) The EU ETS Directive 2003/87/EEC explained; (5) The EU ETS Linking Directive explained; (6) The economic efficiency benefits of the EU ETS; (7) The NAP I experience; (8) The key importance of the Registry Regulation and of solid monitoring and verification; and (9) The potential role of the EU ETS for the elaboration of the post-2012 international climate regime. Conclusions are in chapter 10

  4. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  5. The PR Officer's Survival Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrum, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    A former corporate public relations (PR) professional shares strategies for communicating and cooperating with the chief executive officer, and particularly for coping with differences in perceptions of the public relations officer's role. Basic attributes of a successful PR professional are outlined: good communication skills, an analytical…

  6. PR's involvement in International Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1995-01-01

    In The Netherlands, the Research Station for Cattle, Sheep and Horse Husbandry (in Dutch abbreviated as PR) bridges the gap between more basic and disciplinary research done at universities and research institutes on the one hand and the extension service and the farmers on the other hand. The PR

  7. Prólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Hooker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este volumen No. 11 presenta una compilación estructurada en 6 secciones temáticas las cuales comprenden 9 artículos. La primera sección en Educación, presenta los artículos: Métodos de enseñanza de Física en la modalidad a distancia en el instituto sabatino “Esperanza”,en el municipio de Siuna; y, Comportamiento disciplinario en la escuela “Niño Jesús”, Siuna, Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte, 2011. La segunda sección, titulada Educación Superior en la Costa Caribe Nicaragüense presenta los artículos: Formación de los docentes de la URACCAN en el Área de Recursos Naturales; asimismo, Pertinencia de los programas para el aprendizaje del inglés en Administración de Empresas, Recinto Nueva Guinea y Prácticas de campo en la formación de estudiantes de Ingeniería en Zootecnia, URACCAN Nueva Guinea. La tercera sección denominada Revitalización Lingüística y Cultural comprende dos artículos: Etno-matemática en indígenas ulwas, comunidad de Karawala, Región Autónoma Atlántico Sur, Nicaragua y Ma-Kuagro: Elementos de la cultura de San Basilio Palenque, Colombia, y su incidencia en las prácticas pedagógicas. La cuarta sección Cultura Indígena y Afrodescendiente comprende un artículo: Economía indígena en la comunidad de Wasakín, municipio de Rosita, RAAN. Clausura la quinta sección denominada Ciencias Sociales, el artículo La república Bolivariana de Venezuela y Nicaragua, en el marco del acuerdo energético.

  8. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  9. Renewable energies in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

  10. ERS/ECDC Statement: European Union standards for tuberculosis care, 2017 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Rosales-Klintz, Senia; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Bothamley, Graham; Caminero, Jose Antonio; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Dara, Masoud; de Vries, Gerard; Aliberti, Stefano; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan; Duarte, Raquel; Midulla, Fabio; Solovic, Ivan; Subotic, Dragan R; Amicosante, Massimo; Correia, Ana Maria; Cirule, Andra; Gualano, Gina; Kunst, Heinke; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Riekstina, Vija; Tiberi, Simon; Verduin, Remi; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2018-05-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care define the essential level of care for managing patients who have or are presumed to have tuberculosis, or are at increased risk of developing the disease. The resources and capacity in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area permit higher standards of care to secure quality and timely TB diagnosis, prevention and treatment. On this basis, the European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) were published in 2012 as standards specifically tailored to the EU setting. Since the publication of the ESTC, new scientific evidence has become available and, therefore, the standards were reviewed and updated.A panel of international experts, led by a writing group from the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), updated the ESTC on the basis of new published evidence. The underlying principles of these patient-centred standards remain unchanged. The second edition of the ESTC includes 21 standards in the areas of diagnosis, treatment, HIV and comorbidities, and public health and prevention.The ESTC target clinicians and public health workers, provide an easy-to-use resource and act as a guide through all the required activities to ensure optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB. The content of this work is copyright of the authors or their employers. Design and branding are copyright ©ERS 2018.

  11. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  12. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  13. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  14. Energy transfer between the Eu2+ dipole and aggregate centers in CsBr:Eu crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Turchak, R.; Voznjak, T.

    2007-01-01

    The energy transfer between the Eu 2+ -V Cs dipole centers and presumable CsEuBr 3 aggregate centers has been studied in CsBr:Eu crystals by means of investigation of their time-resolved emission spectra and luminescence decay kinetics at 300 K

  15. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  16. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspect, Alain

    2004-11-01

    COLOQ est une conférence regroupant, tous les deux ans, la communauté scientifique et industrielle nationale travaillant dans les domaines des lasers, de l'optique non-linéaire et de l'optique quantique. Elle s'est tenue pour sa huitième édition à Toulouse, du 3 au 5 septembre 2004, sur le campus de I'INSA. Comme il est de tradition tous les quatre ans, COLOQ était couplé avec Horizons de l'optique, avec en particulier une journée commune dont le programme avait été préparé en concertation par les deux comités scientifiques. Depuis sa création, COLOQ a pour but de favoriser les rencontres entre les chercheurs des différents laboratoires nationaux publics ou privés travaillant sur les lasers et l'optique quantique au sens large. C'est un moyen privilégié de resserrer les liens de cette communauté et d'y intégrer les jeunes chercheurs. Ces derniers y trouvent l'occasion de se connaître, de se faire connaître, de découvrir la communauté à laquelle ils appartiennent et d'élargir leurs connaissances des thèmes qui la structurent. La participation de 230 chercheurs et d'une vingtaine d'exposants de matériels spécialisés dans les lasers et l'optoélectronique témoigne de la vitalité de COLOQ et de son audience dans les laboratoires et chez les industriels de l'optique. Le programme de COLOQ 8 comportait d'une vingtaine de conférences générales données par des chercheurs de renom international, et des séances de communications par affiches, occasions privilégiées de rencontres et d'échanges. Les exposés ont porté sur des sujets particulièrement actifs au niveau national et international, avec un accent sur des thèmes importants pour la région toulousaine : contrôle cohérent, optique et nanosciences, optique et astronomie, sans oublier la traditionnelle rubrique phénomènes fondamentaux, éclectique pour ne pas dire hétéroclite, mais si représentative d'une des ambitions de COLOQ qui est d'offrir à ses participants une

  17. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    L'objectif de la série de colloques UVX est de réunir, au rythme d'une fois tous les deux ans, les scientifiques et industriels travaillant dans le domaine du développement des sources de photon de grande énergie (UV, VUV, et X) et de leurs applications. En particulier cette manifestation est l'occasion de faire se rencontrer une communauté très pluridisciplinaire (physique, chimie, biologie, sciences de l'univers) liée à des domaines en forte évolution technologique (lasers et rayonnement synchrotron notamment). Le colloque UVX 2004 s'est tenu au Palais des Congrès de Saint-Étienne (42000) du 7 au 11 juin 2004. La période écoulée depuis l'édition précédente (Oléron 2002) a été particulièrement active dans tous les domaines concernés : grands projets de sources, méthodes de diagnostic au sens large. Une nouvelle fois on constate que le bref et l'ultra-bref ont une place privilégiée, qu'il s'agisse du travail sur les accélérateurs ou sur les lasers qui, bien sûr, dans la course aux temps courts remportent la palme avec la présence de spécialistes du domaine attoseconde. La communauté représentée a la chance d'être en prise directe avec de très grands projets en phase active de réalisation comme le Laser Megajoule (LMJ), la source SOLEIL, et un projet d'ampleur plus modeste mais remarquable dans son domaine : la source LASERIX d'Orsay/Palaiseau. On pourra citer aussi le projet Arc en Ciel qui, lui, est encore au stade de sa définition. - SOLEIL, source de nouvelle génération de rayonnement synchrotron (plateau de Saclay) est dans une phase active de réalisation : achèvement de l'infrastructure en 2005 et injection du 1o faisceau dans l'anneau de stockage prévu également en 2005. Cette source devrait être la meilleure au monde dans le domaine VUV/X mous, tout en restant très polyvalente (brillance, accordabilité, structure temporelle, polarisation) et complémentaire de l'ESRF. Au final on disposera de 21 lignes de lumi

  18. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Grubb, Ane

    I rapporten Når det er svært at være ung i DK – unges beretninger om mistrivsel og ungdomsliv præsenteres resultaterne af et kvalitativt studie af mistrivsel og ungdomsliv blandt 15-24-årige unge i Danmark. Studiet bygger på dybdegående interviews med 33 unge fra forskellige dele af landet, der...... fortæller om deres erfaringer med diverse mistrivselsformer, som ensomhed, selvskadende adfærd og mobning, og om deres besvær med at håndtere de krav, udfordringer og muligheder, der i øvrigt præger det moderne ungdomsliv. Studiet indgår i det treårige forskningsprojekt Når det er svært at være ung i DK...

  19. Synthesis of Er and Er : Yb doped sol–gel derived silica glass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Materials Science Centre, †Central Research Facility, Optical Fibre Unit, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 1 March 2004; revised 4 July 2004. Abstract. Er3+ and Er3+ : Yb3+ doped optical quality, crack and bubble free glasses for possible use in mak- ing laser material have been ...

  20. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  1. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamieh, Tayssir

    2005-05-01

    Né simultanément à Mulhouse et à Beyrouth en 1996 dans le cadre d'une collaboraiion franco-libanaise sur une initiative personnelle de Monsieur Tayssir HAMIEH. le Colloque Franco-Libanais sur la Science des Matériaux (CSM), qui s'inscrit dans le cadre des relations étroites entre la France et le Liban, est très vite devenu une occasion très importante de rencontre entre scientifiques de haut niveau, non seulement, du contour méditerranéen mais également des pays européens, américains et arabes. La quatrieme édition CSM4 est une véritable réussite grâce à la participation des chercheurs confirmés dans tous les domaines des sciences de matériaux et venant de plusieurs pays tels que la France, I'Algérie, Le Liban, la Syrie, le Maroc, la Tunisie, l'Italie, l'Espagne, le Portugal, le Royaume Uni, les États-Unis, la Russie, l'Allemagne, le Japon et I'Inde ; pour présenter plus de 350 communications orales et par affiche et couvrant presque toutes les disciplines des systèmes des matériaux. Le choix des diffèrents thèmes du colloque sur la science des matériaux a été dicté par l'importance capitale de cette discipline dans notre civilisation moderne. En fait, les matériaux utilisés pour la fabrication artisanale ou industrielle d'objets, de produits et de systèmes ainsi que pour la réalisation de constructions et d'équipements ont de tout temps défini le niveau de notre civilisation technique. La réalisation des objectifs communs de notre monde en plein développement, pour ne pas dire en pleine mutation, est en grande partie tributaire de la mise au point de nouveaux matériaux et de procédés de transformation et d'assemblages nouveaux, présentant des performances et des qualités améliorées. Le colloque a illustré et traduit, de manière remarquables, l'excellente collaboration entre chercheurs libanais et français. Le partenariat est exemplaire par la qualité des laboratoires impliqués et par le niveau scientifique des r

  2. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  3. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  4. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  5. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  6. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure

  7. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis...

  8. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  9. Optimal Rather than Mandatory EU Company Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertig, G.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant debate rages within the EU about whether to give firms the choice to opt in or out of corporate law provisions. Both sides agree that more flexibility and adaptability of legal rules to business needs is crucial. Nevertheless, and not surprisingly, many still view EU mandatory

  10. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  11. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  12. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  13. Political PR is dying. Long live business PR! / Ilyn Oleg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oleg, Ilyn

    2005-01-01

    Vene suurima suhtekorraldusagentuuri Imageland Public Relations rahvusvaheliste suhete juhi hinnangul on Venemaal peamisteks probleemideks PR professionaalide vähesus, nende kehv haritus oma erialal, samuti vähene teadlikkus suhtekorralduse tähtsusest äris

  14. Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrino, P.; Garrido, B.; Arbiol, J.; Garcia, C.; Lebour, Y.; Morante, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Silica layers implanted with Si and Er ions to various doses and annealed at 950 deg. C have been investigated by means of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and high annular angle dark field (HAADF). EFTEM analysis reveals Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) with an average size around 3 nm for high Si content (15 at. %) whereas no clusters can be imaged for the lowest Si excess (5 at. %). Raman scattering supports that amorphous Si precipitates are present in all the samples. Moreover, the filtered images show that Er ions appear preferentially located outside the Si-nc. HAADF analysis confirms that the Er atoms form agglomerations of 5-10 nm size when the Er concentration exceeds 1x10 20 cm -3 . This observation correlates well with the reduction of the Er population excitable by Si nanoclusters, in the best case corresponding to 10% of the total. A suitable tuning of the annealing drastically reduces this deleterious effect

  15. EU may issue fine for trash problem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni keskkonna peadirektoraadi direktor Morgens Peter Carl väidab, et kuna prügikoristuskampaania "Teeme ära" raames koguti kokku suur hulk prügi, ei ole Eestis piisavalt prügi kogumiseks ette nähtud kohti

  16. Erfolgsfaktoren unternehmerischer Krisen-PR

    OpenAIRE

    Scharr, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Ob "Peanuts", "Elchtest" oder "Hoechst-Störfall" - bei diesen bekannten Öffentlichkeitskrisen der letzten Jahre rief die mangelhafte Krisen-PR der betroffenen Unternehmen bei Medien und Bevölkerung mehr Empörung hervor als die originären Auslöser und potenzierte so den entstandenen Vertrauensverlust. Auch die sich gerade erst entwickelnde PR-Forschung bietet noch keine konkrete Hilfestellung zur Gestaltung von Krisen-PR. Mit dem bedeutenden Diskurs- und dadurch Realitätsgestaltungsmittel Pres...

  17. Ecodesign - How to Unfold the Potential Synergy between the EuP, WEEE and RoHS Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The amount, complexity and variety of products introduced to the European market are increasing and products are more than ever traded globally. This development challenges the approach to regulate and stimulate the innovation of cleaner products. The EU has responded by introducing Integrated Pr...... Directive. The focus of this paper is the potential synergy between the three normative, so-called eco-design directives, and to what extent the EU has accomplished to integrate eco-design in the different directives and voluntary instruments....

  18. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice......-oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...... the potential of a practice turn in EU studies for both theory (overcoming dualism, replacing substantialism with processualism and rethinking power) and methods (including unstructured interviews, fieldwork and participant observation). A practice turn will force us to rethink core assumptions about the EU...

  19. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus......The past decades have witnessed an explosion in the use of experiments. Though experiments have been increasingly applied, their recognition as useful methodological tools to investigate EU-related research questions has lagged behind the rest of the political science community. This article does...... is paid on election, framing and deliberation studies. Second, the article argues for the promising potentials experimentation provides for EU studies, overcoming problems of causal estimation as well as endogeneity concerns. The article concludes by addressing some of the critiques often made against...

  20. The EU-strategy against soil acidification. Concept of the critical load; Die EU-Strategie gegen Bodenversauerung. Konzept der kritischen Belastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautwein, W.P.

    1998-10-01

    The development of so-called `novel forest damages` is considered to be - at least partly - a result of the impact of certain air pollutants such as sulphur and nitrogen oxides; these precipitate as acid rain and acidify the soil, thus damaging sensitive ecosystems, e.g. forests. To combat acidification, the EU Commission has produced a Community strategy, which is based on the concept of critical loads. The DGMK report 548 deals with this concept of critical loads and with the measures to combat soil acidifiction. It explains that critical loads are not damage thresholds, but environmental standards, and deviation does not necessarily required any action. It demonstrates, why the reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions, formed during the utilization of fluid fuels, is not a cost-effective measures. It proposes continued implementation of agreed plans for emission reduction, before additional legislative steps are considered. This report contains information to June 1998 inclusive. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Entstehung der sogenannten `neuartigen Waldschaeden` fuehrt man zum Teil auf die Einwirkung gewisser Luftschadstoffe wie Schwefel- und Stickoxide zurueck, die als saurer Regen auf die Erde niedergehen und zu einer Versauerung des Bodens und damit zu einer Schaedigung empfindlicher Oekosysteme wie der Waelder fuehren koennen. Die EU-Kommission hat eine Strategie der EU zur Bekaempfung dieser Versauerung entwickelt, die auf dem Konzept der kritischen Belastungen beruht. Der DGMK-Bericht 548 setzt sich mit diesem Konzept der kritischen Belastungen sowie mit den Massnahmen zur Bekaempfung der Bodenversauerung auseinander. Er erlaeutert, dass kritische Belastungen keinen Schwellenwert, sondern einen Umweltstandard darstellen, aus dessen Ueberschreitung nicht zwingend ein Handlungsbedarf abgeleitet werden kann. Er erlaeutert ferner, warum vor allem die Reduktion der Schwefeldioxidemissionen, die beim Einsatz fluessiger Kraft- und Brennstoffe entstehen, keine

  1. DNA as a component of ER materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, K; Aoki, Y; Berber, M R; Mori, T; Tanaka, M

    2009-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is known as a typical biopolymer, has been utilized for a few types of ER materials. Suspensions were prepared with the particles of DNA, DNA/lipid complexes, and LDH (layered double hydroxide)/DNA composites. The purified DNA showed larger ER effect than the others, but this particle tended to absorb water, which caused less stability. Preliminary experiments of preparing composite with LDH indicated that this inorganic material would be useful for hydrophobic modification of DNA particles, although further optimization of composite preparation is needed. In addition, the LDH/DNA suspensions showed interesting behaviours under some conditions, which indicated possibility for controlling ER property in a wide range.

  2. DNA as a component of ER materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minagawa, K; Aoki, Y; Berber, M R [Institute of Technology and Science, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Mori, T [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan)], E-mail: minagawa@chem.tokushima-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is known as a typical biopolymer, has been utilized for a few types of ER materials. Suspensions were prepared with the particles of DNA, DNA/lipid complexes, and LDH (layered double hydroxide)/DNA composites. The purified DNA showed larger ER effect than the others, but this particle tended to absorb water, which caused less stability. Preliminary experiments of preparing composite with LDH indicated that this inorganic material would be useful for hydrophobic modification of DNA particles, although further optimization of composite preparation is needed. In addition, the LDH/DNA suspensions showed interesting behaviours under some conditions, which indicated possibility for controlling ER property in a wide range.

  3. The quest for a European civic culture : The EU and EU Citizenship in policies and practices of citizenship education in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.; Berkeley, Dominic; Koska, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) all nationals of EU member states hold EU citizenship too. EU citizens hold EU citizenship rights in addition to their national rights. These rights include civil, social, economic and political rights. Holding these rights does not guarantee actual

  4. Multiple integrerede præstationsmålingssystemer: Videnregnskab og balanced scorecard i en software virksomhed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Johansen, Mette Rosenkrands; Mouritsen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Både videnregnskaber og balanced scorecard er integrerede præstationsmålingssystemer relateret til virksomhedens strategi, og de udvider begge rapportering til ud over finansielle nøgletal at inkludere ikke-finansielle nøgletal for kunder, processer og medarbejdere. Denne artikel diskuterer de...... to modellers forskelle og komplementariteter på baggrund af en analyse af deres anvendelse i en mellemstor dansk softwarevirksomhed, Systematic Software Engineering. Denne virksomhed har i de sidste to år publiceret videnregnskaber og har for nylig implementeret et balanced scorecard. Videnregnskabet...... kommunikerer såvel eksternt som internt om virksomhedens videnledelsesaktiviteter og balanced scorecard skaber ansvarlighed i softwareprojekter. Det tyder på, at de to typer af udvidet rapportering er forskellige og dog komplementære, når de anvendes i denne virksomhed, herunder at der er en markant forskel i...

  5. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Perko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des dernières décennies où l’on assiste à une refondation de la morphologie, la discipline s’intéresse de plus en plus à des phénomènes « périphériques », « marginaux », « irréguliers » ou « extragrammaticaux », à des phénomènes n’appartenant pas aux « régions nodales » de la morphologie. Le présent numéro de Linguistica, premier numéro thématique de notre revue, réunit des études qui s’intéres- sent aux frontières internes et externes de la morphologie. La diversité et la richesse des thèmes abordés et des approches proposées témoignent d’un intérêt croissant que les linguistes, non pas uniquement les morphologues, portent à cette thématique. Les articles proposés s’articulent autour de cinq axes majeurs. Un premier axe rassemble les articles qui étudient les frontières entre différentes composantes de la morphologie. L’étude de Michel Roché examine les contraintes lexicales et morphophonologiques sur le paradigme des dérivés en –aie. Les résultats de son analyse remettent en question la notion de « règle de construction des lexèmes ». Irena Stramljič Breznik et Ines Voršič se penchent sur les néologismes de sport en slovène et essaient d’évaluer la productivité ou la créativité des procédés morphologiques en jeu. Dans une étude d’inspiration cognitiviste, Alexandra Bagasheva aborde l’hétérogénéité des verbes composés en anglais. En s’appuyant sur les données fournies par les para- digmes verbaux du maltais, Maris Camilleri examine la complexité du phénomène de classes flexionnelles basées sur les radicaux. Trois travaux concernent des procédés typiquement « extragrammaticaux » servant à former le plus souvent des occasionnalismes: Arnaud Léturgie tente de dégager des propriétés prototypiques de l’amalgamation lexicale en français, notamment celles de la création des mots-valises; Silvia Cacchiani analyse, à l

  6. The New European and/or EU Studies Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Dolghi, Dorin; Pantea, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In this part we will present turn by turn the evolution of the curriculum in four domains which are developing in the area of European and/or EU Studies: EU Intercultural Dialogue Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Comparative Regionalism, from several points of view. First, we will take into consideration the perspective that each curriculum from the four domains has in the ensemble of European and/or EU Studies, t...

  7. Præsentation-En rejse i hverdagen: de små skridt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Valg af materiale/medie/form: pdf version af power point Valg af arbejdsform: pdf' en kan bruges af alle til at præsentere om virksomheders arbejde med bæredygtighed Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: pdf'en er stabil og kan derfor bruges af alle eller danne grundlag...... for emner der kan passes ind i relevante sammenhænge...

  8. Entre vapores e dublagens : dissidências homo/eróticas nas tramas do envelhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Altair Pocahy

    2011-01-01

    Esta pesquisa de doutorado em Educação analisa formas de regulação do gênero e da sexualidade em interseccionalidade com a ‗idade‘. Este estudo buscou problematizar os discursos de objetificação dirigidos a homens idosos que exercem práticas homo/eróticas. E tratou de compreender de que maneira se produzem estratégias de contestação às significações desqualificantes sobre a (homo)sexualidade e o envelhecimento. A análise nos possibilitou compreender algumas das relações de poder em torno das ...

  9. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  10. Phase diagram of Pr-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    An area of the Pr-P system, adjoining to the Pr ordinate, is plotted up by the DTA method. Presence of P solid solution in Pr is established. Data on thermal stability of PrP, PrP 2 , PrP 5 and PrP 7 are generalized. The diagram of phase transformations in Pr-P system is plotted up proceeding from the whole complex of the data, presented. A supposition is made on a possible formation of solid solutions between the highest polyphosphide and phosphorus [ru

  11. On the PR-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedenko, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The PR-algebras, i.e. the Lie algebras with commutation relations of [Hsub(i),Hsub(j)]=rsub(ij)Hsub(i)(i< j) type are investigated. On the basis of former results a criterion for the membership of 2-solvable Lie algebras to the PR-algebra class is given. The conditions imposed by the criterion are formulated in the linear algebra language

  12. Prácticas curriculares

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gordillo, Mar; Checa Godoy, Antonio; Gómez Mompart, Josep Lluis (Coordinador); Herrero Subías, Mónica (Coordinador)

    2015-01-01

    Esta ponencia pretende analizar, sucintamente, la situacion presente de las prácticas externas en las facultades de Comunicacion españolas. En una coyuntura sumamente peculiar, no solo para las prácticas de los titulos de Comunicacion, sino para todas las practicas universitarias, por los numerosos y a veces contradictorios cambios acaecidos en la legislacion reciente y los vaivenes normativos de las universidades; por la profunda crisis que viene atravesando el sector de la...

  13. Concentration depolarization of luminescence of Eu3+-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodunov, E.N.; Lebedev, V.P.; Malyshev, V.A.; Przheuskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of concentrational depolarization luminescence (CDL) of phosphate and germanate glasses, containing Eu 3+ ions, has been carried out. On the basis of three-body self-consistent approximation the theory of CDL is conceived, which takes into account Eu-Eu interaction of higher multipolarities. By comparing the theory with the experiment energy transfer radii for Eu-Eu dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are determined. The attempt to discriminate Eu-Eu interaction types in the studied range of Eu 3+ ion concentration change has failed owing to law accuracy of luminescence emittance anisotropy measurement

  14. Internet innovation in PR management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalasan Veljko B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PR Management in the last decade has evolved to unimaginable limits . Its rapid 'evolution ' is directly linked to the development and innovation, above all, of internet communications - Cyber 'world'. Although the genesis of PR management was announced in a way, the changes of the modern PR management have led to a change in the general attitude towards this particular activity. It has become an indispensable factor for the success of every business or social enterprise. In the general run for internet contents with better quality, as an indispensable tool of PR management , for better use of cyberspace , a new generation of PR manager is created, who has almost no resemblance to the earlier managers before two decades. For these reasons, we believe that Internet innovation through the implementation of PR management, changed the world economy and society. Adjusting speed to this, virtual , yet very real world , is proportional to the speed of development of an economic system as a whole, or any company at the micro level , and society in general .Internet is not an important innovation itself to be sufficient to meet the form and define the essence of economic relations. Only its proper exploitation with the constant use of tested and more intense innovation is the only way to the overall success . The absence of the above, in our opinion, is a sure path to failure.

  15. ER Stress: A Therapeutic Target in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Marveh; Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; McDermott, Michael F

    2018-04-22

    Diverse physiological and pathological conditions that impact on protein folding of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cause ER stress. The unfolded protein response (UPR) and the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway are activated to cope with ER stress. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammation and ER stress work in parallel by driving inflammatory cells to release cytokines that induce chronic ER stress pathways. This chronic ER stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA through synoviocyte proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, ER stress pathways and their constituent elements are attractive targets for RA drug development. In this review, we integrate current knowledge of the contribution of ER stress to the overall pathogenesis of RA, and suggest some therapeutic implications of these discoveries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  17. Coordinating the Uncoordinated: The EU Forest Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Aggestam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The second European Union (EU Forest Strategy responds to new challenges facing both forests and the forest-based sector which highlights the EU’s need for a policy framework ensuring coordination and coherence of forest-related policies. The objective of the present article is to analyse whether the new Strategy contributes towards horizontal policy coherence of EU forest-related policies, given its shared and exclusive competences. This is achieved by comparing European Commission and forest industry policy priorities as articulated in the Strategy and through research carried out for the recent Cumulative Cost Assessment (CCA of forest-based industries. Results from the comparative analysis demonstrate that the Strategy does not address many EU policies and policy instruments that affect the whole forest value chain and that it clearly omits existing EU policy instrument objectives that entail significant costs for the forest-based industry. It is therefore argued that without coordinating collective EU goals and gathering strong political support, it is at best extremely difficult or at worst impossible, to achieve coherence for EU forest-related policies across the whole forest value chain. Improving coherence of Union forest-related policies will require the Strategy to address more policy areas and instruments, including clearly defined parameters of what constitutes an EU forest-related policy. These pressing needs reach beyond what the Strategy presently sets out to achieve.

  18. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON EU AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Shrestha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the medium term economic impact of climate changes on the EU agriculture. The yield change data under climate change scenarios are taken from the BIOMA (Biophysical Models Application simulation environment. We employ CAPRI modelling framework to identify the EU aggregate economic effects as well as regional impacts. We take into account supply and market price adjustments of the EU agricultural sector as well as technical adaptation of crops to climate change. Overall results indicate an increase in yields and production level in the EU agricultural sector due to the climate change. In general, there are relatively small effects at the EU aggregate. For example, the value of land use and welfare change by approximately between -2% and 0.2%. However, there is a stronger impact at regional level with some stronger effects prevailing particularly in the Central and Northern EU and smaller impacts are observed in Southern Europe. Regional impacts of climate change vary by a factor higher up to 10 relative to the aggregate EU impacts. The price adjustments reduce the response of agricultural sector to climate change in particular with respect to production and income changes. The technical adaption of crops to climate change may result in a change production and land use by a factor between 1.4 and 6 relative to no-adaptation situation.

  19. Enlarging the EU's internal energy market: Why would third countries accept EU rule export?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange-Gstoehl, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Why would countries without a membership perspective seek integration into the EU's internal energy market? One major element of the EU's external energy policy is the export of EU energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond. A core legal instrument the EU uses in this context is the Energy Community Treaty (ECT). The ECT goes both geographically and regarding its depth significantly beyond neighbourhood or association policies, addressing potentially also countries in the 'far neighbourhood' and aiming at the creation of a Single Market for energy with these countries. While, however, EU candidate countries are obliged to adopt the 'acquis' before accessing the EU and therefore comply to EU rules already before they enter the Club, I argue that countries with no or only a vague membership perspective - i.e. countries where the EU cannot apply the 'conditionality' - approach (e.g., ENP countries)-aim at deeper integration with the EU because they are either eager to demonstrate their capability and potential to become part of the Club, they seek greater independence from a regional hegemon or they envisage significant economic gains as common norms, rules and standards are likely to increase economic exchange with the EU.

  20. PR Crisis Melalui Media Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Carlina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is communication, new media, PR and PR Crisis. Fourth of this background has a close relationship, starting from communication, human in everyday life would require communication to receive and convey information, human can not be released from human life. The advancement of the times and the development of technology, causing people to communicate easily and the development of this era caused a new challenge for the PR and PR Crisis of a company, they should be able to maintain a positive image of the company in the minds of people. In this study using descriptive qualitative methodology, it contains many writings and drawings compared to the numbers. The purpose of this research is to know the strategy used by Pizza Hut in dealing with the issue of expired food. Penelitin results, social media is very positive impact on Pizza Hut in the recovery of food issues expired. The strategy used by the Pizza Hut Crisis PR is to utilize social media. Visible from the issue of expired food that disappeared in public and Pizza Hut restaurant until now crowded visited. Latar belakang dari penelitian ini yaitu komunikasi, media baru, PR dan PR Krisis. Keempat dari latar belakang ini mempunyai hubungan yang erat, dimulai dari komunikasi, manusia di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari tentunya memerlukan komunikasi untuk menerima dan menyampaikan informasi, manusia tidak bisa dilepaskan dari kehidupan manusia. Majunya perkembangan zaman dan perkembangan teknologi, menyebabkan manusia melakukan komunikasi dengan mudah dan perkembangan zaman ini menyebabkan adanya tantangan baru bagi para PR dan PR Krisis sebuah perusahaan, mereka harus bisa mempertahankan citra positif perusahaan di benak masyarakat. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif deksriptif, memuat banyak tulisan dan gambar dibandingkan angka-angka. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui strategi yang digunakan oleh Pizza Hut dalam menangani isu makanan

  1. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    of economic integration in Europe. The aim of this article is to investigate whether EU and EZ memberships enhance growth for their members. In order to perform our empirical analysis, we estimate different growth models restricting the time frame to the first 15 years of the Euro - from 1999 to 2013. We find...... a positive impact of EU membership on economic growth, but no impact of being part of the EZ, except during the financial crisis, when the EZ has a negative impact on growth amongst its members. Considering the heated political debate related to the Brexit referendum, our results favour a “yes” to the EU...

  2. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...... of the African security regime, the level of which remains mediocre at best....

  3. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) ( 151 Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) ( 153 Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. (orig.)

  4. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  5. Ledelse af samskabelse er en ny ledelsesdisciplin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Jens; Martin Nielsen, Kim; Bartram, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Samskabelse er blevet det nye orienteringspunkt for rigtig mange offentlige organisationer. Det skyldes en udbredt konsensus om, at velfærdsopgaverne ikke kan løses inden for de vante organisatoriske rammer, men må løses i tæt kontakt med de parter, som opgaverne vedrører. Denne nye tilgang til...

  6. Der er fuld religionsfrihed i Danmark, men..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2018-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer en rapport, udgivet af FN's special rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief, Heiner Bielefeldt. Rapporten vedrører Danmark. Analysen tilslutter sig rapporten på de fleste punkter, men kritiserer begrebet 'blød diskrimination'; kritiserer at rapporten ikke er gået tættere på...

  7. Hvad er kildekritik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er Kildekritik? I stedet for at forstå kildekritik som et stringent system, grundlagt af Leopold von Ranke og i Danmark kanoniseret af Kristian Erslev, kunne man med større historiografisk ret og faglig frugtbarhed opfatte kildekritikken som en faglig tradition med tre lag afsat (sedimentere...

  8. Hvad er PET og fMRI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Paulson, Olaf; Balslev, Daniela; Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Hvilken rolle spiller følelserne for vores tankeliv, og hvorfor har vi overhovedet følelser? I kraft af avancerede hjerneskanningsteknikker er den moderne hjernevidenskab blevet i stand til at besvare disse spørgsmål. Gennem artiklerne i denne antologi, skrevet af ledende danske forskere, bliver ...

  9. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  10. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...

  11. Hvad nu hvis sommerfuglen er ekshibitionist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2008-01-01

    Groft sagt vil denne artikel, ved at aflæse hvad hhv. Inger Christensen, Sigmund Freud og Jacques Lacan har at sige om sommerfugle, argumentere for at der er et afgørende skel mellem naturvidenskab og litteraturvidenskab; mellem naturen, dyret, sommerfuglen på den ene side og bevidstheden...

  12. Hvad er hjemkundskabslæreren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2009-01-01

        En appetizer: De praktisk-musiske fag på dagsordenen Temaet for denne artikel er hjemkundskabsfaget, -professionen og dens praktisering belyst gennem et interviewstudie fra 2008 af lærerstuderende og deres lærere. Dette studie relateres til forfatterens tidligere studie af fag og profession i...

  13. Er Storm P. en hardcore vagabond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Den vagabond, som vi kender som Storm P.s, er ikke en figur, der kom fra en guddommelig inspiration eller deslige. Den var en allerede velkendt figur, før Storm P. tog den til sig, og figuren gennemgik radikale forandringer gennem Storm P.s liv: Krads social satire, hypervoldelig eller hyggelig...

  14. Er Frank rationel demokrat eller naiv fetichist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen er en diskussion af demokrati-begrebet i Rune Lykkebergs Alle har ret. Over for Lykkebregs demokrati-begreb sætter den Rancières og Zizeks forståelse af demokratiet som en åbning for det, den sociale orden ikke kan rumme. Det fører til en kritik af Lykkebergs anvendelse af begreberne om...

  15. Hvad er militær ledelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Jakob Rømer

    militær ledelse unik og derved muliggøre en opdeling, således at Forsvarets skoler kun underviser i den del af ledelse, som andre civile uddannelsesinstitutioner ikke menes at kunne undervise i. Men er det muligt at adskille begreber og praksis på den måde? Dette brief undersøger nogle betydninger af...

  16. Finanskrisen - er den markedsorienterede regulering skurken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    markedsorienterede opgørelse tilsyneladende skyld i bankernes dårlige resultater. I hvert fald er standardsætteren inden for international regnskabsregulering, IASB, i efteråret 2008 på rekordtid kommet de betrængte virksomheder - herunder bankerne - til undsætning med en regnskabsmæssig hjælpepakke som supplement...

  17. Como eu estraguei a Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loys Bonod

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto descreve a experiência pedagógica de um professor de uma escola de segundo grau, em Paris, que, para provar a dependência do pensamento à inclusão digital, preparou uma armadilha a seus alunos. Ele publicou em diferentes sites (Wikipédia, entre outros comentários – verdadeiros e falsos – sobre um poema relativamente raro, em seguida, pediu um trabalho aos seus alunos. O objetivo era de demonstrar aos próprios alunos que eles não são suficientemente maduros para analisar, de maneira adequada, todo o conteúdo da internet, pois sua curiosidade, seleção e julgamento são muito restritos.

  18. NÅR NOGEN LER, ER DER NOGET PÅ SPIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    2012-01-01

    idégenerering. I den del, der omhandler designprocessen set som et socialt fænomen, beskriver jeg praksis som interaktioner, som dels skaber situationelle betydninger, dels afdækker normer, som er internalise-rede, og som således fremstår som sandheder i designprofessionen. Jeg argumenterer her for, at sociale...... hierarkier har en betydning for, hvordan designprocesser forløber, hvem der betragtes som kreativ, og hvem der ikke gør. Endvidere gør jeg rede for, at designerne optræder i forskellige roller i idégenereringsfaser – og at humor her spiller en væsentlig rolle – som gør, at normalverdenens sociale hierarkier......, kognitiv designtænkningsteori for dels at gøre rede for en af de herskende tilgange på området, dels for at kunne positionere mig i forhold hertil og efterfølgende præsentere min tilgang til designprocessen som et socialt fænomen med udgangspunkt i antropologiske og so-ciologiske teorier. Eftersom...

  19. Effects of material growth technique and Mg doping on Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Henry, R. L.; Wickenden, A. E.; Koleske, D. D.; Rhee, S. J.; White, J. O.; Myoung, J. M.; Kim, K.; Li, X.; Coleman, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopies have been carried out at 6 K on the ∼1540 nm 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 15/2 emissions of Er 3+ in Er-implanted and annealed GaN. These studies revealed the existence of multiple Er 3+ centers and associated PL spectra in Er-implanted GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, hydride vapor phase epitaxy, and molecular beam epitaxy. The results demonstrate that the multiple Er 3+ PL centers and below-gap defect-related absorption bands by which they are selectively excited are universal features of Er-implanted GaN grown by different techniques. It is suggested that implantation-induced defects common to all the GaN samples are responsible for the Er site distortions that give rise to the distinctive, selectively excited Er 3+ PL spectra. The investigations of selectively excited Er 3+ PL and PLE spectra have also been extended to Er-implanted samples of Mg-doped GaN grown by various techniques. In each of these samples, the so-called violet-pumped Er 3+ PL band and its associated broad violet PLE band are significantly enhanced relative to the PL and PLE of the other selectively excited Er 3+ PL centers. More importantly, the violet-pumped Er 3+ PL spectrum dominates the above-gap excited Er 3+ PL spectrum of Er-implanted Mg-doped GaN, whereas it was unobservable under above-gap excitation in Er-implanted undoped GaN. These results confirm the hypothesis that appropriate codopants can increase the efficiency of trap-mediated above-gap excitation of Er 3+ emission in Er-implanted GaN. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. The EU model evaluation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The model evaluation group (MEG) was launched in 1992 growing out of the Major Technological Hazards Programme with EU/DG XII. The goal of MEG was to improve the culture in which models were developed, particularly by encouraging voluntary model evaluation procedures based on a formalised and consensus protocol. The evaluation intended to assess the fitness-for-purpose of the models being used as a measure of the quality. The approach adopted was focused on developing a generic model evaluation protocol and subsequent targeting this onto specific areas of application. Five such developments have been initiated, on heavy gas dispersion, liquid pool fires, gas explosions, human factors and momentum fires. The quality of models is an important element when complying with the 'Seveso Directive' requiring that the safety reports submitted to the authorities comprise an assessment of the extent and severity of the consequences of identified major accidents. Further, the quality of models become important in the land use planning process, where the proximity of industrial sites to vulnerable areas may be critical. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina PANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent geographic area, etc.

  2. Cathodoluminescence properties of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A. N.; Petrova, M. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ ions is very interesting as a phosphor for conversion of light-emitting diode light for white light sources. The europium ion occupies the structural position of yttrium in yttrium aluminium garnet and has valence state Eu 3+ . Our sample was doped with Zr 4+ , which is why some of the europium ions had valence state Eu 2+ . As a rule, luminescence of Eu 3+ ions is observed in the orange and red range of spectrum. The luminescence of Eu 2+ in yttrium aluminum garnet is characterized by an intensive broad band with maximum of intensity at about 560 nm (green color). In this work, we studied the intensity and decay time dependences on europium concentration, and the influence of excitation power density on the cathodoluminescence of the sample. The most interesting result is the change of visible cathodoluminescence color in dependence on the density of the exciting power

  3. Implementation of integrated homecare in EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    ://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ ) aims to develop a strategy for better clinical continuity in EU. Data and Method A systematic literature review on integrated care forms the base for design of an HTA of integrated home care (IHC) for chronic conditions in such a state of disablement that patient schools are not enough. The EUnet...... approach with the adaption to local conditions in a decentralized approach. This means that a regional level with direct cooperation between the administrative/financial and the clinical/specialist levels is focused. This meso- level is addressed by an international network of national specialist groups......  Implementation of Integrated Home Care in EU Objective WHO put the fragmented delivery of health and social services for large groups of chronic conditions on the research agenda in 2002 as implemented in the call EU-FP7-HEALTH-2007-3.1.6. This granted project ( http...

  4. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  5. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  6. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  7. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... or intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations...

  8. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  9. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  10. EU 2004 Declaration. EU policy workshop development of offshore wind energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruijne, R.

    2004-09-01

    Participants of the Dutch EU Presidency's 'EU Policy Workshop on the development of offshore wind energy' published this Declaration that called for action at the EU Transport, Energy and Telecom Council on November 29, 2004. The Declaration lists a series of action points on three main issues relating to the development of offshore wind energy in Europe: market development; environment; and grid integration of large scale offshore wind

  11. Synthesis and tunable luminescent properties of Eu-doped Ca2NaSiO4F – Coexistence of the Eu2+ and Eu3+ centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiao Xie

    Full Text Available Novel phosphors Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu were synthesized successfully by the conventional solid-state method in CO atmosphere, and their spectroscopic properties in UV−vis region were investigated. The photoluminescence properties show that Eu3+ ions were partially reduced to Eu2+ in Ca2NaSiO4F. As a result of radiation and re-absorption energy transfer from Eu2+ to Eu3+, both Eu2+ bluish-green emission at around 520 nm and Eu3+ red emission are observed in the emission spectra under the n-UV light excitation. Furthermore, the ratio between Eu2+ and Eu3+ emissions varies with increasing content of overall Eu. Because relative intensity of the red component from Eu3+ became systematically stronger, white light emission can be realized by combining the emission of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in a single host lattice under n-UV light excitation. These results indicate that the Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu phosphors have potential applications as a n-UV convertible phosphor for light-emitting diodes. Keywords: Phosphors, Luminescence, White LED, Optical materials

  12. EU Contribution to Global CBRN Security

    OpenAIRE

    GOULART DE MEDEIROS MARGARIDA; ABOUSAHL SAID; MAIER EDDIE; SIMONART TRISTAN; DUPRE BRUNO

    2016-01-01

    The EU promotes a culture of CBRN safety and security within the EU and internationally. Accordingly, the Instrument Contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP) contributes to international efforts to mitigate CBRN risks, whether of natural (e.g. pandemics, volcanic eruptions), accidental (Fukushima) or criminal (trafficking, terrorism) origin, following a consistent ‘all hazards’ approach. The aim is twofold: to prevent CBRN incidents and to build partner countries' capacities for emergency r...

  13. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of Colombia (FARC), some Palestinian groups (including Hamas’ military and political wings in 2001 and 2003 respectively), and Hezbollah’s military...a “European TFTP” would be aimed at enabling the EU to extract SWIFT data on European soil and send the targeted results onward to U.S. authorities...whether U.S. laws provide adequate protection for PNR data saved in cloud systems operating on U.S. soil . U.S.-EU Data Privacy and Protection

  14. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    ’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...... is to outline the mission’s most significant strategic shortcomings and lessons identified, which are important in improving the effectiveness of the capabilities in EU conflict prevention....

  15. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  16. EU climate policy: dividing up the commons

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Delgado

    2007-01-01

    Juan Delgado discusses the economic impact of climate change policies. The EU has committed to an ambitious climate change agenda. The challenge facing Europe now is how to meet the targets at a minimum cost and how to allocate the cost in such a way that it has a neutral impact on competitiveness. This note was presented in August 2007 to the Economic Policy Committee of the EU.

  17. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...... developments in the field of mobile media....

  18. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF2:Eu nanophosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L.; O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E.; Coetsee, E.

    2014-01-01

    SrF 2 :Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF 2 nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ . At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu 2+ centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu 3+ emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ valance states. The presence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu 3+ under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu 2+ rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu 2+ doped SrF 2 samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF 2 : Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu 3+ UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Eu 3+ is dominant

  19. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E. [Department of Physics and Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth ZA6031 (South Africa); Coetsee, E., E-mail: CoetseeE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF{sub 2} nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}. At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu{sup 2+} centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu{sup 3+} emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} valance states. The presence of Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu{sup 2+} rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu{sup 2+} doped SrF{sub 2} samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF{sub 2}: Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu{sup 3+} UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} is dominant.

  20. CAMEX-4 ER-2 HIGH ALTITUDE DROPSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde dataset was collected by the ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde System (EHAD), which used dropwinsondes fitted with Global...

  1. CAMEX-4 ER-2 LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 LIP, which allows the vector components of the electric field (i.e, Ex, Ey, Ez...

  2. Facets of operational performance in an emergency room (ER)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Taco; Vastag, Gyula; Wijngaard, Jacob

    This paper, using detailed time measurements of patients complemented by interviews with hospital management and staff, examines three facets of an emergency room's (ER) operational performance: (1) effectiveness of the triage system in rationing patient treatment; (2) factors influencing ER's

  3. ER Consolidated Qtrly Rpt_April-June 2016_October 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) for the April, May, and June 2016 quarterly reporting period.

  4. GPM Ground Validation Navigation Data ER-2 OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA ER-2 Navigation Data OLYMPEX dataset supplies navigation data collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft for flights that occurred during...

  5. Senior Sport er læring i virkeligheden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund

    2014-01-01

    Samarbejde mellem fysioterapeutudddannelsen på UCN og Aalborg senior Sport er givende for alle parter, inklusiv studerende.......Samarbejde mellem fysioterapeutudddannelsen på UCN og Aalborg senior Sport er givende for alle parter, inklusiv studerende....

  6. Preparation of EuSe nanoparticles from Eu(III) complex containing selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Taka-aki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The EuSe nanoparticles were prepared by the thermal reduction of Europium nitrate with new organic selenium compound, tetraphenylphosphonium diphenylphosphinediselenide (PPh 4 )(Se 2 P(C 6 H 5 ) 2 ), for the first time. EuSe nanoparticles were identified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. The average size of the EuSe nanoparticles was found to be 19 nm. The energy gap in EuSe nanoparticles of 19 nm was estimated by edge of absorption band, giving the energy gap of 1.86 eV

  7. Ten years experience of PR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobak, Dobroslav

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an effort to summarize the way Slovak Bohunice NPP has gone through since the historical change in the Middle and Eastern European countries. Milestones on the way were: 1989 - change of political system; increasing interest of the public appearance; creation of work capacities - personnel and technical; education/exchange with Western countries; 1994 - establishment of Foreign Affairs and PR Department reporting directly to the NPP manager; application of various approaches, some observed from other countries; creation of utility policy - place of PR in the company; establishment of QA system - description of PR activities, goals, interlinks etc.; annual planning process including activities, finance, education (training). Lessons learned are: the NPP managers were not prepared; the public was not (and still is not) prepared to obtain specific information; education is crucial in opinion winning; simple overtake of methods from others is not always applicable; strategy and feedback are necessary. Special case was the early closure Bohunice V1 NPP

  8. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  9. Optical measurements on iron pnictides containing Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, David; Baumgartner, Andreas; Merz, Johannes; Zapf, Sina; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Aswartham, Saicharan [University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Wurmehl, Sabine [IFW, Dresden (Germany); Jiao, Wen-He; Cao, Guang-Han [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-07-01

    The interplay of magnetism with superconductivity is a fascinating, highly debated field of research and many questions still remain unsolved. Members of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family are a perfectly suited playground for investigations concerning this topic, due to the peculiarity of strong local magnetism of the europium (T{sub N}∼ 20K), which is a unique feature among the 122 iron pnictides. Optical studies of the parent compound have already revealed that the spin density wave formation deviates from the other 122 pnictides. To get more insight into the superconducting properties of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family we carried out an optical study on differently doped samples. We compare Eu(Fe{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} where electron doping takes place directly in the conducting iron layer, with EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} which corresponds to isovalent substitution at atomic positions out of the Fe-plane. The influence of the Eu is furthermore investigated by placing data we obtained on Ba{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4}(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} in juxtaposition to the already highly investigated pure Ba analogue.

  10. Barriers to the EU Single Services Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga V. Biryukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU has the most developed liberalization mechanism in services trade within the framework of an economic bloc. The system of supranational institutions, which decisions are binding upon member states, contributes to a high level of liberalization of trade in services in the EU. However, the creation of a single market for services hasn't completed at all. The reasons are following: not all basic principles for single market are fully applied, and a service is a very specific object for international trade. Financial-economic crisis caused a new wave of protectionism in different countries, which has reflected in the preservation of old and the emergence of new barriers to trade in services within the EU. Integration of services in the Union is accompanied by important trade initiatives at the multilateral level. In the World Trade Organization EU countries negotiate a new agreement on trade in services, and offer provisions which providing transparency, deepening liberalization and investor protection for foreign investors in the market, will also complement and foster the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP EU - USA. Russia is only the fourth among most important partners of the EU in trade in services. At the same time the European Union remains a key Russian partner in trade in services and in goods. There is a considerable potential for growth in this sphere for both partners.

  11. EU GHG Emission Targets: 'Mind the gap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojodice, Ilaria

    2012-06-01

    In Durban, the European Union has been able to overcome the traditional dividing lines between developed and developing countries, setting a 'road-map' for a post-Kyoto framework. This would see countries conclude an 'agreed outcome with legal force' on emissions targets by 2015. Was this a key goal or a partial success for EU climate diplomacy? The main concerns are that the second commitment period would only come into force by 2021, and that necessary carbon cuts are not be increased before 2020. The direct by-product for the EU victory has been the awakening of the debate about raising emissions reductions to 30%. In fact, as stated in the Low Carbon Road-map, the EU has adopted a target of cutting emissions by 20% to by 2020, and of moving to a 30% reduction target if the conditions are right. Is this finally the time for Europe to improve its performance, even if it means going it alone? The EU has always been a strong defender of the Kyoto Protocol under certain constraints, such as developing and emerging countries entering into the deal. But does the EU have all the right assets to fight for this? Where is Europe in achieving its 2020 goal? In essence, this paper provides an estimate of what EU emissions could be in 2020, and how they stand compared to Kyoto and 20% objective of the 2020 strategy. (author)

  12. EU's hær skal tale tyrkisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    For at kunne udleve sine accelererende forsvarsambitioner har EU brug for at låne Tyrkiets 600.000 soldater. Hvis Tyrkiet ikke kan blive EU-medlem, må svaret være at give tyrkerne 'associeret medlemskab' af EU's sikkerhedspolitik. Sker det, vil Tyrkiet med ét være bedre integreret i EU-forsvaret ...

  13. Antidumping duties, undertakings and foreign direct investment in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Vandenbussche, H.; Veugelers, R.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of EU antidumping policy when foreign firms can ‘jump’ antidumping duties through foreign direct investment (FDI) in the EU. We show that duty jumping or duty pre-empting FDI occurs if the EU administration has broader objectives than protecting EU industry's profitability and

  14. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...

  15. Eliminating national borders as labour market barriers in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Harm

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to

  16. Er frygten for Kina vores eneste håb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Man siger, at håbet er lysegrønt, men i det 21. århundrede er håbet rødt som riget i midten. Mens optimismen vinder frem i Asien med Kina som bannerfører, er Vesten ramt af frygt, og det forplanter sig negativt til uddannelsessystemet. Er positive følelser hemmeligheden bag, at asiatiske lande st...... stormer frem i internationale undersøgelser som PISA?...

  17. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  18. Synergistic extraction of Eu(III) with N-phosphorylated bis-ureas and chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selucky, P.; Bubenikova, M.; Rais, J. [UJV Rez, a.s., Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Gruener, B. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez near Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Brusko, V.V. [JSC NIIneftepromchim, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-01

    Extraction of Eu(III) with a synergistic mixture of polydentate N-phosphorylated bis-ureas with the general formula (i-PrO){sub 2}P(O)NHC(O)NHXNHC(O)NHP(O)(Oi-Pr){sub 2} (X = (CH{sub 2}){sub 7}, (CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2} and (CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}) and chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion (CCD-) with formula closo-[(1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 8}Cl{sub 3}){sub 2}-3-Co]{sup -} was studied using nitrobenzene as the solvent. Extraction of Eu(III) was very effective up to high concentrations of nitric acid. Eu(III) is most likely extracted into the organic phase as the [EuL{sub 2}]{sup 3+} species whereas the positive charge of extracted complex is compensated by CCD and/or nitrate anions. (orig.)

  19. Selen og vitamin E til søer og pattegrise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. E.; Danielsen, V.; Simesen, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Formålet med dette forsøg var at undersøge virkningen af foderets selen- og vitamin E indhold på søernes frugtbarhed og pattegrisenes levedygtighed og vækst. Endvidere at undersøge koncentrationen af selen (Se) og vitamin E i råmælk, somælk og blod i relation til foderet. Der forekom enkelte...... dødsfald blandt grisene, som kunne sættes i forbindelse med enten lavt Se-indhold eller lavt vitamin E indhold i foderet. Der blev desuden konstateret flere brunst- og drægtighedsproblemer hos søer, derfik foder med det lave indhold af vitamin E end hos søer i de andre grupper. En forøgelse af Se......-indholdet fra 30 til 60 µg pr. kg foder gav en fordobling af indholdet i råmælk og i somælk. En forøgelse af vitamin E indholdet i foderet fra ca. 20 mg til ca. 45 mg pr. kg foder gav 4 gange forøgelse i råmælk og somælk. Der blev konstateret tilsvarende virkninger af Se og vitamin E i foderet på indholdet i...

  20. TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP), which is an X-band (9.6 GHz) Doppler radar mounted in the nose of the ER-2...