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Sample records for power plate paneb

  1. Noormees paneb Kanepi kooli tantsima / Milvi Hirvlaane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hirvlaane, Milvi

    2006-01-01

    Tantsupedagoog Aare Laine tegevusest Kanepi gümnaasiumis, kus ta on lapsed esimesest kuni viimase klassini tantsima pannud. Tema viimaseid tantsuhitte "Chicken Power" teenis Koolitantsu finaalis eripreemia

  2. Plate heat exchangers in the power plant industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersel, M.; Ridell, B.

    1984-01-01

    An increase in heat transfer and stability, small investment, high flexibility, easy maintenance and corrosion resistance are obtained by the design and construction of plate heat exchangers and by the introduction of the herringbone pattern. The plate heat exchanger can be used in nearly 90% of all secondary circuits in powerstations. Examples of its installation are the WYLFA, GENTILLY, RINGHALS and TVO Finland nuclear power-stations. (DG) [de

  3. Fundamental study on metal plating removal using pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaka, Kiminobu; Gnapowski, Sebastian; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the metal removal from metal-plated substrate using pulsed power technology is proposed. A metal-plated substrate with three metal-layers structure (Cu, Ni and Au) is used as the sample substrate. Repetitive pulsed arc discharge plasma is generated between a rod electrode and the surface of substrate. Effect of the type of electrode system on metal plating removal was investigated. The removal region is produced by the moving phenomena of the pulsed arc discharge. A part of Au layer, which is the tompost metal surface of the substrate is vaporized and removed by the repetitive pulsed arc discharges. The proposed method can be used for recycle of metal-plated substrate. (author)

  4. Evaluation of plate type fuel options for small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzejewski, Claudio de Sa

    2005-01-01

    Plate type fuels are generally used in research reactor. The utilization of this kind of configuration improves significantly the overall performance fuel. The conception of new fuels for small power reactors based in plate-type configuration needs a complete review of the safety criteria originally used to conduce power and research reactor projects. In this work, a group of safety criteria is established for the utilization of plate-type fuels in small power reactors taking into consideration the characteristics of power and research reactors. The performance characteristics of fuel elements are strongly supported by its materials properties and the adopted configuration for its fissile particles. The present work makes an orientated bibliographic investigation searching the best material properties (structural materials and fuel compounds) related to the performance fuel. Looking for good parafermionic characteristics and manufacturing exequibility associated to existing facilities in national research centres, this work proposes several alternatives of plate type fuels, considering its utilization in small power reactors: dispersions of UO 2 in stainless steel, of UO 2 in zircaloy, and of U-Mo alloy in zircaloy, and monolithic plates of U-Mo cladded with zircaloy. Given the strong dependency of radiation damage with temperature increase, the safety criteria related to heat transfer were verified for all the alternatives, namely the DNBR; coolant temperature lower than saturation temperature; peak meat temperature to avoid swelling; peak fuel temperature to avoid meat-matrix reaction. It was found that all alternatives meet the safety criteria including the 0.5 mm monolithic U-Mo plate cladded with zircaloy. (author)

  5. Plating pulse switching power based on a CPLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongguo; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method of using a CPLD to generate a PWM trigger pulse to a full bridge inverter and a chopper circuit. This method results in a very good high power and low voltage large current pulse plating power supply. A single-chip microcomputer is the core of the feedback control system. A fuzzy PID algorithm with SCM and CPLD complexes precisely controls the output voltage, allowing it to maintain a constant value. The system contains a protection circuit that detects output current and output voltage and can correct the system if it enters an over-current abnormal state, ensuring that the driving circuit can effectively drive the IGBT. The circuit is also protected by setting the inverter frequency and dead time of a digital PWM chip. This method for bidirectional pulse plating power supply digital control was verified to be correct and practicable by a Matlab software simulation

  6. Metallic plates lens focalizing a high power microwave beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuffi, L.

    1987-08-01

    A metallic grating composed of thin parallel plates opportunely spaced, permits to correct the phase of an incident high power microwave beam. In this work we show how it is possible to obtain a beam focalisation (lens), a beam deflection (prisma), or a variation in the polarization (polarizer) using parallel metallic plates. The main design parameters are here presented, in order to obtain the wanted phase modification keeping low the diffraction, the reflected power, the ohmic losses and avoiding breakdowns. Following the given criteria, a metallic plate lens has been realized to focalize the 200 KW, 100 msec 60 GHz beam used in the ECRH experiment on the TFR tokamak. The experimental beam concentration followed satisfactory the design requirements. In fact, the maximum intensity increased about twice the value without lens. In correspondence of this distance a reduction of the beam size of about 50% have been measured for the -3 dB radius. The lens supported high power tests without breakdowns or increase of the reflected power

  7. Alfa-Laval plate heat exchangers for the power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitae, Junnosuke; Mtsuura, Kazuyuki

    1979-01-01

    Within power-generating plants, the transfer and conversion of heat energy of very large quantity are carried out in the process of energy conversion, accordingly the importance of heat exchangers is very high. Heretofore, multi-tube heat exchangers have been used mostly, but Alfa-Laval group developed the heat exchanger with very high efficiency to incorporate it effectively into a power-generating plant. In this plate type heat exchanger, the heat transfer efficiency is very high, and the quantity of stagnation is small as it is compact, consequently it is suitable to the secondary cooling for power-generating plant or the heat exchange of high-priced liquid heat media such as heavy water. Originally, plate type heat exchangers were used for food and chemical industries, therefore the prevention of mixing two liquids, sanitary construction, and corrosion resistance were required. Then they were adopted in iron and steel industry, and large thermal load, large heat transfer area and corrosion resistance to sea water were required. They were adopted in a nuclear power plant for the first time in 1964. In this heat exchanger, channels are formed with corrugated metal sheets, and titanium, stainless steels, Incoloy, Hastelloy and others are used as occasion demands. The Alfa-Laval heat exchangers and their features are explained. (Kako, I.)

  8. Sound Power Minimization of Circular Plates Through Damping Layer Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, H.-W.; Lamancusa, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    Damping layers, widely used for noise and vibration control of thin-walled structures, can be designed to provide an optimal trade-off between performance and weight which is of particular importance in the automotive and aircraft industry. The goal of the presented work is the minimization of sound power radiated from plates under broadband excitation by redistribution of unconstrained damping layers. The total radiated sound power is assumed to be represented by the sound power radiated at the structural resonances. Resonance tracking is performed by means of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF)-approximations based on near-resonance responses and their frequency derivatives. Axisymmetric vibrations of circular plates under several boundary and forcing conditions are considered. Frequency dependent Young's modulus and loss factor of the damping material are taken into account. Vibration analysis is based on the finite element method (FEM) while acoustic radiation is treated by means of Rayleigh's integral formula. It is shown that, starting from a uniform damping layer distribution, substantial reduction in radiated sound power can be achieved through redistribution of the damping layers. Depending on the given situation, these reductions are not only due to amplitude reductions but also to changes in vibration shapes and frequencies.

  9. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F., E-mail: mohamad.imani@gmail.com [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  10. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency

  11. Reliability improvement in GaN HEMT power device using a field plate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Chin, Ping-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-Chieh; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Liu, Shih-Chien; Maa, Jer-shen; Iwai, Hiroshi; Chang, Edward Yi; Hsu, Heng-Tung

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of implementing a field plate on a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) to improve power device reliability. The results indicate that the field plate structure reduces the peak electrical field and interface traps in the device, resulting in higher breakdown voltage, lower leakage current, smaller current collapse, and better threshold voltage control. Furthermore, after high voltage stress, steady dynamic on-resistance and gate capacitance degradation improvement were observed for the device with the field plate. This demonstrates that GaN device reliability can be improved by using the field plate approach.

  12. Explosive magnetic flux compression plate generators as fast high-energy power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.; Fowler, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    A type of explosive driven generator, called a plate generator, is described. It is capable of delivering electrical energies in the MJ range at TW power levels. Plane wave detonated explosive systems accelerate two large-area metal plates to high opposing velocities. An initial magnetic field is compressed and the flux transferred to an external load. The characteristics of the plate generator are described and compared with those of other types of generators. Methods of load matching are discussed. The results of several high-power experiments are also given

  13. Cause and countermeasure for heat up of HTTR core support plate at power rise tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Takada, Eiji; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kawasaki, Kozo; Saikusa, Akio; Kojima, Takao; Iyoku, Tatuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    HTTR has carried out many kinds of tests as power rise tests in which reactor power rises step by step after attained the first criticality. In the tests, temperature of a core support plate reached higher than expected at each power level, the temperature was expected to be higher than the maximum working temperature at 100% power level. Therefore, tests under the high temperature test operation mode, in which the core flow rate was different, were carried out to predict the temperature at 100% power precisely, and investigate the cause of the temperature rise. From the investigation, it was clear that the cause was gap flow in the core support structure. Furthermore, it was estimated that the temperature of the core support plate rose locally due to change in gap width between the core support plate and a seal plate due to change in core pressure drop. The maximum working temperature of the core support plate was revised. The integrity of core support plate under the revised maximum working temperature condition was confirmed by stress analyses. (author)

  14. Wave propagation and power flow in an acoustic metamaterial plate with lateral local resonance attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Sheng, Meiping; Ding, Xiaodong; Yan, Xiaowei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents analysis on wave propagation and power flow in an acoustic metamaterial plate with lateral local resonance. The metamaterial is designed to have lateral local resonance systems attached to a homogeneous plate. Relevant theoretical analysis, numerical modelling and application prospect are presented. Results show that the metamaterial has two complete band gaps for flexural wave absorption and vibration attenuation. Damping can smooth and lower the metamaterial’s frequency responses in high frequency ranges at the expense of the band gap effect, and as an important factor to calculate the power flow is thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the effective mass density becomes negative and unbounded at specific frequencies. Simultaneously, power flow within band gaps are dramatically blocked from the power flow contour and power flow maps. Results from finite element modelling and power flow analysis reveal the working mechanism of the flexural wave attenuation and power flow blocked within the band gaps, where part of the flexural vibration is absorbed by the vertical resonator and the rest is transformed through four-link-mechanisms to the lateral resonators that oscillate and generate inertial forces indirectly to counterbalance the shear forces induced by the vibrational plate. The power flow is stored in the vertical and lateral local resonance, as well as in the connected plate.

  15. Material and welding development of anchor plates to build nuclear power plant by blue arc process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    To build nuclear power plants, anchor plates are plenty used. These anchor plates serve as a system with the purpose to fix many heavy components or a simple stair. Considering the necessity of element fabrication fastly, with reasonable economy and quality, the arc study welding process (blue arc) was used. A special development of the material concept as well as a welding procedure and a subsuppliers qualification of the raw material was necessary. (Author) [pt

  16. Temperature conditions of foundation plates under nuclear power plant reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsaulov, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Method for calculation of temperature conditions for foundation plates under reactor compartments located in the main building, used in construction of the second stage of the Kostroma nuclear power plant, is considered. The obtained calculation data can be used for determining the most suitable period of concrete placement, composition, initial temperature, manufacturing technology and ways of delivery of concrete mixture

  17. Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate efficient wireless power transfer between two high Q resonators, especially in a complex electromagnetic environment. In the close proximity of metallic plates, the transfer efficiency stays roughly the same as the free space efficiency with proper designs. The experimental data fits well with a coupled theory model. Resonance frequency matching, alignment of the magnetic field, and impedance matching are shown to be the most important factors for efficient wireless power transfer.

  18. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-11-01

    Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate

  19. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The threedimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat......The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find...... heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system....

  20. Calculation of the local power peaking near WWER-440 control assemblies with Hf plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, Gy.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraszy, Cs.; Temesvari, E.

    2003-01-01

    The original coupler design of the WWER-440 assemblies had the following well known deficiency: The relatively large amount of water in the coupler between the absorber and fuel port of the control assembly can cause undesirably sharp power peaking in the fuel rods next to the coupler. The power peaking can be especially high after control rod withdrawal when the coupler reached low burnup level region of the adjacent assembly. The modernized coupler design overcomes the original problem by applying a thin Hf plate in the critical region. The very complicated structure of the coupler requires the verification of the core design methods by high precision 3D Monte Carlo calculations. The paper presents an MCNP reference calculation on the control rod coupler benchmark with Hf absorber plates. The benchmark solution with the KARATE-440 code system is also presented. The need for treating the Hf burnout in the reflector region is investigated (Authors)

  1. Structural design of nuclear power plant using stiffened steel plate concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungmin; Mun, Taeyoup; Kim, Keunkyeong; Sun, Wonsang

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is an alternative energy source that is conducive to mitigate the environmental strains. The countries having nuclear power plants are encouraging research and development sector to find ways to construct safer and more economically feasible nuclear power plants. Modularization using Steel Plate Concrete(SC) structure has been proposed as a solution to these efforts. A study of structural modules using SC structure has been performed for shortening of construction period and enhancement of structural safety of NPP structures in Korea. As a result of the research, the design code and design techniques based on limit state design method has been developed. The design code has been developed through various structural tests and theoretical studies, and it has been modified by application design of SC structure for NPP buildings. The code consists of unstiffened SC wall design, stiffened SC wall design, Half-SC slab design, stud design, connection design and so on. The stiffened steel plate concrete(SSC) wall is SC structure whose steel plates with ribs are composed on both sides of the concrete wall, and this structure was developed for improved constructability and safety of SC structure. This paper explains a design application of SC structure for a sample building specially devised to reflect all of major structural properties of main buildings of APR1400. In addition, Stiffening effect of SSC structure is evaluated and structural efficiency of SSC structure is verified in comparison with that of unstiffened SC structure. (author)

  2. Deep Classifiers-Based License Plate Detection, Localization and Recognition on GPU-Powered Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tahir Hussain Rizvi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The realization of a deep neural architecture on a mobile platform is challenging, but can open up a number of possibilities for visual analysis applications. A neural network can be realized on a mobile platform by exploiting the computational power of the embedded GPU and simplifying the flow of a neural architecture trained on the desktop workstation or a GPU server. This paper presents an embedded platform-based Italian license plate detection and recognition system using deep neural classifiers. In this work, trained parameters of a highly precise automatic license plate recognition (ALPR system are imported and used to replicate the same neural classifiers on a Nvidia Shield K1 tablet. A CUDA-based framework is used to realize these neural networks. The flow of the trained architecture is simplified to perform the license plate recognition in real-time. Results show that the tasks of plate and character detection and localization can be performed in real-time on a mobile platform by simplifying the flow of the trained architecture. However, the accuracy of the simplified architecture would be decreased accordingly.

  3. Dual shear plate power processor packaging design. [for Solar Electric Propulsion spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, A. O.; Fredrickson, C. D.; Ross, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The use of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for spacecraft primary propulsion imposes an extreme range of operational and environmental design requirements associated with the diversity of missions for which solar electric primary propulsion is advantageous. One SEP element which is particularly sensitive to these environmental extremes is the power processor unit (PPU) which powers and controls the electric ion thruster. An improved power processor thermal-mechanical packaging approach, referred to as dual shear plate packaging, has been designed to accommodate these different requirements with minimum change to the power processor design. Details of this packaging design are presented together with test results obtained from thermal-vacuum and structural-vibration tests conducted with prototype hardware.

  4. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The three-dimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved using the finite-volume method for a wide range of pressure drop laminar flows along the heat sink. The temperature and the mass flow rate distribution in the heat sink are discussed. The results, which are in good agreement with previous computational studies, show that using suggested heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system.

  5. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Qin, Hong [School of Computer Science and Technology, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2017-04-11

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  6. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Qin, Hong; Wu, Shengli

    2017-01-01

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  7. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  8. Numerical study of electron-leakage power loss in a tri-plate transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.J.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been conducted using NRL's DIODE2D computer code to model the steady-state behavior of electron flow in a radial diode and in its adjacent tri-plate transmission line (TTL). Particular attention was paid to the magnitude of the electron current flowing from the cathode to the anode surface in the TTL. A quantitative value for this effective power loss is given. The electron current is restricted mainly to the transition region in the TTL into which there is seepage of the B/sub z/ that is imposed in the diode gap. This finding highlights the importance of that region to diode designers

  9. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2018-04-06

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  10. Investigation of plate-type barrier ozonizers with AC and pulse power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnij, V.V.; Gubarev, S.P.; Pogoghev, D.P.; Sokolova, O.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the experimental results on the investigation of plate-type reactors operated on the base of barrier discharge have been presented. Different reactors with planar, strip, and trench electrodes were investigated. Such reactors operated under atmospheric pressure with ac and pulse power sources with voltage of up to 10 kV, frequency up to 12 kHz. Using atomized spectroscopy system the measurements of the main specifications of the reactors such as ozone yielding rate, the temperature in the reactor and the air flow rate were carried out

  11. The power flow angle of acoustic waves in thin piezoelectric plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Teplykh, Andrei A; Joshi, Shrinivas G; Kuznetsova, Anastasia S

    2008-09-01

    The curves of slowness and power flow angle (PFA) of quasi-antisymmetric (A(0)) and quasi-symmetric (S(0)) Lamb waves as well as quasi-shear-horizontal (SH(0)) acoustic waves in thin plates of lithium niobate and potassium niobate of X-,Y-, and Z-cuts for various propagation directions and the influence of electrical shorting of one plate surface on these curves and PFA have been theoretically investigated. It has been found that the group velocity of such waves does not coincide with the phase velocity for the most directions of propagation. It has been also shown that S(0) and SH(0) wave are characterized by record high values of PFA and its change due to electrical shorting of the plate surface in comparison with surface and bulk acoustic waves in the same material. The most interesting results have been verified by experiment. As a whole, the results obtained may be useful for development of various devices for signal processing, for example, electrically controlled acoustic switchers.

  12. Investigation of power battery thermal management by using mini-channel cold plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Yutao; Rao, Zhonghao; Liu, Xinjian; Zhao, Jiateng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Micro-channel cold plate was used for battery thermal management. • Maximum temperature of battery decreased with the increase of channel number. • Effect of flow direction on cooling performance is smaller with the increase of flow rate. • Cooling performance increased with the increase of inlet flow rate. • The increasing trend become smaller when the flow rate is high enough. - Abstract: In order to guarantee the safety and extend the cycle life of Li-ion power batteries within electric vehicles, a mini-channel cold plate-based battery thermal management system is designed to cool a rectangular Li-ion battery. A three-dimensional thermal model of the cooling system was established and the effects of number of channels, flow direction, inlet mass flow rate and ambient temperature on temperature rise and distribution of the battery during the discharge process were investigated. The results suggest that the maximum temperature of the battery decreases with increases in the number of channels and inlet mass flow rate. The effect of flow direction on cooling performance was smaller after mass flow rate increased. The cooling performance improved with the increase of inlet mass flow rate but the increasing trend became smaller, and the mass flow rate as 5 × 10 −4 kg s −1 was optimal. The simulation results will be useful for the design of mini-channel cold plate-based battery thermal management system

  13. Flat plate solar collector for water pre-heating using concentrated solar power (CSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Leonard Sunny; Shekh, Md. Al Amin; Sarker, Imran

    2017-12-01

    Numerous attempt and experimental conduction on different methods to harness energy from renewable sources are being conducted. This study is a contribution to the purpose of harnessing solar energy as a renewable source by using flat plate solar collector medium to preheat water. Basic theory of solar radiation and heat convection in water (working fluid) has been combined with heat conduction process by using copper tubes and aluminum absorber plate in a closed conduit, covered with a glazed through glass medium. By this experimental conduction, a temperature elevation of 35°C in 10 minutes duration which is of 61.58% efficiency range (maximum) has been achieved. The obtained data and experimental findings are validated with the theoretical formulation and an experimental demonstration model. A cost effective and simple form of heat energy extraction method for space heating/power generation has been thoroughly discussed with possible industrial implementation possibilities. Under-developed and developing countries can take this work as an illustration for renewable energy utilization for sustainable energy prospect. Also a full structure based data to derive concentrated solar energy in any geographical location of Bangladesh has been outlined in this study. These research findings can contribute to a large extent for setting up any solar based power plant in Bangladesh irrespective of its installation type.

  14. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Miraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  15. Modal analysis and nonlinear characterization of an airborne power ultrasonic transducer with rectangular plate radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R R; Acosta, V M; Lucas, M; Riera, E

    2018-01-01

    Some industrial processes like particle agglomeration or food dehydration among others can be enhanced by the use of power ultrasonic technologies. These technologies are based on an airborne power ultrasonic transducer (APUT) constituted by a pre-stressed Langevin-type transducer, a mechanical amplifier and an extensive plate radiator. In order to produce the desired effects in industrial processing, the transducer has to vibrate in an extensional mode driving an extensive radiator in the desired flexural mode with high amplitude displacements. Due to the generation of these high amplitude displacements in the radiator surfaces, non-linear effects like frequency shifts, hysteresis or modal interactions, among others, may be produced in the transducer behavior. When any nonlinear effect appears, when applying power, the stability and efficiency of this ultrasonic technology decreases, and the transducer may be damaged depending on the excitation power level and the nature of the nonlinearity. In this paper, an APUT with flat rectangular radiator is presented, as the active part of an innovative system with stepped reflectors. The nonlinear behavior of the APUT has been characterized numerically and experimentally in case of the modal analysis and experimentally in the case of dynamic analysis. According to the results obtained after the experiments, no modal interactions are expected, nor do other nonlinear effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fission gas behaviour modelling in plate fuel during a power transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portier, S.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the identification and modelization of the phenomena which are at the origin of the release of the fission gas formed in UO 2 plate fuels during the irradiation in a power transient. In the first experimental part, samples of plate fuels, irradiated at 36 GWj/tU, have been annealed to temperatures from 1100 C to 1500 C in a device that enabled the measurement of gas release in real time. At 1300 C, post-annealing observations demonstrated a link between the measured gas releases to a rapid formation of labyrinths at the grain surface. These labyrinths, which were formed by intergranular bubble interconnection, create release paths for the gas atoms which reach the grain surface. At this stage, the available experimental results (annealing and observations) were interpreted considering that it is the spreading of the gas atoms from the grains to the grain boundaries that is at the origin of the observed releases. This interpretation generates the hypothesis that a) at the end of the basic irradiation, the gas is at the atomic state and b) during the annealing, the spreading is reduced by the intragranular bubbles of the gas atoms. The last part of the work is dedicated to the modelization of the main phenomena at the origin of the gas release. The model developed, based on the model of the gas behaviour in MARGARET PWR, highlighted the great influence of the irradiation conditions on the gas distribution at the end of the irradiation and also its influence on the fission gas release during the power transient. (author) [fr

  17. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  18. Electroless nickel-plating for the PWSCC mitigation of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study has been performed as an effort to apply the electroless nickel-plating method for a proposed countermeasure to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants. In order to understand the corrosion behavior of nickel-plating at high temperature water, the electrochemical properties of electroless nickel-plated alloy 600 specimens exposed to simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water were experimentally characterized in high temperature and high pressure water condition. And, the resistance to the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) test was investigated to check the durability of plated layers in high-velocity water-flowing environment at high temperature. The plated surfaces were examined by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after exposures to the condition. From this study, it is found that the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-plated Alloy 600 is higher than that of electrolytic plating in 290 deg. C water

  19. A sweep plate emittance scanner for high-power CW ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiak, T.W.; Ng, Y.; Sredniawski, J.; Stasi, W.

    1996-01-01

    Sweep plate scanners are preferred for emittance measurement due to their versatility, simplicity, and precision. At the Advanced Technology and Development Center of Northrop Grumman, we have routinely used these devices for characterization of injector beams with less than 20 W/cm 2 average power density. To characterize higher power beams, like those required for production of tritium or for radioactive waste transmutation, the scanner pod and data collection algorithm must be redesigned due to the possibility of melting the scanner's protective front face or distorting the precision entrance knife edges. Among the methods we have used to mitigate these effects, one consists of drastically reducing the amount of time required for data collection. In this method, the emittance scanner pod traverses the beam in two passes, each requiring less than 0.5 second. In the first pass, the phase space limits of the beam are determined. In the second pass, data is collected primarily within the phase space region limits determined in the first pass. In this way, enough points are collected to assure that the precision of the measurement is high, even though the data collection time for each scan is less than 0.5 second. This paper will describe the layout of the scanner components, the data collection electronics and algorithm, and the data analysis. (author)

  20. Some aspects of thick, soft nickel plating for end shields of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thick (55 Thou) and soft (160 vickers) hardness number nickel plating over SS for RAPP end shields presented unusual problems as the thickness required was extremely large creating adhesion problems and the extremely stringent hardness conditions. A sulfamate bath with nickel anode was found suitable. The problems in thick, soft plating, the chemical and other procedures adopted to monitor the bath and the plated specimen and the other details are presented. (author). 11 refs

  1. Real weld geometry determining mechanical properties of high power laser welded medium plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sang; Mi, Gaoyang; Yan, Fei; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen

    2018-06-01

    Weld width is commonly used as one of main factors to assess joint performances in laser welding. However, it changes significantly through the thickness direction in conditions of medium or thick plates. In this study, high-power autogenous laser welding was conducted on 7 mm thickness 201 stainless steel to elucidate the factor of whole weld transverse shape critically affecting the mechanical properties with the aim of predicting the performance visually through the weld appearance. The results show that single variation of welding parameters could result in great changes of weld pool figures and subsequently weld transverse shapes. All the obtained welds are composed of austenite containing small amount of cellular dendritic δ-Ferrite. The 0.2% proof stresses of Nail- and Peanut-shaped joint reach 458 MPa and 454 MPa, 88.2% and 87.5% of the base material respectively, while that of Wedge-shaped joint only comes to 371 MPa, 71.5% of the base material. The deterioration effect is believed to be caused by the axial grain zone in the weld center. The fatigue strength of joint P is a bit lower than N, but much better than W. Significant deformation incompatibility through the whole thickness and microstructure resistance to crack initiation should be responsible for the poor performance of W-shaped joints.

  2. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current

  3. Analysis of the effect of transverse power distribution in an involute fuel plate with and without oxide film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Existing thermal hydraulics computer codes can account for variations in power and temperature in the axial and thickness directions but variations across the width of the plate cannot be accounted for. In the case of fuel plates in an annular core this can lead to significant errors which are accentuated by the presence of an oxide layer that builds up on the aluminum cladding with burnup. This paper uses a three dimensional SINDA model to account for the transverse variations in power. The effect of oxide thickness on these differences is studied in detail. Power distribution and fuel conductivity are also considered. The lower temperatures predicted with the SINDA model result in a greater margin to clad and fuel damage

  4. Electroless Cu Plating on Anodized Al Substrate for High Power LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Sa-Kyun; Lee, Youn-Seoung

    2015-03-01

    Area-selective copper deposition on screen printed Ag pattern/anodized Al/Al substrate was attempted using a neutral electroless plating processes for printed circuit boards (PCBs), according to a range of variation of pH 6.5-pH 8 at 70 °C. The utilized basic electroless solution consisted of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, sodium phosphinate monohydrate, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate, ammonium chloride, and nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate. The pH of the copper plating solutions was adjusted from pH 6.5 to pH 8 using NH4OH. Using electroless plating in pH 6.5 and pH 7 baths, surface damage to the anodized Al layer hardly occurred; the structure of the plated Cu-rich films was a typical fcc-Cu, but a small Ni component was co-deposited. In electroless plating at pH 8, the surface of the anodized Al layer was damaged and the Cu film was composed of a lot of Ni and P which were co-deposited with Cu. Finally, in a pH 7 bath, we can make a selectively electroless plated Cu film on a PCB without any lithography and without surface damage to the anodized Al layer.

  5. Super-low-frequency wireless power transfer with lightweight coils for passing through a stainless steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroki; Kyoden, Tomoaki; Furukawa, Hiroto

    2018-03-01

    To achieve wireless power transfer (WPT) through a stainless-steel plate, a super-low frequency (SLF) was used as a resonance frequency. In our previous study of SLF-WPT, heavy coils were prepared. In this study, we designed lightweight coils using a WPT simulator that we developed previously. As a result, the weight was reduced to 1.69 kg from 11.9 kg, the previous coil weight. At a resonance frequency of 400 Hz, the transmission efficiency and output power of advanced SLF-WPT reached 91% and 426 W, respectively, over a transmission distance of 30 mm. Furthermore, 80% efficiency and 317 W output were achieved when transmitting power through a 1 mm-thick stainless-steel plate. This performance is much better than that in previous reports. We show using both calculations and experimental results that a power-to-weight ratio of 252 W/kg is possible even when using a 400 Hz power supply frequency.

  6. Far-Field Power Transmissions in Orthotropic Plates: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal K. Mandal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural intensity (SI technique is an essential tool for locating and ranking vibration sources and sinks on structures. It can quantify vibration fields by plotting a vector map of energy transmission on the structures. In this paper, a different strategy, changing coordinate systems of plate equations, is used to develop an intensity equation from shear force components in both x and y directions. The formulation is carried out in the frequency domain considering flexural waves. Orthotropic plate theory, far-field conditions, Fourier transform, and finite difference approximation are considered. The same intensity definition is obtained using this different strategy. A dual-channel FFT analyser is essential for data acquisition to get an intensity vector in a particular direction for far-field conditions.

  7. Power of the uranium plate of Naiade; Puissance de la plaque d'uranium de Naiade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P; Millot, J P; Rastoin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1. Calculation. Knowing the incident current of thermal neutrons, the sources of fast neutrons inside the plate are deduced. The fast flux leaving the plate is then determined. Isotropically, 0.57 fast neutrons come out for each incident thermal neutron. 2. Experiments. The incident thermal flux is measured by means of manganese detectors on reaching the plate, and estimated from the flux leaving the graphite. The fast flux coming out is measured with dose-rate films. The absorption of the fast flux in the swimming-pool water is measured. 3. Results. The uranium plate is equivalent to a disc placed at its surface emitting isotropically 3.8 x 10{sup 7} fast neutrons per cm{sup 2}/s, when Zoe operates at 100 kW. This result is valid to about 10 per cent. (author) [French] 1.Calcul. Connaissant le courant de neutrons thermiques incident, on deduit les sources de rapides a l'interieur de la plaque. Puis on determine le flux de rapides sortants de la plaque. Il sort, de facon isotrope, 0,57 neutrons rapides par neutron thermique incident. 2. Experiences. Le flux thermique incident est mesure par des detecteurs au manganese a l'arrivee sur la plaque et estime a partir du flux a la sortie du graphite. Le flux rapide sortant est mesure avec des films de dose. On mesure l'absorption du flux rapide dans l'eau de la piscine. 3. Resultats. La plaque d'uranium est equivalente a un disque place a sa surface emettant isotropiquement, 3,8 x 10{sup 7} neutrons rapides par cm{sup 2}/s, lorsque ZOE marche a 100 kW. Ce resultat est valable a 10 pour cent pres. (auteur)

  8. Investigation of thermal behaviour, pressure drop, and pumping power in a Cu nanofluid-filled solar flat-plate collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshirgaran S. Reza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluations of the performance of solar flat-plate collectors are reported in the literature. A computer program developed by MATLAB has been applied for modelling the performance of a solar collector under steady state laminar conditions. Results demonstrate that Cu-water nanofluid would be capable of boosting the thermal efficiency of the collector by 2.4% at 4% volume concentration in the case of using Cunanofluid instead of just water as the working fluid. It is noteworthy that, dispersing the nanoparticles into the water results in a higher pressure drop and, therefore, a higher power consumption for pumping the nanofluid within the collector. It has been estimated for the collector understudy, that the increase in the pressure drop and pumping power to be around 30%.

  9. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  10. The annal of british RPV steel plates for first nuclear power station in Japan (1). Unforseen accidents araised before nuclear power plant open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    This article described the author's experiences of reactor vessel steel plates for the first nuclear power station, Tokai-mura reactor. The station is an advanced Calder Hall type. The electrical output is 166 MWe. The reactor vessel was spherical with internal diameter of 189 cm and wall thickness of 83 mm. Material was a fine-grain, aluminum-killed steel. Each part of pressure vessel, bottom cap, belt 1, 2, 3, 4 and top cap, were prefabricated with welding of plates, then lifted into the reactor building and assembled with welding. Steel plates were imported from UK, press formed to spherical segments in Japan and transferred to the site. Ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing of groove face (crack detection), sizing of groove and sulfur print tests were performed as an on-site acceptance testing. Inclusions and lamination openings were observed at groove faces due to gas flame cutting. White spot was observed at rupture face of tensile test specimen. At the liquid penetration testing after back gauging of extra seam, a crack-like indication with length of less than 3 mm was observed. Reexamination of groove face by magnetic particles testing showed indications of inclusion cloud or alumina cloud. These would be cracks caused by hydrogen embrittlement. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Flow Regime Transition in Inner Grooved Minichannel Cold Plates for Cooling Hybrid Electric Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Power converters are typically classified by their input and output and, since AC and DC power are...and are discussed extensively in the previous surveys. Furthermore, a closer look at specific topics, including microporous coatings (39), reentrant

  12. Fundamental study on target plate model with high thermal conductive ceramics for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro

    2004-01-01

    Target plate model (35 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of divertor device for fusion reactor was fabricated using low activated and light material, Si/xSiC Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and high strength and thermal conductive SiC. This model has bonding structure of armor tile (25 mm x 25 mm x 10 mmt) of Hot Pressed (HP) and Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP) Si/SiC (10 wt%)-MMC and substrate (25 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of SiC/BeO (1 wt%) with water cooling channel (φ15 mm). Armor tile material, Si/10SiC-MMC shows high thermal conductive and low resistivity with over 200 MPa peak bending strength at high temperature. This material behaves super plasticity over peak temperature corresponding to peak bending strength and low temperature brittleness of this material was improved to degrade DBTT to 673 K by optimization of Hot Press (HP) and Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) conditions. Substrate body material, SiC/1BeO behaves major characteristics of high bending strength over 500 MPa, high density of 3.2 g/cm 3 and high thermal conductivity of 270 W/m·K at room temperature. Target plate model with water cooling by 293 K and 2 MPa pressurized water at 1 m/s was exposed under 5 MW/m 2 x 30 s high heat flux H + ion beam and showed very good cooling performance and no damage was found after this test. (author)

  13. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  14. The effect of using sun tracking systems on the voltage-current characteristics and power generation of flat plate photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Salah

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using different types of sun tracking systems on the voltage-current characteristics and electrical power generation at the output of flat plate photovoltaics (FPPV). Four electromechanical sun tracking systems, two axes, one axis vertical, one axis east-west and one axis north-south, were designed and constructed for the purpose of investigating the effect of tracking on the electrical values, current, voltage and power, according to the different loads (variable resistance). The above mentioned variables were measured at the output of the FPPV and compared with those on a fixed surface. The results indicated that the volt-ampere characteristics on the tracking surfaces were significantly greater than that on a fixed surface. There were increases of electrical power gain up to 43.87%, 37.53%, 34.43% and 15.69% for the two axes, east-west, vertical and north-south tracking, respectively, as compared with the fixed surface inclined 32 deg. to the south in Amman, Jordan

  15. Molten fuel-coolant interactions resulting from power transients in aluminium plate/water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.

    1989-08-01

    The behaviour of two reactors SL1 and SPERT D12, which underwent fast nuclear power transients prior to core destruction by a molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) has been analysed and the results compared with measured data. The calculated spatial melt distribution and the mechanical work done during the events leads to high (∼ 250 kJ/kg) conversion efficiencies for this type of interaction when compared with molten drop experiments. A simple model for the steam explosion, using static thermodynamic properties of high temperature and pressure steam is used to calculate the dynamics of the reactors following the MFCI. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Integrated modelling of material migration and target plate power handling at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, D.P.; Bonnin, X.; Chankin, A.

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of the tokamak edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) region is such that extrapolation to ITER requires modelling to be pursued through the integration of a number of edge codes, each of which must be thoroughly tested against results from present day machines. This contribution demonstrates how the edge modelling effort at JET is focused on such an approach by considering two examples, target power loading and material erosion and migration, the understanding of which are crucial issues for ITER. (author)

  17. Evaluation of plate type fuel options for small power reactors; Avaliacao de alternativas de combustivel tipo placa para reatores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrzejewski, Claudio de Sa

    2005-07-01

    Plate type fuels are generally used in research reactor. The utilization of this kind of configuration improves significantly the overall performance fuel. The conception of new fuels for small power reactors based in plate-type configuration needs a complete review of the safety criteria originally used to conduce power and research reactor projects. In this work, a group of safety criteria is established for the utilization of plate-type fuels in small power reactors taking into consideration the characteristics of power and research reactors. The performance characteristics of fuel elements are strongly supported by its materials properties and the adopted configuration for its fissile particles. The present work makes an orientated bibliographic investigation searching the best material properties (structural materials and fuel compounds) related to the performance fuel. Looking for good parafermionic characteristics and manufacturing exequibility associated to existing facilities in national research centres, this work proposes several alternatives of plate type fuels, considering its utilization in small power reactors: dispersions of UO{sub 2} in stainless steel, of UO{sub 2} in zircaloy, and of U-Mo alloy in zircaloy, and monolithic plates of U-Mo cladded with zircaloy. Given the strong dependency of radiation damage with temperature increase, the safety criteria related to heat transfer were verified for all the alternatives, namely the DNBR; coolant temperature lower than saturation temperature; peak meat temperature to avoid swelling; peak fuel temperature to avoid meat-matrix reaction. It was found that all alternatives meet the safety criteria including the 0.5 mm monolithic U-Mo plate cladded with zircaloy. (author)

  18. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  19. The reliability of linear position transducer, force plate and combined measurement of explosive power-time variables during a loaded jump squat in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between day reliability of power-time measures calculated with data collected using the linear position transducer or the force plate independently, or a combination of the two technologies. Twenty-five male rugby union players performed three jump squats on two occasions one week apart. Ground reaction forces were measured via a force plate and position data were collected using a linear position transducer. From these data, a number of power-time variables were calculated for each method. The force plate, linear position transducer and a combined method were all found to be a reliable means of measuring peak power (ICC = 0.87-0.95, CV = 3.4%-8.0%). The absolute consistency of power-time measures varied between methods (CV = 8.0%-53.4%). Relative consistency of power-time measures was generally comparable between methods and measures, and for many variables was at an acceptable level (ICC = 0.77-0.94). Although a number of time-dependent power variables can be reliably calculated from data acquired from the three methods investigated, the reliability of a number of these measures is below that which is acceptable for use in research and for practical applications.

  20. Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Calculated Fission Power for the Full-Size Fuel Plate Experiment Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G. S.; Lillo, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program assigned to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the responsibility of developing and demonstrating high uranium density research reactor fuel forms to enable the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) in research and test reactors around the world. A series of full-size fuel plate experiments have been proposed for irradiation testing in the center flux trap (CFT) position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These full-size fuel plate tests are designated as the AFIP tests. The AFIP nominal fuel zone is rectangular in shape having a designed length of 21.5-in (54.61-cm), width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), and uniform thickness of 0.014-in (0.03556-cm). This gives a nominal fuel zone volume of 0.482 in3 (7.89 cm3) per fuel plate. The AFIP test assembly has two test positions. Each test position is designed to hold 2 full-size plates, for a total of 4 full-size plates per test assembly. The AFIP test plates will be irradiated at a peak surface heat flux of about 350 W/cm2 and discharged at a peak U-235 burn-up of about 70 at.%. Based on limited irradiation testing of the monolithic (U-10Mo) fuel form, it is desirable to keep the peak fuel temperature below 250°C to achieve this, it will be necessary to keep plate heat fluxes below 500 W/cm2. Due to the heavy U-235 loading and a plate width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), the neutron self-shielding will increase the local-to-average-ratio (L2AR) fission power near the sides of the fuel plates. To demonstrate that the AFIP experiment will meet the ATR safety requirements, a very detailed 2-dimensional (2D) Y-Z fission power profile was evaluated in order to best predict the fuel plate temperature distribution. The ability to accurately predict fuel plate power and burnup are essential to both the design of the AFIP tests as well as evaluation of the irradiated fuel performance. To support this need, a detailed MCNP Y

  1. Performance Characterisation of a Hybrid Flat-Plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Power Module in Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Y. A. Oyieke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A flat-plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic and Thermal (VIPV/T system has been thermodynamically simulated and experimentally evaluated to assess the thermal and electrical performance as well as energy conversion efficiencies under a subtropical climate. A simulation model made of specified components is developed in Transient Systems (TRNSYS environment into which numerical energy balance equations are implemented. The influence of vacuum insulation on the system’s electrical and thermal yields has been evaluated using temperatures, current, voltage, and power flows over daily and annual cycles under local meteorological conditions. The results from an experiment conducted under steady-state conditions in Durban, South Africa, are compared with the simulation based on the actual daily weather data. The VIPV/T has shown improved overall and thermal efficiencies of 9.5% and 16.8%, respectively, while electrical efficiency marginally reduced by 0.02% compared to the conventional PV/T. The simulated annual overall efficiency of 29% (i.e., 18% thermal and 11% electrical has been realised, in addition to the solar fraction, overall exergy, and primary energy saving efficiencies of 39%, 29%, and 27%, respectively.

  2. Frictional power dissipation on plate boundary faults: Implications for coseismic slip propagation at near-surface depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikari, M.; Kopf, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Marone, C.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    The general lack of earthquake slip at shallow (behavior associated with laboratory observations that disaggregated fault gouges commonly strengthen with increasing sliding velocity (i.e. velocity-strengthening friction), which precludes strain energy release via stress drops. However, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake demonstrated that coseismic rupture and slip can sometimes propagate to the surface in subduction zones. Surface rupture is also known to occur on other plate boundary faults, such as the Alpine Fault in New Zealand. It is uncertain how the extent of coseismic slip propagation from depth is controlled by the frictional properties of the near-surface portion of major faults. In these situations, it is common for slip to localize within gouge having a significant component of clay minerals, which laboratory experiments have shown are generally weak and velocity strengthening. However, low overall fault strength should facilitate coseismic slip, while velocity-strengthening behavior would resist it. In order to investigate how frictional properties may control the extent of coseismic slip propagation at shallow depths, we compare frictional strength and velocity-dependence measurements using samples from three subduction zones known for hosting large magnitude earthquakes. We focus on samples recovered during scientific drilling projects from the Nankai Trough, Japan, the Japan Trench in the region of the Tohoku earthquake, and the Middle America Trench, offshore Costa Rica; however we also include comparisons with other major fault zones sampled by drilling. In order to incorporate the combined effects of overall frictional strength and friction velocity-dependence, we estimate shear strength as a function of slip velocity (at constant effective normal stress), and integrate this function to obtain the areal power density, or frictional power dissipation capability of the fault zone. We also explore the role of absolute shear stress level before arrival of a

  3. The use of BAS-TR imaging plates calibration in determining the resolving power of Fuji BAS-1800II image plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaimi, R.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of this work lies in assuring the reliability of the results obtained from both imaging plates type BAS-TR and Fuji Image Reader BAS-1800II as they are widely used in calculating essential x-ray sources parameters such as the source size, x-ray flux and brilliance, hence, the calibration presented in this work. For such quantitative analysis, a common practice used by many researchers, where Gold resolution meshes are utilised for such purpose, however not quite successful due to the transmission effect of high energy photons at their edges as well as the pixeling effect while magnifying the scanned image to secure the edge spread function (ESF) data. In contrast, the use of resolution test target (RTT) and wire mesh grid together with a set of test samples i.e. Stanley blades, Ta, Ti and Si wafer of 100, 300, 15, and 490 micron thickness respectively appeared to be efficient in determining IP pixel size and the resolution of the reader. Two different experiments were conducted using two different targets and lasers of very different performance. The first, was a 15 μm VHS video tape composed of Mylar as carrier film with Fe2O3 and CrO2 powder. Nd:YAG laser of long pulse 800 ps, 50 Hz repetition rate and single shot were utilised. Whereas, the second experiment were conducted on a 9μm C wire and a short pulse 500fs Cerberus single shot laser was used. The results obtained from both experiments were pretty much similar. The imaging plate spatial resolution was measured to be: 3.4 ± 0.2 pixels and a pixel size of 41.26 ± 1.4 μm, whereas the smallest resolvable object visible to the reader (1:1 imaging with magnification factor) was of order 140.3 ± 0.3 microns. This appeared to be worse by a factor of three which indicates the importance of the reader's calibration on a regular basis, and at the same time one has to reconsider any related work and calculation based upon the previous nominal values.

  4. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radio nuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Heat Transfer Behavior of a Zigzag Plate Containing a Phase Change Material for Combustion Heat Recovery and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a numerical analysis of the melting process of phase change materials (PCMs within a latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES system employing zigzag plate. The numerical model used NaCl-MgCl2 mixture as PCMs and hot air as heat transfer fluid (HTF. An experimental system was built to validate the model, and the experimental data agrees reasonably well with the simulation results. The simulation results revealed the effects of the Reynolds and Stefan numbers and the surface topography of the zigzag plate on the charging process. Besides, the effect of the relationship between Reynolds and Stefan numbers on the charging process under a new boundary condition employing a fixed input power was studied. It is found that by modifying the shape of the zigzag plate surface it is feasible to enhance the heat transfer of the LHTES unit remarkably. The melting rate of PCMs increases with the value of Ste or Re numbers with only one of them changing; however, the melting rate of PCMs decreases with the increasing Ste (or decreasing Re in a fixed input power condition.

  6. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenaers, A., E-mail: aleenaer@sckcen.be [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V. [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK• CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% {sup 235}U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL–matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium–Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)–matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  7. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V.; Detavernier, C.

    2015-03-01

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK•CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% 235U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL-matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium-Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)-matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  8. Dual Solutions in a Boundary Layer Flow of a Power Law Fluid over a Moving Permeable Flat Plate with Thermal Radiation, Viscous Dissipation and Heat Generation/Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined effects of the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, suction/injection and internal heat generation/absorption on the boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid over a semi infinite permeable flat plate moving in parallel or reversely to a free stream. The resulting system of partial differential equations (PDEs is first transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs which are then solved numerically by using the shooting technique. It is found that the dual solutions exist when the flat plate and the free stream move in the opposite directions. Dimensionless boundary layer velocity and temperature distributions are plotted and discussed for various values of the emerging physical parameters. Finally, the tables of the relevant boundary derivatives are presented for some values of the governing physical parameters.

  9. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  10. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  11. The investigation of trapped thickness shear modes in a contoured AT-cut quartz plate using the power series expansion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic model about the anti-plane vibration of a contoured quartz plate with thickness changing continuously is established by ignoring the effect of small elastic constant c 56. The governing equation is solved using the power series expansion technique, and the trapped thickness shear modes caused by bulge thickness are revealed. Theoretically, the proposed method is more general, which can be capable of handling various thickness profiles defined mathematically. After the convergence of the series is demonstrated and the correctness is numerically validated with the aid of finite element method results, systematic parametric studies are subsequently carried out to quantify the effects of the geometry parameter upon the trapped modes, including resonant frequency and mode shape. After that, the band structures of thickness shear waves propagation in a periodically contoured quartz plate, as well as the power transmission spectra, are obtained based on the power series expansion technique. It is revealed that broad stop bands below cut-off frequency exist owing to the trapped modes excited by the geometry inhomogeneity, which has little relationship with the structural periodicity, and its physical mechanism is different from the Bragg scattering effect. The outcome is widely applicable, and can be utilized to provide theoretical and practical guidance for the design and manufacturing of quartz resonators and wave filters.

  12. Thin-plate-type embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction for the thickness monitoring of the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Seung Hyun [Center for Safety Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Pipe wall thinning in the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant is currently a major problem that typically affects the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant directly. Regular in-service inspections are carried out to manage the piping system only during the overhaul. Online thickness monitoring is necessary to avoid abrupt breakage due to wall thinning. To this end, a transducer that can withstand a high-temperature environment and should be installed under the insulation layer. We propose a thin plate type of embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction. The transducer was designed and fabricated to measure the thickness of a pipe under a high-temperature condition. A number of experimental results confirmed the validity of the present transducer.

  13. Application of Bidirectional Pulse Power Supply in Silver Plating%双向脉冲电源在镀银中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏智

    2012-01-01

    Owing to complicated shape of tooth gear surface, the power lines are unevenly distributed everywhere in DC silver plating, causing uneven coating thickness, which will affect gear engagement. A bidirectional pulse power supply was used to silver plating and the optimum technological parameters were selected based on the comparisons in coating appearance, thickness uniformity, etc. The results show that the coating has been much improved in appearance and thickness uniformity, and the bonding strength, purity as well as hydrogen brittleness of the coating are all up to the requirements of AMS 2412.%齿轮齿型面形状复杂,直流电镀银时各处电力线分布不均,造成镀层厚度不均匀,影响齿轮啮合.采用双向脉冲电源镀银,从镀层外观、厚度均匀性等方面进行比较,优选出最佳工艺参数.结果表明:镀层在外观和厚度均匀性上有较大的改善,镀层结合力、纯度及氢脆性均符合AMS 2412的要求.

  14. Thermal Analysis of AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistor and Its RF Power Efficiency Optimization with Source-Bridged Field-Plate Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyeon-Tak; Chang, Seung-Bo; Jung, Hyun-Gu; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2018-09-01

    In this study, we consider the relationship between the temperature in a two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) channel layer and the RF characteristics of an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor by changing the geometrical structure of the field-plate. The final goal is to achieve a high power efficiency by decreasing the channel layer temperature. First, simulations were performed to compare and contrast the experimental data of a conventional T-gate head structure. Then, a source-bridged field-plate (SBFP) structure was used to obtain the lower junction temperature in the 2-DEG channel layer. The peak electric field intensity was reduced, and a decrease in channel temperature resulted in an increase in electron mobility. Furthermore, the gate-to-source capacitance was increased by the SBFP structure. However, under the large current flow condition, the SBFP structure had a lower maximum temperature than the basic T-gate head structure, which improved the device electron mobility. Eventually, an optimum position of the SBFP was used, which led to higher frequency responses and improved the breakdown voltages. Hence, the optimized SBFP structure can be a promising candidate for high-power RF devices.

  15. Structure-based capacitance modeling and power loss analysis for the latest high-performance slant field-plate trench MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenya; Sudo, Masaki; Omura, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Field-plate trench MOSFETs (FP-MOSFETs), with the features of ultralow on-resistance and very low gate–drain charge, are currently the mainstream of high-performance applications and their advancement is continuing as low-voltage silicon power devices. However, owing to their structure, their output capacitance (C oss), which leads to main power loss, remains to be a problem, especially in megahertz switching. In this study, we propose a structure-based capacitance model of FP-MOSFETs for calculating power loss easily under various conditions. Appropriate equations were modeled for C oss curves as three divided components. Output charge (Q oss) and stored energy (E oss) that were calculated using the model corresponded well to technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, and we validated the accuracy of the model quantitatively. In the power loss analysis of FP-MOSFETs, turn-off loss was sufficiently suppressed, however, mainly Q oss loss increased depending on switching frequency. This analysis reveals that Q oss may become a significant issue in next-generation high-efficiency FP-MOSFETs.

  16. NINO An ultra-fast and low-power front-end amplifier/discriminator ASIC designed for the multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, F; Martemyanov, A N; Usenko, E; Wenninger, Horst; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    2004-01-01

    For the full exploitation of the excellent timing properties of the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC), front-end electronics with special characteristics are needed. These are (a) differential input, to profit from the differential signal from the MRPC (b) a fast amplifier with less than 1 ns peaking time and (c) input charge measurement by Time-Over-Threshold for slewing correction. An 8- channel amplifier and discriminator chip has been developed to match these requirements. This is the NINO ASIC, fabricated with 0.25 omegam CMOS technology. The power requirement at 40mW/channel is low. Results on the performance of the MRPCs using the NINO ASIC are presented. Typical time resolution a of the MRPC system is in the 50 ps range, with an efficiency of 99.9%.

  17. Detailed measurements of local thickness changes for U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al-3.5Si matrix after irradiation at different powers in the RERTR-9B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Williams, Walter; Robinson, Adam; Wachs, Dan; Moore, Glenn; Crawford, Doug

    2017-10-01

    The Materials Management and Minimization program is developing fuel designs to replace highly enriched fuel with fuels of low enrichment. Swelling is an important irradiation behavior that needs to be well understood. Data from high resolution thickness measurements performed on U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al-Si alloy matrices that were irradiated at high power is sparse. This paper reports the results of detailed thickness measurements performed on two dispersion fuel plates that were irradiated at relatively high power to high fission densities in the Advanced Test Reactor in the same RERTR-9B experiment. Both plates were irradiated to similar fission densities, but one was irradiated at a higher power than the other. The goal of this work is to identify any differences in the swelling behavior when fuel plates are irradiated at different powers to the same fission densities. Based on the results of detailed thickness measurments, more swelling occurs when a U-7Mo dispersion fuel with Al-3.5Si matrix is irradiated to a high fission density at high power compared to one irradiated at a lower power to high fission density.

  18. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-09-09

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current sources are represented in terms of the eigenmodes of the antipads. Since closed-forms solutions do not exist for the eigenmodes of the arbitrarily shaped antipads, they have to be calculated using numerical schemes. Spatial orthogonality of the eigenmodes permits determination of each mode\\'s temporal expansion coefficient by integrating the product of the electric field and the mode over the wave port. The temporal mode coefficients are then Fourier transformed to accurately calculate the S-parameters corresponding to different modes. Additionally, to generalize the DGTD to manipulate dispersive media, the auxiliary differential equation method is employed. This is done by introducing a time-dependent polarization volume current as an auxiliary unknown and the constitutive relation between this current and the electric field as an auxiliary equation. Consequently, computationally expensive temporal convolution is avoided. Various numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method, are presented.

  19. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  20. Numerical study on thermoelectric–hydraulic performance of a thermoelectric power generator with a plate-fin heat exchanger with longitudinal vortex generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ting; Lu, Xing; Pandit, Jaideep; Ekkad, Srinath V.; Huxtable, Scott T.; Deshpande, Samruddhi; Wang, Qiu-wang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • LVGs are proposed to enhance thermal–electrical conversion performance of TEGs. • Open circuit voltage of TEGs with LVGs is increased by 41–75% in baseline cases. • Reynolds number and hot-side inlet temperature have significant effects on TEGs. • Cold-side temperature has a smaller effect on TEGs. - Abstract: In this paper, the effect of longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) on the performance of a thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with a plate-fin heat exchanger is investigated. A fluid-thermal-electric multi-physics coupled model for the TEG is established on the COMSOL® platform, in which the Seebeck, Peltier, Thomson, and Joule heating effects are taken into account. The equivalent thermal–electrical properties of the thermoelectric (TE) module are used in the numerical simulation. The results indicate that the LVGs produce complex three-dimensional vortices in the cross section downstream from the LVGs, thus enhancing the heat transfer and electric performance compared to a TEG without LVGs. Under baseline operating conditions, the heat input and open circuit voltage of the TEG with LVGs are increased by 41–75% compared to a TEG with smooth channel. The simulations also show that the Reynolds number and hot-side inlet temperature have significant effects on the net power and thermal efficiency of the TEG, but the cold-side temperature has a smaller effect. Additionally, the performance of the TEG under a constant heat transfer coefficient boundary condition is almost the same as the performance under a constant temperature boundary condition. Overall, this work demonstrates that LVGs have great potential to enhance the performance of TEGs for waste heat recovery from vehicle exhaust.

  1. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  3. Development of ultrasonic testing technique with the large transducer to inspect the containment vessel plates of nuclear power plant embedded in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Kurozumi, Yasuo; Kaneshima, Yoshiari

    2004-01-01

    The containment vessel plates embedded in concrete on Pressurized Water Reactors are inaccessible to inspect directly. Therefore, it is advisable to prepare inspection technology to detect existence and a location of corrosion on the embedded plates indirectly. In order to establish ultrasonic testing technique to be able to inspect the containment vessel plates embedded in concrete widely at the accessible point, experiments to detect artificial hollows simulating corrosion on a surface of a carbon steel plate mock-up covered with concrete simulating the embedded containment vessel plates were carried out with newly made ultrasonic transducers. We made newly low frequency (0.3 MHz and 0.5 MHz) surface shear horizontal (SH) wave transducers combined with three large active elements, which were equivalent to a 120mm width element. As a result of the experiments, the surface SH transducers could detect clearly the echo from the hollows with a depth of 9.5 mm and 19 mm at a distance of 1500mm from the transducers on the surface of the mock-up covered with concrete. Therefore, we evaluate that it is possible to detect the defects such as corrosion on the plates embedded in concrete with the newly made low frequency surface SH transducers with large elements. (author)

  4. Applications of high-Tc-superconductors to power engineering. Manufacture of YBCO plate-type conductors and construction of a HTS current limiter model up to 1 MVA nominal power. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.; Schmidt, W.; Schilling, W.; Fischperer, I.; Kraemer, H.P.; Wacker, B.; Gromoll, B.; Neumueller, H.W.; Arndt, A.; Karras, B.; Krueger, U.; Pyritz, U.; Schiewe, H.; Schiller, H.P.; Volkmar, R.R.; Hering, U.; Roessler, R.; Freyhardt, H.C.; Sievers, S.; Hoffmann, J.; Dzich, J.; Kinder, H.; Hoffmann, C.; Lindmayer, M.; Grundmann, J.; Woerdenweber, R.; Hollmann, E.; Kutzner, R.; Klein, W.; Bunte, S.; Kuhn, M.

    2002-06-01

    In terms of materials, the main focus of the work was on the manufacture of large-area YBCO plate-type conductors with homogeneous properties and maximum current densities of j c >1 MA/cm 2 . j c values of better than 3 MA/cm 2 were achieved reproducibly on sapphire substrates of 100 mm diameter and 10 x 20 cm 2 in size with a homogeneity of 10%; on polycrystalline substrates of 10 x 20 cm 2 in size, homogeneous j c values of up to 2 MA/cm 2 were also successfully demonstrated. Of the total of four methods of coating available at the start of the project, thermal co-evaporation (TCE) proved best for YBCO thin films and the IBAD method best for quasi single-crystal buffer films. The latter are necessary to achieve high j c on polycrystalline substrates such as ZrO 2 (Y), glass and Al 2 O 3 . Polycrystalline substrates are essential in order to make the HTS current limiter as a future product commercially feasible. The favoured solutions ZrO 2 (Y) and glass have not come up to expectations, because present investigations into quench propagation are showing that, with this approach, the high values of power density required for the switching process (1600 VA/cm 2 ) cannot be achieved. Towards the end of the project, polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 began to be seen as a successful alternative; the work is being pursued further within the context of a follow-on project. The coating processes were stabilized successfully and, when combined with strict quality control, allowed the yield of tested, ready-to-use plate-type conductors to be improved to 85%. This success was an essential prerequisite for the building of a 3-phase, 1.2 MVA model (7.2 kV) comprising a total of sixty-three 100 mm plate-type conductors. At the Berlin factory the model has been successfully tested up to a prospective short-circuit current of 5 kV. This has demonstrated the basic suitability of HTS thin-film technology for use in current limiters. So far the model has been switched a total of 43 times

  5. A modelling study of the inter-diffusion layer formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates at high power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Leenaers, A.; Bergeron, A.; Kuzminov, V.; Van den Berghe, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Wallin, H.

    2018-02-01

    Post irradiation examinations of full-size U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates fabricated with ZrN- or Sicoated U-Mo particles revealed that the reaction rate of irradiation-induced U-Mo-Al inter-diffusion, an important microstructural change impacting the performance of this type of fuel, is temperature and fission-rate dependent. In order to simulate the U-Mo/Al inter-diffusion layer (IL) growth behavior in full-size dispersion fuel plates, the existing IL growth correlation was modified with a temperaturedependent multiplication factor that transits around a threshold fission rate. In-pile irradiation data from four tests in the BR2 reactors, including FUTURE, E-FUTURE, SELEMIUM, and SELEMIUM-1a, were utilized to determine and validate the updated IL growth correlation. Irradiation behavior of the plates was simulated with the DART-2D computational code. The general agreement between the calculated and measured fuel meat swelling and constituent volume fractions as a function of fission density demonstrated the plausibility of the updated IL growth correlation. The simulation results also suggested the temperature dependence of the IL growth rate, similar to the temperature dependence of the intermixing rate in ion-irradiated bi-layer systems.

  6. Development of ultrasonic testing technique with a large transducer to inspect the containment vessel plates embedded in concrete for corrosion on nuclear power plant (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The containment vessel plates embedded in concrete on Pressurized Water Reactors are inaccessible to inspect directly. Therefore, it is advisable to prepare inspection technology to detect existence and a location of corrosion on the embedded plates indirectly. The purpose of this study is establishment of ultrasonic testing technique to be able to inspect the containment vessel plates embedded in concrete widely from the accessible point. Experiments to detect artificial hollows simulating corrosion and stud bolts which hold the mold of concrete on a surface of a carbon steel plate mock-up covered with concrete were carried out with newly made low frequency (0.3MHz and 0.5MHz) 90 degrees refraction angle shear horizontal (SH) wave transducers combined with three active elements, which were equivalent to a 120 mm width element. As the results: (1) The echoes from the artificial hollows with a depth of 19 mm and 9.5mm at a distance of 1.5 m and the stud bolts with a diameter of 8mm at a distance of 0.7 - 1.7m could be discriminated clearly. (2) The multiple echoes bouncing three times between the front side and the back side of the plate, which was equivalent to a distance of about 12m, could be discriminated. (3) A divergence angle and a -6dB divergence angle of the large element (combined three elements) transducer were about 7 degrees and about 3 degrees. (4) The echoes from the hollows with a depth of 9.5m could be detected at a distance of 3.6 m with a reflection at the side wall of the mock-up. (5) It was estimated that the maximum distance of detection of the echo from the stud bolt with a diameter of 8mm was about 2.9 ∼ 3.6 m. Therefore we evaluate that the large element transducer can propagate the SH wave to about a half of a distance to the bottom of the embedded containment vessel and it is possible to detect the defects such as corrosion to a distance of 3.6 m. (author)

  7. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  8. A modelling study of the inter-diffusion layer formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates at high power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Leenaers, A.; Bergeron, A.; Kuzminov, V.; Van den Berghe, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Wallin, H.

    2018-02-01

    Post irradiation examinations of full-size U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates fabricated with ZrN- or Si- coated U-Mo particles revealed that the reaction rate of irradiation-induced U-Mo-Al inter-diffusion, an important microstructural change impacting the performance of this type of fuel, transited at a threshold temperature/fission rate. The existing inter-diffusion layer (IL) growth correlation, which does not describe the transition behavior of IL growth, was modified by applying a temperature-dependent multiplication factor that transits around a threshold fission rate. In-pile irradiation data from four tests in the BR2 reactors, including FUTURE, E-FUTURE, SELEMIUM, and SELEMIUM-1a, were utilized to determine and validate the updated IL growth correlation. Irradiation behavior of the plates was simulated with the DART-2D computational code. The general agreement between the calculated and measured fuel meat swelling and constituent volume fractions as a function of fission density demonstrated the plausibility of the updated IL growth correlation. The simulation results also suggested the temperature dependence of the IL growth rate, similar to the temperature dependence of the inter-mixing rate in ion-irradiated bi-layer systems.

  9. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  15. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  16. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  17. Numerical Study of the Magnetic Field Effects on the Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation Aspects of a Power Law Fluid over an Axisymmetric Stretching Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hooshmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of the effects of magnetic field strength, thermal radiation, Joule heating, and viscous heating on a forced convective flow of a non-Newtonian, incompressible power law fluid in an axisymmetric stretching sheet with variable temperature wall is accomplished. The power law shear thinning viscosity-shear rate model for the anisotropic solutions and the Rosseland approximation for the thermal radiation through a highly absorbing medium are considered. The temperature dependent heat sources, Joule heating, and viscous heating are considered as the source terms in the energy balance. The non-dimensional boundary layer equations are solved numerically in terms of similarity variable. A parameter study on the Nusselt number, viscous components of entropy generation, and thermal components of entropy generation in fluid is performed as a function of thermal radiation parameter (0 to 2, Brinkman number (0 to 10, Prandtl number (0 to 10, Hartmann number (0 to 1, power law index (0 to 1, and heat source coefficient (0 to 0.1.

  18. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  19. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.

    1978-11-01

    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be

  20. An experimental analysis of flow boiling and pressure drop in a brazed plate heat exchanger for organic Rankine cycle power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desideri, Adriano; Zhang, Ji; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems for low quality waste heat recovery applications can play a major role in achieving targets of increasing industrial processes efficiency and thus reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Low capacity organic Rankine cycle systems are equipped with brazed...... and pressure drop during vaporization at typical temperatures for low quality waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycle systems are presented for the working fluids HFC-245fa and HFO-1233zd. The experiments were carried out at saturation temperatures of 100°C, 115°C and 130°C and inlet and outlet qualities...

  1. Create Your Plate

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  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  3. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  4. Rakvere teater paneb oksjonile 12 tooli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rakvere Teatris esietendub 19. apr. Ilja Ilfi ja Jevgeni Petrovi "12 tooli", dramatiseerija ja lavastaja Jaanika Johanson. Viimaks teatrikülastajad etenduse lainele läheb Teatrikohvikus 16. aprilli õhtul oksjonile 12 tooli

  5. Oistrahhi-festival paneb linna helisema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    David Oistrahhi festivali avakontserdist Pärnu linnaorkestri ja Andres Mustoneniga 27. juunil Eliisabeti kirikus (soleerib vene tšellist Natalia Gutman), hispaania laulja ja harfimängija Arianna Savalli kontserdist "Bella Terra"

  6. Koolera paneb Haiti valmiduse proovile / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Haitis puhkenud koolerapuhang on nõudnud juba 253 inimelu, nakatunute arv ületab 3100 piiri, bakter võib sealsete ebahügieeniliste olude tõttu kaasa tuua teise humanitaarkatastroofi pärast 12. jaanuari maavärinat. Kaart

  7. Valitsus paneb piiri ministrite unistustele / Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Lemmi

    2008-01-01

    11. augustil toimub erakorraline valitsuskabineti nõupidamine, kus on arutluse all 2009. aasta eelarve ning ministeeriumide rahataotlused. Maksu- ja tolliameti andmetel on seitsme kuu jooksul riigieelarvesse laekunud 40,7 miljardit krooni, mis on 55,4% planeeritud maksutuludest. Vt. samas: Maksud laekuvad oodatud tempos; Ligi: osa soodustusi tuleb kaotada

  8. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  9. Create Your Plate

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  11. Create Your Plate

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  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  13. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  14. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  15. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  16. Microchannel plate assembly parameters with micron gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenkova, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Performance of chevron microchannel plate assembly with 5 and 15 μm gaps between them has been investigated. The assembly is placed into a vacuum chamber under pressure -6 Torr and irradiated by neutral He and Ar atom beams with 1.5 and 3 keV energies as well as by ultraviolet photons with 147 nm wave length. Dependence of the gain and amplitude resolution on power voltage in plates are measured. The results obtained have shown that microchannel plates permit to obtain the gain up to 3x10 7 and amplitude resolution up to 30% when detecting both atomic particles and ultraviolet photons. The assembly can be effectively used in those cases when it is necessary to use microchannel plates with curved channels

  17. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  18. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  19. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  20. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  1. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  2. Create Your Plate

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  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  17. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  18. Create Your Plate

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  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  1. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  2. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  4. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  5. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  6. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  7. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  8. [Comparison of novel infrared heating plates and conventional warm water plates for piglets' creep areas in farrowing pens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch-Sürken, L; Wendt, M

    2015-01-01

    On a conventionally managed piglet-producing farm, novel infrared (IR) heating plates for piglets in the farrowing pens were tested for their suitability and compared with common warm-water (WW) heating plates. In total, 134 litters (summer n = 82, winter n = 52) were investigated, which were housed on IR or WW heating plates, respectively, with or without an extra cover plate (groups 1-4). To determine the influence of the different heat sources, the wound healing after castration and tail docking, the umbilical regression and the weight gain of the piglets were investigated. Additionally, the lying behavior of the piglets and the position of the sows' udder at the time of farrowing were examined with regard to the heating plates. Furthermore, the energy consumption and costs were compared. The piglets housed on IR heating plates displayed better wound healing after castration and tail docking than the piglets housed on WW plates. The best results were obtained in piglets kept on IR heating plates with an extra cover plate. In addition, significant benefits were demonstrated for the usage of IR heating plates regarding umbilical regression. The piglets kept on IR heating plates had a slightly better weight gain in summer, whereas there were no differences between groups during winter. The lying behavior in the creep areas was similar in all groups. In general, with increasing age the percentage of time piglets spent in the lying position on the plates decreased. The percentage of time lying on the plates was higher in winter than in summer. At farrowing, 74.6% of all investigated sows directed their udder towards the heating plates. With the IR heating plates, this behavior occurred significantly more often. The energy consumption (kWh) per litter was significantly lower for the IR heating plates (electric power) both in winter and summer in comparison with the WW plates (gas). The energy costs were comparable in summer, but were higher for the IR heating plates

  9. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  10. Interplay between geometry and temperature for inclined Casimir plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect. We investigate the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between an inclined semi-infinite plate above an infinite plate in D dimensions using the worldline formalism. Whereas the high-temperature behavior is always found to be linear in T in accordance with dimensional-reduction arguments, different power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. Unlike the case of infinite parallel plates, which shows the well-known T D behavior of the force, we find a T D-1 behavior for inclined plates, and a ∼T D-0.3 behavior for the edge effect in the limit where the plates become parallel. The strongest temperature dependence ∼T D-2 occurs for the Casimir torque of inclined plates. Numerical as well as analytical worldline results are presented.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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  16. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  17. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  18. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  19. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  20. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  1. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  2. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  3. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  5. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  6. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  7. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun

    2013-01-01

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on

  8. Ni-based amorphous alloy-coating for bipolar plate of PEM fuel cell by electrochemical plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, S; Kim, S C; Inoue, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the Ni-Cr-P amorphous alloy-coated bipolar plates were produced by electro-plating on the Cu base plates with a flow field. The power generation tests of a single fuel cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates were conducted at 353 K. It was found that the single fuel cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates showed excellent I-V performance as well as that with the carbon graphite bipolar plates. It was also found that the single cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates showed better I-V performance than that with the Ni-P amorphous alloy-coated bipolar plates. Furthermore, the long-time operation test was conducted for 440 h with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates at the constant current density of 200 mA·cm −2 . As a result, it was found that the cell voltage gradually decreased at the beginning of the measurement before 300 h and then the voltage was kept constant after 300 h.

  9. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  10. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  11. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  12. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  13. MTR fuel plate qualification in OSIRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacristan, P.; Boulcourt, P.; Naury, S.; Marchard, L.; Carcreff, H.; Noirot, J.

    2005-01-01

    Qualification of new MTR fuel needs the irradiation in research reactors under representative neutronic, heat flux and thermohydraulic conditions. The experiments are performed in France in the OSIRIS reactor by irradiating MTR full size fuel plates in the IRIS device located in the reactor core. The fuel plates are easily removed from the device during the shutdown of the reactor for performing thickness measurements along the plates by means of a swelling measurement device. Beside the calculation capabilities, the experimental platform includes: the ISIS neutron mock-up for the measurement of neutron flux distribution along the plates; the γ spectrometry for the purpose of measuring the activities of the radionuclides representative of the power and the burnup and to compare with the neutronic calculation. Owing to the experience feedback, a good agreement is observed between calculation and measurement; destructive post irradiation examinations in the LECA facility (Cadarache). New irradiations with the IRIS device and at higher heat flux are under preparation for qualification of MTR fuels. (author)

  14. ASTRONOMICAL PLATE ARCHIVES AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent extensive digitisation of astronomical photographic plate archives, the development of new dedicated software and the use of powerful computers have for the first time enabled effective data mining in extensive plate databases, with wide applications in various fields of recent astrophysics. As an example, analyses of supermassive binary black holes (binary blazars require very long time intervals (50 years and more, which cannot be provided by other data sources. Examples of data obtained from data mining in plate archives are presented and briefly discussed.

  15. Development of integrated cask body and base plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Wada, T.

    2015-01-01

    The average of occupancy of stored spent-fuel in the nuclear power plants have reached 70 percent and it is anticipated that the demand of metal casks for the storage and transportation of spent-fuel rise after resuming the operations. The main part of metal cask consists of main body, neutron shield and external cylinder. We have developed the manufacturing technology of Integrated Cask Body and Base Plate by integrating Cask Body and Base Plate as monolithic forging with the goal of cost reduction, manufacturing period shortening and further reliability improvement. Here, we report the manufacturing technology, code compliance and obtained properties of Integrated Cask body and Base Plate. (author)

  16. Base-plate effects on pipe-support stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Present nuclear power plant design methods require that pipe support spring rates be considered in the seismic design of piping systems. Base plate flexibility can have a significant effect on the spring rates of these support structures. This paper describes the field inspection, test, and analytical techniques used to identify and correct excessively flexible base plates on the Fast Flux Test Facility pipe support structures

  17. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  18. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  20. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  1. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Behavior of Equipment Support Beam Joint Directly Connected to A Steel-plate Concrete(SC) Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Kwon, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    To decrease the time for building nuclear power plants, a modular construction method, 'Steel-plate Concrete(SC)', has been investigated for over a decade. To construct a SC wall, a pair of steel plates are placed in parallel similar to a form-work in conventional reinforced concrete (RC) structures, and concrete is filled between the steel plates. Instead of removing the steel plates after the concrete has cured, the steel plates serve as components of the structural member. The exposed steel plate of SC structures serves as the base plate for the equipment support, and the headed studs welded to the steel plates are used as anchor bolts. Then, a support beam can be directly welded to the surface of the steel plate in any preferred position. In this study, we discuss the behavior and evaluation method of the equipment support joint directly connected to exposed steel plate of SC wall

  3. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  4. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  5. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  6. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  7. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  8. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  9. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported.

  10. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported

  11. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  12. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  13. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  14. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  15. Caramel, uranium oxide fuel plates for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussy, Pierre; Delafosse, Jacques; Lestiboudois, Guy; Cerles, J.-M.; Schwartz, J.-P.

    1979-01-01

    The fuel is composed of thin plates assembled parallel to each other to form bundles or assemblies. Each plate is composed of a pavement of uranium oxide pellets, insulated from each other by a zircaloy cladding. The 235 U enrichment does not exceed 8%. The range of uses for this fuel extends from electric power generating reactors to irradiation reactors for research work. A parametric study in test loops has made it possible to determine the operating limits of this thick fuel, without bursting. The resulting diagram gives the permissible power densities, with and without cycling for specific burn-ups beyond 50,000 MWd/t. The thinnest plates were also irradiated in total in the form of advance assemblies irradiated in the core of the OSIRIS pile prior to its transformation. This transformation and the operation of this reactor with a core of 'Caramel' elements is the main trial experiment of this fuel [fr

  16. Lamb wave scattering by a surface-breaking crack in a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S. K.; Al-Nassar, Y.; Shah, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    An NDE method based on finite-element representation and modal expansion has been developed for solving the scattering of Lamb waves in an elastic plate waveguide. This method is very powerful for handling discontinuities of arbitrary shape, weldments of different orientations, canted cracks, etc. The advantage of the method is that it can be used to study the scattering of Lamb waves in anisotropic elastic plates and in multilayered plates as well.

  17. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  18. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  19. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  20. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  1. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  2. Stacks with TiN/titanium as the bipolar plate for PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Dongming; Wang, Zaiyi

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a potential alternative for the internal combustion engine. But many problems, such as metallic bipolar plate instead of graphite bipolar plate to decrease the cost, should be solved before its application. Based on the previous results that single cell with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates shows high performance and enough long-time durability, the progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported in this manuscript. Till now seldom report is focused on stacks because of the complicated processing technique, especially for that with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate. The flow field in the plate is punched from titanium deformation, and two plates are welded by laser welding to form one piece of bipolar plate. The adopted processing techniques for stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate exhibit advantage and feasibility in industry. The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 , although it still has space to be improved. Next work should be focused on the design of flow channel parameters and flow field type based on plastic deformation of metal materials. -- Highlights: ► The progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported. ► The adopted processing techniques exhibit feasibility in industry. ► The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 .

  3. A new type of resistive plate chamber: The multigap RPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerron Zeballos, E.; Crotty, I.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Lamas Valverde, J.; Neupane, S.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    1996-01-01

    This Letter describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). The goal is to obtain a much improved time resolution, keeping the advantages of the wide gap RPC in comparison with the conventional narrow gap RPC (smaller dynamic range and thus lower charge per avalanche which gives higher rate capability and lower power dissipation in the gas gap). (orig.)

  4. A new type of resistive plate chamber the multigap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Lamas-Valverde, J; Neupane, S; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, Antonino

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). The goal is to obtain a much improved time resolution, keeping the advantages of the wide gap RPC in comparison with the conventional narrow gap RPC (smaller dynamic range and thus lower charge per avalanche which gives higher rate capability and lower power dissipation in the gas gap).

  5. Alumina plate containing photosystem I reaction center complex oriented inside plate-penetrating silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamidaki, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Noji, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Akira; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-08-22

    The photosynthetic photosystem I reaction center complex (PSI-RC), which has a molecular diameter of 21 nm with 100 pigments, was incorporated into silica nanopores with a 100-nm diameter that penetrates an alumina plate of 60-μm thickness to make up an inorganic-biological hybrid photocell. PSI-RCs, purified from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, were stable inside the nanopores and rapidly photoreduced a mediator dye methyl viologen. The reduced dye was more stable inside nanopores suggesting the decrease of dissolved oxygen. The analysis by a cryogenic electron spin paramagnetic resonance indicated the oriented arrangement of RCs inside the 100-nm nanopores, with their surface parallel to the silica wall and perpendicular to the plane of the alumina plate. PSI RC complex in the semicrystalline orientation inside silica nanopores can be a new type of light energy conversion unit to supply strong reducing power selectively to other molecules inside or outside nanopores.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of piezoelectric nanocomposite energy harvesting plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, M; He, X Q; Liew, K M

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear analysis of energy harvesting from piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates under combined thermal and mechanical loadings. The excitation, which derives from harmonically varying mechanical in-plane loading, results in parametric excitation. The governing equations of the piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates are derived based on classical plate theory and von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The material properties of the nanocomposite plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are assumed to be aligned, straight and have a uniform layout. The linear buckling and vibration behavior of the nanocomposite plates is obtained in the first step. Then, Galerkin’s method is employed to derive the nonlinear governing equations of the problem with cubic nonlinearities associated with mid-plane stretching. Periodic solutions are determined by using the Poincaré–Lindstedt perturbation scheme with movable simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of temperature change, the volume fraction and the distribution pattern of the SWCNTs on the parametric resonance, in particular the amplitude of vibration and the average harvested power of the smart functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates, are investigated through a detailed parametric study. (paper)

  7. Simplified design of flexible expansion anchored plates for nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, N.K.; Hingorani, N.V.; Longlais, T.G.; Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear power plant construction, expansion anchored plates are used to support pipe, cable tray and HVAC duct hangers, and various structural elements. The expansion anchored plates provide flexibility in the installation of field-routed lines where cast-in-place embedments are not available. General design requirements for expansion anchored plate assemblies are given in ACI 349, Appendix B (1). The manufacturers recommend installation procedures for their products. Recent field testing in response to NRC Bulletin 79-02 (2) indicates that anchors, installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommended procedures, perform satisfactorily under static and dynamic loading conditions. Finite element analysis is a useful tool to correctly analyze the expansion anchored plates subject to axial tension and biaxial moments, but it becomes expensive and time-consuming to apply this tool for a large number of plates. It is, therefore, advantageous to use a simplified method, even though it may be more conservative as compared to the exact method of analysis. This paper presents a design method referred to as the modified rigid plate analysis approach to simplify both the initial design and the review of as-built conditions

  8. Superconducting power distribution structure for integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting power distribution structure for an integrated circuit. It comprises a first superconducting capacitor plate; a second superconducting capacitor plate provided with electrical isolation means within the second capacitor plate; dielectric means separating the first capacitor plate from the second capacitor plate; first via means coupled at a first end to the first capacitor plate and extending through the dielectric and the electrical isolation means of the second capacitor plate; first contact means coupled to a second end of the first via means; and second contact means coupled to the second capacitor plate such that the first contact means and the second contact means are accessible from the same side of the second capacitor plate

  9. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Brazener, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  10. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  11. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  12. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  13. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses Rene Hudec1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technicka 2,. Prague 6 ... Abstract. Powerful computers and dedicated software allow effective data mining and scientific analyses in astronomical plate archives. We.

  14. Modular Porous Plate Sublimator /MPPS/ requires only water supply for coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Modular porous plate sublimators, provided for each location where heat must be dissipated, conserve the battery power of a space vehicle by eliminating the coolant pump. The sublimator requires only a water supply for coolant.

  15. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  16. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  17. Vibration of functionally graded plate resting on viscoelastic elastic foundation subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Hien, Ta; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of plates subjected to a moving load must be considered by engineering mechanics and design structures. This paper deals with the dynamic responses of functionally graded (FG) rectangular plates resting on a viscoelastic foundation under moving loads. It is assumed that material properties of the plate vary continuously in the thickness direction according to the power-law. The governing equations are derived by using Hamilton’s principle, which considers the effect of the higher-order shear deformation in the plate. Transient responses of simply supported FG rectangular plates are employed by using state-space methods. Several examples are given for displacement and stresses in the plates with various structural parameters, and the effects of these parameters are discussed.

  18. Ultrasonic Low-Friction Containment Plate for Thermal and Ultrasonic Stir Weld Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Karl; Short, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The thermal stir welding (TSW) process is finding applications in fabrication of space vehicles. In this process, workpieces to be joined by TSW are drawn, by heavy forces, between "containment plates," past the TSW tool that then causes joining of the separate plates. It is believed that the TSW process would be significantly improved by reducing the draw force, and that this could be achieved by reducing the friction forces between the workpieces and containment plates. Based on use of high-power ultrasonics in metal forming processes, where friction reduction in drawing dies has been achieved, it is believed that ultrasonic vibrations of the containment plates could achieve similar friction reduction in the TSW process. By applying ultrasonic vibrations to the containment plates in a longitudinal vibration mode, as well as by mounting and holding the containment plates in a specific manner such as to permit the plates to acoustically float, friction between the metal parts and the containment plates is greatly reduced, and so is the drawing force. The concept was to bring in the ultrasonics from the sides of the plates, permitting the ultrasonic hardware to be placed to the side, away from the equipment that contains the thermal stir tooling and that applies clamping forces to the plates. Tests demonstrated that one of the major objectives of applying ultrasonics to the thermal stir system, that of reducing draw force friction, should be achievable on a scaled-up system.

  19. EVALUATION OF U10MO FUEL PLATE IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR VIA NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel J. Miller; Hakan Ozaltun

    2012-11-01

    This article analyzes dimensional changes due to irradiation of monolithic plate-type nuclear fuel and compares results with finite element analysis of the plates during fabrication and irradiation. Monolithic fuel plates tested in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab (INL) are being used to benchmark proposed fuel performance for several high power research reactors. Post-irradiation metallographic images of plates sectioned at the midpoint were analyzed to determine dimensional changes of the fuel and the cladding response. A constitutive model of the fabrication process and irradiation behavior of the tested plates was developed using the general purpose commercial finite element analysis package, Abaqus. Using calculated burn-up profiles of irradiated plates to model the power distribution and including irradiation behaviors such as swelling and irradiation enhanced creep, model simulations allow analysis of plate parameters that are either impossible or infeasible in an experimental setting. The development and progression of fabrication induced stress concentrations at the plate edges was of primary interest, as these locations have a unique stress profile during irradiation. Additionally, comparison between 2D and 3D models was performed to optimize analysis methodology. In particular, the ability of 2D and 3D models account for out of plane stresses which result in 3-dimensional creep behavior that is a product of these components. Results show that assumptions made in 2D models for the out-of-plane stresses and strains cannot capture the 3-dimensional physics accurately and thus 2D approximations are not computationally accurate. Stress-strain fields are dependent on plate geometry and irradiation conditions, thus, if stress based criteria is used to predict plate behavior (as opposed to material impurities, fine micro-structural defects, or sharp power gradients), unique 3D finite element formulation for each plate is required.

  20. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  1. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  2. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method in...

  3. Stress state in perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visner, J.

    1977-01-01

    The method is described of photoelastic measurement of stress concentration factors (s.c.f) in plates perforated by a square, triangular and diagonal grid of circular holes and loaded by uniaxial or biaxial tensile stress. A loading equipment which was developed and its modifications are described. Stress concentration factors found are compared with theoretical and experimental results given in references. (author)

  4. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  5. Capacity of the circular plate condenser: analytical solutions for large gaps between the plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T V

    2005-01-01

    A solution of Love's integral equation (Love E R 1949 Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 2 428), which forms the basis for the analysis of the electrostatic field due to two equal circular co-axial parallel conducting plates, is considered for the case when the ratio, τ, of distance of separation to radius of the plates is greater than 2. The kernel of the integral equation is expanded into an infinite series in odd powers of 1/τ and an approximate kernel accurate to O(τ -(2N+1) ) is deduced therefrom by terminating the series after an arbitrary but finite number of terms, N. The approximate kernel is rearranged into a degenerate form and the integral equation with this kernel is reduced to a system of N linear equations. An explicit analytical solution is obtained for N = 4 and the resulting analytical expression for the capacity of the circular plate condenser is shown to be accurate to O(τ -9 ). Analytical expressions of lower orders of accuracy with respect to 1/τ are deduced from the four-term (i.e., N 4) solution and predictions (of capacity) from the expressions of different orders of accuracy (with respect to 1/τ) are compared with very accurate numerical solutions obtained by solving the linear system for large enough N. It is shown that the O(τ -9 ) approximation predicts the capacity extremely well for any τ ≥ 2 and an O(τ -3 ) approximation gives, for all practical purposes, results of adequate accuracy for τ ≥ 4. It is further shown that an approximate solution, applicable for the case of large distances of separation between the plates, due to Sneddon (Sneddon I N 1966 Mixed Boundary Value Problems in Potential Theory (Amsterdam: North-Holland) pp 230-46) is accurate to O(τ -6 ) for τ ≥ 2

  6. Preparation of ø33 mm simulative source of nickel with pulse-plating technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Rui; Kan Wentao; Dong Wenli; Luo Shunzhong; Zhong Zhengkun; Yang Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    The DC constant current power with a magnitude of milliampere has one defect of lower protect voltage. This brought itself not suitable for the preparation of large area and high radioactivity 63 Ni. Based on a positive pulse power, the effects from some experiment conditions on the plating results in the simple plating solution were studied. The result shows that 95% of 58 Ni deposition rate is gained under the condition of cathode current density of 18 mA/cm 2 , room temperature, pulse width of 80%, frequency of 5 kHz and plating time of 2.5 h. (authors)

  7. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  8. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  9. Kas "Hirmu faktor" paneb võistleja surmaohtu? / Selene Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Selene

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline teleprojekt, mille võtted toimuvad Lõuna-Aafrikas. Eesti ainus kaskadöör Enar Tarmo hindab USAs tehtud seriaali pealtnäha kõige eluohtlikumaid trikke turvalisuse seisukohalt. Lisaks tutvustus "Tõsieluseriaal "Hirmu faktor""

  10. Eneseanalüüs paneb raha voolama / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 20. veebr. lk. 29. USA Santa Clara ülikooli professor Meir Statman kõneles Hansapanga investeerimiskonverentsil eneseanalüüsi olulisusest börsile investeerimisel. Kommenteerib Kristjan Lepik

  11. Suitsetamine paneb inimesed norskama / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika juhtiv kopsumeditsiiniajakiri American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine toob oktoobrinumbris kokkuvõtte küsitlusest, kus Islandis, Norras, Rootsis, Taanis ja Eestis küsitleti 15 555 inimest vanuses 25-54 aastat

  12. Teatri moodi kunst paneb publiku uude rolli / Liina Luhats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luhats, Liina

    2011-01-01

    Taani osalusteatri SIGNA etenduslik installatsioon "Bleier Research Inc" Tallinnas Standardi majas. Piireületavat eksperimenti mängivad avalikul konkursil Eestist valitud näitlejad. Intervjuu Signa Sørenseniga taani-austria kunstnikeduost SIGNA. Eesti teatritegijate arvamusi

  13. DSC emafirma paneb Eesti erandile punkti / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    DSV Transpordi omanikfirma tegevjuht Jens Bjørn Andersen kommenteerib olukorda, kus osa firma töötajaid omab transpordiettevõtet, mille ainus või vähemalt üks suuremaid lepingupartnereid on nende endi tööandja ehk DSV Transport

  14. Intrigeeriv idee paneb mootori käima / Signe Sillasoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sillasoo, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Salto Arhitektuuribüroos (Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik) projekteeritud hoonetest, koostööst klientidega, konkurssidel osalemisest, võidetud preemiatest. Pikemalt Tallinnasse püstitatud Põhuteatrist

  15. Põhja konn paneb veerema loo armastusest ja reetmisest / Kaile Kabun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kabun, Kaile

    2007-01-01

    Muinasjuttu "Põhja konn" Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi muinasjutu ainetel esietendatakse 31. mail Papa Kreutzwaldi Õueteatris Kreutzwaldi majamuuseumi õuel. Kaalukamatesse rollidesse on valitud Võru vene gümnaasiumi õpilased

  16. Miljonär paneb Ridalas lepalego kokku / Kaire Talviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talviste, Kaire, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Ridala vallas Panga külas mustast lepast saunatarbeid ja köögitarvikuid meisterdav ettevõtja Gallo Trei kuulus Sylvesteri aktsionäride hulka, aktsiate müügist saadud raha investeeris ta oma ettevõttesse OÜ Trei Puidukaubad. Vt. samas: Sylvesteri müük. Kommenteerib Toomas Schmidt

  17. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  18. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  19. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  20. Magnetostrictive clad steel plates for high-performance vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenjun; Nakajima, Kenya; Onodera, Ryuichi; Tayama, Tsuyoki; Chiba, Daiki; Narita, Fumio

    2018-02-01

    Energy harvesting technology is becoming increasingly important with the appearance of the Internet of things. In this study, a magnetostrictive clad steel plate for harvesting vibration energy was proposed. It comprises a cold-rolled FeCo alloy and cold-rolled steel joined together by thermal diffusion bonding. The performances of the magnetostrictive FeCo clad steel plate and conventional FeCo plate cantilevers were compared under bending vibration; the results indicated that the clad steel plate construct exhibits high voltage and power output compared to a single-plate construct. Finite element analysis of the cantilevers under bending provided insights into the magnetic features of a clad steel plate, which is crucial for its high performance. For comparison, the experimental results of a commercial piezoelectric bimorph cantilever were also reported. In addition, the cold-rolled FeCo and Ni alloys were joined by thermal diffusion bonding, which exhibited outstanding energy harvesting performance. The larger the plate volume, the more the energy generated. The results of this study indicated not only a promising application for the magnetostrictive FeCo clad steel plate as an efficient energy harvester, related to small vibrations, but also the notable feasibility for the formation of integrated units to support high-power trains, automobiles, and electric vehicles.

  1. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  2. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  3. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... of academic teaching and lecturing into account....

  4. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  5. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  6. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  7. PRETREATING URANIUM FOR METAL PLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, R.F.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for anodically treating the surface of uranium articles, prior to metal plating. The metal is electrolyzed in an aqueous solution of about 10% polycarboxylic acid, preferably oxalic acid, from 1 to 5% by weight of glycerine and from 1 to 5% by weight of hydrochloric acid at from 20 to 75 deg C for from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. A current density of from 60 to 100 amperes per square foot is used.

  8. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  9. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  10. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  11. A STUDY ON PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES STABILISED WITH PHILOS PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  12. Hydrodynamics of a three-dimensional self-propelled flexible plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaeha; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional self-propelled flexible plate in a quiescent flow was simulated using the immersed boundary method. The clamped leading edge of the flexible plate was forced into a vertical oscillation, while free to move horizontally. To reveal the hydrodynamics of the plate, the averaged cruising speed (UC) , the input power (P) , and the swimming efficiency (η) were analyzed as a function of the bending rigidity (γ) and the flapping frequency (f) . The velocity field around the plate and the exerted force on the plate were demonstrated to find out the dynamic interaction between the plate and the surrounding fluid. The kinematics of the plate, the maximum angle of attack (ϕmax) , and the mean effective length (Leff) were examined accounting for the hydrodynamics of the self-propelled flexible plate. The vortical structures around the plate were visualized, and the influence of the tip vortex on the swimming efficiency was explored qualitatively and quantitatively. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  13. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

  14. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  15. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  16. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory

  17. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  18. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  19. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin...

  20. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  1. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  2. Framatome technologies awarded nickel plating contract at St. Lucie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Framatome Technologies is to perform nickel plating on 120 pressurizer heater sleeves at Florida Power and Light's St. Lucie unit 1 during the fall 1997 outage; replacement heaters, fabricated by Framatome, that use stainless steel for the heather sheath, will be installed. The nickel layer is deposited on the inside surface of the heater sleeves, which protects the Inconel 600 material and significantly reduces the intergranular stress-corrosion cracking, as proved in other US and European plants

  3. Testing flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Arnett, J. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    New qualification tests have been developed for flat plate photovoltaic modules. Temperature cycling, cyclic pressure load, and humidity exposure are especially useful for detecting design and fabrication deficiencies. There is positive correlation between many of the observed field effects, such as power loss, and qualification test induced degradation. The status of research efforts for the development of test methodology for field-related problems is reviewed.

  4. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  5. Energy flux to the ASDEX-upgrade diverter plates determined by thermography and calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.; Junker, W.; Guenther, K.

    1995-01-01

    A new thermography system with high time resolution was put into operation at ASDEX-Upgrade and is routinely used to determine the energy flux onto the lower diverter plates. The measurements allow the power deposition to be characterized during dynamic events such as ELMs and disruptions, as well as the asymmetry of the inboard/outboard power load. A power balance is set up even during single discharges and the losses are found to be fairly equal to the power input. (author)

  6. Investigating the Optimum Efficiency of Acoustoelectric Conversion Plate Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop the acoustoelectric conversion plate in terms of electromagnetic induction law to convert sound energy to electricity, where the developed apparatus is made of three parts, the thin film coil, the spring, and the high-intensity magnetic framework. In process, the thin film coil receives the injecting sound vibration in connection with the spring to cause the reciprocating motion between the coil and the high-intensity magnet, which yields the electromotive force (EMF. In this study, a pearl plate of length 95 mm, width 95 mm, and thickness 1.5 mm adhered with a PET film of thickness 0.08mm is built as the substrate plate due to it has good properties of light and elasticity. In connection with the substrate plate and the electric coil is the thin film coil. Experiments used the speaker with output frequencies of 30~156 Hz and sound power of 0.5 W (sound intensity 0.32 W/m2, sound pressure level 115 dB as the sound source. The sound energy is captured by the acoustoelectric conversion plate for working efficiency and optimization parameters analysis. The studied parameters content of diameter, turns, and width of electric coil as well as distance between high intensity magnet and coil. The results show that diameter 0.11 mm, turns 220, and width 3 mm of the electric coil, in connection with steel spring of diameter 0.2 mm while input sound is 30 Hz, receives the average output voltage of 0.57 V, the average output current of 5.46 mA, the average output power of 3.13 mW, and the sound electric conversion efficiency of 0.63%. This innovation device could be used in highway, near waterfalls, and some high noise factories to capture energy for immediately charging cell-phone to save human life.

  7. Development and Application of TMCP Steel Plate in Coal Mining Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqing, Zhang; Liandeng, Yao; aimin, Guo; Sixin, Zhao; Guofa, Wang

    Coal, as the most major energy in China, accounted for about 70% of China's primary energy production and consumption. While the percentage of coal as the primary energy mix would drop in the future due to serious smog pollution partly resulted from coal-burning, the market demand of coal will maintain because the progressive process of urbanization. In order to improve productivity and simultaneously decrease safety accidents, fully-mechanized underground mining technology based on complete equipment of powered support, armored face conveyor, shearer, belt conveyor and road-header have obtained quick development in recent years, of which powered support made of high strength steel plate accounts for 65 percent of total equipment investment, so, the integrated mechanical properties, in particular strength level and weldability, have a significant effects on working service life and productivity. Take hydraulic powered supports as example, this paper places priority to introduce the latest development of high strength steel plates of Q550, Q690 and Q890 for powered supports, as well as metallurgical design conception and production cost-benefits analysis between QT plate and TMCP plate. Through production and application practice, TMCP or DQ plate demonstrate great economic advantages compared with traditional QT plate.

  8. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  9. Bottom nozzle for nuclear reactor fuel assembly having an adaptor plate and a coupled filtration plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.; Mortgat, R.

    1992-01-01

    The bottom nozzle includes an adaptor plate with openings to allow the passage of water and a filtration plate with small holes. The openings in the adaptor plate are symmetrical with regard to medians and diagonals. Within each zone, some of the openings are rectangular and some may be circular. The small holes in the filtration plate coincide with the rectangular openings in the adaptor plate

  10. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  11. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  12. Evaluation of wall thinning of piping with reinforcing plates using ECT with controlled exciting field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Toshiaki; Xie, Shejuan; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    No effective inspection method exists at present for detection and evaluation of wall thinning under the reinforcing plates to T-tubes in nuclear power plants, and the establishment of the inspection method is highly required. In this study, eddy current testing (ECT) with controlled exciting field is applied to evaluation of wall thinning under the reinforcing plates of T-tubes, and their feasibility is discussed. In order to induce eddy current field in deep region of doubled plates, pulse excitation and probe structures are investigated. Through experiments using specimens simulating tubes with reinforcing plates, it is shown that pulsed ECT and conventional TR type eddy current probe with optimized configuration have a capability of detecting and sizing the wall thinning under reinforcing plates. (author)

  13. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  14. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  15. Non-cyanide silver plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work

  16. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  17. Irradiation testing of miniature fuel plates for the RERTR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, R L; Martin, M M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    1983-08-01

    An irradiation test facility, which provides a test bed for irradiating a variety of miniature fuel plates miniplates) for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, has been placed into operation. The objective of these tests is to screen various candidate fuel materials as to their suitability for replacing the highly enriched uranium fuel materials currently used by the world's test and research reactors with a lower enrichment fuel material, without significantly degrading reactor operating characteristics and power levels. The use of low uranium enrichment of about 20% {sup 235}U in place of highly enriched fuel for these reactors would reduce the potential for {sup 235}U diversion. Fuel materials currently being evaluated in this first phase of these screening tests include aluminum-base dispersion-type fuel plates with fuel cores of 1) high uranium content U{sup 3}){sup 8}-Al being developed by ORNL, 2) high uranium content UAI{sub x}-Al being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and 3) very high uranium content U{sub 3}Si-Al- being developed by ANL. The miniplates are 115-mm long by 50-mm wide with overall plate thicknesses of 1.27 or 1.52 mm. The fuel core dimensions vary according to overall plate thicknesses with a minimal clad thickness requirement of 0.20 mm. Sixty such miniplates (thirty of each thickness) can be irradiated in one test facility. The irradiation test facility, designated as HFED-1 is operating in core position E-7 in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR), a 30-MW water-moderated reactor. The peak neutron flux measured for this experiment is 1.96 x 10{sup 18} neutrons m{sub -2} s{sub -1}. The various types of miniplates will achieve burnups of up to approximately 2.2x10{sup 27} fissions/m{sup 3} of fuel, which will require approximately eight full power months of irradiation. During reactor shutdown periods, the experiment is removed from the reactor, moved to a special poolside station, disassembled, and inspected

  18. Measurement of fluid film thickness on the valve plate in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps (I): bearing pad effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn

    2003-01-01

    The tribological mechanism between the valve plate and the cylinder block in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps plays an important role on high power density. In this study, the fluid film thickness between the valve plate and the cylinder block was measured with discharge pressure and rotational speed by use of a gap sensor, and a slip ring system in the operating period. To investigate the effect of the valve plate shapes, we designed two valve plates with different shapes: the first valve plate was without a bearing pad, while the second valve plate had a bearing pad. It was found that both valve plates behaved differently with respect to the fluid film thickness characteristics. The leakage flow rates and the shaft torque were also experimented in order to clarify the performance difference between the valve plate without a bearing pad and the valve plate with a bearing pad. From the results of this study, we found out that in the oil hydraulic axial piston pumps, the valve plate with a bearing pad showed better film thickness contours than the valve plate without a bearing pad

  19. Magneto-elastic dynamics and bifurcation of rotating annular plate*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yu-Da; Piao Jiang-Min; Li Wen-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, magneto-elastic dynamic behavior, bifurcation, and chaos of a rotating annular thin plate with various boundary conditions are investigated. Based on the thin plate theory and the Maxwell equations, the magneto-elastic dynamic equations of rotating annular plate are derived by means of Hamilton’s principle. Bessel function as a mode shape function and the Galerkin method are used to achieve the transverse vibration differential equation of the rotating annular plate with different boundary conditions. By numerical analysis, the bifurcation diagrams with magnetic induction, amplitude and frequency of transverse excitation force as the control parameters are respectively plotted under different boundary conditions such as clamped supported sides, simply supported sides, and clamped-one-side combined with simply-anotherside. Poincaré maps, time history charts, power spectrum charts, and phase diagrams are obtained under certain conditions, and the influence of the bifurcation parameters on the bifurcation and chaos of the system is discussed. The results show that the motion of the system is a complicated and repeated process from multi-periodic motion to quasi-period motion to chaotic motion, which is accompanied by intermittent chaos, when the bifurcation parameters change. If the amplitude of transverse excitation force is bigger or magnetic induction intensity is smaller or boundary constraints level is lower, the system can be more prone to chaos. (paper)

  20. Stress analysis of plate-fin structures in recuperator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Shingo; Muto, Yasushi; Shiina, Yasuaki

    2001-01-01

    A high performance compact recuperator with 95% effectiveness is required to achieve a high thermal efficiency power generation of up to 50% in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) coupled with closed cycle helium gas turbine. Though a plate-fin type heat exchanger is proposed for this recuperator, much research and development works are needed to establish this high performance goal since there exists no state-of-the-art technology in such a high pressure and high temperature one. One of the important works is to establish the structural analysis and evaluation method in this plate-fin type heat exchanger. This paper describes the results of stress analysis of the plate-fin structure under the internal pressure as the first step of this work. First, the modeling of a unit plate-fin structure for the analysis was examined and a three layers model was confirmed to be most adequate. The stress distribution within the structure was clarified by using this model. Second, the three layers model was simplified to one layer model with sufficient accuracy. By using this model, both the effects of an inclined angle of fin and a thickness of separate on the strength were examined parametrically. Under the relevant design conditions, it was revealed that the optimum inclined angle of fin locates in the neighborhood of 76 degree rather than most difficult fabrication angle 90 degree and there is possibility to adopt thinner thickness than 0.5 mm in the current design. (author)

  1. Simulation of a conductive shield plate for the focalization of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca, Fernando; Richter, Lars; Schweikard, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in the rat is a powerful tool for investigating brain function. However, the state-of-the-art experiments are considerably limited because the stimulation usually affects undesired anatomical structures. A simulation of a conductive shield plate placed between the coil stimulator and the rat brain during TMS is presented. The Finite Element (FE) method is used to obtain the 3D electric field distribution on a four-layer rat head model. The simulations show that the shield plate with a circular window can improve the focalization of stimulation, as quantitatively seen by computing the three-dimensional half power region (HPR). Focalization with the shield plate showed a clear compromise with the attenuation of the induced field. The results suggest that the shield plate can work as a helpful tool for conducting TMS rat experiments on specific targets.

  2. Manufacturing experiment on a cooling plate for a blanket breeder unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weth, A. von der; Aktaa, J.

    2008-01-01

    Plates with curved cooling channels will be used as structural elements in a breeding blanket of a future fusion power plant. Such power plants are a promising attempt for future electrical energy production. The central manufacturing process of such cooling plates is a diffusion welding process. Such a process has been 'available' on a laboratory scale for years. But this diffusion welding process has not yet been applied on an industrial scale. This contribution documents our first attempt to transfer this to industry, a so-called uniaxial diffusion welding setup. The industrial transfer was attempted in two steps: (1) On a small cooling plate mock-up and (2) On a true-scale cooling plate. The problems with the technical transfer of the diffusion welding process from the laboratory scale to the true scale were outlined

  3. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ∼0.5 to ∼25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented

  4. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  5. Design and construction of the liner plate for the Arkansas and Midland containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, K.; Shah, G.H.; Chang-Lo, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the design criteria and features of the containment liner plate systems utilized for the Arkansas and Midland Nuclear Power Plant. For the Arkansas project, the liner plate system was erected in circumferential rings approximately 3 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner after erection. For the Midland project, the liner plate system was erected in vertical segments approximately 6 m wide x 24 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner prior to erection. The differences between the schemes are discussed. (author)

  6. Laser Induced Forced Motion and Stress Waves in Plates and Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    the plate at the center, normal to the plate surface. The Laser used was a Holobeam model 630-QNd glass system. This Laser produces an output power (in...V o 0 0 I lue ceill I Ii 1)r1 i 11im and hot nchary\\ cond i t i ons S or tile i n it i aI I St ate toget her with ji(. 38c ) iiav he u ISed to

  7. Flate-plate photovoltaic power systems handbook for Federal agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.; Savage, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary purpose is to provide a tool for personnel in Federal agencies to evaluate the viability of potential photovoltaic applications. A second objective is to provide descriptions of various photovoltaic systems installed by different Federal agencies under the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program so that other agencies may consider similar applications. A third objective is to share lessons learned to enable more effective procurement, design, installation, and operation of future photovoltaic systems. The intent is not to provide a complete handbook, but rather to provide a guide for Federal agency personnel with additional information incorporated by references. The steps to be followed in selecting, procuring, and installing a photovoltaic application are given.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of the Deformation of Functionally Graded Plates under Thermomechanical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Alshorbagy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order shear deformation plate model, accounting for the exact neutral plane position, is exploited to investigate the uncoupled thermomechanical behavior of functionally graded (FG plates. Functionally graded materials are mainly constructed to operate in high temperature environments. Also, FG plates are used in many applications (such as mechanical, electrical, and magnetic, where an amount of heat may be generated into the FG plate whenever other forms of energy (electrical, magnetic, etc. are converted into thermal energy. Several simulations are performed to study the behavior of FG plates, subjected to thermomechanical loadings, and focus the attention on the effect of the heat source intensity. Most of the previous studies have considered the midplane neutral one, while the actual position of neutral plane for functionally graded plates is shifted and should be firstly determined. A comparative study is performed to illustrate the effect of considering the neutral plane position. The volume fraction of the two constituent materials of the FG plate is varied smoothly and continuously, as a continuous power function of the material position, along the thickness of the plate.

  9. Elastoplastic Stability and Failure Analysis of FGM Plate with Temperature Dependent Material Properties under Thermomechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Sharma

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper explores the stability and failure response of elastoplastic Ni/Al2O3 functionally graded plate under thermomechanical load using non-linear finite element formulation based on first-order shear deformation theory and von-Karman’s nonlinear kinematics. The temperature dependent thermoelastic material properties of FGM plate are varied in the thickness direction by controlling the volume fraction of the constituent materials (i.e., ceramic and metal with a power law, and Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme is applied to evaluate the properties at a particular thickness coordinate of FGM plate. The elastoplastic behavior of FGM plate is assumed to follow J2-plasticity with isotropic hardening, wherein the ceramic phase is considered to be elastic whereas the metal is assumed to be elastic-plastic in accordance with the Tamura-Tomota-Ozawa model. Numerical studies are conducted to examine the effects of material and geometrical parameters, viz. material in-homogeneity, slenderness and aspect ratios on the elastoplastic bucking and postbuckling behavior and the failure response of FGM plate. It is revealed that material gradation affects the stability and failure behavior of FGM plate considerably. Furthermore, it is also concluded that FGM plate with elastic material properties exhibits only stable equilibrium path, whereas the elastoplastic FGM plate shows destabilizing response after the ultimate failure point.

  10. Numerical and experimental study of bistable plates for morphing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, F.; Scarselli, G.; Avanzini, G.; Del Core, G.

    2017-04-01

    This study is concerned with the activation energy threshold of bistable composite plates in order to tailor a bistable system for specific aeronautical applications. The aim is to explore potential configurations of the bistable plates and their dynamic behavior for designing novel morphing structure suitable for aerodynamic surfaces and, as a possible further application, for power harvesters. Bistable laminates have two stable mechanical shapes that can withstand aerodynamic loads without additional constraint forces or locking mechanisms. This kind of structures, when properly loaded, snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains that can also be used for power harvesting scopes. The transition between the stable states of the composite laminate can be triggered, in principle, simply by aerodynamic loads (pilot, disturbance or passive inputs) without the need of servo-activated control systems. Both numerical simulations based on Finite Element models and experimental testing based on different activating forcing spectra are used to validate this concept. The results show that dynamic activation of bistable plates depend on different parameters that need to be carefully managed for their use as aircraft passive wing flaps.

  11. Development and Application of High Strength TMCP Plate for Coal Mining Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqing, Zhang; Aimin, Guo; Liandeng, Yao

    Coal, as the most major energy in China, accounted for about 70% of China's primary energy production and consumption. While the percentage of coal as the primary energy mix would drop in the future due to serious smog pollution partly resulted from coal-burning, the market demand of coal will maintain because the progressive process of urbanization. In order to improve productivity and simultaneously decrease safety accidents, fully-mechanized underground mining technology based on complete equipment of powered support, armored face conveyor, shearer, belt conveyor and road-header have obtained quick development in recent years, of which powered support made of high strength steel plate accounts for 65 percent of total equipment investment, so, the integrated mechanical properties, in particular strength level and weldability, have a significant effects on working service life and productivity. Take hydraulic powered supports as example, this paper places priority to introduce the latest development of high strength steel plates of Q550, Q690 and Q890, as well as metallurgical design conception and production cost-benefits analysis between QT plate and TMCP plate. Through production and application practice, TMCP or DQ plate demonstrate great economic advantages compared with traditional QT plate.

  12. Dynamic temperature field in the ferromagnetic plate induced by moving high frequency inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Mitić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the temperature distribution in the thin metallic ferromagnetic plate influenced by moving linear high frequency induction heater. As a result of high frequency electromagnetic field, conducting currents appear in the part of the plate. Distribution of the eddy-current power across the plate thickness is obtained by use of complex analysis. The influences of the heater frequency, magnetic field intensity and plate thickness on the heat power density were discussed. By treating this power as a moving heat source, differential equations governing distribution of the temperature field are formulated. Temperature across the plate thickness is assumed to be in linear form. Differential equations are analytically solved by using integral-transform technique, Fourier finite-sine and finite-cosine transform and Laplace transform. The influence of the heater velocity to the plate temperature is presented on numerical examples based on theoretically obtained results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 35040 i br. TR 35011

  13. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation – Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachs, D.M., E-mail: daniel.wachs@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Robinson, A.B.; Rice, F.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Characterization and Advanced PIE Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Kraft, N.C.; Taylor, S.C. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Lillo, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Design and Analysis Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008–2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm{sup 2} peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm{sup 3} peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  14. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.

    2011-01-01

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ∼10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  15. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  16. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  17. Empirical Study of Car License Plates Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dina, Nasa Zata; Dailey, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms ...

  18. 431K/CD vehicle number plates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Green Plates Service, which is responsible for issuing the 431K/CD vehicle number plates , wishes to apologise for the delay in processing applications over the past weeks. The delay is outside the Service’s control, as it is due to the recent introduction of new rules governing the vehicle registration process in France. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM-LS – Green Plates Service

  19. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  20. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  1. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  2. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla–Hughes–McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed

  3. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed.

  4. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-09-01

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  5. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  6. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  7. Metallized xerographic plates and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Xerographic plates, particularly xeroradiographic plates, suitable for soft or hard x-ray exposure require margins or edges suitable for handling and mounting. In order to fabricate such plates, it is convenient to apply a peripheral mask over the substrate during application of at least the photoconductive layer. Use of masks, however, tend to promote peripheral plate irregularities usually because of scratches or other uneveness at or under the margin of the applied mask. Such imperfections spawn corresponding electrical field irregularities which can now be minimized or avoided altogether by grounding the margins with metal overcoats

  8. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  9. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  10. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  11. Hot spots on the neutralizer plates of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of hot spots on the neutralizing surfaces of tokamaks may be one of the reasons for the entry of large impurity fluxes into the plasmas of TFTR and JET (the so-called carbon catastrophe or carbon bloom) with high auxiliary heating powers. At this time it is unclear whether these hot spots are caused just by nonuniformities on the neutralizer surface or whether their appearance is the result of some more general behavior, with the surface nonuniformities only showing up as seed perturbations. In this paper it is shown that hot spots can also develop on smooth surfaces of carbon neutralizer plates as a result of the contraction of a heat flux incident on the plates

  12. Imaging plates for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Ken; Takebe, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The imaging plate (IP, hereafter) is a new opto-electronic X-ray film developed by Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., formed with a large area of thin flexible plastic plate coated with photo-estimulable storage phosphor (e.g. Ba F Br: Eu 2+ ). Recently, it has been found highly sensitive to soft X-ray (SR), soft electrons, and also usual alpha, beta, gamma rays and others, e.g. cosmic rays, energy heavy ions, and moreover neutrons through suitable converters inside or outside of the IP. Many types of IP are now used in various fields, such as medical examinations, auto-radiography in vivo/ in situ/ in vitro, X-ray/neutron diffraction/ radiography, electron microscopy. RI contamination, assay of ore. The IP has other striking performances, e.e. extremely low intrinsic noises, a high position resolution, high detection efficiency (100-1000 times) as high as an X-ray film), extremely wide dynamic range of dose (more than 10 5 ). Besides the thermal fading yet left unresolved materially, the only feature lacking and that one has ben longing for is the radiation identification by itself. We found out that the IP has a full potential ability of radiation identification in itself. One evidence found is that the ratio of the twin peaks of the PSL (photo-stimulated luminescence) excitation spectra indicates simply the particle energies, studied and now established. Another is that the photo-beaching provides the fluorescent responses different enough to discriminate the radiations, yet in progress with cyclotron experiments, into the usage of double labeled bio tracers

  13. Application of a Brittle Damage Model to Normal Plate-on-Plate Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raftenberg, Martin N

    2005-01-01

    A brittle damage model presented by Grinfeld and Wright of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory was implemented in the LS-DYNA finite element code and applied to the simulation of normal plate-on-plate impact...

  14. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad; Tavakoli, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. → Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. → This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. → Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  15. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad [Agri Machinery Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Teymur [Agri Machinery Engineering, Tarbyat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. {yields} Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. {yields} This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. {yields} Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  16. Design and experimental investigation of a Multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Zeshao; Hu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system was proposed. • A prototype of this new concentrator was developed for experimental investigation. • Experimental investigation results showed a good concentrating uniformity. - Abstract: Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energies and meaningful for the sustainable development of energy source. A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) solar power system was proposed in this paper, the design principle of the multi-segment plate concentrator of this solar power system was given, which could provide uniform solar radiation flux density distribution on solar cells. A prototype of this multi-segment plate CPV solar power system was developed for the experimental study, aiming at the investigations of solar radiation flux density distribution and PV performances under this concentrator design. The experimental results showed that the solar radiation flux density distribution provided by the multi-segment plate concentrator had a good uniformity, and the number and temperature of solar cells both influence the photoelectric transformation efficiency of the CPV solar power system.

  17. Thermal performance of plate-type loop thermosyphon at sub-atmospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoi, Vadim; Chang, Shyy Woei; Chiang Kuei Feng; Huang, Chuan Chin

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study examines the thermal performance of a newly devised plate-type two-phase loop thermosyphon with cooling applications to electronic boards of telecommunication systems. The evaporation section is configured as the inter-connected multi channels to emulate the bridging boiling mechanism in pulsating thermosyphon. Two thermosyphon plates using water as the coolant with filling ratios (FR) of 0.22 and 0.32 are tested at sub-atmospheric pressures. The vapor-liquid flow images as well as the thermal resistances and effective spreading thermal conductivities are individually measured for each thermosyphon test plate at various heating powers. The high-speed digital images of the vapor-liquid flow structures reveal the characteristic boiling phenomena and the vapor-liquid circulation in the vertical thermosyphon plate, which assist to explore the thermal physics for this type of loop thermosyphon. The bubble agglomeration and pumping action in the inter-connected boiling channels take place at metastable non-equilibrium conditions, leading to the intermittent slug flows with a pulsation character. Such hybrid loop-pulsating thermosyphon permits the vapor-liquid circulation in the horizontal plate. Thermal resistances and spreading thermal conductivities detected from the present thermosyphon plates; the vapor chamber flat plate heat pipe and the copper plate at free and forced convective cooling conditions with both vertical and horizontal orientations are cross-examined. In most telecommunication systems and units, the electrical boards are vertical so that the thermal performance data on the vertical thermosyphon are most relevant to this particular application. - Highlights: → We examine thermal performances of plate-type loop thermosyphon. → Thermal resistances and spreading conductivities are examined. → Bubble agglomeration in inter-connected boiling channels generates intermittent slug flows with pulsations. → Boiling instability

  18. Multidimensional Normalization to Minimize Plate Effects of Suspension Bead Array Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Gwan; Lee, Woojoo; Nilsson, Peter; Pawitan, Yudi; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-10-07

    Enhanced by the growing number of biobanks, biomarker studies can now be performed with reasonable statistical power by using large sets of samples. Antibody-based proteomics by means of suspension bead arrays offers one attractive approach to analyze serum, plasma, or CSF samples for such studies in microtiter plates. To expand measurements beyond single batches, with either 96 or 384 samples per plate, suitable normalization methods are required to minimize the variation between plates. Here we propose two normalization approaches utilizing MA coordinates. The multidimensional MA (multi-MA) and MA-loess both consider all samples of a microtiter plate per suspension bead array assay and thus do not require any external reference samples. We demonstrate the performance of the two MA normalization methods with data obtained from the analysis of 384 samples including both serum and plasma. Samples were randomized across 96-well sample plates, processed, and analyzed in assay plates, respectively. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we could show that plate-wise clusters found in the first two components were eliminated by multi-MA normalization as compared with other normalization methods. Furthermore, we studied the correlation profiles between random pairs of antibodies and found that both MA normalization methods substantially reduced the inflated correlation introduced by plate effects. Normalization approaches using multi-MA and MA-loess minimized batch effects arising from the analysis of several assay plates with antibody suspension bead arrays. In a simulated biomarker study, multi-MA restored associations lost due to plate effects. Our normalization approaches, which are available as R package MDimNormn, could also be useful in studies using other types of high-throughput assay data.

  19. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  20. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  1. DOES TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE URETHROPLASTY FIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    posterior or proximal hypospadias. Patient age ranged from 22 months to 9 years (mean 5.4 years). Twenty-two cases were primary, while. 10 cases were repeat cases after failed onlay procedures with preserved urethral plate. Cases with severe chordee necessitating ex- cision of the urethral plate or with a very thin.

  2. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  3. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  4. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  5. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  6. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  7. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  8. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  9. Pyramidal approach to license plate segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Alexandru; Trecat, Jacques C.

    1996-07-01

    Car identification is a goal in traffic control, transport planning, travel time measurement, managing parking lot traffic and so on. Most car identification algorithms contain a standalone plate segmentation process followed by a plate contents reading. A pyramidal algorithm for license plate segmentation, looking for textured regions, has been developed on a PC based system running Unix. It can be used directly in applications not requiring real time. When input images are relatively small, real-time performance is in fact accomplished by the algorithm. When using large images, porting the algorithm to special digital signal processors can easily lead to preserving real-time performance. Experimental results, for stationary and moving cars in outdoor scenes, showed high accuracy and high scores in detecting the plate. The algorithm also deals with cases where many character strings are present in the image, and not only the one corresponding to the plate. This is done by the means of a constrained texture regions classification.

  10. New technique for number-plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  11. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  12. Lamb wave band gaps in a double-sided phononic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Tian-Ning; Yu, Kun-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Peng

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the theoretical investigation of the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave in a phononic crystal structure constituted by a square array of cylindrical stubs deposited on both sides of a thin homogeneous plate. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra, and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied by using the finite-element method. We investigate the evolution of band gaps in the double-sided phononic plate with stub height on both sides arranged from an asymmetrical distribution to a symmetrical distribution gradually. Numerical results show that as the double stubs in a unit cell arranged more symmetrically on both sides, band width shifts, new band gaps appear, and the bands become flat due to localized resonant modes which couple with plate modes. Specially, more band gaps and flat bands can be found in the symmetrical system as a result of local resonances of the stubs which interact in a stronger way with the plate modes. Moreover, the symmetrical double-sided plate exhibits lower and smaller band gap than that of the asymmetrical plate. These propagation properties of elastic or acoustic waves in the double-sided plate can potentially be utilized to generate filters, slow the group velocity, low-frequency sound insulation, and design acoustic sensors.

  13. Design of the Flow Plates for a Dual Cooled Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2009-01-01

    In a dual cooled fuel assembly, the array and position of fuels are changed from those of a conventional PWR fuel assembly to achieve a power uprating. The flow plate provides flow holes to direct the heated coolant into/out of the fuel assembly and structural intensity to insure that the fuel rod is axially restrained within the spacer grids. So, flow plates of top/bottom end pieces (TEP/BEP) have to be modified into proper shape. Because the flow holes' area of a flow plate affects pressure drop, the flow holes' area must be larger than/equal to that of conventional flow plates. And design criterion of the TEP/BEP says that the flow plate should withstand a 22.241 kN axial load during handling lest a calculated stress intensity should exceed the Condition I allowable stress. In this paper, newly designed flow plates of a TEP/BEP are suggested and stress analysis is conducted to evaluate strength robustness of the flow plates for the dual cooled fuel assembly

  14. Voltage-current characteristics of a pin-plate system with different plate configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhuangbo; Long, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a pin-plate system with four types of collection plate configurations are studied experimentally. The collection plates consider a single metal plate, a metal plate with a fly ash cake layer, a metal plate with a clean filter media and a metal plate with a dirty filter media. The results show that the clean filter media has no obvious effect on the V-I characteristics. But the dirty filter media reduces the current density because of its high resistance. The thick fly ash cake layer increase current density because of the anti-corona effect but the increment is not very obvious.

  15. Finite element analysis of a solar collector plate using two plate geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Manuel Medina Carril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of an absorber plate in a solar collector is investigated using finite element analysis. The thermal behavior and efficiency of two absorber plate geometries are studied, using a typical solar collector with a rectangular profile as reference, and a proposed absorber plate with curved geometry. An analysis of the most important parameters involved in the design of the absorber plate was carried out, indicating that the curved geometry of the absorber plate yields an average efficiency ~25% higher than the conventional rectangular geometry. The results suggest that a curved profile made of materials such as aluminum with thermal conductivity higher than 200W/m°C, plate thickness of the order of 2-3mm and with a large density of tubes per unit area of the collector´s plate greatly benefits the thermal efficiency of the solar collector.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate detectors I: steady-state voltage bias results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Wu, Craig Kruschwitz, Dane Morgan, Jiaming Morgan

    2008-07-01

    X-ray detectors based on straight-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) are a powerful diagnostic tool for two-dimensional, time-resolved imaging and timeresolved x-ray spectroscopy in the fields of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion and fast z-pinch experiments. Understanding the behavior of microchannel plates as used in such detectors is critical to understanding the data obtained. The subject of this paper is a Monte Carlo computer code we have developed to simulate the electron cascade in a microchannel plate under a static applied voltage. Also included in the simulation is elastic reflection of low-energy electrons from the channel wall, which is important at lower voltages. When model results were compared to measured microchannel plate sensitivities, good agreement was found. Spatial resolution simulations of MCP-based detectors were also presented and found to agree with experimental measurements.

  17. Recent trend of titanium-clad steel plate/sheet (NKK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideto

    1997-01-01

    The roll-bonding process for titanium-clad steel production enabled the on-line manufacturing and quality control of the products which are usually applied for the production of steel plate and sheet by the steel producers. The recent trend of roll-bonded titanium-clad steel which has an excellent corrosion resistance together with the advantage in cost-saving are mainly described in this article as to the demand, production technique and new application aspects. Though the predominant usage of titanium-clad steel plate has been in power-generating plants, enlargeing utilization in the chemical plants such as terephthalic acid production plants is leading the growth in the market of titanium-clad steel plate. Also, the application of titanium-clad steel plates and sheets for the lining the marine structures is expected as one of the best solution to long-term surface protection for their outstanding corrosion resistance against sea water. (author)

  18. Post irradiation examinations on UMo full-sized plates - IRIS2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, F.; Noirot, J.; Marelle, V.; Dubois, S.; Boulcourt, P.; Sacristan, P.; Naury, S.; Lemoine, P.

    2005-01-01

    IRIS2 irradiation was the last irradiation of 4 full sized plates launched by CEA for the French UMo group to test in which operating conditions the coarse porosity forms in the UMo/Al interaction product. IRIS2 consists in four plates with high uranium loading and U-7wt%Mo atomised powder irradiated up to 60 days at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device at a peak power of 238 W.cm -2 . The results show that in the tested conditions pillowing of the plate started from a fission density over 2.10 21 fission.cm -3 . Moreover, they show that the fission products and impurities have a key-role in the origin of the excessive plate swelling. (author)

  19. Environmental testing of flat plate solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.; Dumas, L.; Hoffman, A.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially available flat-plate solar cell modules have been subjected to a variety of environmental tests designed to simulate service conditions. Among the tests are those simulating heat and rain, wind-driven rains, humidity and freezing, humidity and heat, humidity with a voltage bias, salt fog, hail impact, and fungus infestation. Tests for optical surface soiling and the combined effects of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation are under development. A correlation has been demonstrated between degradation caused by the qualification tests and such observed field effects as power loss.

  20. Use of plate fuel elements for the RA3 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, C.; Parkanski, D.; Higa, M.; Marajofsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    The RA3 reactor is a pool reactor, redesigned for 5 MW dissipation. Nineteen plates are used in each fuel element. The utilization of 20% enriched U, gives the possibility of the development of rod type fuel with Al/U 3 O 8 cermets. The thermohydraulic and neutronic conditions are studied in this work in order to satisfy the stipulated power. In addition, the fabrication conditions of Al/U 3 O 8 and Al/U 3 O 8 /Zr H 2 cermets with densities within the limits imposed by the thermohydraulics and neutronics conditions are studied. (author)

  1. Power generating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Toshihiro

    1989-05-02

    The existing power generating device consisting of static components only lacks effective measures to utilize solar energy and maintain power generation, hence it is inevitable to make the device much larger and more complicated in order to utilize it as the primary power source for artificial satellites. In view of the above, in order to offer a power generating device useful for the primary power source for satellites which is simple and can keep power generation by solar energy, this invention proposes a power generating device composed of the following elements: (1) a rectangular parallelopiped No. II superconductor plate; (2) a measure to apply a magnetic field to one face of the above superconductor plate; (3) a measure to provide a temperature difference within the range between the starting temperature and the critical temperature of superconductivity to a pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure; (4) a measure to provide an electrode on each of the other pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure and form a closed circuit by connecting the each electrode above to each of a pair of electrodes of the load respectively; and (5) a switching measure which is installed in the closed circuit prepared by the above measure and shuts off the closed circuit when the direction of the electric current running the above closed circuit is reversed. 6 figs.

  2. Lamb Wave Technique for Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characterization in Elastic Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2010-01-01

    Since the acoustic nonlinearity is sensitive to the minute variation of material properties, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique(NUT) has been considered as a promising method to evaluate the material degradation or fatigue. However, there are certain limitations to apply the conventional NUT using the bulk wave to thin plates. In case of plates, the use of Lamb wave can be considered, however, the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave are completely different with the bulk wave, and thus the separate study for the nonlinearity of Lamb wave is required. For this work, this paper analyzed first the conditions of mode pair suitable for the practical application as well as for the cumulative propagation of quadratic harmonic frequency and summarized the result in for conditions: phase matching, non-zero power flux, group velocity matching, and non-zero out-of-plane displacement. Experimental results in aluminum plates showed that the amplitude of the secondary Lamb wave and nonlinear parameter grew up with increasing propagation distance at the mode pair satisfying the above all conditions and that the ration of nonlinear parameters measured in Al6061-T6 and Al1100-H15 was closed to the ratio of the absolute nonlinear parameters

  3. Comparative thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Dragan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded thick rectangular plates accord¬ing to von Karman non-linear theory is presented. The material properties of the functionally graded plate, except for the Poisson’s ratio, were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction, according to a power-law distribution, in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. Formulations of equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the high order shear deformation theory based on different types of shape functions. Analytical method for determination of the critical buckling temperature for uniform increase of temperature, linear and non-linear change of temperature across thickness of a plate is developed. Numeri¬cal results were obtained in МATLAB software using combinations of symbolic and numeric values. The paper presents comparative results of critical buckling tempera¬ture for different types of shape functions. The accuracy of the formulation presented is verified by comparing to results available from the literature.

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, D.W.; Peat, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Optimization of geometrical characteristics of perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisavljevic, Igor; Balos, Sebastian; Nikacevic, Milutin; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Perforated plate are tested against 12.7 mm API projectile. ► Perforations similar to the projectile diameter offer more efficient core fracture. ► Larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation. ► SEM microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point. - Abstract: In this paper, an attempt was made to design effective non-homogenous armor in form of perforated plate mounted at close distance from basic armor plate. Perforated plate with three perforation diameters: 9, 10 and 11 mm, two ligaments length: 3.5 and 4.5 mm ligaments, set at 0° and 28° angles, were combined to 13 mm basic plate and tested against 12.7 mm API ammunition. It has been shown that larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation, while angled specimens were the only ones that offer full protection against five API shots when the perforated plate was placed at 100 mm from the basic plate. Perforations that are similar in size to the penetrating core diameter offer a more efficient core fracture, leading to a faster fragment separation. This may enable a smaller distance between the add-on perforated and basic plate to be used. Scanning electron microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point, with hardness values on plate basic level. On the other hand, a brittle fracture mode with a rise in local hardness measured near impact point is a result of intensive high speed plastic deformation produced by bending stresses. A drop in local hardness measured near impact point, may be the result of intensive cracking that occur due to repeated projectile impact

  6. Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohammed Hussein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

  7. Applications of ion plating in metals fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.T.; Thompson, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Use of ion plating at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to solve problems encountered in metals fabrication and processing are discussed. Three typical areas are covered. The first is the use of strike coats on various substrates for subsequent electrodeposition. The second area in which ion plating is shown to contribute to a process is in cold welding or room temperature bonding of metals. The third application involves plating U to promote safe handling, fission-product retention, and corrosion protection in nuclear reactors

  8. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  9. Fabrication of resistive plate chamber using bakelite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neog, Himangshu; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, Rudranarayan; Rudra, Sharmili; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Now a days Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is one of the most important detectors in the High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. RPC is a gas filled detector utilizing a constant and uniform electric field produced between two parallel electrode plates made of a material with high bulk resistivity e.g. glass or bakelite. RPC has good time resolution (1-2 ns) and spatial resolution (∼ cm). The high resistance of RPC plate limits the spark size produced after the ionization of gas due to the passing charged particle. This contribution discusses building of a RPC using bakelite (local sources) and the measurement of the surface resistivity of the detector

  10. Nondestructive diagnosis of multilayer electronic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Savin, D.O.; Yas'ko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of non-destructive tomographic investigation into multilayer printed plates using x radiation are described. Mathematic problem setting is given, experimental facility and methods for source data ecquisition are described. A special attention is paid to the consideration of the main factors differing the actual problem setting from the idealized one. Methods for accounting and correction of these factors are described. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated using the actual problems of reducing separate layers of multilayer printed plate metallization. The method developed is useful when exersizing control over multilayer printed plate production

  11. Diffusion zinc plating of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakovskaya, Tatiana; Goncharov, Ivan; Tukmakov, Victor; Shapovalov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    The report deals with the research on diffusion zinc plating of structural steels when replacing their cyanide cadmium plating. The results of the experiments in the open air, in vacuum, in the inert atmosphere, under various temperatures (300 - 500 deg.C) for different steel brands are presented. It is shown that diffusion zinc plating in argon or nitrogen atmosphere ensures obtaining the qualitative anticorrosion coating with insignificant change of mechanical properties of steels. The process is simple, reliable, ecology pure and cost-effective. (authors)

  12. Energy transfer between a passing vortex ring and a flexible plate in an ideal quiescent fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, JiaCheng; Peterson, Sean D., E-mail: peterson@mme.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Porfiri, Maurizio [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Recent advancements in highly deformable smart materials have lead to increasing interest in small-scale energy harvesting research for powering low consumption electronic devices. One such recent experimental study by Goushcha et al. explored energy harvesting from a passing vortex ring by a cantilevered smart material plate oriented parallel to and offset from the path of the ring in an otherwise quiescent fluid. The present study focuses on modeling this experimental study using potential flow to facilitate optimization of the energy extraction from the passing ring to raise the energy harvesting potential of the device. The problem is modeled in two-dimensions with the vortex ring represented as a pair of counter-rotating free vortices. Vortex pair parameters are determined to match the convection speed of the ring in the experiments, as well as the imposed pressure loading on the plate. The plate is approximated as a Kirchhoff-Love plate and represented as a finite length vortex sheet in the fluid domain. The analytical model matches experimental measurements, including the tip displacement, the integrated force along the entire plate length as a function of vortex ring position, and the pressure along the plate. The potential flow solution is employed in a parametric study of the governing dimensionless parameters in an effort to guide the selection of plate properties for optimal energy harvesting performance. Results of the study indicate an optimal set of plate properties for a given vortex ring configuration, in which the time-scale of vortex advection matches that of the plate vibration.

  13. Topology Optimization of Constrained Layer Damping on Plates Using Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damping treatments have been extensively used as a powerful means to damp out structural resonant vibrations. Usually, damping materials are fully covered on the surface of plates. The drawbacks of this conventional treatment are also obvious due to an added mass and excess material consumption. Therefore, it is not always economical and effective from an optimization design view. In this paper, a topology optimization approach is presented to maximize the modal damping ratio of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment. The governing equation of motion of the plate is derived on the basis of energy approach. A finite element model to describe dynamic performances of the plate is developed and used along with an optimization algorithm in order to determine the optimal topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. The damping of visco-elastic layer is modeled by the complex modulus formula. Considering the vibration and energy dissipation mode of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment, damping material density and volume factor are considered as design variable and constraint respectively. Meantime, the modal damping ratio of the plate is assigned as the objective function in the topology optimization approach. The sensitivity of modal damping ratio to design variable is further derived and Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA is adopted to search the optimized topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed topology optimization approach. The results show that vibration energy dissipation of the plates can be enhanced by the optimal constrained layer damping layout. This optimal technology can be further extended to vibration attenuation of sandwich cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles as an

  14. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  15. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  16. Crack Detection in Armor Plates Using Ultrasonic Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meitzler, Thomas J; Smith, Gregory; Charbeneau, Michelle; Sohn, Euijung; Bienkowski, mary; Wong, Ivan; Meitzler, Allen H

    2008-01-01

    ...) plates for the purpose of crack detection is presented. The amplitudes of the vibrational modes undamaged plates are compared to the vibrational mode amplitudes of damaged plates and are shown to be clearly different...

  17. Catalysts characteristics of Ni/YSZ core-shell according to plating conditions using electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Wook; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hwang, Hae-jin; Lee, Mi-Jai

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to develop an anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using electroless nickel plating. We have proposed a new method for electroless plating of Ni metal on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles. We examine the uniformity of the Ni layer on the plated core-shell powder, in addition to the content of Ni and the reproducibility of the plating. We have also evaluated the carbon deposition rate and characteristics of the SOFC anode catalyst. To synthesize Ni-plated YSZ particles, the plated powder is heat-treated at 1200 °C. The resultant particles, which have an average size of 50 μm, were subsequently used in the experiment. The size of the Ni particles and the Ni content both increase with increasing plating temperature and plating time. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the growth of Ni particles. After heat-treatment, Ni is oxidized to NiO, leading to the co-existence of Ni and NiO; Ni3P is also observed due to the presence of phosphorous in the plating solution. Following heat treatment for 1 h at 1200 °C, Ni is mostly oxidized to NiO. The carbon deposition rate of the reference YSZ powder is 135%, while that of the Ni-plated YSZ is 1%-6%.

  18. Avoiding short circuits from zinc metal dendrites in anode by backside-plating configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Shougo; Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Takechi, Kensuke; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Portable power sources and grid-scale storage both require batteries combining high energy density and low cost. Zinc metal battery systems are attractive due to the low cost of zinc and its high charge-storage capacity. However, under repeated plating and stripping, zinc metal anodes undergo a well-known problem, zinc dendrite formation, causing internal shorting. Here we show a backside-plating configuration that enables long-term cycling of zinc metal batteries without shorting. We demonstrate 800 stable cycles of nickel–zinc batteries with good power rate (20 mA cm−2, 20 C rate for our anodes). Such a backside-plating method can be applied to not only zinc metal systems but also other metal-based electrodes suffering from internal short circuits. PMID:27263471

  19. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Introduction to Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.

    2016-01-01

    A great variety of natural hazards occur on Earth, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, and avalanches. The most destructive of these hazards, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are mostly associated with tectonic plate

  1. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarigül, A S; Karagözlü, E

    2014-01-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed

  2. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigül, A. S.; Karagözlü, E.

    2014-03-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed.

  3. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly...

  4. New high voltage parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Kawasumi, Y.; Masai, K.; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Abe, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A new modification on the parallel plate analyzer for 500 keV heavy ions to eliminate the effect of the intense UV and visible radiations, is successfully conducted. Its principle and results are discussed. (author)

  5. Plate performance in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 -2 m diameter column using a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate as the aqueous phase, and tributyl phosphate dissolved in AMSCO 125-90 W as the organic phase. The uranium was extracted from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. A standard cartridge was made for each type of plate and consisted of an assembly of plates spaced 5.08 x 10 -2 m apart. Each plate had 3.2 x 10 -3 m holes spaced on 6.1 x 10 -3 -m centers, and contained 23% free area. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  6. Heavy gauge plates for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviet, A.; Roux, J.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The production of energy from nuclear sources leads to the building of very large vessels working under pressure at elevated temperatures, requiring very thick steel plate (from 50 mm to 300 mm). The plates necessary for the production of these vessels have to be as large as possible in order to reduce the length of welds on the vessels. Those two requirements lead to the manufacture of heavy products from 10 to 80 tons unit weight. These products are special, because their fabrication requires very big facilities and also extremely high quality of the steel. The main points are: high cleanliness; properties as homogeneous as possible. The tests carried out on industrially produced plates (especially on a plate of 200 mm thick show the level of quality that can be reached [fr

  7. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Mei, Gao; Si-Min, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO 3 : Fe, for the first time to our knowledge, which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light. The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%. In addition, we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis. This directly proves the existence of photovoltaic photorefractive anisotropy of white light

  8. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a) Identification. A radial immunodiffusion plate for clinical use...

  9. Inert gas handling in ion plating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, A.R.; Burden, M.St.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the best methods for production and monitoring of the inert gas environment for ion plating systems are reported. Work carried out on Pirani gauges and high pressure ion gauges for the measurement of pressures in the ion plating region (1 - 50mtorr) and the use of furnaces for cleaning argon is outlined. A schematic of a gas handling system is shown and discussed. (UK)

  10. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  11. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  12. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  13. Biomechanical and biological aspects of defect treatment in fractures using helical plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, S M; Regazzoni, P; Fernandez, A A D

    2014-01-01

    conventional plate is the extent of surgical trauma at the critical site of healing. - Shingling and/or applying an autologous cancellous bone graft: This procedure provides initially no relevant load sharing but will do so after a couple of weeks. The mechanical coupling of the comparably soft graft and the main fracture fragments presents little problems. Applying a cortical bone graft: Such a graft does provide initial only small load sharing and does a less good job inducing callus than a cancellous graft. Furthermore, the coupling by callus between a somewhat rigid bone graft and the mobile main fracture fragments requires a solid maintained contact. If the cortical graft is fixed using implants with small contact area to the graft such as screws or cerclage loops, the local stress may be critical and the graft may break. When the cortical graft is fixed with cerclage wires the procedure must take into account the limited strength of the individual cerclage. Therefore multiple and well-spaced cerclages are required and may lead to success especially if an intramedullary component of the implant contributes to protection (6). The degree of unloading depends apparently on the stiffness of the material of the protecting splint. Though, more important is the effect of the dimensions of the splint. While titanium as a material is about 50% less stiff than steel, the thickness of the implant changes the stiffness with the third power. That is doubling the thickness results in eightfold increased stiffness. When considering the unloading by application of a second plate the leverage of the second plate plays an important role. The larger the distance between the axis of bending and the second implant the larger the protecting effect. The helical plate (2, 3, 7) as introduced by A.A.D. Fernandez offers biological and mechanical advantages. It can be applied without touching the fracture site maintaining the critical biology intact and provides mechanically efficient unloading

  14. Fission rate measurements in fuel plate type assembly reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The methods, materials and equipment have been developed to allow extensive and precise measurement of fission rate distributions in water moderated, U-Al fuel plate assembly type reactor cores. Fission rate monitors are accurately positioned in the reactor core, the reactor is operated at a low power for a short time, the fission rate monitors are counted with detectors incorporating automated sample changers and the measurements are converted to fission rate distributions. These measured fission rate distributions have been successfully used as baseline information related to the operation of test and experimental reactors with respect to fission power and distribution, fuel loading and fission experiments for approximately twenty years at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). 7 refs., 8 figs

  15. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  16. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  17. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  18. Waveguiding in supported phononic crystal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J; Hladky-Hennion, A-C; Deymier, P; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Duval, F; Dubus, B; Pennec, Y

    2007-01-01

    We investigate, with the help of the finite element method, the existence of absolute band gaps in the band structure of a free-standing phononic crystal plate and of a phononic crystal slab deposited on a substrate. The two-dimensional phononic crystal is constituted by a square array of holes drilled in an active piezoelectric (PZT5A or AlN) matrix. For both matrix materials, an absolute band gap occurs in the band structure of the free-standing plate provided the thickness of the plate is on the order of magnitude of the lattice parameter. When the plate is deposited on a Si substrate, the absolute band gap still remains when the matrix of the phononic crystal is made of PZT5A. The AlN phononic crystal plate losses its gap when supported by the Si substrate. In the case of the PZT5A matrix, we also study the possibility of localized modes associated with a linear defect created by removing one row of air holes in the deposited phononic crystal plate

  19. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies

  20. Hybrid heat recovery - flat plate Stirling engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanizh, A.M.; Budin, R.; Sutlovizh, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of process condensate heat recovery for boiler water preheating as well as for combined heat and power production for chosen process in textile industry has been investigated. The garment industry requires low pressure process steam or hot water for which production expensive fossil fuel should be used. Fuel usage can be reduced by various energy conservation methods. During the process a great quantity of hot condensate or waste hot water is rejected in the sewage system. To reduce heat wastes and improve technological process this condensate could be returned to the boiler for feed water preheating. When 60% condensate is returned to the steam generator about 8 % natural gas is saved. The rest of the condensate should be used for driving low temperature flat plate Stirling motor the advantage of the flat plate Stirling engine is ability to work at low temperatures. This engine produces electrical energy which can put in motion an electrogenerator in the same plant. While Stirling engine can be used electrical power and economical effect could be much greater using such a hybrid system the process waste heat is not only converted into useful work but at the same time thermal pollution is greatly diminished. (Author)

  1. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  2. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  3. Resorbable versus titanium plates for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotry, Anirudha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Gill, Karanjot S

    2017-10-04

    Recognition of some of the limitations of titanium plates and screws used for the fixation of bones has led to the development of plates manufactured from bioresorbable materials. Whilst resorbable plates appear to offer clinical advantages over metal plates in orthognathic surgery, concerns remain about the stability of fixation and the length of time required for their degradation and the possibility of foreign body reactions. This review compares the use of titanium versus bioresorbable plates in orthognathic surgery and is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2007. To compare the effects of bioresorbable fixation systems with titanium systems used during orthognathic surgery. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 20 January 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 20 January 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 20 January 2017); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 20 January 2017). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov; searched 20 January 2017), and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (searched 20 January 2017) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials comparing bioresorbable versus titanium fixation systems used for orthognathic surgery in adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. Clinical heterogeneity between the included trials precluded pooling of data, and only a descriptive summary is presented. This review included two trials, involving 103 participants, one comparing titanium with resorbable plates and screws and

  4. Development of Optimum Manufacturing Technologies of Radial Plates for the ITER Toroidal Field Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Hamada, K.; Okuno, K.; Abe, K.; Kakui, H.; Yamaoka, H.; Maruyama, N.

    2006-01-01

    from the original plate. Detailed investigation suggested that cutting direction should be parallel to a rolling direction of the plate. Results of welding trials by using fiber laser technique showed that fiber laser could penetrate thickness of 15 mm in 5 kW power, which was larger value compared with YAG laser technique. The optimum manufacturing method based on the investigations of manufacturing technologies is also given in this paper. (author)

  5. Theroretical modelling of the plate-tubes coupling in the hydroelasticity of the perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhupanov, V.A.; Manoach, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    In the previous investigations on the perforated plate hydroelasticity the problem of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction in the process of the general structural vibration is stated. But the interaction of the vibrating plates with the tubes, passing through them, is taken into account considering the tubes only as absolutely rigid supports. This is one of the possible technical realizations. In the present article the case when the tubes are taking part in the plate motion (vibration) is studied. Two circular perforated plates are supported by the absolutely rigid wall of the modelled roundcircular reactor barrel. The distance between the plates is given. They are connected by tubes, passing through, and clamped into the perforation holes. The plates and the tubes are made by any elastic HOOKIAN material. The volume between the two plates and outwardly to the tubes, but intrinsically of the barrel is filled by ideal, compressible and heavy liquid. Evidently the liquid volume is multiconnected one. The free vibration of the whole system is considered with the purposes: i) to give a theoretical model of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction including governing equations and boundary conditions; ii) to trace the solution of the eigen-value problem for the modelled structure; iii) to underline the engineering sides of the modelling process. (orig./GL)

  6. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  7. Finite element analysis of functionally graded bone plate at femur bone fracture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.

  8. Development of optimum manufacturing technologies of radial plates for the ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Hamada, K.; Okuno, K.; Abe, K.; Shimizu, T.; Kakui, H.; Yamaoka, H.; Maruyama, N.; Takayanagi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is studying rational manufacturing method and developing the optimum manufacturing technologies of the radial plates used in the toroidal field coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in collaboration with the Japanese industries. Three sector form pieces were cut by plasma cutting machine from a hot rolled plate without any difficulties and one of them was machined to a 1.32-m long curved segment of the radial plate having the same size as the actual one. However, unacceptable large deformation about 5 mm flatness, which was not observed in 1-m long straight radial plate, was found after intermediate machining. Since it would be caused by groove direction against the hot rolled direction and/or curved shape of grooves, two trial manufactures of 0.4-m long straight radial plates have been performed to clarify the cause of the large deformation. Detailed investigation showed that the large deformation could be avoided if the groove direction would have been parallel to a rolling direction of the plate. Welding trials by using fiber laser technique was also performed and penetration of 15 mm could be obtained in a welding speed of 0.1 m/min at 5 kW laser power. An optimum manufacturing method has been proposed based on the development of manufacturing technologies

  9. A novel approach to modeling plate deformations in fluid–structure interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, T.K., E-mail: howartre@onid.oregonstate.edu [Oregon State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering & Radiation Health Physics, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Marcum, W.R., E-mail: marcumw@engr.orst.edu [Oregon State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering & Radiation Health Physics, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Jones, W.F. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels & Materials Department, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A new method for computing fluid structure interactions of flat plates is presented herein. • The method is validated through consideration of a single plate subject to hydraulic loading. • The model is compared against solution forms computed via ABAQUS and experimental data. • The model compares well against experimental data and the commercial computational code. - Abstract: As computational power increases, so does the desire to use computational simulations while designing fuel plates. The downside is multi-physics simulations – or more specifically, fluid–structure interactions (FSI) as addressed herein – require a larger amount of computational resources. Current simulations of a single plate can take weeks on a desktop computer, thus requiring the use of multiple servers or a cluster for FSI simulations. While computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes coupled to computational structural mechanics (CSM) codes can provide a wealth of information regarding flow patterns, there should be some skepticism in whether or not they are the only means of achieving the desired solution. When the parameters of interest are the onset of plate collapse and the associated fluid channel velocities, coupled CFD–CSM simulations provide superfluous information. The paper provides an alternative approach to solving FSI problems using a 1-D, semi-analytical model derived from first principles. The results are compared and contrasted to the numerical and experimental work performed by Kennedy et al. (2014. Experimental Investigation of Deflection of Flat Aluminium Plates Under Variable Velocity Parallel Flow, Columbia: University of Missouri TherMec Research Group).

  10. A novel approach to modeling plate deformations in fluid–structure interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T.K.; Marcum, W.R.; Jones, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for computing fluid structure interactions of flat plates is presented herein. • The method is validated through consideration of a single plate subject to hydraulic loading. • The model is compared against solution forms computed via ABAQUS and experimental data. • The model compares well against experimental data and the commercial computational code. - Abstract: As computational power increases, so does the desire to use computational simulations while designing fuel plates. The downside is multi-physics simulations – or more specifically, fluid–structure interactions (FSI) as addressed herein – require a larger amount of computational resources. Current simulations of a single plate can take weeks on a desktop computer, thus requiring the use of multiple servers or a cluster for FSI simulations. While computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes coupled to computational structural mechanics (CSM) codes can provide a wealth of information regarding flow patterns, there should be some skepticism in whether or not they are the only means of achieving the desired solution. When the parameters of interest are the onset of plate collapse and the associated fluid channel velocities, coupled CFD–CSM simulations provide superfluous information. The paper provides an alternative approach to solving FSI problems using a 1-D, semi-analytical model derived from first principles. The results are compared and contrasted to the numerical and experimental work performed by Kennedy et al. (2014. Experimental Investigation of Deflection of Flat Aluminium Plates Under Variable Velocity Parallel Flow, Columbia: University of Missouri TherMec Research Group).

  11. A New Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory for Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Hassaine Daouadji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical formulation, Navier’s solutions of rectangular plates based on a new higher order shear deformation model are presented for the static response of functionally graded plates. This theory enforces traction-free boundary conditions at plate surfaces. Shear correction factors are not required because a correct representation of transverse shearing strain is given. Unlike any other theory, the number of unknown functions involved is only four, as against five in case of other shear deformation theories. The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Numerical illustrations concern flexural behavior of FG plates with metal-ceramic composition. Parametric studies are performed for varying ceramic volume fraction, volume fractions profiles, aspect ratios, and length to thickness ratios. Results are verified with available results in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static bending behavior of functionally graded plates.

  12. PEMFC Performance with Metal Bipolar Plates Depending on the Channel Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Kuikam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar plates of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC play an important role in removing liquid phase water as a by-product in order to facilitate the reaction between fuel and oxygen. A great amount of effort has been made to improve the performance of a fuel cell such as maximum current density or maximum power, by improving water removability of a bipolar plate. Most of the studies, however, are conducted numerically because of the complexity of analysing gas and liquid and the poor manufacturability of graphite bipolar plates. In this proceeding, we demonstrate that the performance of a PEMFC with metal bipolar plates can be enhanced by reducing the dimension of the channel. Bipolar plates were machined with stainless steel (type 316L to have three different channel size (1000 μm, 500 μm and 300 μm and the performance of each assembled cells were tested. As a result, the maximum power density and the maximum current density increased by 25%.

  13. Small-Scale Flat Plate Collectors for Solar Thermal Scavenging in Low Conductivity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogbonnaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great opportunity to develop power supplies for autonomous application on the small scale. For example, remote environmental sensors may be powered through the harvesting of ambient thermal energy and heating of a thermoelectric generator. This work investigates a small-scale (centimeters solar thermal collector designed for this application. The absorber is coated with a unique selective coating and then studied in a low pressure environment to increase performance. A numerical model that is used to predict the performance of the collector plate is developed. This is validated based on benchtop testing of a fabricated collector plate in a low-pressure enclosure. Model results indicate that simulated solar input of about 800 W/m2 results in a collector plate temperature of 298 K in ambient conditions and up to 388 K in vacuum. The model also predicts the various losses in W/m2 K from the plate to the surroundings. Plate temperature is validated through the experimental work showing that the model is useful to the future design of these small-scale solar thermal energy collectors.

  14. Quantitative determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in MTR fuel type plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrufino, Felipe Bonito Jaldin

    2011-01-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP produces the fuel to supply its nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel is assembled with fuel plates containing an U 3 Si 2 -Al composite meat. A good homogeneity in the uranium distribution inside the fuel plate meat is important from the standpoint of irradiation performance. Considering the lower power of reactor IEA-R1, the uranium distribution in the fuel plate has been evaluated only by visual inspection of radiographs. However, with the possibility of IPEN to manufacture the fuel for the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), with higher power, it urges to develop a methodology to determine quantitatively the uranium distribution into the fuel. This paper presents a methodology based on X-ray attenuation, in order to quantify the uranium concentration distribution in the meat of the fuel plate by using optical densities in radiographs and comparison with standards. The results demonstrated the inapplicability of the method, considering the current specification for the fuel plates due to the high intrinsic error to the method. However, the study of the errors involved in the methodology, seeking to increase their accuracy and precision, can enable the application of the method to qualify the final product. (author)

  15. Frictional characteristics of erythrocytes on coated glass plates subject to inclined centrifugal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Kousuke; Funamoto, Kenichi; Takeno, Takanori; Ohta, Makoto; Takeda, Motohiro; Shirai, Atsushi

    2008-10-01

    In recent years a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film and a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer have attracted attention as coating materials for implantable artificial organs or devices. When these materials are coated on vascular devices, compatibility to blood is an important problem. The present paper focuses on friction characteristics of erythrocytes to these coating materials in a medium. With an inclined centrifuge microscope developed by the authors, observation was made for erythrocytes moving on flat glass plates with and without coating in a medium of plasma or saline under the effect of inclined centrifugal force. Friction characteristics of erythrocytes with respect to these coating materials were then measured and compared to each other to characterize DLC and MPC as coating materials. The friction characteristics of erythrocytes in plasma using the DLC-coated and noncoated glass plates are similar, changing approximately proportional to the 0.5th power of the cell velocity. The cells stick to these plates in saline as well, implying the influence of plasma protein. The results using the MPC-coated plate in plasma are similar to those of the other plates for large cell velocities, but deviate from the other results with decreased cell velocity. The results change nearly proportional to the 0.75th power of the cell velocity in the range of small velocities. The results for the MPC-coated plate in saline are similar to that in plasma but somewhat smaller, implying that the friction characteristics for the MPC-coated plate are essentially independent of plasma protein.

  16. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  17. Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.

  18. Theoretical investigation of interaction between a rectangular plate and fractional viscoelastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between plates and foundations is a typical problem encountered in geotechnical engineering. The long-term plate performance is highly dependent on the rheological characteristics of ground soil. Compared with conventional linear rheology, the fractional calculus-based theory is a more powerful mathematical tool that can address this issue. This paper proposes a fractional Merchant model (FMM to investigate the time-dependent behavior of a simply supported rectangular plate on viscoelastic foundation. The correspondence principle involving Laplace transforms was employed to derive the closed-form solutions of plate response under uniformly distributed load. The plate deflection, bending moment, and foundation reaction calculated using the FMM were compared with the results obtained from the analogous elastic model (EM and the standard Merchant model (SMM. It is shown that the upper and lower bound solutions of the FMM can be determined using the EM. In addition, a parametric study was performed to examine the influences of the model parameters on the time-dependent behavior of the plate–foundation interaction problem. The results indicate that a small fractional differential order corresponds to a plate resting on a sandy soil foundation, while the fractional differential order value should be increased for a clayey soil foundation. The long-term performance of a foundation plate can be accurately simulated by varying the values of the fractional differential order and the viscosity coefficient. The observations from this study reveal that the proposed fractional model has the capability to capture the variation of plate deflection over many decades of time.

  19. 3-D characteristics of the residual stress in the plate weld between SA508 and stainless steel 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Won [Global New-clear Engineering and Consulting, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seon Yeong [Korea Laboratory Engineering System Company, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    This study is performed to check the three dimensional characteristics of residual stress in the dissimilar metal weld. Although two dimensional analysis has been widely used for the assessment of weld residual stress, it has limitations to understand the stress distribution of the third direction. 3-D analysis was done to understand residual stress distribution of the welded plate. A simple butt-welded plate was considered to show the stress variation on all direction. A mock-up plate weldment was fabricated with SA-508 and F316L, which are widely used in nuclear power plants. The analysis results were validated with the measured values in the mock-up.

  20. 3-D Characteristics of the Residual Stress in the Plate Butt Weld Between SA508 and F316L SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Won [GNEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seon Yeong [KLES, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This study is performed to check the three dimensional characteristics of residual stress in the dissimilar metal weld. Although two dimensional analysis has been widely used for the assessment of weld residual stress, it has limitations to understand the stress distribution of the third direction. 3-D analysis was done to understand residual stress distribution of the welded plate. A simple butt-welded plate was considered to show the stress variation on all direction. A mock-up plate weldment was fabricated with SA-508 and F316L, which are widely used in nuclear power plants. The analysis results were validated with the measured values in the mock-up.

  1. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  2. Analysis of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop for a Gas Flowing Through a set of Multiple Parallel Flat Plates at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Thomas H.

    1961-01-01

    Equations were derived representing heat transfer and pressure drop for a gas flowing in the passages of a heater composed of a series of parallel flat plates. The plates generated heat which was transferred to the flowing gas by convection. The relatively high temperature level of this system necessitated the consideration of heat transfer between the plates by radiation. The equations were solved on an IBM 704 computer, and results were obtained for hydrogen as the working fluid for a series of cases with a gas inlet temperature of 200 R, an exit temperature of 5000 0 R, and exit Mach numbers ranging from 0.2 to O.8. The length of the heater composed of the plates ranged from 2 to 4 feet, and the spacing between the plates was varied from 0.003 to 0.01 foot. Most of the results were for a five- plate heater, but results are also given for nine plates to show the effect of increasing the number of plates. The heat generation was assumed to be identical for each plate but was varied along the length of the plates. The axial variation of power used to obtain the results presented is the so-called "2/3-cosine variation." The boundaries surrounding the set of plates, and parallel to it, were assumed adiabatic, so that all the power generated in the plates went into heating the gas. The results are presented in plots of maximum plate and maximum adiabatic wall temperatures as functions of parameters proportional to f(L/D), for the case of both laminar and turbulent flow. Here f is the Fanning friction factor and (L/D) is the length to equivalent diameter ratio of the passages in the heater. The pressure drop through the heater is presented as a function of these same parameters, the exit Mach number, and the pressure at the exit of the heater.

  3. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  4. Octanol reduces end-plate channel lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Peter W.; McBurney, Robert N.; Van Helden, Dirk

    1978-01-01

    1. Post-synaptic effects of n-octanol at concentrations of 0·1-1 mM were examined in toad sartorius muscles by use of extracellular and voltage-clamp techniques. 2. Octanol depressed the amplitude and duration of miniature end-plate currents and hence depressed neuromuscular transmission. 3. The decay of miniature end-plate currents remained exponential in octanol solutions even when the time constant of decay (τD) was decreased by 80-90%. 4. The lifetime of end-plate channels, obtained by analysis of acetylcholine noise, was also decreased by octanol. The average lifetime measured from noise spectra agreed reasonably well with the time constant of decay of miniature end-plate currents, both in control solution and in octanol solutions. 5. Octanol caused a reduction in the conductance of end-plate channels. Single channel conductance was on average about 25 pS in control solution and 20 pS in octanol. 6. In most cells the normal voltage sensitivity of the decay of miniature end-plate currents was retained in octanol solutions. The lifetime of end-plate channels measured from acetylcholine noise also remained voltage-sensitive in octanol solutions. In some experiments in which channel lifetime was exceptionally reduced the voltage sensitivity was less than normal. 7. In octanol solutions, τD was still very sensitive to temperature changes in most cells although in some the temperature sensitivity of τD was clearly reduced. Changes in τD with temperature could generally be fitted by the Arrhenius equation suggesting that a single step reaction controlled the decay of currents both in control and in octanol solutions. In some cells in which τD became less than 0·3 ms, the relationship between τD and temperature became inconsistent with the Arrhenius equation. 8. As the decay of end-plate currents in octanol solutions remains exponential, and the voltage and temperature sensitivity can be unchanged even when τD is significantly reduced, it seems likely that

  5. 21 CFR 882.4030 - Skull plate anvil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skull plate anvil. 882.4030 Section 882.4030 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4030 Skull plate anvil. (a) Identification. A skull plate anvil is a device used to form alterable skull plates in the proper shape to fit...

  6. Preserving and Archiving Astronomical Photographic Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomical objects change with time. New observations complement past observations recorded on photographic plates. Analyses of changes provide essential routes to information about an object's formation, constitution and evolution. Preserving a century of photographic plate observations is thus of paramount importance. Plate collections are presently widely dispersed; plates may be stored in poor conditions, and are effectively inaccessible to both researchers and historians. We describe a planned project at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to preserve the collections of astronomical plates in the United States by gathering them into a single storage location. Collections will be sorted, cleaned, and cataloged on-line so as to provide access to researchers. Full scientific and historic use of the material then requires the observations themselves to be accessible digitally. The project's goal will be the availability of these data as a unique, fully-maintained scientific and educational resource. The new archive will support trans-disciplinary research such as the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere, library information science, trends in local weather patterns, and impacts of urbanization on telescope use, while the hand-written observatory logs will be a valuable resource for science historians and biographers.

  7. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  8. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a h......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well......-plates as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture......, cake collapse and reconstitution time. Results: Samples freeze-dried in well-plates had an acceptable visual cake appearance. Solid form analysis by high throughput X-ray powder diffraction indicated comparable polymorphic outcome independent of the container. The expected increase in moisture level...

  9. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  10. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  11. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Adeel, E-mail: adeelahmed@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Laboratoire J.A. Dieudonné, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Asghar, Saleem [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Afzal, Sumaira [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed convection flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate. • The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid are incorporated. • Grinberg-term represents the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. • The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are developed. • The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force on the skin friction are discussed.

  12. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  13. Lead plating of the low beta resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.; Corcoran, D.; Coughlin, R.; Goliak, T.; Hodgkins, D.; James, P.; Seamster, A.G.; Secora, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Plating operations were performed at the lead plating facility at SUNY, Stony Brook. Initial procedures were based on the previous experience of prototype development by Ben-Zvi and Brennan. Several attempts were made to produce satisfactory results, however the lead surfaces were consistently stained and lacked the bright metallic finish routinely achieved with the split loop resonator at SUNY. The development of a new set of procedures was initiated, aided by reports of plating success from Ben-Zvi. Controlled tests were conducted which suggested several changes in the plating parameters. Based on these results and suggestions from the staff at SUNY a new process was defined which was successful in producing the smooth reflective metallic surface known to be necessary forla optimum resonator performance. Following a successful repair of the the crack, the prototype was plated and chemically polished with the new techniques. The resultant surface was highly reflective and free of stains and particulates. The subsequent prototype cold test was successful

  14. Modeling of parallel-plate regenerators with non-uniform plate distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    plate spacing distributions are presented in order to understand the impact of spacing non-uniformity. Simulations of more realistic distributions where the plate spacings follow normal distributions are then discussed in order to describe the deviation of the performance of a regenerator relative...

  15. Fast neutron radiography using photoluminescent imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Balasko, M.; Stade, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) and resonance neutron radiography (RNR) are complementary to the conventional radiography with high energy gamma-rays or brems-strahlung radiation used for the inspection of thick metal objects. In both non-destructive methods, the contrast sensitivity and the penetration power can be improved by using higher energy neutrons. At present direct techniques based either n Solid State Nuclear Track detectors (SSNTDs) or scintillating screens and transfer techniques using activation threshold detectors and radiographic films are applied for the detection of fast neutron images. Rather low detection sensitivity of film and SSNTD based fast neutron imaging methods and also rather poor inherent image contrast of SSNTD pose a problem for FNR in the fast neutron energy region 1-15 MeV interesting for NDT. For more efficient detection of fast neutron images the use of novel highly sensitive photoluminescent imaging plates (IP) in combination with threshold at the KFKI research reactor. The conventional IP produced by FUJI Photo Film Co. for the detection of beta and X-ray radiation were used. The threshold activation detectors were the reactions 115 In(n, n') 115m In, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 56 Fe(n, p) 56 Mn, 24 Mg(n, p) 24 Na and 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na. These threshold reactions cover the fast neutron energy region between 0,7 MeV and 12 MeV. Pure, commercially available metals 0,1 mm to 0,25 mm thick made of In, Zn, Fe, Mg and Al were used as converter screens. The very high sensitivity of IP, the linearity of their response over 5 decades of exposure dose and the high dynamic digitalisation latitude enabled fast neutron radiography of image quality comparable to the quality of thermal NR. In our experimental conditions (φ n ∼ 10 8 n/cm 2 s, R Cd ∼ 2) the neutron exposure and IP exposure periods were still practical and comparable to the half life of the corresponding reaction products (half an hour to several hours). Even with the 27 Al(n.α) 24

  16. Finite element analysis of advanced neutron source fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, C.R.

    1995-08-01

    The proposed design for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor core consists of closely spaced involute fuel plates. Coolant flows between the plates at high velocities. It is vital that adjacent plates do not come in contact and that the coolant channels between the plates remain open. Several scenarios that could result in problems with the fuel plates are studied. Finite element analyses are performed on fuel plates under pressure from the coolant flowing between the plates at a high velocity, under pressure because of a partial flow blockage in one of the channels, and with different temperature profiles

  17. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  18. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  19. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  20. Astrometric properties of the Tautenburg Plate Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens; Meusinger, Helmut

    The Tautenburg Plate Scanner (TPS) is an advanced plate-measuring machine run by the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory), where the machine is housed. It is capable of digitising photographic plates up to 30 cm × 30 cm in size. In our poster, we reported on tests and preliminary results of its astrometric properties. The essential components of the TPS consist of an x-y table movable between an illumination system and a direct imaging system. A telecentric lens images the light transmitted through the photographic emulsion onto a CCD line of 6000 pixels of 10 µm square size each. All components are mounted on a massive air-bearing table. Scanning is performed in lanes of up to 55 mm width by moving the x-y table in a continuous drift-scan mode perpendicular to the CCD line. The analogue output from the CCD is digitised to 12 bit with a total signal/noise ratio of 1000 : 1, corresponding to a photographic density range of three. The pixel map is produced as a series of optionally overlapping lane scans. The pixel data are stored onto CD-ROM or DAT. A Tautenburg Schmidt plate 24 cm × 24 cm in size is digitised within 2.5 hours resulting in 1.3 GB of data. Subsequent high-level data processing is performed off-line on other computers. During the scanning process, the geometry of the optical components is kept fixed. The optimal focussing of the optics is performed prior to the scan. Due to the telecentric lens refocussing is not required. Therefore, the main source of astrometric errors (beside the emulsion itself) are mechanical imperfections in the drive system, which have to be divided into random and systematic ones. The r.m.s. repeatability over the whole plate as measured by repeated scans of the same plate is about 0.5 µm for each axis. The mean plate-to-plate accuracy of the object positions on two plates with the same epoch and the same plate centre has been determined to be about 1 µm. This accuracy is comparable to

  1. Migration of phthalates on culture plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    -well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8...... cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added...... to cell culture plates. DnBP also seemed to be able to migrate, unlike the long-branched DEHP or the monoester MnBP which did not seem to have this ability. High background levels of phthalate metabolites were also observed, which might compromise results from low dose phthalate studies. In conclusion...

  2. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.

  3. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)

    2010-01-15

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic coupled piezothermoelasticity of pyroelectric composite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidary, F.; Reza Eslami, M.

    2005-01-01

    The equations governing the linear response of coupled piezothermolelastic composite plate, considering the pyroelectric effect, are outlined in this paper. The finite element method with linear shape functions for a first-order shear deformation theory of laminated plates is used to obtain the defections and temperature. The finite element equations are developed for piezothermoelectric sensor and actuator. The governing equations are solved using the time marching method. Numerical results are presented for the conventional active direct proportional control of the plate. Controlled and uncontrolled displacements and temperature responses are graphically illustrated. the corresponding temperature response with consideration of the pyroelectric effects is also presented. Dynamic case studies are carried out to observe the pyroelectric effects in the piezothermoelastic control systems. (authors)

  5. Condensation heat transfer in plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    An Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger, previously tested as an evaporator, was retested as a condenser. Two series of tests with different chevron-angle plates were carried out using ammonia as a working fluid. The overall heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop were measured, and the effects of operating parameters were determined. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions. In the analysis, a gravity-controlled condensation process was modeled theoretically, and the overall performance was calculated. The analysis shows that the overall heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with an average uncertainty of about 10%. It is, however, important to consider the interfacial shear stress, because the effective friction factor is high for flow in plate heat exchangers

  6. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  7. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the pressure plate of clutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.N. Venkata Mallikarjuna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature appears in the contact surfaces of a clutch system (friction surface and pressure plate due to the relative motion between these parts during the sliding period. These high temperatures are responsible for several failures such as pressure plate crack, pressure plate warpage etc. With the help of Finite element analysis, the sliding friction process of the pressure plate and friction during clutch engagement is simulated to get temperature field characteristics and contact pressure of pressure plate.

  8. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasia (EU) – North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on ...

  9. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  10. Energy transport to the divertor plates of ASDEX-Upgrade during ELMy H-mode phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.; Laux, M.; Coster, D.; Neuhauser, J.; Reiter, D.; Schneider, R.; Weinlich, M.

    1995-01-01

    The energy flux to the ASDEX-Upgrade divertor plates is routinely measured by themography and Langmuir probes. The thermographically observed power decay length at the target plate is about 1 cm near the inboard separatrix. During an edge localized mode (ELM) of type I the density profiles are significantly, changed; an additional contribution occurs characterized by a power decay length in the order of 10 cm outside the separatrix and additional power is deposited into the private flux region. It is supposed that this is due to the changing, contribution of energy conduction versus convection. Results of ELM-modelling using the coupled B2-EIRENE code reproduce the main features of the experimental observations. The sheath transmission factor is calculated by combining themography and Langmuir probe data. ((orig.))

  11. A crack arrest test using a toughness gradient steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Yagawa, G.; Urabe, Y.; Satoh, M.; Sano, J.

    1995-01-01

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a phenomenon that can occur in the reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with internal pressure and is one of the most severe stress conditions that can be applied to the vessel. Preliminary research has shown that no PTS concern is likely to exist on Japanese RPVs during their design service lives. However, public acceptance of vessel integrity requires analyses and experiment in order to establish an analytical method and a database for life extension of Japanese RPVs. The Japanese PTS integrity study was carried out from FY 1983 to FY 1991 as a national project by Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) under contract with Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in cooperation with LWR utilities and vendors. Here, a crack arrest test was carried out using a toughness gradient steel plate with three layers to study the concept of crack arrest toughness. Four-point bending load with thermal shock was applied to the large flat plate specimen with a surface crack. Five crack initiations and arrests were observed during the test and the propagated crack bifurcated. Finally, cracks were arrested at the boundary of the first and the second layer, except for a small segment of the crack. The first crack initiation took place slightly higher than the lower bound of K Ic data obtained by ITCT specimens. That is, the K IC concept for brittle crack initiation was verified for heavy section steel plates. The first crack arrest took place within the scatter band of K Ia and K Id data for the first layer. That is, the K Ia concept appears applicable for crack arrest of a short crack jump

  12. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...... into, around and out of the storage. The system is required to create a daily schedule for the cranes, but also handle possible disruptions during the execution of the plan. The problem is solved with a Simulated Annealing algorithm....

  13. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  15. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1993-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have led to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  16. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1994-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have lead to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  17. A Geometrically—Nonlinear Plate Theory 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO

    1999-01-01

    An approximate plate theory developed in this paper is based on an assumed displacement field,the strains described by a Taylor series in the normal distance from the middle surface,the exact strains of the middle surface and the equations of equilibrium governing the exact configuration of the deformed middle surface,In this theory the exact geometry of the deformed middle surface is used to derive the strains and equilibrium of the plate.Application of this theory does not depend on the constitutive law.THis theory can reduce to some existing nonlinear theories through imposition of constraints.

  18. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W [Livermore, CA

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  19. Irradiation of full size UMo plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacelet, H.; Lavastre, Y.; Grasse, M.; Sacristan, P.; Languille, A.

    1999-01-01

    An important development program for a UMo MTR fuel has been launched in France. The goal of the French working group is to develop a high performing and reprocessable fuel before the end of the US return policy. This paper is focussed on the fabrication of full-sized UMo plates with LEU (Low Enriched Enrichment) and their irradiation in OSIRIS reactor which was started on the 22nd of September. The results of the plates inspection are presented here as well as the irradiation conditions. (author)

  20. Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.

  1. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  2. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Hudec, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 121-123 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * astronomical algorithms Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  3. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  4. Design of experiment study of the parameters that affect performance of three flow plate configurations of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carton, J.G.; Olabi, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature hydrogen fuel cells are electrochemical devices which offer a promising alternative to traditional power sources. Fuel cells produce electricity with a reaction of the fuel (hydrogen) and air. Fuel cells have the advantage of being clean; only producing water and heat as by products. The efficiency of a fuel cell varies depending on the type; SOFC with CHP for example, can have a system efficiency of up to 65%. What the Authors present here is a comparison between three different configurations of flow plates of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, the manufacturer's serpentine flow plate and two new configurations; the maze flow plate and the parallel flow plate. A study of the input parameters affecting output responses of voltage, current, power and efficiency of a fuel cell is performed through experimentation. The results were taken from direct readings of the fuel cell and from polarisation curves produced. This information was then analysed through a design of experiment to investigate the effects of the changing parameters on different configurations of the fuel cell's flow plates. The results indicate that, in relation to current and voltage response of the polarisation curve and the corresponding graphs produced from the DOE, the serpentine flow plate design is a much more effective design than the maze or parallel flow plate design. It was noted that the parallel flow plate performed reasonably well at higher pressures but over all statically the serpentine flow plate performed better.

  5. Mandibular reconstruction using a titanium plate: the impact of radiation therapy on plate preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Janice K; Stern, Robin L; Robinson, Marilyn G; Bowers, Michael K; Kubo, Hideo D; Donald, Paul J; Rosenthal, Seth A; Fu, Karen K

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the soft tissue and bone tolerance of radiation therapy (RT) in patients undergoing radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1994, 47 patients with primary or recurrent oral cavity or oropharyngeal carcinomas were treated with radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Eleven patients received no RT (no RT), 10 patients received RT greater than 10 months from the time of surgery (remote RT), and 26 patients received RT within 12 weeks of surgery (perioperative RT). The radiation dose to the reconstructed mandible ranged from 45 to 75 Gy (median 63 Gy). The effect of the titanium plate on the radiation dose was measured using film dosimetry and soft tissue and bone-equivalent materials. The median follow-up was 17 months (range: 3-50 months). Results: Late complications included four patients with osteomyelitis or necrosis, two plate exposures requiring flap revision, one chronic infection, two cases of chronic pain, two fistulae, and one case of trismus and malocclusion. The crude incidence of late complications by treatment was: (a) no RT: 3 of 11 patients (27%); (b) remote RT: 2 of 10 patients (20%); and (c) perioperative RT: 9 of 26 patients (35%). One patient in the no-RT group lost the plate due to chronic pain. Five patients in the perioperative RT group also had plate loss, four due to osteomyelitis and/or necrosis, and one due to pain related to a recurrent tumor. No patients in the remote RT group had plate loss. The actuarial prosthesis preservation rate at 2 years was 88% for the no RT, 100% for the remote RT, and 57% for the perioperative RT groups (p = 0.05). Phantom dose measurements showed that for parallel opposed 6 MV photon beams, there was no significant increase in the dose proximal or distal to the plate in either a soft tissue- or

  6. Comparison of Thermal Performances between Low Porosity Perforate Plate and Flat Plate Solar Air Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoy-Yen; Vinson, A. A.; Baljit, S. S. S.; Ruslan, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    Flat plate solar air collector is the most common collector design, which is relatively simpler to fabricate and lower cost. In the present study, perforated plate solar collector was developed to improve the system thermal performance. A glazed perforated plate of 6mm holes diameter with square geometry was designed and installed as the absorber of the collector. The influences of solar radiation intensity and mass flow rate on the thermal performance were investigated. The perforated collector was compared with the flat plate solar collector under the same operating conditions. The highest values of thermal efficiency in this study for the perforated plate (PP) and the flat plate (FP) solar collectors were 59% and 36% respectively, at solar radiation intensity of 846 Wm-2 and mass flow rate of 0.02 kgs-1. Furthermore, PP collector gave better thermal performance compared to FP collector; and compared to previous studies, the present perforated design was compatible with the flat plate with double pass designs.

  7. Destructive examination of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials (DDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Buegers, W.; Violin, F.; Di Piazza, L.; Cowburn, K.; Sargent, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of NDT exercises results has been based on destructive examination of the plates or test blocks used during the exercise. The PISC Programme has shown that in all cases the indications given by the NDT instrumentation were corresponding to some particular defects or structure aspects in the steel or were explained by particular positions of reflectors. Generally the introduction of defects do not produce a final ''defective zone or area'' which is strictly corresponding to the intended defect. The DDT exercise management has thus decided to perform a complete destructive examination of the four plates involved in this exercise because of its experience (the PISC I exercise) and independance of commercial interest, the JRC of the CEC Ispra Establishment has been asked to do the work with the Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratories (RNL). The present report describes the results of the destructive examination of the DDT plates 1 and 2

  8. Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Giorgio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ade, Peter A R

    2006-12-10

    We adopted an existing formalism and modified it to simulate, with high precision, the transmission, reflection, and absorption of multiple-plate birefringent devices as a function of frequency. To validate the model, we use it to compare the measured properties of an achromatic five-plate device with a broadband antireflection coating to expectations derived from the material optical constants and its geometric configuration. The half-wave plate presented here is observed to perform well with a phase shift variation of < 2 degrees from the ideal 180 degrees over a bandwidth of Deltav/v approximately 1 at millimeter wavelengths. This formalism represents a powerful design tool for birefringent polarization modulators and enables its optical properties to be specified with high accuracy.

  9. Offset Printing Plate Quality Sensor on a Low-Cost Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tirado

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a microprocessor-based sensor that measures the quality of the offset printing plate through the introduction of different image analysis applications. The main features of the presented system are the low cost, the low amount of power consumption, its modularity and easy integration with other industrial modules for printing plates, and its robustness against noise environments. For the sake of clarity, a viability analysis of previous software is presented through different strategies, based on dynamic histogram and Hough transform. This paper provides performance and scalability data compared with existing costly commercial devices. Furthermore, a general overview of quality control possibilities for printing plates is presented and could be useful to a system where such controls are regularly conducted.

  10. Post-pulse detail metallographic examinations of low-enriched uranium silicide plate-type miniature fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    1991-10-01

    Pulse irradiation at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) was performed using low-enriched (19.89 w% 235 U) unirradiated silicide plate-type miniature fuel which had a density of 4.8 gU/cm 3 . Experimental aims are to understand the dimensional stability and to clarify the failure threshold of the silicide plate-type miniature fuel under power transient conditions through post-pulse detail metallographic examinations. A silicide plate-type miniature fuel was loaded into an irradiation capsule and irradiated by a single pulse. Deposited energies given in the experiments were 62, 77, 116 and 154 cal/g·fuel, which lead to corresponding peak fuel plate temperatures, 201 ± 28degC, 187 ± 10degC, 418 ± 74degC and 871 ± 74degC, respectively. Below 400degC, reliability and dimensional stability of the silicide plate fuel was sustained, and the silicide plate fuel was intact. Up to 540degC, wall-through intergranular crackings occurred in the Al-3%Mg alloy cladding. With the increase of the temperature, the melting of the aluminum cladding followed by recrystallization, the denudation of fuel core and the plate-through intergranular cracking were observed. With the increase of the temperature beyond 400degC, the bowing of fuel plate became significant. Above the temperature of 640degC molten aluminum partially reacted with the fuel core, partially flowed downward under the influence of surface tension and gravity, and partially formed agglomerations. Judging from these experimental observations, the fuel-plate above 400degC tends to reduce its dimensional stability. Despite of the apparent silicide fuel-plate failure, neither generation of pressure pulse nor that of mechanical energy occurred at all. (J.P.N.)

  11. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...

  12. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...

  13. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  14. Micro-channel plates and vacuum detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gys, T., E-mail: Thierry.Gys@cern.ch

    2015-07-01

    A micro-channel plate is an array of miniature electron multipliers that are each acting as a continuous dynode chain. The compact channel structure results in high spatial and time resolutions and robustness to magnetic fields. Micro-channel plates have been originally developed for night vision applications and integrated as an amplification element in image intensifiers. These devices show single-photon sensitivity with very low noise and have been used as such for scintillating fiber tracker readout in high-energy physics experiments. Given their very short transit time spread, micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes are also being used in time-of-flight and particle identification detectors. The present paper will cover the history of the micro-channel plate development, basic features, and some of their applications. Emphasis will be put on various new manufacturing processes that have been developed over the last few years, and that result in a significant improvement in terms of efficiency, noise, and lifetime performance.

  15. Light fireproof insulating plate-formed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, B.A.; Juhl, L.F.

    1981-02-23

    Light fireproof insulating plates were produced by pressure processing of a mixture of rice-husk ashes with pearlite aluminium phosphate and glass wool. The corn size of pearlite is 0-5 mm., of rice-husk ashes 0-5 mm. and the fiber length of fibrous additive is about 25 mm.

  16. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  17. Fatigue accumulation in an oscillating plate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eleuteri, M.; Kopfová, J.; Krejčí, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2013), s. 909-923 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elastoplastic plate * Prandtl-Ishlinskii operator * material fatigue Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=8092

  18. Advances and Trends in Plate Buckling Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hydrostatic State of In- Plane Stress. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 79-21 (Puerto Belgrano, Argentina), June 1979, 10 pp. (to be published). 38. Leissa...and Elastic Stability of Circular Plates With Thickness Varying in a Bilinear Fashion. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 81-23 (Puerto Belgrano

  19. Photon counting with small pore microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martindale, A.; Lapington, J.S.; Fraser, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the operation of microchannel plates (MCPs) with 3.2μm diameter channels as photon counting detectors of soft X-rays. Gain and temporal resolution measurements are compared with theoretical scaling laws for channel diameter. A minimum pulse width of 264ps is observed for a two stage multiplier at a total bias voltage of ∼1930V

  20. BEPLATE emdash simulation of electrochemical plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, G.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); Gray, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bullock, J.S. IV (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    BEPLATE is a FORTRAN code that uses the boundary element method to simulate the electrochemical plating of material on parts, primarily rotating axisymmetric parts. A boundary element technique is used to solve for the local current density and thus the plating rate on the part, which is used to calculate the growth in the plated layer over a user-specified time step. The surface is moved to reflect this growth, and the new surface is used to generate the local current density. This cycle is repeated until the final time specified by the analyst, producing the final plated thickness. BEPLATE includes models for the polarization effects at both the part (cathode) and anode and allows the use of symmetry planes and nonconducting shields. For electroplating simulations, the part shape is normally assumed to be axisymmetric with a centerline along the z-axis. More general part shapes can be analyzed by BEPLATE if the surface growth simulation is not needed. In either case, the shield, anode, and tank geometries are not restricted to specific shapes. This report includes the information required to run BEPLATE, specifically, a brief description of the BEPLATE system including hardware and software requirements, a description of the complete simulation process, discussion of rules for generating models, and additional reference material. This system of codes consists of model generators (PIGS or PATRAN), input processor (BEPIN), the simulation code (BEPLATE) and postprocessing codes (PATRAN or CONPLOT).

  1. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam.

  2. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  3. Scour Protection for Monopile by Concrete Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Skúlason, Magnús

    A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a monopile for an offshore wind turbine. The foundation is protected against scour with a concrete plate with various designs. The tests should be regarded as pilot tests previous to a detailed investigation. The tests has been...

  4. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  5. A finite element for plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1981-08-01

    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  6. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu 2 O 3 and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam

  7. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  8. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  9. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  10. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  11. Designing Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Report presents overview of state of art in design techniques for flat-plate solar photovoltaic modules and arrays. Paper discusses design requirements, design analyses, and test methods identified and developed for this technology over past several years in effort to reduce cost and improve utility and reliability for broad spectrum of terrestrial applications.

  12. Shocked plate metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Koker, J.G.; Rice, W.W. Jr.; Jensen, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing metal atom oxidation lasing wherein an explosively shocked grooved metal plate produces metal vapor jets directed through an appropriate gaseous oxidizer are described. Reaction of the metal vapor with the oxidizer produces molecular species having a population inversion therein. (U.S.)

  13. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  14. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structures with thick plates have been used extensively in national defence, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, nuclear engineering, civil engineering, etc.. Various theories have been established to deal with the problems of elastic plates, which include the classical theory of thin plates, the improved theory of thick plates, three-dimensional elastical theory. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic analysis of thick plates subjected the concentrated load is presented. The improved Donnell's equation of thick plates is deduced and employed as the basic equation. The generalized coordinates are solved by using the method of MWR. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elastic thick plates subjected the concentrated load are given. The numerical results for rectangular plates are given herein. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. (orig./GL)

  15. Introduction to Analysis and Design of Plate Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Lützen, Marie

    , composite materials as glass-fibre-reinforced plates, sandwich plates and reinforced concrete plates are not included as they are topics for other courses. The present notes are mainly based on Pedersen and Jensen (1983), written in Danish. The first version of the notes was prepared by Marie L......The present notes cover plate theory dealing with bending, vibrations, elastic buckling and ultimate strength. The plate structures considered are isotropic, orthotropic and stiffened plates made of metallic materials. The main objective of the notes is to give an introduction to plates and plate...... panels and to present some fairly easy methods and results to be used in the design phase to judge, whether a plate panel can be considered safe from a structural point of view or requires a more detailed numerical analysis, typically using the Finite Element Method. Furthermore, a short introduction...

  16. MTR fuel plate qualification capabilities at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Jacquet, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of BR2 in the field of MTR fuel plate testing, a dedicated irradiation device has been designed. In its basic version this device allows the irradiation of 3 fuel plates. The central fuel plate may be replaced by a dummy plate or a plate carrying dosimeters. A first FUTURE device has been built. A benchmark irradiation has been executed with standard BR2 fuel plates in order to qualify this device. Detailed neutronic calculations were performed and the results compared to the results of the post-irradiation examinations of the plates. These comparisons demonstrate the capability to conduct a fuel plate irradiation program under requested and well-known irradiation conditions. Further improvements are presently being designed in order to extend the ranges of heat flux and surface temperature of the fuel plates that can be handled with the FUTURE device. (author)

  17. Light transmission aggregometry using pre-coated microtiter plates and a Victor X5 plate reader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Camilla Brødsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) can be performed with microtiter plates (96-well LTA). When conducting LTA, an agonist is added to platelet-rich plasma and the sample is shaken for minutes after which absorbance readings are done. Platelet aggregation is detected as decrease...... in absorbance. However, the classical method is cumbersome and therefore microtiter plates can be used for concomitant testing of multiple samples. Furthermore, it would be convenient to prepare the plate in advance of platelet aggregation testing. Aim: The aim of the present study was to establish a simplified...

  18. Gain stabilized microchannel plates and a treatment method for microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Microchannel plates having increased gain and significantly improved aging characteristics are provided by forming a thin film of a cesium compound on the channel walls. In an exemplary embodiment, a suface film of cesium hydroxide is applied to the interior wall surfaces of an MCP by saturating the plate with a solution of the compound, then allowing the solvent to evaporate. The cesium hydroxide residue on the walls subsequently is converted to cesium oxide by a high temperature bake. Microchannel plates are used in image amplifiers, radiation detectors and such like equipment. (Auth.)

  19. Corrosion and pyrophoricity of ZPPR fuel plates: Implications for basin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.; Hayes, S.L.; Pahl, R.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of recent experimentation and analysis of the pyrophoric behavior of corroded Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) HEU fuel plates and the implications of these results for the handling, drying, and passivation of uranium metal fuels stored in water basins. The ZPPR plates were originally clad in 1980; crevice corrosion of the uranium metal in a dry storage environment has occurred due to the use of porous cladding end plugs. The extensive corrosion has resulted in bulging and, in some cases, breaching of the cladding over a 15 year storage period. Processing of the plates has been initiated to recover the highly enriched uranium metal and remove the storage vulnerability identified with the corroded plates, which have been shown to contain significant quantities of the pyrophoric compound uranium hydride (UH 3 ). Experiments were undertaken to determine effective passivation techniques for the corrosion product; analysis and modeling was performed to determine whether heat generated by rapid hydride re-oxidation could ignite the underlying metal plates. The results of the initial passivation experiment showed that simple exposure of the hydride-containing corrosion product to an Ar-3 vol.% O 2 environment was insufficient to fully passivate the hydride--flare-up of the product occurred during subsequent vigorous handling in air. A second experiment demonstrated that corrosion product was fully stable following grinding of the product to a fine powder in the Ar-3 vol.% O 2 atmosphere. Numerical modeling of a corroded plate indicated that ignition of the plate due to the heat from hydride re-oxidation was likely if hydride fractions in the corrosion product exceeded 30%

  20. Kinetic description of flow past a micro-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christlieb, Andrew J.; Hitchon, W. Nicholas G.; Boyd, Iain D.; Sun Quanhua

    2004-01-01

    In this work we discuss a novel numerical scheme and present numerical results for the problem of 'high' (of order unity) Knudsen number, Kn=λ/L, low velocity gas flow past a micro-plate. The scheme used here is similar to one employed in the past to examine heat flow, but in order to deal with momentum transport in the vicinity of a plate, new techniques had to be developed. These include a new scheme for finding 'transition probabilities', which eliminates some forms of numerical diffusion, and a method for handling reflections off surfaces which preserves the essential properties of the flow. The purpose of the paper is to present these methods and examine their performance. The method is found to function well, but the results indicate that the collision operator which is employed here must be improved in order to obtain accurate results for the drag. Low speed neutral particle transport, in long mean free path (LMFP) environments, presents challenges for well-established techniques, such as the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In particular, at low flow velocities, statistical methods suffer from noise that may render them impractical in LMFP environments. Solution of the Boltzmann equation is the alternative to these statistical methods. As computing power increases, Boltzmann-based approaches become more accessible. We discuss here a novel non-statistical (no random numbers are used) kinetic model for particle transport and explore its accuracy and sensitivity to resolution and other details of its implementation. The model is an enhanced version of the transition probability matrix (TPM) method. The results generated by the TPM are compared with the information preservation (IP) method, the Navier-Stokes (NS) slip model and when applicable to DSMC. We provide a qualitative comparison of the models and then we compare the results of the different models for various Kn for flow past a plate. For Kn in the slip flow regime, the TPM, IP and NS

  1. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  2. Technical Errors May Affect Accuracy of Torque Limiter in Locking Plate Osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, David D; Lee, Simon; Bohnenkamp, Frank C; Pastor, Andrew; Garapati, Rajeev; Goldberg, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    In locking plate osteosynthesis, proper surgical technique is crucial in reducing potential pitfalls, and use of a torque limiter makes it possible to control insertion torque. We conducted a study of the ways in which different techniques can alter the accuracy of torque limiters. We tested 22 torque limiters (1.5 Nm) for accuracy using hand and power tools under different rotational scenarios: hand power at low and high velocity and drill power at low and high velocity. We recorded the maximum torque reached after each torque-limiting event. Use of torque limiters under hand power at low velocity and high velocity resulted in significantly (P torque and subsequent complications. For torque limiters, the most reliable technique involves hand power at slow velocity or drill power with careful control of insertion speed until 1 torque-limiting event occurs.

  3. Characterization of the electrical output of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The electric output of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as direct-current to alternating-current power conditioners must be able to accommodate widely varying input levels, while maintaining operation at or near the array maximum power point.The results of an extensive computer simulation study that was used to define the parameters necessary for the systematic design of array/power-conditioner interfaces are presented as normalized ratios of power-conditioner parameters to array parameters, to make the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes. The advantages of maximum power tracking and a technique for computing average annual power-conditioner efficiency are discussed.

  4. TPSLVM: a dimensionality reduction algorithm based on thin plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinwei; Gao, Junbin; Wang, Tianjiang; Shi, Daming

    2014-10-01

    Dimensionality reduction (DR) has been considered as one of the most significant tools for data analysis. One type of DR algorithms is based on latent variable models (LVM). LVM-based models can handle the preimage problem easily. In this paper we propose a new LVM-based DR model, named thin plate spline latent variable model (TPSLVM). Compared to the well-known Gaussian process latent variable model (GPLVM), our proposed TPSLVM is more powerful especially when the dimensionality of the latent space is low. Also, TPSLVM is robust to shift and rotation. This paper investigates two extensions of TPSLVM, i.e., the back-constrained TPSLVM (BC-TPSLVM) and TPSLVM with dynamics (TPSLVM-DM) as well as their combination BC-TPSLVM-DM. Experimental results show that TPSLVM and its extensions provide better data visualization and more efficient dimensionality reduction compared to PCA, GPLVM, ISOMAP, etc.

  5. Estimation of pressure drop in gasket plate heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Anisoara Arleziana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present comparatively different methods of pressure drop calculation in the gasket plate heat exchangers (PHEs, using correlations recommended in literature on industrial data collected from a vegetable oil refinery. The goal of this study was to compare the results obtained with these correlations, in order to choose one or two for practical purpose of pumping power calculations. We concluded that pressure drop values calculated with Mulley relationship and Buonopane & Troupe correlation were close and also Bond’s equation gave results pretty close to these but the pressure drop is slightly underestimated. Kumar correlation gave results far from all the others and its application will lead to oversize. In conclusion, for further calculations we will chose either the Mulley relationship or the Buonopane & Troupe correlation.

  6. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod K [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  7. Use of gamma spectrometry for studying fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carteret, Y.; Schley, R.; Simonet, G.

    1979-01-01

    The programme of experimental irradiation performed at the CEA on the CARAMEL plate fuel was followed by gamma spectrometry, jointly with other techniques. The qualitative study of the distribution of fission products constitutes a source of information on the behavior of the fuel (temperature and structure) and enables its utilization limits to be predicted. The quantitative determination of short and long half life fission products makes it possible to calculate the specific power and specific burn-up. Carried out periodically, it is a means of checking the values obtained by the continuous measurement of cladding temperature, directly linked to the specific burn-up. At the end of irradiation, the results are compared against those achieved by neodymium analysis. The study of the change in gadolinium, a burnable poison, is an application of this technique [fr

  8. African Plate Seismicity and Gravity Field Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, B. P.; Nachapkin, N. I.; Milanovsky, Svet

    The analysis of connection plate of earthquakes of the African continent with Bouguer gravity anomalies is carried out. As input dataSs were used the catalog of earthquakes and numeral map of Bouguer gravity field. The catalog contains geographical coor- dinates of epicenters and magnitudes of 8027 earthquakes recorded on continent and adjacent oceanic areas for the period from 1904 to 1988 years. The values of a gravity field preset in knots of a grid with a step 1 grade. For the analysis of plate seismicity from the catalog the parameters of 6408 earthquakes were chosen, which one have taken place in the field of restricted shore line. The earthquakes fixed in a band of a concatenation of continent with the Arabian plate were excluded from the analysis. On the basis of a numeral gravity map for everyone epicenter the value of Bouguer anomaly was calculated. The allocation of epicenters of earthquakes with magnitude M is obtained depending on value of a gravity Bouguer field. The outcomes of a sta- tistical analysis testify that practically all earthquakes are associated with the areas with negative values of Bouguer gravity field. Thus in areas with values of a field -160 mgal to -100 mgal there was 80 % of all earthquakes. It is necessary to note, that the mean value of the field for the African continent is -70 mgal. Obtained result gives us the possibility to make a conclusion about connection of plate earthquakes of Africa predominantly with structural complexes of earth crust with lower density. These out- comes are in the consent with a hypothesis of one of the authors (Ryzhii B.P.) about connection of plate earthquakes hypocenters on the territory of Russia with negative values of a gravity field and heightened silica content in the Earth crust. This work was supported with RFFI grant N 00-05-65067

  9. Assessment of cooling performance of a diffuse plate in HYPER target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, N. I.; Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    Major difficulties are caused by cooling problems of the beam window of the spallation target in designing of 1000 MWth HYPER (HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor). Numerical studies to improve the cooling capability of the window are on the way. In the present work, numerical analysis has been performed to assess the cooling performance of a diffuse plate in HYPER target conditions. The fluid dynamics code CFX 4 was used for the analysis. Heat depositions in the window and the target were calculated by the LAHEAT code systems and used as input data of the CFX 4 code. The diffuse plate was modeled as a porous media having three porosities. The analysis was performed for various design parameters (the porosity, the thickness of a diffuse plate, the distance between the plate and the window). The results of CFX 4 show that ∼10 .deg. C of the reduction of the maximum window temperature, which is not enough for the HYPER design, can be obtained with a diffuse plate. Therefore, another methods such as an introduction of a bypass injection have to be considered to improve the window cooling

  10. Quality control of nuclear fuel plates using digital image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Renato; Radd, Ulrich; Coronado, Harold; Olivares, Luis

    2003-01-01

    The Chilean Atomic Energy Commission (CCHEN) has developed the technology requires to manufacture low enriched uranium-235 nuclear fuel elements used in non-power reactor applications and in research. These fuel plates are assembled in two nuclear facilities located at La Reina (RECH-1) and Lo Aguirre where the present work was developed. Furthermore since high quality standards have been met, these facilities are able to export these nuclear fuel plates to foreign countries. Each MTR fuel elements consists of 16 low enriched uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) fuel plates. A stringent quality assurance program requires among others, homogeneity measurements of uranium surface density values of these fuel plates, which are traditionally accomplished with optical densitometry methods. We have implemented and alternative technique which uses computer vision to determine uranium surface density values in these fuel plates. Both techniques are compared. Advantages of machine vision methods include considerable time saving and a complete quantitative evaluation of uranium densities as compared to the sparse technique involved in the optical densitometry method (Au)

  11. Vibration reduction of composite plates by piezoelectric patches using a modified artificial bee colony algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghashochi-Bargh

    Full Text Available In Current paper, power consumption and vertical displacement optimization of composite plates subject to a step load are carried out by piezoelectric patches using the modified multi-objective Elitist-Artificial Bee Colony (E-ABC algorithm. The motivation behind this concept is to well balance the exploration and exploitation capability for attaining better convergence to the optimum. In order to reduce the calculation time, the elitist strategy is also used in Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The voltages of patches, plate length/width ratios, ply angles, plate thickness/length ratios, number of layers and edge conditions are chosen as design variables. The formulation is based on the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT and Hamilton's principle. The performance of the new ABC approach is compared with the PSO algorithm and shows the good efficiency of the new ABC approach. To check the validity, the transient responses of isotropic and orthotropic plates are compared with those available in the literature and show a good agreement.

  12. Plate heat exchanger - inertia flywheel performance in loss of flow transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-El-Maaty, Talal; Abd-El-Hady, Amr

    2009-01-01

    One of the most versatile types of heat exchangers used is the plate heat exchanger. It has principal advantages over other heat exchangers in that plates can be added and/or removed easily in order to change the area available for heat transfer and therefore its overall performance. The cooling systems of Egypt's second research reactor (ETRR 2) use this type of heat exchanger for cooling purposes in its primary core cooling and pool cooling systems. In addition to the change in the number of heat exchanger cooling channels, the effect of changing the amount of mass flow rate on the heat exchanger performance is an important issues in this study. The inertia flywheel mounted on the primary core cooling system pump with the plate heat exchanger plays an important role in the case of loss of flow transients. The PARET code is used to simulate the effect of loss of flow transients on the reactor core. Hence, the core outlet temperature with the pump-flywheel flow coast down is fed into the plate heat exchanger model developed to estimate the total energy transferred to the cooling tower, the primary side heat exchanger temperature variation, the transmitted heat exchanger power, and the heat exchanger effectiveness. In addition, the pressure drop in both, the primary side and secondary side of the plate heat exchanger is calculated in all simulated transients because their values have limits beyond which the heat exchanger is useless. (orig.)

  13. Recent advances in seismic non-destructive testing of concrete plate like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, N.; Kristensen, A.; Jovall, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in seismic/acoustic non-destructive testing of concrete containment walls. The presented technique is focused on the characterization of the mean stiffness (seismic velocities) and thickness of the containment wall. The Impact Echo (IE) method is a well-established technique to measure the thickness of concrete plates or to locate defects in concrete plate like structures. The method relies on a good estimate of the mean velocity through the thickness of the plate and a precisely measured thickness resonant frequency. Recently the underlying theory of the IE method has been redefined and improved based on Lamb waves in a free plate. Based on this theory we have developed a new data processing technique where both propagating and standing Lamb waves are analysed in a combined manner using multichannel data. With this approach the mean velocity through the plate thickness is evaluated by using the fundamental mode Lamb wave dispersion curves. The accuracy and detection ability of the measured resonant frequency is improved by utilizing both amplitude and phase information from the multichannel record. The method has been tested on several nuclear power plants in Sweden and Finland and proved to be more robust compared to conventional IE and surface wave measurements

  14. Numerical analysis of the vibroacoustic properties of plates with embedded grids of acoustic black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Stephen C; Fahnline, John B; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of an Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) has been developed and exploited as an approach for passively attenuating structural vibration. The basic principle of the ABH relies on proper tailoring of the structure geometrical properties in order to produce a gradual reduction of the flexural wave speed, theoretically approaching zero. For practical systems the idealized "zero" wave speed condition cannot be achieved so the structural areas of low wave speed are treated with surface damping layers to allow the ABH to approach the idealized dissipation level. In this work, an investigation was conducted to assess the effects that distributions of ABHs embedded in plate-like structures have on both vibration and structure radiated sound, focusing on characterizing and improving low frequency performance. Finite Element and Boundary Element models were used to assess the vibration response and radiated sound power performance of several plate configurations, comparing baseline uniform plates with embedded periodic ABH designs. The computed modal loss factors showed the importance of the ABH unit cell low order modes in the overall vibration reduction effectiveness of the embedded ABH plates at low frequencies where the free plate bending wavelengths are longer than the scale of the ABH.

  15. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric porous plates in the translation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing

    2018-02-01

    To provide reference for aerospace structural design, electro-mechanical vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates carrying porosities in the translation state are investigated. A modified power law formulation is employed to depict the material properties of the plates in the thickness direction. Three terms of inertial forces are taken into account due to the translation of plates. The geometrical nonlinearity is considered by adopting the von Kármán non-linear relations. Using the d'Alembert's principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the out-of-plane motion of the plates is derived. The equation is further discretized to a system of ordinary differential equations using the Galerkin method, which are subsequently solved via the harmonic balance method. Then, the approximate analytical results are validated by utilizing the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. Additionally, the stability of the steady state responses is examined by means of the perturbation technique. Linear and nonlinear vibration analyses are both carried out and results display some interesting dynamic phenomenon for translational porous FGPM plates. Parametric study shows that the vibration characteristics of the present inhomogeneous structure depend on several key physical parameters.

  16. One-way mode transmission in one-dimensional phononic crystal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Zou, Xinye; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jianchun

    2010-12-01

    We investigate theoretically the band structures of one-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) plates with both antisymmetric and symmetric structures, and show how unidirectional transmission behavior can be obtained for either antisymmetric waves (A modes) or symmetric waves (S modes) by exploiting mode conversion and selection in the linear plate systems. The theoretical approach is illustrated for one PC plate example where unidirectional transmission behavior is obtained in certain frequency bands. Employing harmonic frequency analysis, we numerically demonstrate the one-way mode transmission for the PC plate with finite superlattice by calculating the steady-state displacement fields under A modes source (or S modes source) in forward and backward direction, respectively. The results show that the incident waves from A modes source (or S modes source) are transformed into S modes waves (or A modes waves) after passing through the superlattice in the forward direction and the Lamb wave rejections in the backward direction are striking with a power extinction ratio of more than 1000. The present structure can be easily extended to two-dimensional PC plate and efficiently encourage practical studies of experimental realization which is believed to have much significance for one-way Lamb wave mode transmission.

  17. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein

  18. Drilling and cutting of thin metal plates in water with radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glova, A F; Lysikov, A Yu [State Research Center of Russian Federation ' Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research' , Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The conditions of drilling and cutting of 0.15-mm-thick titanium and stainless steel plates in water with the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser having the mean power up to 30 W are studied experimentally in the absence of water and gas jets. Dependences of the maximal cutting speed in water on the radiation power are obtained, the cutting efficiency is determined, and the comparison with the conditions of drilling and cutting of plates in air is carried out.

  19. The Importance of Lower Mantle Structure to Plate Stresses and Plate Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, W. E.; Wang, X.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Plate motions and plate stresses are widely assumed as the surface expression of mantle convection. The generation of plate tectonics from mantle convection has been studied for many years. Lithospheric thickening (or ridge push) and slab pull forces are commonly accepted as the major driving forces for the plate motions. However, the importance of the lower mantle to plate stresses and plate motions remains less clear. Here, we use the joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics approach of Wang et al. (2015) to compute the tractions originating from deeper mantle convection and follow the method of Ghosh et al. (2013) to calculate gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) based on Crust 1.0 (Laske et al., 2013). Absolute values of deviatoric stresses are determined by the body force distributions (GPE gradients and traction magnitudes applied at the base of the lithosphere). We use the same relative viscosity model that Ghosh et al. (2013) used, and we solve for one single adjustable scaling factor that multiplies the entire relative viscosity field to provide absolute values of viscosity throughout the lithosphere. This distribution of absolute values of lithosphere viscosities defines the magnitudes of surface motions. In this procedure, the dynamic model first satisfies the internal constraint of no-net-rotation of motions. The model viscosity field is then scaled by the single factor until we achieve a root mean square (RMS) minimum between computed surface motions and the kinematic no-net-rotation (NNR) model of Kreemer et al. (2006). We compute plate stresses and plate motions from recently published global tomography models (over 70 based on Wang et al., 2015). We find that RMS misfits are significantly reduced when details of lower mantle structure from the latest tomography models are added to models that contain only upper and mid-mantle density distributions. One of the key reasons is that active upwelling from the Large Low Shear

  20. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.G.

    1987-03-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s