WorldWideScience

Sample records for power factor adjustment

  1. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  2. A Review of Electronic Inductor Technique for Power Factor Correction in Three-Phase Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2016-01-01

    (SiC) power devices. Moreover, the influence of partial loading on component sizing in Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) is studied. Finally the analytical loss modelling of power switches is utilized for efficiency measurement. The theoretical analyses are verified by experimental benchmarking in an ASD...

  3. Adjusting of the power-factor correction. Technical, economic and financial implications; Calculo de correccion del factor de potencia. Implicaciones tecnicas, economicas y financieras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eficiencia Energetica aplicada (Energiza) [Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A power-factor is a device formed by a dielectric set and electrodes within a container with terminals, able to contribute with capacitance to an electrical circuit, such as: transformers, induction motors, regulators, air conditioning, welding machines, induction furnaces and ballasts. This document also tells us about the location of capacitors in their system, the electrical conductor, the monthly consumption electricity bill, of the benefits when adjusting the power-factor, the liberation of power of the transformer, the reduction of current in feeders, the reduction of losses in feeders, the diminution of the tension fall and the approximate average sale price. [Spanish] Un factor de potencia es un dispositivo formado por un conjunto de dielectrico y electrodos dentro de un recipiente con terminales, capaz de aportar capacitancia a un circuito electrico, como lo son: transformadores, motores de induccion, reguladores, aire acondicionado, maquinas soldadoras, hornos de induccion y balastros. Este documento tambien nos habla acerca de la localizacion de capacitores en su sistema, del conductor electrico, del recibo de consumo mensual de energia, de los beneficios al corregir factor de potencia, la liberacion de potencia del transformador, la reduccion de corriente en alimentadores, la reduccion de perdidas en alimentadores, la disminucion de la caida de tension y el precio de venta promedio aproximado.

  4. Labor productivity adjustment factors. A method for estimating labor construction costs associated with physical modifications to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report develops quantitative labor productivity adjustment factors for the performance of regulatory impact analyses (RIAs). These factors will allow analysts to modify ''new construction'' labor costs to account for changes in labor productivity due to differing work environments at operating reactors and at reactors with construction in progress. The technique developed in this paper relies on the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) for baseline estimates of the direct labor hours and/or labor costs required to perform specific tasks in a new construction environment. The labor productivity cost factors adjust for constraining conditions such as working in a radiation environment, poor access, congestion and interference, etc., which typically occur on construction tasks at operating reactors and can occur under certain circumstances at reactors under construction. While the results do not portray all aspects of labor productivity, they encompass the major work place conditions generally discernible by the NRC analysts and assign values that appear to be reasonable within the context of industry experience. 18 refs

  5. Increasing the thermoelectric power factor of Ge17Sb2Te20 by adjusting the Ge/Sb ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jared B.; Mather, Spencer P.; Page, Alexander; Uher, Ctirad; Morelli, Donald T.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of Ge17Sb2Te20. This compound is a known phase change material with electronic properties that depend strongly on temperature. The thermoelectric properties of this compound can be tuned by altering the stoichiometry of Ge and Sb without the use of additional foreign elements during synthesis. This tuning results in a 26% increase in the thermoelectric power factor at 723 K. Based on a single parabolic band model we show that the pristine material is optimally doped, and thus, a reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of pure Ge17Sb2Te20 should result in an enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit.

  6. OPTIMAL SELECTION OF THE CA-CFAR ADJUSTMENT FACTOR FOR K POWER SEA CLUTTER WITH STATISTICAL VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la señal interferente de clutter marino establece limitaciones en la calidad de la detección de radar en ambientes costeros y de alta mar. El procesador CA-CFAR es la solución clásica para detectar blancos de radar. Usualmente mantiene su factor de ajuste constante todo el período de operación. Como consecuencia, el esquema no toma en consideración las variaciones estadísticas de la señal de fondo cuando realiza la discriminación del clutter . Para resolver este problema, los autores realizaron un procesamiento intensivo de 40 millones de muestras de clutter de intensidad, generadas en computadora a través de MATLAB. Como resultado, encontraron los valores óptimos del factor de ajuste a ser aplicados para 40 posibles estados estadísticos del clutter , sugiriendo el uso de la arquitectura CA-CFAR con un factor de ajuste variable. Adicionalmente, fue llevado a cabo un ajuste de curvas, obteniéndose expresiones matemáticas que generalizan los resultados en todo el intervalo de considerado de estados estadísticos del clutter . Los experimentos se ejecutaron con un CA-CFAR de 64 celdas y apuntaron a encontrar los valores del factor de ajuste para tres probabilidades de falsa alarma comunes. La distribución K fue elegida como el modelo usado para el clutter , gracias a su amplia popularidad. Este artículo facilita el manejo de la distribución K de intensidad, evitando el uso de funciones Gamma y Bessel, comúnmente encontradas en desarrollos relacionados con el modelo K. Además, fueron cumplidos los requerimientos necesarios para construir un detector adaptativo en clutter de potencia K con conocimiento previo del parámetro de forma. Al mismo tiempo, fueron dadas varias recomendaciones para continuar el desarrollo de una solución más general que también incluirá la estimación del parámetro de forma.

  7. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data. CMS.... The indirect teaching adjustment factor equals [e (raised to the power of .2822×the ratio of residents...

  8. Automatic Power Factor Correction Using Capacitive Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Anant Kumar Tiwari,; Mrs. Durga Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The power factor correction of electrical loads is a problem common to all industrial companies. Earlier the power factor correction was done by adjusting the capacitive bank manually [1]. The automated power factor corrector (APFC) using capacitive load bank is helpful in providing the power factor correction. Proposed automated project involves measuring the power factor value from the load using microcontroller. The design of this auto-adjustable power factor correction is ...

  9. TREE AGE AS ADJUSTMENT FACTOR TO NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Fernando Berra; Denise Cybis Fontana; Tatiana Mora Kuplich

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to increase satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) sensitivity to biophysical parameters changes with aid of a forest age-based adjustment factor. This factor is defined as a ratio between stand age and age of rotation, which value multiplied by Landsat-5/TM-derived NDVI generated the so-called adjusted index NDVI_a. Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) was also calculated. The relationship between these vegetation indices (VI) with Eucalypt...

  10. Calculation of Wind Power Limit adjusting the Continuation Power Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernández, Miguel; Martínez García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit. The calculation is based in static constrains, dynamic constraints or both. In this paper is developed a method for the calculation of wind power limit using some adjust in the continuation power flow, and having into account the static constrains. The method is complemented with Minimal Power Production Criterion. The method is proved in the Isla de la Juventud Electric System. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). (author)

  11. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...... frontend rectifiers even at partial loading conditions. Moreover, the effectiveness of the EI technique along with a phase-shifted current control in terms of improved grid current quality in multi-drive configurations is addressed. Furthermore, a novel DC-link current modulation scheme for multi...

  12. 77 FR 17121 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. [[Page 17122

  13. 77 FR 58910 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment factor (RCAF...

  14. 78 FR 37660 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board approves the third quarter 2013 Rail Cost Adjustment Factor...

  15. 42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320... Capital-Related Costs § 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment factor. (a) Criteria for classification... adjustment factor. (1) If a hospital meets the criteria in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for a...

  16. 76 FR 80448 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. EP 290 (Sub-No. 5) (2012-1)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the first quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment factor (RCAF...

  17. 76 FR 37191 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... our Web site, http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  18. 75 FR 80895 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the first quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  19. 77 FR 37958 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment...

  20. 78 FR 17764 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2013 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  1. 76 FR 59483 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  2. 76 FR 16037 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  3. 75 FR 58019 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2010 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  4. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... Distribution factor* Number of tribes** Funding amount per tribe Less than 25 1 N1 MBA*** × 1 25-100 3.5 N2 MBA...

  5. Layout of NALM fiber laser with adjustable peak power of generated pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Ivanenko, Alexey; Kokhanovskiy, Alexey; Kemmer, Anna; Gervaziev, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    The Letter proposes a new layout of a passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) with two stretches of active fiber and two independently controlled pump modules. In contrast with conventional NALM configurations using a single piece of active fiber that yields virtually constant peak power, the proposed novel laser features larger than a factor of 2 adjustment range of peak power of generated pulses. The proposed layout also provides independent adjustment of duration and peak power of generated pulses as well as power-independent control of generated pulse spectral width impossible in NALM lasers with a single piece of active fiber.

  6. 75 FR 35877 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... available on our Web site, http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting...-3)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2010 rail cost...

  7. 77 FR 76169 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ....stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the AAR's proposed rebasing calculations and...

  8. 75 FR 17462 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...-2)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2010 Rail Cost...

  9. Development of Bioavailability Adjustment Factors: A Feasibility Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rembish, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this effort is to investigate the feasibility of developing and using bioavailability adjustment factors to modify intake assumptions used in risk assessments on a site-specific basis...

  10. 42 CFR 412.316 - Geographic adjustment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related... part. The adjustment factor equals the hospital wage index value applicable to the hospital raised to...

  11. Mechanical design of a power-adjustable spectacle lens frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Asuncion; Barbero, Sergio

    2011-05-01

    Power-adjustable spectacle lenses, based on the Alvarez-Lohmann principle, can be used to provide affordable spectacles for subjective refractive errors measurement and its correction. A new mechanical frame has been designed to maximize the advantages of this technology. The design includes a mechanism to match the interpupillary distance with that of the optical centers of the lenses. The frame can be manufactured using low cost plastic injection molding techniques. A prototype has been built to test the functioning of this mechanical design.

  12. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... information is contained in the Board's June 14, 2010 decision, which is available on our website at http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public... Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. [[Page 33380

  13. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  14. An AC/AC Direct Power Conversion Topology Having Multiple Power Grid Connections with Adjustable Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    independent producers/consumers to connect to multiple distribution grids in order to optimise the electricity price, as this will vary during the day from one power distribution company to another one. It will be needed to have a load that can smoothly adjust the power consumed from each power grid in order......Normally, a power converter has one supply port to connect to the power grid and one or multiple output ports to connect to AC loads that require variable voltage and variable frequency. As the trend on the energy market is towards deregulation, new converter topologies are needed to allow...... to minimize the overall energy cost or in case of special applications, to improve the system redundancy. Also, having a generator that can simultaneously feed fractions of its power into multiple grids which are not coupled (different voltage, frequency, displacement angle) and continuously adjust...

  15. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  16. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  17. General Adjustment Influence Factor of Malaysian Construction Expatriates Executives Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol Halmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.

  18. 18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... economic power adjustment clauses. 35.14 Section 35.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.14 Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses. (a) Fuel adjustment clauses (fuel clause) which are not in conformity with the principles set out...

  19. Admission Control Threshold in Cellular Relay Networks with Power Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ki-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the cellular network with relays, the mobile station can benefit from both coverage extension and capacity enhancement. However, the operation complexity increases as the number of relays grows up. Furthermore, in the cellular network with cooperative relays, it is even more complex because of an increased dimension of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs formed in the cooperative wireless transmission links. In this paper, we propose a new method for admission capacity planning in a cellular network using a cooperative relaying mechanism called decode-and-forward. We mathematically formulate the dropping ratio using the randomness of "channel gain." With this, we formulate an admission threshold planning problem as a simple optimization problem, where we maximize the accommodation capacity (in number of connections subject to two types of constraints. (1 A constraint that the sum of the transmit powers of the source node and relay node is upper-bounded where both nodes can jointly adjust the transmit power. (2 A constraint that the dropping ratio is upper-bounded by a certain threshold value. The simplicity of the problem formulation facilitates its solution in real-time. We believe that the proposed planning method can provide an attractive guideline for dimensioning a cellular relay network with cooperative relays.

  20. FLC based adjustable speed drives for power quality enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Darly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new approach based on fuzzy algorithm to suppress the current harmonic contents in the output of an inverter. Inverter system using fuzzy controllers provide ride-through capability during voltage sags, reduces harmonics, improves power factor and high reliability, less electromagnetic interference noise, low common mode noise and extends output voltage range. A feasible test is implemented by building a model of three-phase impedance source inverter, which is designed and controlled on the basis of proposed considerations. It is verified from the practical point of view that these new approaches are more effective and acceptable to minimize the harmonic distortion and improves the quality of power. Due to the complex algorithm, their realization often calls for a compromise between cost and performance. The proposed optimizing strategies may be applied in variable-frequency dc-ac inverters, UPSs, and ac drives.

  1. Demand, Energy, and Power Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    POWER FACTOR DEFINITION I Basically , power factor (pf) is a measure of how effectively the plant uses the electricity it purchases from the utility. It...not be made available by the plant. U 24 This video is relatively short, less than fifteen-minutes, and covers the basics on demand, block extenders... ratemaking methodology and test period as used in determining the NC-RS rates. Pending final decision by the FERC, the Federal Government would pay a rate as

  2. 21 CFR 880.5100 - AC-powered adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. 880.5100 Section 880.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5100 AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. An AC-powered...

  3. Adjusting for multiple prognostic factors in the analysis of randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background When multiple prognostic factors are adjusted for in the analysis of a randomised trial, it is unclear (1) whether it is necessary to account for each of the strata, formed by all combinations of the prognostic factors (stratified analysis), when randomisation has been balanced within each stratum (stratified randomisation), or whether adjusting for the main effects alone will suffice, and (2) the best method of adjustment in terms of type I error rate and power, irrespective of the randomisation method. Methods We used simulation to (1) determine if a stratified analysis is necessary after stratified randomisation, and (2) to compare different methods of adjustment in terms of power and type I error rate. We considered the following methods of analysis: adjusting for covariates in a regression model, adjusting for each stratum using either fixed or random effects, and Mantel-Haenszel or a stratified Cox model depending on outcome. Results Stratified analysis is required after stratified randomisation to maintain correct type I error rates when (a) there are strong interactions between prognostic factors, and (b) there are approximately equal number of patients in each stratum. However, simulations based on real trial data found that type I error rates were unaffected by the method of analysis (stratified vs unstratified), indicating these conditions were not met in real datasets. Comparison of different analysis methods found that with small sample sizes and a binary or time-to-event outcome, most analysis methods lead to either inflated type I error rates or a reduction in power; the lone exception was a stratified analysis using random effects for strata, which gave nominal type I error rates and adequate power. Conclusions It is unlikely that a stratified analysis is necessary after stratified randomisation except in extreme scenarios. Therefore, the method of analysis (accounting for the strata, or adjusting only for the covariates) will not

  4. Iranian Version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoo, Mozhgan; Allahyari, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Ali Reza; Payandeh, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Mental adjustment to cancer is known as a psychological, physical, and psychological health variable among cancer patients. The present study examines the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale (Mini-MAC) in a sample of Iranian adults who suffer from cancer. The sample consists of 320 cancer patients selected through non-random convenient sampling procedure from the hospitals and clinics in the cities of Kermanshah and Shiraz in Iran, using the Mini-MAC scale. One hundred of these patients also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Statistical methods used to analyze the data included confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, discriminate validity, and Cronbach alpha coefficients for internal consistency. Factor analysis confirms five factors in the Mini-MAC. The values of fit indices are within the acceptable range. Significant correlations between the Mini-MAC and other measures also show that this scale has discriminate validity. Alpha coefficients for the subscales are Helplessness/Hopelessness,.94; Cognitive Avoidance.76; Anxious Preoccupation,.90; Fatalism,.77; Fighting Spirit.80; and total scale.84, respectively. The results confirm the five-factor structure of the Persian Mini-MAC scale and also prove that it is a reliable and valid scale. They show that this scale has sufficient power to measure different aspects of mental adjustment in patients with cancer.

  5. 78 FR 56911 - Notice of Certain Operating Cost Adjustment Factors for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Cost Adjustment Factors for 2014 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice establishes operating cost adjustment factors (OCAFs... date on or after February 11, 2014. OCAFs are annual factors used to adjust Section 8 rents renewed...

  6. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of annual adjustment factors for excess emissions penalty. SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of... excess tons emitted times $2,000 as adjusted by an annual adjustment factor, which must be published in...

  7. Power factor regulation for household usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Tarmizi, Muhammad Haziq Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Power factor regulator technology has recently drawn attention to the consumer and to power generation company in order for consumers to use electricity efficiently. Controlling of power factor for efficient usage can reduce the production of power in fulfilment demands hence reducing the greenhouse effect. This paper presents the design method of power factor controller for household usage. There are several methods to improve the power factor. The power factor controller used by this method is by using capacitors. Total harmonic distortion also has become a major problem for the reliability of the electrical appliances and techniques to control it will be discussed.

  8. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  9. 78 FR 59093 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... (ICC) outlined the procedures for calculating the all-inclusive index of railroad input prices and the... American Railroads (AAR) is required to calculate the index on a quarterly basis and submit it to the...--Productivity Adjustment, 5 I.C.C. 2d 434 (1989), aff'd sub nom. Edison Electric Institute v. ICC, 969 F.2d 1221...

  10. 78 FR 78508 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... (ICC) outlined the procedures for calculating the all-inclusive index of railroad input prices [[Page... Association of American Railroads (AAR) is required to calculate the index on a quarterly basis and submit it... Procedures--Productivity Adjustment, 5 I.C.C.2d 434 (1989), aff'd sub nom. Edison Electric Institute v. ICC...

  11. Development and Adjustment of Adopted Adolescents : Longitudinal and Concurrent Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffari-Bimmel, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    The first study of this thesis (Chapter 2) showed that the majority of the internationally adopted children are well adjusted, although a relatively large minority of adopted children had behavior problems of clinical significance or were referred to mental health services compared with non-adopted

  12. A New Generalized Two-Stage Direct Power Conversion Topology to Independently Supply Multiple AC Loads from Multiple Power Grids with Adjustable Power Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    ) and continuously adjust these power fractions will become a desired feature. This paper presents a generalized Direct Power Converter topology, which is able to connect to multiple AC supplies proving complete decoupling and no circulating power between the input ports and to independently control multiple AC...

  13. Covariate adjustments in randomized controlled trials increased study power and reduced biasedness of effect size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to show that under several assumptions, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), unadjusted, crude analysis will underestimate the Cohen's d effect size of the treatment, and an unbiased estimate of effect size can be obtained only by adjusting for all predictors of the outcome. Four simulations were performed to examine the effects of adjustment on the estimated effect size of the treatment and power of the analysis. In addition, we analyzed data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study (older adults aged 65-94), an RCT with three treatment arms and one control arm. We showed that (1) the number of unadjusted covariates was associated with the effect size of the treatment; (2) the biasedness of effect size estimation was minimized if all covariates were adjusted for; (3) the power of the statistical analysis slightly decreased with the number of adjusted noise variables; and (4) exhaustively searching the covariates and noise variables adjusted for can lead to exaggeration of the true effect size. Analysis of the ACTIVE study data showed that the effect sizes adjusting for covariates of all three treatments were 7.39-24.70% larger than their unadjusted counterparts, whereas the effect size would be elevated by at most 57.92% by exhaustively searching the variables adjusted for. All covariates of the outcome in RCTs should be adjusted for, and if the effect of a particular variable on the outcome is unknown, adjustment will do more good than harm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has started research in human factors in nuclear power plants. One project, completed in March 1977, reviewed human factors problems in operating power plants and produced a report evaluating those problems. A second project developed computer programs for evaluating operator performance on training simulators. A third project is developing and evaluating control-room design approaches. A fourth project is reviewing human factors problems associated with power-plant maintainability and instrumentation and control technician activities. Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken four projects studying the application of human factors engineering principles to nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... products) for calendar year 2012. DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  16. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... products) for calendar year 2010. DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  17. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... calendar year 2011. DATES: The 2011 inflation adjustment factor and nonconventional source fuel credit... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  18. The Power of Caring to Help Kids Adjust and Achieve Is Now Documented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Teacher warmth and support, say University of Virginia researchers Bridget Hamre and Robert Pianta, have unparalleled power to help children adjust and achieve. Their 2005 study of 910 first-grade students included 5- and 6-year-olds whose mothers had low-level education and children identified with "significant behavior, social, and/or…

  19. Results of the 76th meeting of the Council on Power Resource Development and Adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koichi

    1979-01-01

    To the decisions concerning the power resource development plans in fiscal 1978 decided in the 75th meeting, revision was made in the 76th meeting of the Council on Power Resource Development and Adjustment. In the original plans; during 8 years from fiscal 1978, the power plants of a total of 71,100 MW will be completed; and for fiscal 1978, 41,250 MW is developed consecutively, while and 3,150 MW is developed newly. 6 hydraulic stations, 18 thermal stations and 2 nuclear stations of 1,990 MW are planned. According to revision, 2,800 MW developed newly at 1 hydraulic, 2 thermal and/nuclear sites was newly incorporated in the plan. As for nuclear power generation, in The Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd., Unit 3 of BWR type with 1,100 MW is added to the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  20. Results of the 77th meeting of the council on power resource development and adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koichi

    1979-01-01

    On December 27, 1978, the 77th meeting of the Council on Power Resource Development and Adjustment was held, and the discussion on the revision of the basic plan of power resource development in 1978 fiscal year was carried out. As a result of the discussion, the recommendation to the government was submitted. Based on the recommendation, on January 20, the revised plan as recommended by the Council was decided and officially announced. The following is the brief summary of the revised plan of power resource development in 1978 fiscal year and the points of power resource development where the construction will be newly started. According to the revised plan, as the long-term target, it is scheduled to achieve power resource development of about 71 million kW during 8 years from 1978 fiscal year. In addition, this plan prescribes the construction of power stations amounting to about 47.2 million kW (including about 5.92 million kW, the construction of which is newly started in 1978 fiscal year) and the financing of 3,085.8 billion yen for power resource development (including transmission, transformation and distribution sections) as the projects in 1978 fiscal year. The revision of the power resource development plan includes addition of 6 new points for power resource development, equivalent to about 2.4 million kW, including 3 hydroelectric power points (about 40 thousand kW), 2 thermal-power points (1.2 million kW) and 1 atomic power point (1.16 million kW). As a result, new power resource development points in 1978 fiscal year are made up of 10 hydroelectric power points, 22 thermal-power points and 4 atomic power points. (Suzuki, T.)

  1. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  2. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  3. Non-linear adjustment to purchasing power parity: an analysis using Fourier approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Ángel Jiménez-Martín; M. Dolores Robles Fernández

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates the dynamics of adjustment to long run purchasing power parity (PPP) using data for 18 mayor bilateral US dollar exchange rates, over the post-Bretton Woods period, in a non-linear framework. We use new unit root and cointegration tests that do not assume a specific non-linear adjustment process. Using a first-order Fourier approximation, we find evidence of non-linear mean reversion in deviations from both absolute and relative PPP. This first-order Fourier approximation...

  4. Wireless Power Transmission via Sheet Medium Using Automatic Phase Adjustment of Multiple Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Oota, Toshifumi; Kado, Youiti; Zhang, Bing

    The wireless power transmission via sheet medium is a novel physical form of communication that utilizes the surface as a medium to provide both data and power transmission services. To efficiently transmit a relatively-large amount of electric power (several watts), we have developed a wireless power transmission system via sheet medium that concentrates the electric power on a specific spot by using phase control of multiple inputs. However, to find the optimal phases of the multiple inputs making the microwave converge on a specific spot in the sheet medium, the prior knowledge of the device's position, and the pre-experiment measuring the output power, are needed. In wireless communication area, it is known that the retrodirective array scheme can efficiently transmit the power in a self-phasing manner, which uses the pilot signals sent by the client devices. In this paper, we apply the retrodirective array scheme to the wireless power transmission system via sheet medium, and propose a power transmission scheme using the phase-adjustment of multiple inputs. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposal scheme, we evaluate its performance by computer simulation and realistic measurement. Both results show that the proposal scheme can achieve the retrodirectivity over the wireless power transmission via sheet medium.

  5. Power Factor Improvement Using Automatic Power Factor Compensation (APFC) Device for Medical Industries in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi Maryam Nabihah; Ali Adlan

    2018-01-01

    This paper present the project designed to correcting power factor for medical industries in Malaysia automatically. Which with hope to make the cost and energy usage efficient, because the energy source are depleting due to increase in population. Power factor is the ratio of real power and apparent power. This definition is mathematically represented as kW/kVA where kW is active power and kVA is apparent power (active + reactive). Reactive power is the non-working power generated by the mag...

  6. Child, Parent and Family Factors as Predictors of Adjustment for Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R.; Gavidia-Payne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Methods: Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling…

  7. Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2012-01-01

    Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling...

  8. A system dynamics model of China's electric power structure adjustment with constraints of PM10 emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Ren, Dongfang; Guo, Xiaodan

    2018-06-01

    Recently, Chinese state environmental protection administration has brought out several PM10 reduction policies to control the coal consumption strictly and promote the adjustment of power structure. Under this new policy environment, a suitable analysis method is required to simulate the upcoming major shift of China's electric power structure. Firstly, a complete system dynamics model is built to simulate China's evolution path of power structure with constraints of PM10 reduction considering both technical and economical factors. Secondly, scenario analyses are conducted under different clean-power capacity growth rates to seek applicable policy guidance for PM10 reduction. The results suggest the following conclusions. (1) The proportion of thermal power installed capacity will decrease to 67% in 2018 with a dropping speed, and there will be an accelerated decline in 2023-2032. (2) The system dynamics model can effectively simulate the implementation of the policy, for example, the proportion of coal consumption in the forecast model is 63.3% (the accuracy rate is 95.2%), below policy target 65% in 2017. (3) China should promote clean power generation such as nuclear power to meet PM10 reduction target.

  9. 5 CFR 591.227 - What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.227 What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price...

  10. Nonlinear and Asymmetric Adjustment to Purchasing Power Parity in East-Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chi Liu

    2014-01-01

    This study applies a simple and powerful nonlinear unit root test to test the validity of long-run purchasing power parity (PPP) in a sample of 10 East-Asian countries (i.e., China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand) over the period of March 1985 to September 2008. The empirical results indicate that PPP holds true for half of these 10 East-Asian countries under study, and the adjustment toward PPP is found to be nonlinear and in ...

  11. Power Factor Improvement Using Automatic Power Factor Compensation (APFC Device for Medical Industries in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidi Maryam Nabihah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the project designed to correcting power factor for medical industries in Malaysia automatically. Which with hope to make the cost and energy usage efficient, because the energy source are depleting due to increase in population. Power factor is the ratio of real power and apparent power. This definition is mathematically represented as kW/kVA where kW is active power and kVA is apparent power (active + reactive. Reactive power is the non-working power generated by the magnetic and inductive load to generate magnetic flux. The increase in reactive power increase the apparent power so the power factor will decrease. Low pF will cause the industry to meet high demand thus making it less efficient. The main aim of this project is to increasing the current power factor of medical industries from 0.85 to 0.90. Power factor compensation contribute to reduction in current-dependent losses and increase energy efficiency while expanding the reliability of planning for future energy network. As technology develops, the gradual cost and efficiency penalty should reduce. Therefore, automatic power factor compensation device should become cost-effective and smaller device over time. That is the reason this project is using programmable device as it is a miniature architecture device.

  12. A Comparative Study of CAPM and Seven Factors Risk Adjusted Return Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Riaz Bhatti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparison and contrast of the predictive powers of two asset pricing models: CAPM and seven factor risk-return adjusted model, to explain the cross section of stock rate of returns in the financial sector listed at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE. To test the models daily returns from January 2013 to February 2014 have been taken and the excess returns of portfolios are regressed on explanatory variables. The results of the tested models indicate that the models are valid and applicable in the financial market of Pakistan during the period under study, as the intercepts are not significantly different from zero. It is consequently established from the findings that all the explanatory variables explain the stock returns in the financial sector of KSE. In addition, the results of this study show that addition of more explanatory variables to the single factor CAPM results in reasonably high values of R2. These results provide substantial support to fund managers, investors and financial analysts in making investment decisions.

  13. Factors influencing adjustment to a colostomy in Chinese patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ailing; Pan, Yunfeng; Zhang, Meifen; Zhang, June; Zheng, Meichun; Huang, Manrong; Ye, Xinmei; Wu, Xianrong

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated persons living with a colostomy in order to characterize and describe relationships among adjustment, self-care ability, and social support. One hundred twenty-nine colostomy patients from 5 hospitals in Guangzhou, capital city of the Guangdong province, were recruited by convenience sampling. Cross-sectional data were collected from a survey that included demographic and pertinent clinical data related to their ostomy. The survey also incorporated Chinese language versions of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale, Exercise of Self-Care Agency Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. These scales were used to measure the levels and degrees of adjustment, self-care ability, and social support of colostomy patients. Respondents completed the survey during outpatient clinics visit after creation of a colostomy. Scores from the Ostomy Adjustment Scale revealed that 96.9% of colostomy patients reported low to moderate adjustment (128.6 ± 19.38) to their stoma. Self-care ability and social support of patients were positively correlated with the adjustment level (R = 0.33, R = 0.21). Several factors, including being a housewife, paying medical expense by oneself, inability to manage the ostomy without assistance, and not participating in an ostomy support group, were associated with a lower level of adjustment (P colostomy was moderate. Self-care ability and social support associated with having a colostomy positively influenced adjustment. Adjustment was also influenced by occupation, health insurance provider, and ability to care for the stoma without requiring assistance.

  14. The influence of psychosocial factors in veteran adjustment to civilian life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Margaret A; Ferreira, Nuno; Henderson, Mike

    2018-03-25

    Although most veterans have a successful transition to civilian life when they leave the military, some struggle to cope and adjust to the demands and challenges of civilian life. This study explores how a variety of psychosocial factors influence veteran adjustment to civilian life in Scotland, UK, and which of these factors predict a poor adjustment. One hundred and fifty-four veterans across Scotland completed a set of questionnaires that measured veteran adjustment difficulty, quality of life, mental health, stigma, self-stigma, attitude towards help-seeking, likelihood of help-seeking, experiential avoidance, reappraisal and suppression. Veteran adjustment difficulty and quality of life were significantly correlated to a number of psychosocial factors. Mental health, experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal were found to be predictors of veteran adjustment difficulty, and experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal partially mediated the relationship between mental health and veteran adjustment, with experiential avoidance being the stronger mediator. Our findings suggest that early assessment of experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal and the provision of relevant emotion regulation skills training could potentially reduce the veteran's need for more complex (and costly) psychological interventions in the future. Implications for veterans, as well as the services and professionals involved with veteran transition and health care are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Human Factor on Gravelines Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duboc, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    In a first part, the documents describes the commitments by EDF nuclear power plan operations to demands made by the Safety Authority regarding actions in the field of human factors (concerns expressed by the Authority, in-depth analysis, positions on different points raised by the Authority). In a second part, it presents the various actions undertaken in the Gravelines nuclear power station regarding human factors: creation of an 'operator club' (mission and objectives, methods and means, first meetings, tracking file), development of risk analysis strategy, setting up of a human factor engineering mission and example of action in case of a significant event

  16. Power Law Distributions in the Experiment for Adjustment of the Ion Source of the NBI System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaopu; Hu Chundong

    2005-01-01

    The experiential adjustment process in an experiment on the ion source of the neutral beam injector system for the HT-7 Tokamak is reported in this paper. With regard to the data obtained in the same condition, in arranging the arc current intensities of every shot with a decay rank, the distributions of the arc current intensity correspond to the power laws, and the distribution obtained in the condition with the cryo-pump corresponds to the double Pareto distribution. Using the similar study method, the distributions of the arc duration are close to the power laws too. These power law distributions are formed rather naturally instead of being the results of purposeful seeking

  17. Human factor problem in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Fujimoto, Junzo

    1999-01-01

    Since a nuclear power plant accident at Threemile Island in U.S.A. occurred in March, 1979, twenty years have passed. After the accident, the human factor problem became focussed in nuclear power, to succeed its research at present. For direct reason of human error, most of factors at individual level or work operation level are often listed at their center. Then, it is natural that studies on design of a machine or apparatus suitable for various human functions and abilities and on improvement of relationship between 'human being and machine' and 'human being and working environment' are important in future. Here was, as first, described on outlines of the human factor problem in a nuclear power plant developed at a chance of past important accident, and then was described on educational training for its countermeasure. At last, some concrete researching results obtained by human factor research were introduced. (G.K.)

  18. Income poverty, poverty co-factors, and the adjustment of children in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Brian P; Brown, Eleanor D

    2006-01-01

    relationship instability), which either have not been described by many researchers or have been described in a way that does not fit the ecology of disadvantage (e.g., marital status). We found that income poverty, key contextual co-factors, and endogenous child attributes tend to show independent and selective associations with child academic competence and externalizing behavior, and that co-factor effects tend to be direct rather than mediated by harsh parenting, tend to have effects that are episodic and concurrent, and are easily- and well-represented by multiple risk indexes that bear powerful relations to child problem behaviors. A second core goal has been to better understand the developmental construction of poor outcomes for disadvantaged children, which requires consideration of dynamic aspects of the ecology and the potential importance of the timing of risk experiences. We found that family instability and change in environmental circumstances predict increases in problem behaviors, and that dose of adversity seems to matter for some variables if it is recent, and not for other variables. Through person-centered research, we also are beginning to understand some factors that seem to underlie the convergence of adjustment problems over grade in school. Many of our co-factor findings and many of our developmental findings seem both complex and double-edged. One edge is that they encourage a certain pessimism in showing how environmental adversity progressively constructs poor outcomes for disadvantaged children in school. Overall, for instance, we saw more problems and more multi-dimensional problems in fifth grade than in first grade, and the impact of environmental change was mostly negative. The other edge, however, is more positive in reflecting the possibility of discontinuity in child adjustment problems associated with positive changes in family circumstances. Findings for minimal persistence and for the strength of recent and concurrent effects argue that

  19. Online dynamic equalization adjustment of high-power lithium-ion battery packs based on the state of balance estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli; Shang, Liping; Li, Zhanfeng; Deng, Hu; Li, Jianchao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel concept (SOB, State of Balance) is proposed for the LIB pack equalization. • Core parameter detection and filtering is analyzed to identify the LIB pack behavior. • The electrical UKF model is adopted for the online dynamic estimation. • The equalization target model is built based on the optimum preference. • Comprehensive imbalance state calculation is implemented for the adjustment. - Abstract: A novel concept named as state of balance (SOB) is proposed and its online dynamic estimation method is presented for the high-power lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs, based on which the online dynamic equalization adjustment is realized aiming to protect the operation safety of its power supply application. The core parameter detection method based on the specific moving average algorithm is studied because of their identical varying characteristics on the individual cells due to the manufacturing variability and other factors, affecting the performance of the high-power LIB pack. The SOB estimation method is realized with the detailed deduction, in which a dual filter consisting of the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), equivalent circuit model (ECM) and open circuit voltage (OCV) is used in order to predict the SOB state. It is beneficial for the energy operation and the energy performance state can be evaluated online prior to the adjustment method based on the terminal voltage consistency. The energy equalization is realized that is based on the credibility reasoning together with the equalization model building process. The experiments including the core parameter detection, SOB estimation and equalization adjustment are done and the experimental results are analyzed. The experiment results show that the numerical Coulomb efficiency is bigger than 95%. The cell voltage measurement error is less than 5 mV and the terminal voltage measurement error of the LIB pack is less than 1% FS. The measurement error of the battery discharge and charge

  20. Human factors in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Ryutaro

    1997-01-01

    To ensure safety should have priority over all other things in atomic power plants. In Chernobyl accident, however, various human factors including the systems for bulb check after inspection and communication, troubles in the interface between hardwares such as warning speakers and instruments, and their operators, those in education and training for operators and those in the general management of the plant have been pointed out. Therefore, the principles and the practical measures from the aspect of human factors in atomic power plants were discussed here. The word, ''human factor'' was given a definition in terms of the direct cause and the intellectual system. An explanatory model for human factors, model SHEL constructed by The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., Inc. was presented; the four letter mean software(S), hardware(H), environment(E) and liveware(L). In the plants of the company, systemic measures for human error factors are taken now in all steps not only for design, operation and repairing but also the step for safety culture. Further, the level required for the safety against atomic power is higher in the company than those in other fields. Thus, the central principle in atomic power plants is changing from the previous views that technology is paid greater importance to a view regarding human as most importance. (M.N.)

  1. Calculation of fuel, currency, and inland freight price adjustment factors for military marine shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report describes the refreshing of the USTRANSCOM Economic Price Adjustment (EPA) factors for use in the USC-7 contract. The three EPA factors developed by Volpe in 2009 are the starting point for this update, and these are the Bunker Fuel Adjus...

  2. A method to adjust radiation dose-response relationships for clinical risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical risk factors for radiation induced toxicity have been identified in the literature. Here, we present a method to quantify the effect of clinical risk factors on radiation dose-response curves and apply the method to adjust the dose-response for radiation pneumonitis for patients...

  3. Factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young adults exposed to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynskey, M T; Fergusson, D M

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the factors which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood from those young people exposed to CSA who did not develop psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties by age 18. Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New Zealand children studied from birth to the age of 18 on (a) exposure to CSA; (b) patterns of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties at age 18 years; (c) factors that may have influenced responses to CSA including characteristics of the abuse, parental bonding, parental characteristics, and adolescent peer affiliations. Just over 10% of the cohort reported CSA. Those reporting CSA were at increased risks of a range of difficulties at age 18 (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, other substance abuse/dependence, post sexual abuse trauma, attempted suicide). However, not all of those exposed to CSA developed difficulties and approximately a quarter of those exposed to CSA did not meet criteria for any adjustment difficulty. Further analysis suggested that the extent of adjustment difficulties in those exposed to CSA was influenced by two additional factors: (a) the extent of affiliations with delinquent or substance using peers in adolescence; and (b) the extent of paternal care or support in childhood. The findings of this study suggest that while young people exposed to CSA are at increased risks of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties in young adulthood, not all individuals exposed to CSA will develop adjustment difficulties. Important factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young people experiencing CSA appear to be the nature and quality of peer and family relationships.

  4. On different types of adjustment usable to calculate the parameters of the stream power law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Alain; Beckers, Arnaud; Bovy, Benoît

    2012-02-01

    Model parameterization through adjustment to field data is a crucial step in the modeling and the understanding of the drainage network response to tectonic or climatic perturbations. Using as a test case a data set of 18 knickpoints that materialize the migration of a 0.7-Ma-old erosion wave in the Ourthe catchment of northern Ardennes (western Europe), we explore the impact of various data fitting on the calibration of the stream power model of river incision, from which a simple knickpoint celerity equation is derived. Our results show that statistical least squares adjustments (or misfit functions) based either on the stream-wise distances between observed and modeled knickpoint positions at time t or on differences between observed and modeled time at the actual knickpoint locations yield significantly different values for the m and K parameters of the model. As there is no physical reason to prefer one of these approaches, an intermediate least-rectangles adjustment might at first glance appear as the best compromise. However, the statistics of the analysis of 200 sets of synthetic knickpoints generated in the Ourthe catchment indicate that the time-based adjustment is the most capable of getting close to the true parameter values. Moreover, this fitting method leads in all cases to an m value lower than that obtained from the classical distance adjustment (for example, 0.75 against 0.86 for the real case of the Ourthe catchment), corresponding to an increase in the non-linear character of the dependence of knickpoint celerity on discharge.

  5. A New Scale Factor Adjustment Method for Magnetic Force Feedback Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqing Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple method to adjust the scale factor of a magnetic force feedback accelerometer is presented, which could be used in developing a rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument (GGI. Adjusting and matching the acceleration-to-current transfer function of the four accelerometers automatically is one of the basic and necessary technologies for rejecting the common mode accelerations in the development of GGI. In order to adjust the scale factor of the magnetic force rebalance accelerometer, an external current is injected and combined with the normal feedback current; they are then applied together to the torque coil of the magnetic actuator. The injected current could be varied proportionally according to the external adjustment needs, and the change in the acceleration-to-current transfer function then realized dynamically. The new adjustment method has the advantages of no extra assembly and ease of operation. Changes in the scale factors range from 33% smaller to 100% larger are verified experimentally by adjusting the different external coefficients. The static noise of the used accelerometer is compared under conditions with and without the injecting current, and the experimental results find no change at the current noise level, which further confirms the validity of the presented method.

  6. A New Scale Factor Adjustment Method for Magnetic Force Feedback Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangqing; Deng, Zhongguang; Xie, Yafei; Li, Zhu; Fan, Ji; Tu, Liangcheng

    2017-10-27

    A new and simple method to adjust the scale factor of a magnetic force feedback accelerometer is presented, which could be used in developing a rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument (GGI). Adjusting and matching the acceleration-to-current transfer function of the four accelerometers automatically is one of the basic and necessary technologies for rejecting the common mode accelerations in the development of GGI. In order to adjust the scale factor of the magnetic force rebalance accelerometer, an external current is injected and combined with the normal feedback current; they are then applied together to the torque coil of the magnetic actuator. The injected current could be varied proportionally according to the external adjustment needs, and the change in the acceleration-to-current transfer function then realized dynamically. The new adjustment method has the advantages of no extra assembly and ease of operation. Changes in the scale factors range from 33% smaller to 100% larger are verified experimentally by adjusting the different external coefficients. The static noise of the used accelerometer is compared under conditions with and without the injecting current, and the experimental results find no change at the current noise level, which further confirms the validity of the presented method.

  7. Child, parent and family factors as predictors of adjustment for siblings of children with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R; Gavidia-Payne, S

    2006-12-01

    Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling coping; (3) parent stress; (4) parenting; and (5) family resilience. Multiple regression techniques were used. It was found that parent and family factors were stronger predictors of sibling adjustment difficulties than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping. Specifically, socio-economic status, past attendance at a sibling support group, parent stress, family time and routines, family problem-solving and communication, and family hardiness-predicted sibling adjustment difficulties. Finally, siblings' perceived intensity of daily uplifts significantly predicted sibling prosocial behaviour. The results revealed that the family level of risk and resilience factors were better predictors of sibling adjustment than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping resources, highlighting the importance of familial and parental contributions to the sibling adjustment process. The implications of these results for the design of interventions and supports for siblings are discussed.

  8. Factors Moderating the Relationship Between Childhood Trauma and Premorbid Adjustment in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, S; Burns, J K; Seedat, S; Asmal, L; Chiliza, B; Du Plessis, S; Olivier, M R; Kidd, M; Emsley, R

    2017-01-01

    Childhood trauma is a recognised risk factor for schizophrenia. It has been proposed that childhood trauma interferes with normal neurodevelopment, thereby establishing a biological vulnerability to schizophrenia. Poor premorbid adjustment is frequently a precursor to schizophrenia, and may be a manifestation of neurodevelopmental compromise. We investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment in 77 patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We also investigated possible mediating roles for other selected risk factors in the relationship. We found several significant correlations between different trauma types and both social and academic premorbid adjustment from childhood to late adolescence. There were no significant moderating effects for family history of schizophrenia or family history of psychiatric disorder. History of obstetric complications, substance abuse and poor motor coordination weakened some of the associations between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment, while poor sequencing of motor acts strengthened the association. Our results confirm previous studies indicating an association between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment. Results indicate a general rather than specific association, apparent with different types of trauma, and affecting both social and academic components of premorbid adjustment across childhood, early and late adolescence. Further, our results suggest a complex interplay of various risk factors, supporting the notion of different pathways to psychosis.

  9. Power-Quality-Oriented Optimization in Multiple Three-Phase Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    As an almost standardized configuration, Diode Rectifiers (DRs) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) are commonly employed as the front-end topology in three-phase Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. Features of this ASD configuration include: structural and control simplicity, small volume......, low cost, and high reliability during operation. Yet, DRs and SCRs bring harmonic distortions in the mains and thus lowering the overall efficiency. Power quality standards/rules are thus released. For multiple ASD systems, certain harmonics of the total grid current can be mitigated by phase......-shifting the currents drawn by SCR-fed drives, and thus it is much flexible to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) level in such applications. However, the effectiveness of this harmonic mitigation scheme for multiple ASD systems depends on: a) the number of parallel drives, b) the power levels, and c...

  10. More Wind Power Integration with Adjusted Energy Carriers for Space Heating in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun He

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Northern China, due to the high penetration of coal-fired cogeneration facilities, which are generally equipped with extraction-condensing steam turbines, lots of wind power resources may be wasted during the heating season. In contrast, considerable coal is consumed in the power generation sector. In this article, firstly it is revealed that there exists a serious divergence in the ratio of electrical to thermal energy between end users’ demand and the cogenerations’ production during off-peak load at night, which may negate active power-balancing of the electric power grid. Secondly, with respect to this divergence only occurring during off-peak load at night, a temporary proposal is given so as to enable the integration of more wind power. The authors suggest that if the energy carrier for part of the end users’ space heating is switched from heating water to electricity (e.g., electric heat pumps (EHPs can provide space heating in the domestic sector, the ratio of electricity to heating water load should be adjusted to optimize the power dispatch between cogeneration units and wind turbines, resulting in fuel conservation. With this proposal, existing infrastructures are made full use of, and no additional ones are required. Finally a numerical simulation is performed in order to illustrate both the technical and economic feasibility of the aforementioned proposal, under ongoing infrastructures as well as electricity and space heating tariff conditions without changing participants’ benefits. The authors aim to persuade Chinese policy makers to enable EHPs to provide space heating to enable the integration of more wind power.

  11. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  12. Critical success factors for BOT electric power projects in China: Thermal power versus wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zuo, Jian; Zillante, George [School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Wang, Xin-Wei [Shandong Nuclear Power Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd, Haiyang, Shandong 265118 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Chinese electric power industry has adopted Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) approach in a number of projects to alleviate the pressure of sole state-owned investment. The Chinese government has taken enormous efforts to create an environment to facilitate the application of BOT approach in electric power projects. Moreover, the growing attention on the sustainability issues puts the traditional major source of electricity - thermal power project under more strict scrutiny. As a result, various renewable energy projects, particularly the wind power projects have involved private sector funds. Both thermal power and wind power projects via BOT approach have met with a varying degree of success. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the factors contributing towards the success of both types of BOT power projects. Using an extensive literature survey, this paper identifies 31 success factors under 5 categories for Chinese BOT electric power projects. This is followed by a questionnaire survey to exam relative significance of these factors. The results reveal the different levels of significance of success factors for BOT thermal power projects versus wind power projects. Finally, survey results were analyzed to explore the underlying construction and distributions among the identified success factors. This study provides a valuable reference for all involved parties that are interested in developing BOT electric power projects in China. (author)

  13. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  14. School Adjustment of Pupils with ADHD: Cognitive, Emotional and Temperament Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Perez, Noelia; Gonzalez-Salinas, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    From different research perspectives, the cognitive and emotional characteristics associated with ADHD in children have been identified as risk factors for the development of diverse adjustment problems in the school context. Research in nonclinical population can additionally help in understanding ADHD deficits, since children with specific…

  15. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  16. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of ... components in the AC power system. Thus, suppl ... al output power; assuring reliability in ... distribution systems. This can be ...... Thesis- Califonia Institute of Technology, Capitulo.

  17. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Bohr, E.

    1976-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is a first attempt to give a survey of the kind of literature which is relevant for the ergonomic working conditions in nuclear power plants. Such a survey seems to be useful in view of the fact that the 'factor human being' comes recently more and more to the fore in nuclear power plants. In this context, the necessity is often pointed out to systematically include our knowledge of the performance capacity and limits of human beings when designing the working conditions for the personnel of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the bibliography is so much intended for the ergonomics experts as for the experts of nuclear engineering. (orig./LN) [de

  18. Adjustment, error analysis and modular strategy for Space Solar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xian-Long; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang; Hou, Xin-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal adjustment method for SSPS when it travels on orbit is determined. • Two solutions for the arrangement of transverse truss are proposed. • The effect and regulating method for the tracking error are investigated. • The mathematical partition model of a flat hexagon module concept is built. • The flux distributions on solar panel based on different number of modules are simulated. - Abstract: Space Solar Power Station (SSPS) is a very potential candidate for supplying abundant electrical energy. Symmetrical two-stage flat reflected concentrator (STFC) has many advantages when used in SSPS. However the steady performance and control method on orbit has become a big problem which will be discussed in this paper. The actual posture of entire station is analyzed in detail due to the requirements of good flux uniformity, circular concentrated spot and controlled concentration ratio. Here two regulating directions are studied. And the most optimal method in multidimensional space of adjusting parameters is developed. In order to verify the correctness and reliability, the concentrating characteristics in different cases are simulated by Monte-Carlo ray tracing method (MCRTM). Based on the optimal adjusting parameters, solutions for the arrangement of transverse truss are proposed. After that the effect and regulating method for tracking error is investigated to improve the tolerance performance as highly as possible. Finally the construction of concentrators is much important to the realizability, cost and working performance. A flat hexagon module concept and the regular pattern are investigated to build the optical model. The flux distribution on solar panel based on different big number of modules is simulated, which provides certain reference for the build of SSPS

  19. Design of automatic power factor control system | Yanev | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintenance of the proper power factor is a very important matter for the industry and for the economy of any country. A study of the power factor values for a number of industrial plants in Botswana shows that they operate at power-factors lower than the optimal values. If a plant power factor is different from its optimal value, ...

  20. Uniform irradiation of adjustable target spots in high-power laser driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiujuan; Li Jinghui; Li Huagang; Li Yang; Lin Zunqi

    2011-01-01

    For smoothing and shaping the on-target laser patterns flexibly in high-power laser drivers, a scheme has been developed that includes a zoom lens array and two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). The size of the target pattern can be controlled handily by adjusting the focal length of the zoom lens array, while the profile of the pattern can be shaped by fine tuning the distance between the target and the focal plane of the principal focusing lens. High-frequency stripes inside the pattern caused by beamlet interference are wiped off by spectral dispersion. Detailed simulations indicate that SSD works somewhat differently for spots of different sizes. For small spots, SSD mainly smooths the intensity modulation of low-to-middle spatial frequency, while for large spots, SSD sweeps the fine speckle structure to reduce nonuniformity of middle-to-high frequency. Spatial spectra of the target patterns are given and their uniformity is evaluated.

  1. Analysis of radiation exposure during creep adjustment to the coolant channels at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadhan, R.S.; Venkataramana, K.; Kannan, R.K.; Sreekumaran Nair, B.; Chudalayandi, K.

    1994-01-01

    In pressurised heavy water reactors the coolant channels made of zircaloy-2 undergo creep deformation used intense neutron irradiation in the reactor core. In order to measure and provide for the changes in the dimensions, base line data of internal diameters, sag and length of the 306 coolant channels are measured as pre service inspection (PSI) before the reactor is loaded with fuel prior to criticality. Subsequently as part of in service inspection (ISI), axial creep of every channel is measured in every annual shutdown of the reactor and creep adjustment is done on those channels where creep expansion margin for the next one year operation is low. A study was carried out to assess the radiological impact of the job at Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Various measures adopted for reducing the individual and collective doses on the job are discussed in this report. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

  2. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  3. Factors Related to Healthy Siblings' Psychosocial Adjustment to Children With Cancer: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegaczewski, Tara; Chang, Karen; Coddington, Jennifer; Berg, Abby

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors related to the psychosocial adjustment of healthy siblings of children with cancer (HSCC). An integrative review was conducted. Controlled vocabularies relevant to siblings, pediatrics, children, neoplasms, and psychosocial adaptation were used to search Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed. Articles that met inclusion criteria (eg, quantitative studies related to HSCC's psychosocial adjustment; had sample sizes of at least 30; and HSCC age between 1 and 19 years) were reviewed. Key findings of selected articles were analyzed according to sibling characteristics, social support, and contextual factors. Seven nonexperimental and 5 quasi-experimental studies were reviewed. HSCC's characteristics (eg, age, gender), perceived social support from family and summer camp, and perceived contextual factors (eg, role overload, family adaptability) were significant factors that correlated with HSCC's psychosocial adjustment. When caring for a child diagnosed with cancer, nurses need to include HSCC in the assessment of a family unit's adaptation to cancer distress and provide appropriate interventions to promote HSCC's psychosocial well-being. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  4. A systematic review of psychosocial factors associated with emotional adjustment in in vitro fertilization patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockliff, Helen E; Lightman, Stafford L; Rhidian, Emily; Buchanan, Heather; Gordon, Uma; Vedhara, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    IVF treatment is usually stressful for patients, but individual differences in emotional response do exist. Differences in the stress response may be related to reproductive outcomes as well as to the development of psychiatric problems. This review collates research exploring which psychosocial factors (e.g. personality traits and coping strategies) are associated with the emotional adjustment of IVF patients. The aim is to reveal what is currently known about risk and protective factors for coping with the stress of IVF treatment and where further enquiry would be most beneficial. The databases, MEDLINE/PUBMED (US National Library of Medicine), PsycINFO (American Psychological Association), Web of Science (Social Sciences Citation Index) and EMbase, were searched from 1978 to September 2012 using relevant key words. All published peer-reviewed studies exploring associations between psychosocial factors and emotional adjustment outcomes were considered for inclusion. There were 23 studies identified for review. One-third of the psychosocial factors explored were found to be significantly related to emotional adjustment outcome measures. Neuroticism and the use of escapist coping strategies were positively associated with distress by multiple studies. Social support was negatively associated with distress by several studies. A number of other psychosocial variables appear to be associated with distress, including self-criticism, dependency, situation appraisals and attachment style, but these have only been explored by one or two studies at most. There is a paucity of research using positive emotional outcome measures (e.g. well-being, positive affect, happiness or life satisfaction) to quantify emotional adjustment. Whilst some psychosocial variables appear to be consistently associated with distress for IVF patients, two-thirds of the variables tested to date do not appear to be associated with emotional adjustment. This review highlights key psychosocial factors

  5. [Family characteristics, organic risk factors, psychopathological picture and premorbid adjustment of hospitalized adolescent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkiewicz-Borkowska, M; Namysłowska, I; Siewierska, A; Puzyńska, E; Sredniawa, H; Zechowski, C; Iwanek, A; Ruszkowska, E

    1996-01-01

    The relation of some family characteristics such as cohesion and adaptability with organic risk factors, developmental psychopathology, clinical picture and premorbid adjustment was assessed in the group of 100 hospitalized adolescent patients and families. We found correlation between: some of organic risk factors (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood), some of indicators of developmental psychopathology (eating disorders, conduct disorders), some of clinical signs (mannerism, grandiosity, hostility, suspciousness, disturbances of content of thinking), premorbid adjustment, and variables related to families, described before. We think that biological variables characterizing child (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood) have an influence on some family characteristics as independent variable. General system theory and circular thinking support these conclusions. In order to verify them, it is necessary to undertake further investigations, based on other methodology, using this results as preliminary findings.

  6. Adjustment of pipe flow explicit friction factor equations for application to tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltz, Christopher L.; Bowen, Mike D.; Von Olnhausen, Wayne A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The accurate determination of single phase friction losses or friction pressure drop in tube bundles is essential in the thermal-hydraulic analyses of components such as nuclear fuel assemblies, heat exchangers and steam generators. Such friction losses are normally calculated using a friction factor, f, along with the experimental observation that the friction pressure drop in a pipe is proportional to the dynamic pressure (1/2 ρV 2 ) of the flow: ΔP = 1/2 ρV 2 (fL/D). In this equation L is the pipe or tube bundle length and D is the hydraulic diameter of the pipe or tube bundle. The friction factor is normally calculated using one of a number of explicit friction factor equations. A significant amount of work has been accomplished in developing explicit friction factor equations. These explicit equations range from approximations, which were developed for ease of numerical evaluation, to those which are mathematically complex but yield very good fits to the test data. These explicit friction factor equations are based on a large experimental data base, nearly all of which comes from pipe flow geometry information, and have been historically applied to tube bundles. This paper presents an adjustment method which may be applied to various explicit friction factor equations developed for pipe flow to accurately predict the friction factor for tube bundles. The characteristic of the adjustment is based on experimental friction pressure loss data obtained by Framatome ANP through flow testing of a nuclear fuel assembly (tube bundle) at its Richland Test Facility (RTF). Through adjustment of previously developed explicit friction factor equations for pipe flow, the vast amount of historical development and experimentation in the area of single phase pipe flow friction loss may be incorporated into the evaluation of single phase friction losses within tube bundles. Comparisons of the application of one or more of the previously

  7. Environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency of Taiwan's service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chin-Yi; Hu, Jin-Li; Lou, Tze-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study computes the pure technical efficiency (PTE) and energy-saving target of Taiwan's service sectors during 2001–2008 by using the input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach with the assumption of a variable returns-to-scale (VRS) situation. This paper further investigates the effects of industry characteristics on the energy-saving target by applying the four-stage DEA proposed by Fried et al. (1999). We also calculate the pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) scores in these service sectors. There are three inputs (labor, capital stock, and energy consumption) and a single output (real GDP) in the DEA model. The most energy efficient service sector is finance, insurance and real estate, which has an average TFEE of 0.994 and an environment-adjusted TFEE (EATFEE) of 0.807. The study utilizes the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model with the energy-saving target (EST) as the dependent variable. Those service industries with a larger GDP output have greater excess use of energy. The capital–labor ratio has a significantly positive effect while the time trend variable has a significantly negative impact on the EST, suggesting that future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors. - Highlights: • The technical efficiency and energy-saving target of service sectors are assessed. • The pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency scores in services are assessed. • The industrial characteristic differences are examined by the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model. • Labor, capital, and energy and an output (GDP) are included in the DEA model. • Future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors

  8. Success Factors in Wind Power Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal, H.; Varela, M.; Lago, C.; Saez, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish wind energy market has experienced an average annual increase over 60% in recent years. With more than 4.1 GW of power at the end of 2002, this market has became the second in Europe and the third in the world. With the objective of obtaining the origin of this success, an analysis of technical and economic features of selected wind projects has been undertaken to draw the outstanding factors that any new independent promoter/developer should take into account within this market. (Author) 16 refs

  9. Adjustment of the thermohydraulic NUCIRC 2.0 code to the present aging conditions of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Arnaldo; Coutsiers, Ernesto; Schivo, Miguel; Mazanttini, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    This work gives a description of the adjustment process of NUCIRC code to the actual aging conditions of Embalse nuclear power plant. For this adjustment the flow of the fuel channels of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) is calculated using the channel heat balance flow (CHBF) methodology. Then roughness and the localized loss of charge are modified in NUCIRC code for different groups of channels. These adjustments are done in way to fit by regions the channels flows calculated with NUCIRC to the CHBF flows. The fitting results in a discrepancy by regions of less than 0,1% and an average quadratic error of 5% approximately. These values indicate that the code NUCIRC is right adjusted for critical channel power calculations and aging tracking of PHTS. (author)

  10. Adjusts of control rod cross sections and its utilization in power distribution calculations for Angra-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, C.M. de

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important part in neutronics calculations is the study of core behavior with inserted control rods. The first stage of this calculations consists in generating equivalent microscopic cross sections for the basic cells containing fuel or absorbed material. The cross sections will be then adjusted. The choice of parameters that help in those adjustments, were obtained by the comparisons of data coming from the control rod supercell calculations with the Hammer and Citation computer codes. The effect of those adjustments in core integral parameters was evaluated; in this work only the core power two-dimensional distribution calculations with the D bank completely inserted, is studied. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Impact of selected risk factors on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The construct quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) combines mortality and overall health status and can be used to quantify the impact of risk factors on population health. The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of tobacco smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity...... Health Survey 2000, and Danish EQ-5D values. RESULTS: The quality-adjusted life expectancy of 25-year-olds was 10-11 QALYs shorter for heavy smokers than for those who never smoke. The difference in life expectancy was 9-10 years. Men and women with high alcohol consumption could expect to lose about 5...... and 3 QALYs, respectively. Sedentary persons could expect to have about 7 fewer QALYs than physically active persons. Obesity shortened QALYs by almost 3 for men and 6 for women. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity strongly reduce life expectancy and health...

  12. A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Goodness of fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square; but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's mean scaling statistic were developed under the presumption of non-normality in the factors and errors. This paper finds new application to the case where factors and errors are normally distributed in the population but the skewness of the obtained test statistic is still high due to sampling error in the observed indicators. An extension of Satorra Bentler's statistic is proposed that not only scales the mean but also adjusts the degrees of freedom based on the skewness of the obtained test statistic in order to improve its robustness under small samples. A simple simulation study shows that this third moment adjusted statistic asymptotically performs on par with previously proposed methods, and at a very small sample size offers superior Type I error rates under a properly specified model. Data from Mardia, Kent and Bibby's study of students tested for their ability in five content areas that were either open or closed book were used to illustrate the real-world performance of this statistic.

  13. Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]).

  14. Human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive effort is being devoted to developing a comprehensive human factor program that encompasses establishment of a data base for human error prediction using past operation experience in commercial nuclear power plants. Some of the main results of such an effort are reported including data retrieval and classification systems which have been developed to assist in estimation of operator error rates. Also, statistical methods are developed to relate operator error data to reactor type, age, and specific technical design features. Results reported in this paper are based on an analysis of LER's covering a six-year period for LWR's. Developments presently include a computer data management program, statistical model, and detailed error taxonomy

  15. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, E.; Hennig, J.; Preuss, W.; Thau, G.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study on the functions of operating and maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. Since an effective power plant design must take into systematic account the possibilities and limitations of the human element, the basic aim of the study was to identify what the human operators are required to do and how they achieve it. Information was acquired by direct observation and by interviews as well as by evaluation of written documents (e.g. incident reports, procedures manuals, work regulations) and of working conditions (e.g. equipment and workplace design). A literature search and evaluation carried out within the scope of this study has been published as a separate document. The main part of the report is devoted to discussions and conclusions on selected areas of potential improvements. The topics include control room design, factors of the physical environment including radiation, problems of maintainability, design of written documents, problems in communicating information, design and control of tasks, placement and training. A separate section deals with problems of recording human errors. (orig.) [de

  16. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees' performance. Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  17. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m 2 after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P Solar radiation has a significant linear relationship with suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Power factor improvement in three-phase networks with unbalanced inductive loads using the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Cunţan, C. D.; Rob, R. O. S.; Popa, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of a power factor with capacitors banks, without series coils, used for improving power factor for a three-phase and single-phase inductive loads. In the experimental measurements, to improve the power factor, the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller can command up to twelve capacitors banks, while experimenting using only six capacitors banks. Six delta capacitors banks with approximately equal reactive powers were used for experimentation. The experimental measurements were carried out with a three-phase power quality analyser which worked in three cases: a case without a controller with all capacitors banks permanently parallel connected with network, and two other cases with power factor controller (one with setting power factor at 0.92 and the other one at 1). When performing experiments with the power factor controller, a current transformer was used to measure the current on one phase (at a more charged or less loaded phase).

  19. Adjustable hybrid gas bearing – Influence of piezoelectrically adjusted injection on damping factors and natural frequencies of a flexible rotor operating under critical speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart, Fabián G.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-01-01

    Damping factors and natural frequencies of a flexible rotor supported by a gas bearing with piezoelectrically adjusted flow, are theoretically determined using a rotor finite element model coupled with the modified Reynolds equation. An extra term is added to the standard formulation of Reynolds...... fourradial injectors equally pressurized. For the two configurations, the theoretical results are experimentally validated as afunction of the piezoactuators input voltage and the journal angular velocity. Results show a good agreement for natural frequencies and damping factors. Theoretical and experimental......,the damping factor associated with the first mode shape can be increased by 10 times when compared to four injectors equally pressurized....

  20. Latino risk-adjusted mortality in the men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Avis J; Eberly, Lynn E; Neaton, James D; Smith, George Davey

    2005-09-15

    Latinos are now the largest minority in the United States, but their distinctive health needs and mortality patterns remain poorly understood. Proportional hazards regressions were used to compare Latino versus White risk- and income-adjusted mortality over 25 years' follow-up from 5,846 Latino and 300,647 White men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Men were aged 35-57 years and residing in 14 states when screened in 1973-1975. Data on coronary heart disease risk factors, self-reported race/ethnicity, and home addresses were obtained at baseline; income was estimated by linking addresses to census data. Mortality follow-up through 1999 was obtained using the National Death Index. The fully adjusted Latino/White hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.87), based on 1,085 Latino and 73,807 White deaths; this pattern prevailed over time and across states (thus, likely across Latino subgroups). Hazard ratios were significantly greater than one for stroke (hazard ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.68), liver cancer (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.37), and infection (hazard ratio = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.32). A substudy found only minor racial/ethnic differences in the quality of Social Security numbers, birth dates, soundex-adjusted names, and National Death Index searches. Results were not likely an artifact of return migration or incomplete mortality data.

  1. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  2. Impact Study on Power Factor of Electrical Load in Power Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawardi Hasim; Ahmad Asraf, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Low Power Factor of electrical loads cause high current is drawn from power supply. The impact of this circumstance is influenced by impedance of electrical load. Therefore, the key consideration of this study is how impedance of electrical loads influence power factor of electrical loads, and then power distribution as the whole. This study is important to evaluate the right action to mitigate low power factor effectively for electrical energy efficiency purpose. (author)

  3. Exploring factors affecting post-divorce adjustment in Iranian women: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Asanjarani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Divorce is a complex, multidimensional concept and its direct and indirect impacts affects thousands of people in Iran each year. However, the concept of post-divorce adjustment in Iranian women has not been studied in detail. The aim of the present qualitative study was to determine the factors contributing to post-divorce adjustment in divorced women.  Methods: A qualitative research was carried out using grounded theory approach, followed by three phases of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The participants consisted of 21 divorced women who were selected using purposive sampling method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and then interviews were recorded and transcribed for further analysis.    Results: A total of 21 divorced women participated in the current study. The majority of the participants were between 20-30 years old; they were between 17 to 30 years when they married. Also, most of the participants had bachelor’s degree (11 and most of them had a job (16. In the primary data coding, 35 open concepts were extracted. These concepts were then reduced into 32 secondary concepts. At the final stage, 6 main categories contributing to post-divorce adjustment were extracted including: (a demographics, (b interpersonal, (c attitudinal, (d relational, (e supportive, and (f coping strategies.  Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the value of lived experiences of divorced women. Based on the findings of our study, it is important to develop a solid support network and provide interventions targeting the quality of life in divorced women.

  4. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...

  5. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage ...

  6. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C., E-mail: david.goes@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  7. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.

    2017-01-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  8. Adjustment and Prediction of Machine Factors Based on Neural Artificial Intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Amin, E.S.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of x-ray, it is use in examination has become an integral part of medical diagnostic radiology. The use of X-ray is harmful to human beings but recent technological advances and regulatory constraints have made the medical Xray much safer than they were at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the potential benefits of the engineered safety features can not be fully realized unless the operators are aware of these safety features. The aim of this work is to adjust and predict x-ray machine factors (current and voltage) using neural artificial network in order to obtain effective dose within the range of dose limitation system and assure radiological safety.

  9. Adjustment and Prediction of X-Ray Machine Factors Based on Neural Artificial Inculcating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Amin, E.S.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, their use in examination has become an integral part of medical diagnostic radiology. The use of X-rays is harmful to human beings but recent technological advances and regulatory constraints have made the medical X-rays much safer than they were at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the potential benefits of the engineered safety features can not be fully realized unless the operators are aware of these safety features. The aim of this work is to adjust and predict X-ray machine factors (current and voltage) using neural artificial network in order to obtain effective dose within the range of dose limitation system and assure radiological safety.

  10. Predictive factors of insulin resistance resolution with adjustable gastric band surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsa Gutiérrez, Pablo; Kharazmi Taghavi, Mahgol; Sosa Medina, Rocío; Gutiérrez Cabezas, José Manuel; Ovejero Gómez, Víctor Jacinto; Ruiz, José Luis; Ingelmo Setién, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate preoperative factors associated with remission of diabetes and weight loss after laparoscopic gastric band surgery. A retrospective cohort of 95 patients who had an adjustable gastric band placed were included. A preliminary descriptive study of prognostic factors was performed using the logistic regression model with SPSS 17.0. The independent variables were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), diabetes status and degree of obesity; dependent variables were the proportion of weight loss, change in diabetes status score and percent changes in fasting sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin. The variables that were significantly associated with the percentage of changes in fasting blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin were: the degree of obesity in the first year; preoperative and diabetes status respectively. The analysis of the need for antidiabetic treatment using the modified diabetes status score showed preoperative BMI, age and gender as significant predictors. In patients undergoing gastric band surgery, weight loss is the fundamental mechanism by which insulin sensitivity increases. This improvement in glucose metabolism is influenced by factors such as sex, age, insulin treatment, duration of diabetes and degree of preoperative obesity. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Power factor correction (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    1Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, INDIA ... Hence, power factor correction (PFC) converters are used for achieving a unity ...... He is currently working as a Systems Engineer (Power IC) in AvantGarde ...

  12. Modeling and Predicting the EUR/USD Exchange Rate: The Role of Nonlinear Adjustments to Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Crespo Cuaresma; Anna Orthofer

    2010-01-01

    Reliable medium-term forecasts are essential for forward-looking monetary policy decisionmaking. Traditionally, predictions of the exchange rate tend to be linked to the equilibrium concept implied by the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory. In particular, the traditional benchmark for exchange rate models is based on a linear adjustment of the exchange rate to the level implied by PPP. In the presence of aggregation effects, transaction costs or uncertainty, however, economic theory predict...

  13. A numerical analysis of a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle power plant for power generation from low-temperature geothermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Enhua; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A composition-adjustable Kalina cycle is analysed and presented. • An air-cooled condenser is used and thermodynamic performance is analysed. • Composition adjustment can improve system performance significantly. - Abstract: The Kalina cycle is believed to be one of the most promising technologies for power generation from low temperature heat sources such as geothermal energy. So far, most Kalina cycle power plants are designed with a working fluid mixture having a fixed composition, and thus normally operate at a fixed condensing temperature. However, the ambient temperature (i.e., heat sink) varies over a large range as the season changes over a year, particularly in continental climates. Recently, a new concept, i.e., composition-adjustable Kalina cycle, was proposed to develop power plants that can match their condensing temperature with the changing ambient conditions, aiming at improving the cycle’s overall thermal efficiency. However, no detailed analysis of its implementation and the potential benefits under various climate conditions has been reported. For this reason, this paper carried out a comprehensive numerical research on its implementation and performance analysis under several different climate conditions. A mathematical model is firstly established to simulate the working principle of a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle, based on which a numerical program is then developed to analyse the cycle’s performance under various climate conditions. The developed numerical model is verified with some published data. The dynamic composition adjustment in response to the changing ambient temperature is simulated to evaluate its effect on the plant’s performance over a year. The results show that a composition-adjustable Kalina cycle could achieve higher annual-average thermal efficiency than a conventional one with a fixed mixture composition. However, such an improvement of thermal efficiency strongly depends on the heat source

  14. Power factor correction, controlling voltage distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ceclan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, an approach fordetermining optimal sizes of single-tuned passiveharmonic filters among existent capacitor busses ina power system. The proposed method uses EdsaHarmonics Analysis and the obtained results arepresented in detail.

  15. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible

  16. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  17. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  18. Power Factor Correction for Thyristor Equipment in Glass Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyristor power controllers are now widely used in the glass industry for controlling furnace temperature. While offering a number of operational advantages, they operate at lagging power factors which require correction for minimum power cost. Harmonic resonance with the utility feed, however, complicate the use of ...

  19. Technical and economic feasibility of development innovative technological solutions for expansion the adjustment range of high-power CCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, E. K.; Andryushin, A. V.; Burtsev, S. Y.; Andryushin, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of technical and parametric constraints on the adjustment range of highpower CCP and recommended technological solutions in the technical literature for their elimination. Established that in the conditions of toughening the requirements for economy, reliability and maneuverability on the part of the system operator with the participation of CCP in control the frequency and power in the power system, existing methods do not ensure the fulfillment of these requirements. The current situation in the energy sector — the lack of highly manoeuvrable power equipment leads to the need participate in control of power consumption diagrams for all types of power plants, including CCP, although initially they were intended primarily for basic loads. Large-scale research conducted at the department of Automated control systems of technological processes, showed the possibility of a significant expansion of the adjustment range of CCP when it operating in the condensing mode and in the heating mode. The report presents the main results of these research for example the CCP-450 and CCP-450T. Various technological solutions are considered: when CCP in the condensation mode — the use of bypass steam distribution schemes, the transfer of a part of the steam turbine into a low-steam mode; when CCP operation in the heating mode — bypass steam distribution and the transfer CCP to gas turbine unit — power heating plants mode with the transfer the steam turbine to the motor mode. Data on the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed innovative technological solutions are presented in comparison with the methods used to solve this problem, which are used in practice, such as passing through the failures of the electric load graphs by transferring the CCP to the mode of operation with incomplete equipment. When comparing, both the economics, and the maneuverability and reliability of the equipment are considered.

  20. Economic benefits of power factor correction at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boger, R.M.; Dalos, W.; Juguilon, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The economic benefits of correcting poor power factor at an operating nuclear facility are shown. A project approach for achieving rapid return of investment without disrupting plant availability is described. Examples of technical problems associated with using capacitors for power factor correction are presented

  1. Advanteges of using Two-Switch Forward in Single-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-Stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (Discontinues Conduction Mode). This will insure the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit parameters and therefore...... power supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency and power factor are about 87% and 0.96 respectively....

  2. Detecting perfect powers by factoring into coprimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lenstra, H.W.; Pila, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that, given an integer , finds the largest integer such that is a th power. A previous algorithm by the first author took time where ; more precisely, time ; conjecturally, time . The new algorithm takes time . It relies on relatively complicated

  3. Pouch dilatation following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: psychobehavioral factors (can psychiatrists predict pouch dilatation?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman; Al Atar, Ashraf; Bidlake, Louise; Fienness, Alberic; McCluskey, Sara; Nussey, S; Bano, Gal; Morgan, John

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is increasingly being performed in morbidly obese individuals for weight loss. Some patients develop pouch dilatation as a postoperative complication that limits the utility of the procedure. Surgical variables are poor predictors of this complication. 5 patients from a series of 157 who underwent LAGB at a single center developed the condition. Psychiatric and surgical case-notes were analyzed retrospectively for the presence of operationally defined psychiatric disorders and compared to 10 controls from the same population. Cases were significantly more likely to have past or current binge eating, emotionally triggered eating with reduced awareness of the link, a history of affective disorder, reduced sexual functioning and successful preoperative weight loss. No difference between groups was observed for compliance with orlistat, childhood sexual abuse, relationships with parents, history of bulimia nervosa, rate of band inflation or preoperative BMI. Psychological factors may be better predictors of pouch dilatation than biomedical variables. Disordered eating can be an attempt to modulate negative emotions. Pouch dilatation may be a consequence of this eating behavior.

  4. Development of human factors engineering guide for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dangshi; Sheng Jufang

    1997-01-01

    'THE PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TO NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT (First Draft, in Chinese)', which was developed under a research program sponsored by National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) is described briefly. It is hoped that more conscious, more systematical and more comprehensive application of Human Factors Engineering to the nuclear power projects from the preliminary feasibility studies up to the commercial operation will benefit the safe, efficient and economical operations of nuclear power plants in China

  5. Factors Influencing Adjustment in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katherine A.; Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be at an increased risk of adjustment problems. To examine possible predictors of adjustment difficulties in siblings, 70 mothers with at least one child with ASD and one typical child completed surveys of symptom severity in the child with ASD, impact of the child with ASD on the…

  6. Development of an extended shift exposure limit adjustment factor for coal mine dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiernan, G; Van Zanten, D [SIMTARS (Australia)

    1999-12-31

    Four models for adjusting exposure standards for use during altered work shifts are reviewed. These are the absorbed dose adjustment model; the Brief and Scala model; the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) model; and the pharmacokinetic models of Hockey and Reist and of Stan Roach. The most appropriate model is selected for control of coal mine dusts exposure. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  8. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  9. Public Reporting of Primary Care Clinic Quality: Accounting for Sociodemographic Factors in Risk Adjustment and Performance Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Finch, Michael; Kreiger, Rob; Reeves, David

    2018-01-03

    Performance measurement and public reporting are increasingly being used to compare clinic performance. Intended consequences include quality improvement, value-based payment, and consumer choice. Unintended consequences include reducing access for riskier patients and inappropriately labeling some clinics as poor performers, resulting in tampering with stable care processes. Two analytic steps are used to maximize intended and minimize unintended consequences. First, risk adjustment is used to reduce the impact of factors outside providers' control. Second, performance categorization is used to compare clinic performance using risk-adjusted measures. This paper examines the effects of methodological choices, such as risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors in risk adjustment and accounting for patients clustering by clinics in performance categorization, on clinic performance comparison for diabetes care, vascular care, asthma, and colorectal cancer screening. The population includes all patients with commercial and public insurance served by clinics in Minnesota. Although risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors has a significant effect on quality, it does not explain much of the variation in quality. In contrast, taking into account the nesting of patients within clinics in performance categorization has a substantial effect on performance comparison.

  10. Design of The High Efficiency Power Factor Correction Circuit for Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiye Hülya OBDAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing power factor correction circuits for switched power supplies has become important in recent years in terms of efficient use of energy. Power factor correction techniques play a significant role in high power density and energy efficiency. For these purposes, bridgeless PFC topologies and control strategies have been developed alongside basic boost PFC circuits. The power density can be increased using bridgeless structures by means of reducing losses in the circuit. This article examines bridgeless PFC structures and compares their performances in terms of losses and power factor. A semi-bridgeless PFC, which is widely used at high power levels, was analyzed and simulated. The designed circuit simulation using the current mode control method was performed in the PSIM program. A prototype of a 900 W semi-bridgeless PFC circuit was implemented and the results obtained from the circuit are presented

  11. Thermoelectric Power Factor Limit of a 1D Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Burke, Adam; Svilans, Artis; Linke, Heiner; Thelander, Claes

    2018-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been significant interest in the potentially advantageous thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires, but it has been challenging to find high thermoelectric power factors based on 1D effects in practice. Here we point out that there is an upper limit to the thermoelectric power factor of nonballistic 1D nanowires, as a consequence of the recently established quantum bound of thermoelectric power output. We experimentally test this limit in quasiballistic InAs nanowires by extracting the maximum power factor of the first 1D subband through I -V characterization, finding that the measured maximum power factors conform to the theoretical limit. The established limit allows the prediction of the achievable power factor of a specific nanowire material system with 1D electronic transport based on the nanowire dimension and mean free path. The power factor of state-of-the-art semiconductor nanowires with small cross section and high crystal quality can be expected to be highly competitive (on the order of mW /m K2 ) at low temperatures. However, they have no clear advantage over bulk materials at, or above, room temperature.

  12. High Efficiency Three-phase Power Factor Correction Rectifier using Wide Band-Gap Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza

    Improving the conversion efficiency of power factor correction (PFC) rectifiers has become compelling due to their wide applications such as adjustable speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs). The attention to PFCs has increased even more....... Therefore, current controllers are also important to be investigated in this project. In this PhD research work, a comprehensive design of a two-level three-phase PFC rectifier using silicon-carbide (SiC) switches to achieve high efficiency is presented. The work is divided into two main parts: 1) Optimum...

  13. DIGITAL SOLUTION FOR FAST EVALUATION OF THE POWER FACTOR IN POWER NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gligor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Power quality evaluation involves measurements and determinations of some power quality indicators. One of these indicators is represented by the power factor. The importance of the power factor as an indicator of power quality, both theoretical and practical, implies its determination or direct measurement as a necessity, especially in industrial environments where the optimization of energy costs is a primary target. Considering these, the determination of this power quality indicator implies multiple or sophisticated measurement tools. As a result, the present paper aims to present a solution for an easier evaluation of the power factor. The proposed solution can be integrated in numerical control systems for reactive power monitoring or in supervision and control systems in order to extend the applicability for the automatic power factor improvement. The proposed solution is characterized by simplicity and a low cost of implementation, representing an effective learning tool in the professional training in the electricity field. The configuration of the measurement circuit was designed to allow the measurement of a wide range of the power factor, starting from the case of inductive consumers to the case of capacitive consumers, noting that in the case of strongly deformed regimes the results shows significant deviations from the expected ones fact that is extensively exposed and motivated in the paper.

  14. Method and apparatus to provide power conversion with high power factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, David J.; Lim, Seungbum; Otten, David M.

    2017-05-23

    A power converter circuit rectifies a line voltage and applies the rectified voltage to a stack of capacitors. Voltages on the capacitors are coupled to a plurality of regulating converters to be converted to regulated output signals. The regulated output signals are combined and converted to a desired DC output voltage of the power converter. Input currents of the regulating converters are modulated in a manner that enhances the power factor of the power converter.

  15. An analysis of physician antitrust exemption legislation: adjusting the balance of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, F J; Young, G J

    2001-07-04

    Current antitrust law restricts physicians from joining together to collectively negotiate. However, such activities may be approved by state laws under the so-called state action immunity doctrine and by federal legislation under an explicit antitrust exemption. In 1999, Texas became the first state to pass physician antitrust exemption legislation allowing physicians, under certain defined circumstances, to collectively negotiate fees with health plans. Last year, similar legislation was introduced in the US Congress, in 18 state legislatures, and in the District of Columbia. This legislation was passed only in the District of Columbia where its implementation was blocked by the city's financial control board. Nonetheless, legislation permitting physicians to collectively negotiate fees with managed care plans has been introduced in 10 state legislatures this year, and there is continued interest in introducing similar legislation in the US Congress. This analysis examines the basic features of this legislation and its potential impact on the balance of power between physicians and managed care plans.

  16. Explaining the adjustment of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Role of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to explain adjustment (diabetes-related quality of life, general well-being, and psychopathology) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by testing the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors, using an adapted version

  17. Human factor analysis and preventive countermeasures in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ye

    2010-01-01

    Based on the human error analysis theory and the characteristics of maintenance in a nuclear power plant, human factors of maintenance in NPP are divided into three different areas: human, technology, and organization. Which is defined as individual factors, including psychological factors, physiological characteristics, health status, level of knowledge and interpersonal skills; The technical factors including technology, equipment, tools, working order, etc.; The organizational factors including management, information exchange, education, working environment, team building and leadership management,etc The analysis found that organizational factors can directly or indirectly affect the behavior of staff and technical factors, is the most basic human error factor. Based on this nuclear power plant to reduce human error and measures the response. (authors)

  18. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  19. Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chakyung Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  20. Risk and Protective Factors at Age 16: Psychological Adjustment in Children With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-09-01

    Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Cross-sectional data based on psychological assessments at age 16 (N = 857). The effect of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated on all outcome variables. Results were compared with large national samples. Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harter Self-Perception Scale for Adolescents, Child Experience Questionnaire, and Satisfaction With Appearance scale. The main factor influencing psychological adjustment across domains was gender, with girls in general reporting more psychological problems, as seen in reference groups. The presence of an additional condition also negatively affected some of the measures. No support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor except for dissatisfaction with appearance. Correlation analyses of risk groups seem to point to an association between social and emotional risk and between social risk and dissatisfaction with appearance. Associations between other domains were found to be weak. The results point to areas of both risk and strength in adolescents born with a cleft lip and/or palate. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in adolescents with a cleft.

  1. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  2. A NOVEL THREE PHASE UNITY POWER FACTOR CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sami SAZAK

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The proposed unity power factor converter system which is able to operate from a 150V three-phase supply whilst delivering the required 200V DC voltage has been built and tested. This circuit functions as a high power factor low harmonic rectifier based on the concept that the peak capacitor voltages are proportional to the line input currents. Hence the low frequency components of the capacitor voltages are also approximately proportional to the line input currents. The system can be designed to achieve nearly sinusoidal supply input currents, when operated with discontinuous resonant capacitor voltages Output power control is achieved by variations of the IGBTs switching frequency. The converter is therefore able to compensate for any changes in the load resistance. The proposed topology offers advantages, including: a relatively simple power, control and protection circuits, high power capability, and high converter efficiencies.

  3. Critical success factors simplified implementing the powerful drivers of dramatic business improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Marvin T

    2010-01-01

    Critical-to-success factors (CSFs) have become essential elements to strategic planning and no business can achieve consistent success without effectively adopting them. To take full advantage of CSFs, however, an organization must first understand what they are and how they can be used to drive organizational initiatives and processes. Critical Success Factors Simplified: Implementing the Powerful Drivers of Dramatic Business Improvement provides a concise manual on CSFs that will teach you how to identify and select the right CSFs, measure their impact, and adjust them as needed to reach your goals.

  4. Research of human factor in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopp, I.

    1983-01-01

    The question is discussed of the study of the human factor with regard to the reliability of nuclear power plant operation. The reliability of the human factor is the result of the functional fitness, motivation, working conditions and working regime of personnel. (J.B.)

  5. A robust and powerful two-step testing procedure for local ancestry adjusted allelic association analysis in admixed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qing; Xu, Zheng; Raffield, Laura M; Chang, Suhua; Wu, Di; Lange, Ethan M; Reiner, Alex P; Li, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Genetic association studies in admixed populations allow us to gain deeper understanding of the genetic architecture of human diseases and traits. However, population stratification, complicated linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns, and the complex interplay of allelic and ancestry effects on phenotypic traits pose challenges in such analyses. These issues may lead to detecting spurious associations and/or result in reduced statistical power. Fortunately, if handled appropriately, these same challenges provide unique opportunities for gene mapping. To address these challenges and to take these opportunities, we propose a robust and powerful two-step testing procedure Local Ancestry Adjusted Allelic (LAAA) association. In the first step, LAAA robustly captures associations due to allelic effect, ancestry effect, and interaction effect, allowing detection of effect heterogeneity across ancestral populations. In the second step, LAAA identifies the source of association, namely allelic, ancestry, or the combination. By jointly modeling allele, local ancestry, and ancestry-specific allelic effects, LAAA is highly powerful in capturing the presence of interaction between ancestry and allele effect. We evaluated the validity and statistical power of LAAA through simulations over a broad spectrum of scenarios. We further illustrated its usefulness by application to the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) African American participants for association with hemoglobin levels. We were able to replicate independent groups' previously identified loci that would have been missed in CARe without joint testing. Moreover, the loci, for which LAAA detected potential effect heterogeneity, were replicated among African Americans from the Women's Health Initiative study. LAAA is freely available at https://yunliweb.its.unc.edu/LAAA. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  6. Anesthesiologist- and System-Related Risk Factors for Risk-Adjusted Pediatric Anesthesia-Related Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgleszewski, Steven E; Graham, Dionne A; Hickey, Paul R; Brustowicz, Robert M; Odegard, Kirsten C; Koka, Rahul; Seefelder, Christian; Navedo, Andres T; Randolph, Adrienne G

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric anesthesia-related cardiac arrest (ARCA) is an uncommon but potentially preventable adverse event. Infants and children with more severe underlying disease are at highest risk. We aimed to identify system- and anesthesiologist-related risk factors for ARCA. We analyzed a prospectively collected patient cohort data set of anesthetics administered from 2000 to 2011 to children at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. Pre-procedure systemic disease level was characterized by ASA physical status (ASA-PS). Two reviewers independently reviewed cardiac arrests and categorized their anesthesia relatedness. Factors associated with ARCA in the univariate analyses were identified for reevaluation after adjustment for patient age and ASA-PS. Cardiac arrest occurred in 142 of 276,209 anesthetics (incidence 5.1/10,000 anesthetics); 72 (2.6/10,000 anesthetics) were classified as anesthesia-related. In the univariate analyses, risk of ARCA was much higher in cardiac patients and for anesthesiologists with lower annual caseload and/or fewer annual days delivering anesthetics (all P risk adjustment for ASA-PS ≥ III and age ≤ 6 months, however, the association with lower annual days delivering anesthetics remained (P = 0.03), but the other factors were no longer significant. Case-mix explained most associations between higher risk of pediatric ARCA and anesthesiologist-related variables at our institution, but the association with fewer annual days delivering anesthetics remained. Our findings highlight the need for rigorous adjustment for patient risk factors in anesthesia patient safety studies.

  7. Alpha Power Modulates Perception Independently of Endogenous Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasskia Brüers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain. Alpha oscillations in particular have been proposed to play an important role in sensory perception. Past studies have shown that the power of ongoing EEG oscillations in the alpha band is negatively correlated with visual outcome. Moreover, it also co-varies with other endogenous factors such as attention, vigilance, or alertness. In turn, these endogenous factors influence visual perception. Therefore, it remains unclear how much of the relation between alpha and perception is indirectly mediated by such endogenous factors, and how much reflects a direct causal influence of alpha rhythms on sensory neural processing. We propose to disentangle the direct from the indirect causal routes by introducing modulations of alpha power, independently of any fluctuations in endogenous factors. To this end, we use white-noise sequences to constrain the brain activity of 20 participants. The cross-correlation between the white-noise sequences and the concurrently recorded EEG reveals the impulse response function (IRF, a model of the systematic relationship between stimulation and brain response. These IRFs are then used to reconstruct rather than record the brain activity linked with new random sequences (by convolution. Interestingly, this reconstructed EEG only contains information about oscillations directly linked to the white-noise stimulation; fluctuations in attention and other endogenous factors may still modulate brain alpha rhythms during the task, but our reconstructed EEG is immune to these factors. We found that the detection of near-perceptual threshold targets embedded within these new white-noise sequences depended on the power of the ~10 Hz reconstructed EEG over parieto-occipital channels. Around the time of presentation, higher power led to poorer performance. Thus, fluctuations in alpha power, induced here by random luminance sequences, can directly influence perception: the relation between

  8. Factors Impacting the Psychological Adjustment of Saudi Arabian International Students in the United States: Self-Esteem, Social Support, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundles, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…

  9. Regression and kriging analysis for grid power factor estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Guntaka; Harley R. Myler

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of power factor (PF) in electrical utility grids is a mainstay of load balancing and is also a critical element of transmission and distribution efficiency. The measurement of PF dates back to the earliest periods of electrical power distribution to public grids. In the wide-area distribution grid, measurement of current waveforms is trivial and may be accomplished at any point in the grid using a current tap transformer. However, voltage measurement requires reference to grou...

  10. Availability improvement factors at Taipower's nuclear power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Sufficient electricity to meet the needs of a growing industrial economy, is one of the most important factors in the total economic development of a nation. Currently, nuclear power is considered one of the most economical and available sources of energy. To keep pace with Taiwan's rapid economic development, while also observing our government's policy of diversifying the requirements for imported forms of energy, Taiwan Power Company has embarked upon an ambitious of nuclear power plant construction. This paper discusses the improvement of Taiwan's nuclear power plants. At the present time, Taipower has completed three nuclear power plants. Two of these are located in northern Taiwan, along the East China Sea, while the third is on the southern tip of Taiwan, bordering the South China Sea. These three plants, each with two nuclear generating units, comprise a total nuclear generating capacity of 5144 MWe

  11. Factor of radioactive waste on nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2009-01-01

    Global warming phenomena and rising oil prices have brought the excitement of open space use of nuclear power. Arguments in favor of this technology range in terms of more environmentally friendly, energy diversification and cost efficiency has prompted the government to widen the choice of nuclear power be considered as a serious alternative. Despite the attractive factors to the use of these powers, there are also factors that stem from the continued development of nuclear power. These include the factor of safety, security, security of fuel supply, and public attention is often associated with radioactive waste management. This article attempts to debate specific to radioactive waste management factors that impact on public acceptance of a country's nuclear power program, especially in Malaysia. Starting from the absence of radioactive waste management policy to model uncertainty of the landfill and complications in selecting a repository site shows the basic infrastructure is still lacking. In addition, previous experience handling thorium waste has not reached a final settlement after several years of implementation. It reinforced the perception about the level of public confidence in the competence and attitude of local workers who are not very encouraging to pursue this advanced.

  12. Human factors guidelines for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Waters et al. reported to the Human Factors Society on developing human factors criteria for a new reactor plant. They correctly indicated that much of the guidance documentation in human factors engineering has derived from MIL-STD-1472 and its antecedents. Guidelines for human-computer interface have sprung primarily from the Smith and Mosier compendium and its source documents. NUREG-0700, which is currently being updated, was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a general evaluation guide for inspecting control rooms. In addition, the Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, US Department of Energy, the NRC, and others have published a number of specialized documents on a range of subjects. The number of guidelines and standards has grown in the past few years to an impressive number, including those published by international organizations and professional societies. This paper provides an update on current efforts to provide appropriate guidance for the power industry and, perhaps more importantly, offers a perspective on how users should think about using the available materials and what else is needed. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues to be one of the principal participants in providing guidance to the utilities. Human factors guidelines is indeed a timely topic, currently of great interest to EPRI's constituents and to designers of new and upgraded nuclear power plants (NPMs) in the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Initiative programs

  13. Research on Power Factor Correction Boost Inductor Design Optimization – Efficiency vs. Power Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, efficiency and power density are the most important issues for Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters development. However, it is a challenge to reach both high efficiency and power density in a system at the same time. In this paper, taking a Bridgeless PFC (BPFC) as an example......, a useful compromise between efficiency and power density of the Boost inductors on 3.2kW is achieved using an optimized design procedure. The experimental verifications based on the optimized inductor are carried out from 300W to 3.2kW at 220Vac input....

  14. Directional variance adjustment: bias reduction in covariance matrices based on factor analysis with an application to portfolio optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartz

    Full Text Available Robust and reliable covariance estimates play a decisive role in financial and many other applications. An important class of estimators is based on factor models. Here, we show by extensive Monte Carlo simulations that covariance matrices derived from the statistical Factor Analysis model exhibit a systematic error, which is similar to the well-known systematic error of the spectrum of the sample covariance matrix. Moreover, we introduce the Directional Variance Adjustment (DVA algorithm, which diminishes the systematic error. In a thorough empirical study for the US, European, and Hong Kong stock market we show that our proposed method leads to improved portfolio allocation.

  15. Directional variance adjustment: bias reduction in covariance matrices based on factor analysis with an application to portfolio optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Daniel; Hatrick, Kerr; Hesse, Christian W; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lemm, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Robust and reliable covariance estimates play a decisive role in financial and many other applications. An important class of estimators is based on factor models. Here, we show by extensive Monte Carlo simulations that covariance matrices derived from the statistical Factor Analysis model exhibit a systematic error, which is similar to the well-known systematic error of the spectrum of the sample covariance matrix. Moreover, we introduce the Directional Variance Adjustment (DVA) algorithm, which diminishes the systematic error. In a thorough empirical study for the US, European, and Hong Kong stock market we show that our proposed method leads to improved portfolio allocation.

  16. Directional Variance Adjustment: Bias Reduction in Covariance Matrices Based on Factor Analysis with an Application to Portfolio Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Daniel; Hatrick, Kerr; Hesse, Christian W.; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lemm, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Robust and reliable covariance estimates play a decisive role in financial and many other applications. An important class of estimators is based on factor models. Here, we show by extensive Monte Carlo simulations that covariance matrices derived from the statistical Factor Analysis model exhibit a systematic error, which is similar to the well-known systematic error of the spectrum of the sample covariance matrix. Moreover, we introduce the Directional Variance Adjustment (DVA) algorithm, which diminishes the systematic error. In a thorough empirical study for the US, European, and Hong Kong stock market we show that our proposed method leads to improved portfolio allocation. PMID:23844016

  17. Stochastic Optimization of Wind Turbine Power Factor Using Stochastic Model of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Siano, Pierluigi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization algorithm that aims to minimize the expectation of the system power losses by controlling wind turbine (WT) power factors. This objective of the optimization is subject to the probability constraints of bus voltage and line current requirements....... The optimization algorithm utilizes the stochastic models of wind power generation (WPG) and load demand to take into account their stochastic variation. The stochastic model of WPG is developed on the basis of a limited autoregressive integrated moving average (LARIMA) model by introducing a crosscorrelation...... structure to the LARIMA model. The proposed stochastic optimization is carried out on a 69-bus distribution system. Simulation results confirm that, under various combinations of WPG and load demand, the system power losses are considerably reduced with the optimal setting of WT power factor as compared...

  18. Capacity factor of wind power realized values vs. estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccard, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    For two decades now, the capacity factor of wind power measuring the average energy delivered has been assumed in the 30-35% range of the name plate capacity. Yet, the mean realized value for Europe over the last five years is below 21%; accordingly private cost is two-third higher and the reduction of carbon emissions is 40% less than previously expected. We document this discrepancy and offer rationalizations that emphasize the long term variations of wind speeds, the behavior of the wind power industry, political interference and the mode of finance. We conclude with the consequences of the capacity factor miscalculation and some policy recommendations.

  19. A human factors data bank for French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, A.; Mosneron-Dupin, F.; Bouissou, M.; Meslin, T.

    1986-01-01

    CONFUCIUS is a computerized data bank developed by Electricite de France to study human factors in nuclear power plants. A detailed and homogeneous grouping of described operation and maintenance errors as well as of performance times is possible with CONFUCIUS. It also incorporates a selection of statistical treatment softwares. Readily usable and modifiable, the system can easily evolve. It allows a wide range of applications (safety analysis, event analysis, training, human factors engineering, probabilistic analysis). Data derived from the analysis of significant events reported in power plants and from the analysis of simulator tests are used as inputs into this data bank

  20. Implementing low power consumption in standby mode in the case of power supplies with power factor correction

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Kevin; F., Pablo; G., Diego; Sebastián, Javier; Álvarez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    This work analyzes different options to implement low power consumption in Switching Mode Power Supplies (SMPSs) with Power Factor Correction (PFC) when they are in standby mode. The standard SMPSs for power levels higher than 100 W are made up of two stages: a classical PFC stage based on a Boost Converter operating in the Continuous Conduction Mode and a second stage based on any type of isolated DC-DC converter. The value of the resistive sensors needed by the PFC control stage determines ...

  1. Efficiency optimization of class-D biomedical inductive wireless power transfer systems by means of frequency adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormans, Matthew; Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Inductive powering for implanted medical devices is a commonly employed technique, that allows for implants to avoid more dangerous methods such as the use of transcutaneous wires or implanted batteries. However, wireless powering in this way also comes with a number of difficulties and conflicting requirements, which are often met by using designs based on compromise. In particular, one aspect common to most inductive power links is that they are driven with a fixed frequency, which may not be optimal depending on factors such as coupling and load. In this paper, a method is proposed in which an inductive power link is driven by a frequency that is maintained at an optimum value f(opt), to ensure that the link is in resonance. In order to maintain this resonance, a phase tracking technique is employed at the primary side of the link; this allows for compensation of changes in coil separation and load. The technique is shown to provide significant improvements in maintained secondary voltage and efficiency for a range of loads when the link is overcoupled.

  2. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  3. Bus Participation Factor Analysis for Harmonic Instability in Power Electronics Based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    Compared with the conventional power systems, large-scale power electronics based power systems present a more complex situation, where harmonic instability may be induced by the mutual interactions between the inner control loops of the converters. This paper presents an approach to locate which...... power converters and buses are more sensitive and have significant contribution to the harmonic instability. In the approach, a power electronics based system is introduced as a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system by means of a dynamic admittance matrix. Bus Participation Factors (PFs......) are calculated by the oscillatory mode sensitivity analysis versus the elements of the MIMO transfer function matrix. The PF analysis detects which power electronic converters or buses have a higher participation in harmonic instability excitation than others or at which buses such instability problems have...

  4. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  5. Quality factors in the life cycle of software oriented to safety systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The inclusion of software in safety related systems for nuclear power plants, makes it necessary to include the software quality assurance concept. The software quality can be defined as the adjustment degree between the software and the specified requirements and user expectations. To guarantee a certain software quality level it is necessary to make a systematic and planned set of tasks, that constitute a software quality guaranty plan. The application of such a plan involves activities that should be performed all along the software life cycle, and that can be evaluated through the so called quality factors, due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be directly measured, but indirectly as some of it manifestations. In this work, a software life cycle model is proposed, for nuclear power plant safety related systems. A set os software quality factors is also proposed , with its corresponding classification according to the proposed model. (author) [es

  6. Power Factor Correction Capacitors for Multiple Parallel Three-Phase ASD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Today’s three-phase Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems still employ Diode Rectifiers (DRs) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) as the front-end converters due to structural and control simplicity, small volume, low cost, and high reliability. However, the uncontrollable DRs and phase......-controllable SCRs bring side-effects by injecting high harmonics to the grid, which will degrade the system performance in terms of lowering the overall efficiency and overheating the system if remain uncontrolled or unattenuated. For multiple ASD systems, certain harmonics in the entire system can be mitigated...... the power factor, passive capacitors can be installed, which yet can trigger the system resonance. Hence, this paper analyzes the resonant issues in multiple ASD systems with power factor correction capacitors. Potential damping solutions are summarized. Simulations are carried out, while laboratory tests...

  7. Power factor correction (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of power factor correction (PFC) converters for feeding brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. This work explores various configurations of PFC converters which are classified into five different categories of non-isolated, bridgeless (BL) non-isolated, isolated, BL-isolated PFC ...

  8. Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

  9. High Power Factor Hybrid Rectifier | Odeh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the analysis of a new single-phase hybrid rectifier with high power factor (PF) and low harmonic distortion current. The proposed rectifier structure is composed of an ordinary single-phase diode rectifier with parallel connection of a switched converter. It is outlined that the switched converter is capable of ...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF LIMITING FACTORS ON ELECTRIC MACHINES ELECTROMAGNETIC POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Konstantin K. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of electromechanical transducers single capacity is one of the main ways of their efficiency upgrading. The article discusses the impact of the main electromagnetic and me-chanical factors on the power, transmitted through the air gap of DC electric machines.

  11. Human factor in the process of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enenkl, V.

    The building up of nuclear power requires the training not only of personnel but of the whole population as well. Professional workers in nuclear power facilities production and personnel operating the equipment of nuclear power plants must be on a high technical and managerial level. The important quality of such personnel is their reliability and responsibility. The human factor influences the level, quality and thereby also the service-life of the machines and equipment and their operation. The improvement of the quality of work in nuclear power production depends on upgrading the scientific and technical level of workers and personnel, their training, in-service education and the raising of the social standing. (B.H.)

  12. Unconventional power - a factor of reducing the pollution in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, P.

    1996-01-01

    The unconventional power generation includes all the activities related to the utilization and management of energy sources, facilities and equipment used to produce and distribute the power obtained through systems other than those based on burning of classical fissile fuels. By its very nature it is not pollutant. The renewable energies as the solar, wind, geothermal, tidal energies, etc, enter this category. As in the same category it is included the energy recovered from different industrial processes, usually associated with the treatment of organic residues or of refuse waters, the unconventional power generation is an important factor in ecological and environmental policy. The paper stresses also the beneficial accompanying actions which are associated with exploiting other unconventional energy sources. For instance, the tidal power exploitation implies also measures of protection of see shore regions from erosion and other forms of decay

  13. Hardiness scales in Iranian managers: evidence of incremental validity in relationships with the five factor model and with organizational and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of Hardiness scales in a sample of Iranian managers. Along with measures of the Five Factor Model and of Organizational and Psychological Adjustment, Hardiness scales were administered to 159 male managers (M age = 39.9, SD = 7.5) who had worked in their organizations for 7.9 yr. (SD=5.4). Hardiness predicted greater Job Satisfaction, higher Organization-based Self-esteem, and perceptions of the work environment as being less stressful and constraining. Hardiness also correlated positively with Assertiveness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and negatively with Depression, Anxiety, Perceived Stress, Chance External Control, and a Powerful Others External Control. Evidence of incremental validity was obtained when the Hardiness scales supplemented the Five Factor Model in predicting organizational and psychological adjustment. These data documented the incremental validity of the Hardiness scales in a non-Western sample and thus confirmed once again that Hardiness has a relevance that extends beyond the culture in which it was developed.

  14. The design value method and adjusted partial factor approach for existing structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspeele, R.; Sykora, M.; Allaix, D.L.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the design of new structures, the assessment of existing structures often relies on the subjective judgement of the investigating engineer. An objective verification format for existing structures based on alternative partial factors is however feasible, enabling a rather simple and

  15. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  16. Influence Factor of Tertiary Students’ Employability Awareness Adjust Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Chou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the correlation (N=621 among tertiary students’ career planning, erecruiting adoption acceptance, and employability awareness in Taiwan. Tertiary students’ perceived career planning includes four factors, namely, self-appraisal, job expectancy, goal selection, and problem solving. E-recruiting adoption acceptance includes four factors, namely, playfulness, ease of use, effectiveness, and usefulness. Employability awareness includes four factors, namely, personal adaptability, employability ambition, career identity, and labour market. Participants responded to a 5-point Likert-type scale for each factor. Analysis was conducted using the structural equation modeling (SEM, and a good model fit was found for both the measurement and structural models. Research findings demonstrate that tertiary students’ career planning significantly and directly influences employability awareness. Career planning significantly and indirectly influences employability awareness by e-recruiting adoption acceptance. Tertiary students’ career planning and e-recruiting adoption acceptance fit the influence model and empirical data of employability awareness. Implications of this study, including the value of student self-assessment of their skills and utility of the e-recruiting to underpin personal career development planning and inform graduate recruitment processes, are discussed and recommendations made.

  17. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.; Jimenez, A.

    2001-01-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  18. Human factors review of power plant maintainability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1981-02-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a check list guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observation of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  19. Risk and Resilience Factors for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Psychopathology and Post Combat Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 1 5 6 4 6 0 1 JFHQs 37th 16th 174th 73d 371st 1 5 8 4 2 3 Age of Soldier Suicides Ave Age = 30.56 Years Grade of Soldier...vulnerability (i.e. gene x environment interactions). This will also allow for integrated research utilizing neuroimaging, psychophysiological, and...and Non‐Veterans. International Journal of Social Psychiatry  1980; 27(3): 204‐212.  24.  Kuh D, Ben‐Shlomo  Y , Lynch J, Hallqvist J, and Power C. Life

  20. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.

  1. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.

  2. Influence factors and forecast of carbon emission in China: structure adjustment for emission peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Cui, C. Q.; Li, Z. P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper introduced Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Linear Regression Model to verify long-term balance relationships between Carbon Emissions and the impact factors. The integrated model of improved PCA and multivariate regression analysis model is attainable to figure out the pattern of carbon emission sources. Main empirical results indicate that among all selected variables, the role of energy consumption scale was largest. GDP and Population follow and also have significant impacts on carbon emission. Industrialization rate and fossil fuel proportion, which is the indicator of reflecting the economic structure and energy structure, have a higher importance than the factor of urbanization rate and the dweller consumption level of urban areas. In this way, some suggestions are put forward for government to achieve the peak of carbon emissions.

  3. Risk and Resilience Factors for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Psychopathology and Post Combat Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    notion that PTSD’s dysphoria is especially related to depression and general emotional distress. While some studies (Elklit, Armour , & Shevlin...Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.04.007 Elklit, A., Armour , C., & Shevlin, M. (2010). Testing alternative factor...Cigarette Packages and Advertisements . Federal Register.76. 7. Boden JM, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Cigarette smoking and depression: tests of causal

  4. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale: Factor structure, reliability, and validity assessment in a sample of Greek breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotroni, Philippa; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Missitzis, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    The study and measurement of psychosocial adjustment is important for evaluating patients' well-being, and assessing the illness's course, treatment's success, and patients' recovery. In this study, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Greek version of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report (PAIS-SR) were examined. Demographic and psychosocial data were collected from a sample of 243 women with breast cancer, recruited from September 2011 to December 2012. With some exceptions in specific items, the original conceptually-derived PAIS-SR subscales emerged in a seven-factor solution. Social Environment, Job and Household Duties, and Psychological Distress accounted for more of the total variance than other subscales. PAIS-SR showed good internal consistency reliability, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients >0.62. Correlations of PAIS-SR domains with measures of quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms supported the convergent validity of the PAIS-SR and its significance for cancer research. The Greek version of the PAIS-SR has acceptable internal consistency reliability and construct validity, as well as satisfactory convergent validity. Results provide some suggestions for the development of programs to evaluate adjustment status and implement psychosocial interventions among breast cancer survivors.

  6. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  7. Adjustement of Dancoff factor for calculating the cell of fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, V.; Sefidvash, F.

    1988-01-01

    A new nuclear reactor design based on the fluidized bed concept is under reserch and development. It utilized spherical fuel of slightly enriched zircaloy-clad uranium dioxide fluidized by light water under pressure since the Leopard code has been developed for light water reactor analysis, it was necessary to develop a method to determine the dimensions of the hypothetical fuel rod lattice, which are neutronically equivalent to the spherical fuel pellet lattice. This method is shown to calculate the Dancoff factor correctly. (author) [pt

  8. Minimizing the power peaking factor of fuel lattices using factors of group for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, J. R.; Longoria, L. C.; De la Cruz, E.; Arredondo, C.

    2010-10-01

    A method to design the distribution and composition of nuclear fuel for the array of fuel rods in a lattice for BWRs is presented in this work. The aim of the method is to minimize the power peaking factor until an adequate value is reached. Also, this method uses a few calculations of lattice. The method is based on the classification of the fuel rods in two groups: the group of fuel rods with the higher power level (group pow ), and the other group of fuel rods (no-group pow ). The enrichment of 235 U of each fuel rod of the group pow is multiplied by a factor called group fissile factor (f group ), and the enrichment of 235 U of each fuel rod of the no-group pow is multiplied by a factor called no-group fissile factor (f no-group ). These factors are fitted so that the power peaking factor is minimized. The importance of the method with the use of these two factors is applied to the design of a fuel lattice for BWRs as the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. The calculations of lattice are made by means of the Helios code. (Author)

  9. Parent and family factors associated with child adjustment to pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B

    2007-05-01

    To identify factors that influence the association between parent and child distress among families of children with cancer and comparison peers. Parent and child distress, social support, and family environment were assessed among families of 95 children with cancer (94 mothers, 67 fathers) and 98 comparison peers (97 mothers, 77 fathers). Significant associations were found between parent and child distress. For models examining the impact of fathers' distress on children, several moderators were identified (i.e., family environment, child age and gender, a cancer diagnosis, and treatment severity). Family environment also partially mediated father and child distress. Children whose parents were distressed were more likely to be distressed themselves. Subgroups of children were particularly vulnerable, indicating a need to identify further mechanisms of risk and resilience and to develop family-based interventions. Support was found for including fathers as independent sources of information in pediatric psychology research and clinical practice.

  10. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  11. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Véronneau

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended.

  12. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  13. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  14. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.) [de

  15. Active Power Factor Correction Using a Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KAYIŞLI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a sliding mode controller is designed for active shaping of the input current in the boost converter. Robustness of the designed controller is tested with variable output voltage references, different loads and network voltage variations. For the simulations, MATLAB/Simulink programme is used. From simulation results, the same phase was provided between input current and input voltage and nearly unity power factor was obtained.

  16. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  17. The Adjustment of New Recruits to Military Life in the Chinese Army: The Longitudinal Predictive Power of MMPI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lijun; Han, Jing; Han, Jian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the findings of two studies analyzing new recruits' adjustment to army life in the Chinese military. In the first exploratory study, we developed a scale to measure new recruits' adjustment to military life, and found that new soldiers' adaptation could be divided into two distinct types: interpersonal…

  18. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  19. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  20. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remick, F J [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-07-01

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it.

  1. Transferring aviation human factors technology to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemerlo, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the availability of aviation safety technology and research on problems which are sufficiently similar to those faced by the nuclear power industry that an agressive effort to adapt and transfer that technology and research is warranted. Because of time and space constraints, the scope of this paper is reduced from a discussion of all of aviation safety technology to the human factors of air carrier safety. This area was selected not only because of similarities in the human factors challenges shared by both industries (e.g. selection, training, evaluation, certification, etc.) but because experience in aviation has clearly demonstrated that human error contributes to a substantially greater proportion of accidents and incidents than does equipment failure. The Congress of the United States has placed a great deal of emphasis on investigating and solving human factors problems in aviation. A number of recent examples of this interest and of the resulting actions are described. The opinions of prominent aviation organizations as to the human factors problems most in need of research are presented, along with indications of where technology transfer to the nuclear power industry may be viable. The areas covered include: fatigue, crew size, information transfer, resource management, safety data-bases, the role of automation, voice and data recording systems, crew distractions, the management of safety regulatory agencies, equipment recertification, team training, crew work-load, behavioural factors, human factors of equipment design, medical problems, toxicological factors, the use of simulators for training and certification, determining the causes of human errors, the politics of systems improvement, and importance of both safety and public perception of safety if the industry is to be viable. (author)

  2. The Norwegian version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: factor structure and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredal, Inger Schou

    2010-02-01

    The object of the study was to examine the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) among a large sample of Norwegian breast cancer patients. A total of 402 patients with breast cancer completed the Mini-MAC. Principal component analysis with varimax rotion confirmed four factors. Three had psychometric properties to the original Mini-MAC Helpless-Hopeless (HH), Anxious Preoccupation (AP) and Cognitive Avoidance (CA) subscales. The fourth, named Positive Attitude (PA) combined the Fighting Spirit (FS) and the Fatalism subscales of the original Mini-MAC. Construct validities were assessed by examining the interscale correlations as well as the correlations between the Mini-MAC subscales and the HADS subscales scores. Internal consistency of the five subscales was satisfactory for the original (HH, AP, CA, FA, coefficients=0.60-0.83), except for the FS subscale (coefficient=21). In view of the low internal reliability for the Norwegian Mini-MAC FS subscale coefficient; it appears to be more appropriate to use the Norwegian Mini-MAC as a four-factor model. If researcher or clinicians in Norway use the five-factor model, they should take great care when interpreting the fighting spirit subscale.

  3. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. Such a plan should state: -) Activities to be performed, and -) Creation of a Human Factor Engineering team adequately qualified. The Human Factor Engineering team is an integral part of the design team and is strongly linked to the engineering organizations but simultaneously has independence to act and is free to evaluate designs and propose changes in order to enhance human behavior. TECNATOM S.A. (a Spanish company) has been a part of the Design and Human Factor Engineering Team and has collaborated in the design of an advanced Nuclear Power Plant, developing methodologies and further implementing those methodologies in the design of the plant systems through the development of the plant systems operational analysis and of the man-machine interface design. The methodologies developed are made up of the following plans: -) Human Factor Engineering implementation in the Man-Machine Interface design; -) Plant System Functional Requirement Analysis; -) Allocation of Functions to man/machine; -) Task Analysis; -) Human-System Interface design; -) Control Room Verification and -) Validation

  4. Studies on human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, H.; Miyaoka, S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to raise the reliability and safety of nuclear power plants to the highest possible level, improvements to the mechanical system alone are not sufficient. Human factors must be systematically analysed and the causes and mechanisms of human error clarified to allow the development of countermeasures that will reduce error as much as possible. The paper introduces research in two areas, fundamental clarification of human behavioural, physiological and psychological characteristics to aid in the development of preventive measures for reducing error, and studies involving analysis of actual cases of accidents and failures related to man along with development of countermeasures to prevent the recurrence of such cases. The paper especially considers the latter area. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in the USA was applied on a trial basis to 31 recent accidents and failures at Japanese nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of and possible improvement to HPES were considered. Also, cases that were not directly linked to accidents or failures were analysed using a method developed independently in Japan using data collected from a survey of approximately 3,000 power plant personnel. Fundamental research on human behaviour, physiology and psychology are also introduced. (author). 4 figs

  5. Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1997-01-01

    Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission's primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters

  6. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Fraley, D.W.

    1979-08-01

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  7. Regression and kriging analysis for grid power factor estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Guntaka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of power factor (PF in electrical utility grids is a mainstay of load balancing and is also a critical element of transmission and distribution efficiency. The measurement of PF dates back to the earliest periods of electrical power distribution to public grids. In the wide-area distribution grid, measurement of current waveforms is trivial and may be accomplished at any point in the grid using a current tap transformer. However, voltage measurement requires reference to ground and so is more problematic and measurements are normally constrained to points that have ready and easy access to a ground source. We present two mathematical analysis methods based on kriging and linear least square estimation (LLSE (regression to derive PF at nodes with unknown voltages that are within a perimeter of sample nodes with ground reference across a selected power grid. Our results indicate an error average of 1.884% that is within acceptable tolerances for PF measurements that are used in load balancing tasks.

  8. Student-Teacher Relationships As a Protective Factor for School Adjustment during the Transition from Middle to High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura E; Marengo, Davide; Settanni, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified school transitions during adolescence, and in particular the transition from middle to high school, as one of the riskiest phases for school failure, being characterized by significant social, emotional and behavioral changes. This transition is critical even with respect to academic achievement: in Italy, the highest frequency of school dropout can be observed in the 9th and 10th grades, partly as a consequence of poor adjustment to the new school context. The impact of students' relationships with their teachers may be particularly relevant during critical developmental periods. Indeed, student-teacher relationships have been widely recognized as protective factors in school adjustment and, in case of negative relationships, also as a factor that increases the risk of maladjustment. Positive and affective student-teacher relationships may play an important role in students' adaptation to the school environment, favoring both academic achievement and adaptive behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the quality of teacher-student relationships, as perceived by pupils, on academic achievement, and problem and prosocial behaviors during the relevant school transition. The sample consisted of 122 students (55% female). We employed a self-report questionnaire to collect information on: demographic characteristics, quality of the relationship with teachers, problem and prosocial behaviors, and academic achievement. Students filled in the questionnaires twice: once during the 8th grade and 1 year later, during their first year of high school (9th grade). Regression analyses indicated that both average and varying levels of closeness with teachers significantly predicted changes in academic achievement: A perceived increase in closeness in 9th grade, as well as a higher mean closeness level, was associated with an increase in academic achievement. In turn, an increase in the level of perceived conflict

  9. Three-factor model of premorbid adjustment in a sample with chronic schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Ana; Usall, Judith; Baños, Iris; Dolz, Montserrat; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Vilaplana, Miriam; Autonell, Jaume; Sánchez, Bernardo; Cervilla, Jorge A; Foix, Alexandrina; Obiols, Jordi E; Haro, Josep Maria; Ochoa, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The dimensionality of premorbid adjustment (PA) has been a debated issue, with attempts to determine whether PA is a unitary construct or composed of several independent domains characterized by a differential deterioration pattern and specific outcome correlates. This study examines the factorial structure of PA, as well as, the course and correlates of its domains. Retrospective study of 84 adult patients experiencing first-episode psychosis (FEP) (n=33) and individuals with schizophrenia (SCH) (n=51). All patients were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of instruments including clinical, functioning and neuropsychological variables. A principal component analysis accompanied by a varimax rotation method was used to examine the factor structure of the PAS-S scale. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to assess the changes in PAS domains over time. Bivariate correlation analyses were performed to analyse the relationship between PAS factors and clinical, social and cognitive variables. PA was better explained by three factors (71.65% of the variance): Academic PA, Social PA and Socio-sexual PA. The academic domain showed higher scores of PA from childhood. Social and clinical variables were more strongly related to Social PA and Socio-sexual PA domains, and the Academic PA domain was exclusively associated with cognitive variables. This study supports previous evidence, emphasizing the validity of dividing PA into its sub-components. A differential deterioration pattern and specific correlates were observed in each PA domains, suggesting that impairments in each PA domain might predispose individuals to develop different expressions of psychotic dimensions. © 2013.

  10. Improved Power Control Using Optimal Adjustable Coefficients for Three-Phase Photovoltaic Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianggang; Zhou, Niancheng; Lou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Unbalanced grid faults will lead to several drawbacks in the output power quality of photovoltaic generation (PV) converters, such as power fluctuation, current amplitude swell, and a large quantity of harmonics. The aim of this paper is to propose a flexible AC current generation method by selecting coefficients to overcome these problems in an optimal way. Three coefficients are brought in to tune the output current reference within the required limits of the power quality (the current harmonic distortion, the AC current peak, the power fluctuation, and the DC voltage fluctuation). Through the optimization algorithm, the coefficients can be determined aiming to generate the minimum integrated amplitudes of the active and reactive power references with the constraints of the inverter current and DC voltage fluctuation. Dead-beat controller is utilized to track the optimal current reference in a short period. The method has been verified in PSCAD/EMTDC software. PMID:25243215

  11. Improved power control using optimal adjustable coefficients for three-phase photovoltaic inverter under unbalanced grid voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianggang; Zhou, Niancheng; Lou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Unbalanced grid faults will lead to several drawbacks in the output power quality of photovoltaic generation (PV) converters, such as power fluctuation, current amplitude swell, and a large quantity of harmonics. The aim of this paper is to propose a flexible AC current generation method by selecting coefficients to overcome these problems in an optimal way. Three coefficients are brought in to tune the output current reference within the required limits of the power quality (the current harmonic distortion, the AC current peak, the power fluctuation, and the DC voltage fluctuation). Through the optimization algorithm, the coefficients can be determined aiming to generate the minimum integrated amplitudes of the active and reactive power references with the constraints of the inverter current and DC voltage fluctuation. Dead-beat controller is utilized to track the optimal current reference in a short period. The method has been verified in PSCAD/EMTDC software.

  12. Factors influencing power hand tool fastening accuracy and reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish O; Howery, Robert S; Fronczak, Frank J; Yen, Thomas Y; Subedi, Yashpal; Sesto, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory study investigated the relationship between power hand tool and task-related factors affecting threaded fastener torque accuracy and associated handle reaction force. We previously developed a biodynamic model to predict handle reaction forces. We hypothesized that torque accuracy was related to the same factors that affect operator capacity to react against impulsive tool forces, as predicted by the model. The independent variables included tool (pistol grip on a vertical surface, right angle on a horizontal surface), fastener torque rate (hard, soft), horizontal distance (30 cm and 60 cm), and vertical distance (80 cm, 110 cm, and 140 cm). Ten participants (five male and five female) fastened 12 similar bolts for each experimental condition. Average torque error (audited - target torque) was affected by fastener torque rate and operator position. Torque error decreased 33% for soft torque rates, whereas handle forces greatly increased (170%). Torque error also decreased for the far horizontal distance 7% to 14%, when vertical distance was in the middle or high, but handle force decreased slightly 3% to 5%. The evidence suggests that although both tool and task factors affect fastening accuracy, they each influence handle reaction forces differently. We conclude that these differences are attributed to different parameters each factor influences affecting the dynamics of threaded faster tool operation. Fastener torque rate affects the tool dynamics, whereas posture affects the spring-mass-damping biodynamic properties of the human operator. The prediction of handle reaction force using an operator biodynamic model may be useful for codifying complex and unobvious relationships between tool and task factors for minimizing torque error while controlling handle force.

  13. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  14. Experimental evaluation of the MIT-SNL period-generated minimum time control laws for the rapid adjustment of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Kwok, K.S.; Menadier, P.T.; Thome, F.V.; Wyant, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid adjustment of reactor neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. Designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws,' these relations are closed-form expressions of general applicability. In particular, if there is no limitation on the available rate of change of reactivity, these laws can be used to achieve virtually any desired power profile including time optimal ones. The innovative aspect of these laws is that the rate of change of reactivity rather than the reactivity itself is used as the control signal. For example, relative to a time-optimal response, these laws function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The response is time-optimal because the power adjustment is continuously made at the maximum allowed rate

  15. The evaluation of operator reliability factors on power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, Itjeu; Supriatna, Piping; W, Suharyo; Santosa, Kussigit; Darlis; S, Bambang; Y, Sasongko

    1999-01-01

    The sophisticated technology system was not assured the reliability system itself because it has contained a part of human dependence affected successfully of reactor operation either how work smoothly and safe or failure ac cured and then accident appears promptly. The evaluation of operator reliability factor on ABWR power reactor has been carried out which consist of criterion skill and workload according to NUREG/CR-2254, NUREG/CR-4016 and NUREG-0835 the reactor operation reliability emphasize to the operator are synergic between skill and workload themselves. The employee's skill will affect to the type and level of their tasks. The operator's skill depend on education and experiences, position or responsibility of tasks, physical conditions (age uninvalid of physic/mental

  16. Assessment on thermoelectric power factor in silicon nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Coleman, Elane; Tompa, Gary S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Thermoelectric devices based on three-dimensional networks of highly interconnected silicon nanowires were fabricated and the parameters that contribute to the power factor, namely the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity were assessed. The large area (2 cm x 2 cm) devices were fabricated at low cost utilizing a highly scalable process involving silicon nanowires grown on steel substrates. Temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient was found to be weak over the range of 20-80 C at approximately -400 {mu}V/K for unintentionally doped devices and {+-}50 {mu}V/K for p-type and n-type devices, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  18. Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    This paper address factors underlying public opinion regarding offshore wind power based on a survey of residents near a proposed development off Cape Cod, MA, USA. Supporters are found to be younger, better educated, and more likely to own their own home. Opponents are more likely to earn over $200,000/year, and more likely to expect to see the project from their daily routine. The overwhelming majority of the population expects negative impacts from the project; much smaller numbers expect positive effects. When asked which factors most affected their position, the most frequently mentioned was damage to marine life/environmental impacts, followed by electricity rates, aesthetics, and impacts on fishing or boating. When the expectations expressed by our respondents are compared with the findings of the project's draft Environmental Impact Statement, many of the beliefs upon which opinion are based appear to be factually incorrect. Finally, we tested whether change in the project would affect support. The biggest change was an increase in the level of support, by 47% of the sample, if the project was the first of 300 such projects, in sum having proportionately larger impacts as well as greater benefits. Implications of this research are discussed

  19. Greenhouse gas emission factor for coal power chain in China and the comparison with nuclear power chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhonghai; Pan Ziqiang; He Huimin

    1999-01-01

    The Greenhouse Gas Emission for coal power chain in China is analyzed in detail and comprehensively by using the Life Cycle Analysis method. The Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors (GGEF) in each link and for the total power chain are calculated. The total GGEF for coal power chain is 1302.3 gCO 2 /kWh, about 40 times more than that for nuclear power chain. And consequently greenhouse effect could not be aggravated further by nuclear power. The energy strategy for nuclear power development is one of reality ways to retard the greenhouse effect, put resources into rational use and protect environment

  20. Assessment of theoretical and experimental results in the calculation of atmospheric dilution factors in the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, E.E.; Tossi, M.H.; Telleria, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Collective doses produced during the normal working of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant are calculated using annual atmospheric factors. This work studies the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year in order to fit the calculated dose model applying factors from seasonal, monthly or weekly periods. The Radiation Protection Group of the C.N.E.A. have carried out continuous environmental monitoring in the surroundings of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant. These studies include the measurement of air tritium concentration, radionuclide that is found principally as tritiated water vapour. This isotope, normally released by the nuclear power plant was used as a tracer to assess the atmospheric dilution factors. Factors were calculated by two methods: an experimental one, based on environmental measurements of the tritium concentration in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant and another one by applying a theoretical model based on information from the micrometeorological tower located in the mentioned place. To carry out the environmental monitoring, four monitoring stations in the surroundings of the power plant were chosen. Three of them are approximately one kilometer from the plant and the fourth is 7.5 km away, near the city of Lima. To condense and collect the atmospheric water vapour, an overcooling system was used. The measurement was performed by liquid scintillation counting, previous alkaline electrolytical enrichment of the samples. The theoretical model uses hourly values of direction and wind intensity, as well as the atmospheric dispersive properties. Values obtained during the period 1976 to 1988 allowed, applying statistical tests, to validate the theoretical model and to observe seasonal variation of the dilution factors throughout the same year and between different years. Finally, results and graphics are presented showing that the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year. It is recommended to

  1. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  2. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  3. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.

    2012-08-01

    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  4. The analysis and realization of state-matrix parameters of a digital adjuster used for accelerator power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yindong; Zhao Long; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan

    2008-01-01

    The power-control system of synchronized accelerator must be a high definition and real time system. In this paper we introduced a platform for parameter analysis and realization. As a necessary part of the digital adjustor, it is achieved by the method of state-space equation based on the Cyclone II for improving performance of the accelerator power-control system. With the platform, the object control in a precision range of up to 10 64 can be realized, depending on the optimum arithmetic and the MATLAB functions. In addition, considering the actual environment, the parameters the actual demands can be better met by choosing the parameters, providing a necessary support to achieve the higher definition and better real time adjustor. (authors)

  5. Success Factors in Wind Power Projects; Factores de Exito en Proyectos de Energia Eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabal Cuesta, H; Varela Conde, M; Lago Rodriguez, C; Saez Angulo, R M

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish wind energy market has experienced an average annual increase over 60% in recent years. With more than 4.1 GW of power at the end of 2002, this market has became the second in Europe and the third the world. With the objective of obtaining the origin of this success,an analysis of technical and economic features of selected wind projects has been undertaken to draw the outstanding factors that any new independent promoter/developer should take into account within this market. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Determination of the Level of Influence of Various Factors on the Reliability of Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Popescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumers supply with qualitative electric power is one of the priority requirements imposed to power systems. Currently, in electricity networks take place a number of planned and unplanned disconnections, which interrupt the power and affect consumers, causing economic damage. To ensure the quality of power supply it is essential to know the factors that influence the reliability of power systems, which have a visible impact on the variation of reliability of equipment installed in power systems. This paper is devoted to problems of calculation and analysis of power systems reliability and estimation of the impact of various factors that influence the supply of consumers.

  7. The human factor in the operation of nuclear powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambier, M.

    1982-05-01

    The conditions characterizing the operation of nuclear powered submarines are described and the precautionary measures suitable to reduce the incidence of human errors and their consequences are explained

  8. Association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors: A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Tanaka, Haruka; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated associations between intake of dairy products and better cognitive function and reduced risk of dementia. However, these studies did not adjust for genetic and family environmental factors that may influence food intake, cognitive function, and metabolism of dairy product nutrients. In the present study, we investigated the association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for almost all genetic and family environmental factors using a genetically informative sample of twin pairs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among twin pairs aged between 20 and 74. Short-term memory was assessed as primary outcome variable, intake of dairy products was analyzed as the predictive variable, and sex, age, education level, marital status, current smoking status, body mass index, dietary alcohol intake, and medical history of hypertension or diabetes were included as possible covariates. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed by treating twins as individuals and regression analyses were used to identify within-pair differences of a twin pair to adjust for genetic and family environmental factors. Data are reported as standardized coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were performed on data from 78 men and 278 women. Among men, high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with better short-term memory after adjustment for the possible covariates (standardized coefficients = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.38) and almost all genetic and family environmental factors (standardized coefficients = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.69). Among women, no significant associations were found between intake of dairy products and short-term memory. Subsequent sensitivity analyses were adjusted for small samples and showed similar results. Intake of dairy product may prevent cognitive declines regardless of genetic and family environmental factors in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Bank market power, factor reallocation, and aggregate growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Koetter, Michael; Noth, Felix

    Using a unique firm-level sample of approximately 700,000 firm-year observations of German small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this study seeks to identify the effect of bank market power on aggregate growth components. We test for a pre-crisis sample whether bank market power spurs or

  10. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Native-Speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong: A Factor in Attrition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chau Kan; Morrison, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite government support in financial and contractual matters, ongoing problems of retention of Native-speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong stem, in part, from problems of cross-cultural adjustment. The paper reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETS in Hong Kong and finds…

  11. Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality and Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly Influencing These Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin; Kuehn, Emily D.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…

  12. Comparison of Methods for Adjusting Incorrect Assignments of Items to Subtests Oblique Multiple Group Method Versus Confirmatory Common Factor Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    2009-01-01

    A common question in test evaluation is whether an a priori assignment of items to subtests is supported by empirical data. If the analysis results indicate the assignment of items to subtests under study is not supported by data, the assignment is often adjusted. In this study the authors compare

  13. Determination of power peak factor using control rods, ex-core detectors and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rose Mary Gomes do Prado

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a methodology based on the artificial neural network technique to predict in real time the power peak factor in a form that can be implemented in reactor protection systems. The neural network inputs were those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial and quadrant power differences obtained from measured ex-core detector signals, and the position of control rods. The response of ex core detector signals was measured in experiments especially performed in the IPEN/MB-01 zero-power reactor. Several reactor states with different power density distribution were obtained by positioning the control rods in different configurations. The power distribution and its peak factor were calculated for each of these reactor states using the Citation code. The obtained results show that the power peak factor correlates well with the control rod position and the quadrant power difference, and with a lesser degree with the axial power differences. The data presented an inherent organisation and could be classified into different classes of power peak factor behaviour as a function of position of control rods, axial power difference and quadrant power difference. The RBF networks were able to identify classes and interpolate the power peak factor values. The relative error for the power peak factor estimation ranged from 0.19 % to 0.67 %, less than the one that was obtained performing a power density distribution map with in-core detectors. It was observed that the positions of control rods bear the detailed and localised information about the power density distribution, and that the axial and the quadrant power difference describe its global variations in the axial and radial directions. The results showed that the RBF and MLP networks produced similar results, and that a neural network correlation can be implemented in power reactor protection systems. (author)

  14. Choosing the nuclear power option: Factors to be considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A need was expressed by Member States for guidance on policy issues to be addressed by decision makers considering the introduction of nuclear power programmes. This publication has been prepared by the IAEA, on the basis of past experience with nuclear power programmes in Member States and the current realities of the world nuclear regime, to provide information on political, governmental, economic, financial, technical and safety issues associated with planning and implementing a nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed as well as the roles and responsibilities of the government, the plant owner and the national industry. For those interested in examining some of the issues in more depth, a list of related IAEA publications is provided in the bibliography. It is hoped that this guide will serve a useful purpose in assisting decision makers and governments in Member States considering the introduction of nuclear power programmes

  15. A physical review on power system reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navid, Taghizadegan; Ahmad Reza, Zentabchi; Mohammad Ali, Tavakoli; Nader, Samsunchi; Mohammad Ali, Tavakoli

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Planning and design engineers and management must necessarily take into consideration the funds available, the requirements of regulatory agencies and other restrictions that may be imposed, as well as availability of equipment and supplies. A well-designed electrical power system strikes a reasonable between reliability and cost. A prime responsibility of power system operators is to operate their systems in such a way that will provide the maximum reliability of service possible with the facilities under their control

  16. Discrimination and adjustment among Chinese American adolescents: family conflict and family cohesion as vulnerability and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Alvarez, Alvin A

    2010-12-01

    We examined racial/ethnic discrimination experiences of Chinese American adolescents to determine how discrimination is linked to poor adjustment (i.e., loneliness, anxiety, and somatization) and how the context of the family can buffer or exacerbate these links. We collected survey data from 181 Chinese American adolescents and their parents in Northern California. We conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine main effects and 2-way interactions of perceived discrimination with family conflict and family cohesion. Discrimination was related to poorer adjustment in terms of loneliness, anxiety, and somatization, but family conflict and cohesion modified these relations. Greater family conflict exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination, and greater family cohesion buffered the negative effects of discrimination. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying family-level moderators to help adolescents and their families handle experiences of discrimination.

  17. Cumulative socioeconomic status risk, allostatic load, and adjustment: a prospective latent profile analysis with contextual and genetic protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Evans, Gary W; Beach, Steven R H; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental precursors to this pattern. Hypotheses were tested with a representative sample of 443 African American youths living in the rural South. Cumulative SES risk and protective processes were assessed at ages 11-13 years; psychological adjustment was assessed at ages 14-18 years; genotyping at the 5-HTTLPR was conducted at age 16 years; and allostatic load (AL) was assessed at age 19 years. A latent profile analysis identified 5 profiles that evinced distinct patterns of SES risk, AL, and psychological adjustment, with 2 relatively large profiles designated as focal profiles: a physical health vulnerability profile characterized by high SES risk/high AL/low adjustment problems, and a resilient profile characterized by high SES risk/low AL/low adjustment problems. The physical health vulnerability profile mirrored the pattern found in the adult health disparities literature. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that carrying an s allele at the 5-HTTLPR and receiving less peer support distinguished the physical health vulnerability profile from the resilient profile. Protective parenting and planful self-regulation distinguished both focal profiles from the other 3 profiles. The results suggest the public health importance of preventive interventions that enhance coping and reduce the effects of stress across childhood and adolescence.

  18. Student-Teacher Relationships As a Protective Factor for School Adjustment during the Transition from Middle to High School

    OpenAIRE

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura E.; Marengo, Davide; Settanni, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified school transitions during adolescence, and in particular the transition from middle to high school, as one of the riskiest phases for school failure, being characterized by significant social, emotional and behavioral changes. This transition is critical even with respect to academic achievement: in Italy, the highest frequency of school dropout can be observed in the 9th and 10th grades, partly as a consequence of poor adjustment to the new school con...

  19. Sensitivity analysis of power depression and axial power factor effect on fuel pin to temperature and related properties distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwardi, S.

    2001-01-01

    The presented paper is a preliminary step to evaluate the effect of radial and axial distribution of power generation on thermal analysis of whole fuel pin model with large L/D ratio. The model takes into account both radial and axial distribution of power generation due to power depression and core geometry, temperature and microstructure dependent on thermal conductivity. The microstructure distribution and the gap conductance for typical steady-state situation are given for the sensitivity analysis. The temperature and thermal conductivity distribution along the radial and axial directions obtained by different power distribution is used to indicate the sensitivity of power depression and power factor on thermal aspect. The evaluation is made for one step of incremental time and steady state approach is used. The analysis has been performed using a finite element-finite difference model. The result for typical reactor fuel shows that the sensitivity is too important to be omitted in thermal model

  20. Human Factors Engineering Incorporated into the Carolina Power and Light company's nuclear power plant control panel modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beith, D.M.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Horn, K.; Boush, D.

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining human factors conventions/practices that were established during the Detailed Control Design Review (DCRDR), is difficult if Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is not incorporated into the plant modification process. This paper presents the approach used at Carolina Power and Light's nuclear power plants that has successfully incorporated human factors engineering into their plant modification process. An HFE Design Guide or HFE Specification was developed which is used by the design engineers or plant engineering support groups in the preparation of plant modifications

  1. Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vittal; Maskery, Brian; Ochiai, R Leon; Lee, Jung Seok; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Ramani, Enusa; Kim, Young Eun; Park, Jin Kyung; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    No access to safe water is an important risk factor for typhoid fever, yet risk-level heterogeneity is unaccounted for in previous global burden estimates. Since WHO has recommended risk-based use of typhoid polysaccharide vaccine, we revisited the burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) after adjusting for water-related risk. We estimated the typhoid disease burden from studies done in LMICs based on blood-culture-confirmed incidence rates applied to the 2010 population, after correcting for operational issues related to surveillance, limitations of diagnostic tests, and water-related risk. We derived incidence estimates, correction factors, and mortality estimates from systematic literature reviews. We did scenario analyses for risk factors, diagnostic sensitivity, and case fatality rates, accounting for the uncertainty in these estimates and we compared them with previous disease burden estimates. The estimated number of typhoid fever cases in LMICs in 2010 after adjusting for water-related risk was 11·9 million (95% CI 9·9-14·7) cases with 129 000 (75 000-208 000) deaths. By comparison, the estimated risk-unadjusted burden was 20·6 million (17·5-24·2) cases and 223 000 (131 000-344 000) deaths. Scenario analyses indicated that the risk-factor adjustment and updated diagnostic test correction factor derived from systematic literature reviews were the drivers of differences between the current estimate and past estimates. The risk-adjusted typhoid fever burden estimate was more conservative than previous estimates. However, by distinguishing the risk differences, it will allow assessment of the effect at the population level and will facilitate cost-effectiveness calculations for risk-based vaccination strategies for future typhoid conjugate vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Mogasale et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-SA. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  2. Adjustable control in the steam zone of a steam power plant; Control ajustable de la zona de vapor de una unidad termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gallegos, Joaquin; Bourguet Diaz, Rafael Ernesto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    A general description is presented of self adjustable control systems, as well as of the design and its application for steam temperature regulation of a steam power plant unit model. The algorithm employed is a controller of minimum variance that ponders the output deviation as well as the control effort. The results are compared with the ones obtained in a conventional control scheme, showing in general a better performance in the conducted experiments. [Espanol] Se presenta una descripcion general de los sistemas de control autoajustable, asi como del diseno y su aplicacion para regular las temperaturas de vapor de un modelo de unidad termoelectrica. El algoritmo utilizado es un controlador de variancia minima que pondera tanto la desviacion de salida como el esfuerzo de control. Los resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en un esquema de control convencional, mostrando en general un mejor desempeno en los experimentos realizados.

  3. Adjustable control in the steam zone of a steam power plant; Control ajustable de la zona de vapor de una unidad termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gallegos, Joaquin; Bourguet Diaz, Rafael Ernesto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    A general description is presented of self adjustable control systems, as well as of the design and its application for steam temperature regulation of a steam power plant unit model. The algorithm employed is a controller of minimum variance that ponders the output deviation as well as the control effort. The results are compared with the ones obtained in a conventional control scheme, showing in general a better performance in the conducted experiments. [Espanol] Se presenta una descripcion general de los sistemas de control autoajustable, asi como del diseno y su aplicacion para regular las temperaturas de vapor de un modelo de unidad termoelectrica. El algoritmo utilizado es un controlador de variancia minima que pondera tanto la desviacion de salida como el esfuerzo de control. Los resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en un esquema de control convencional, mostrando en general un mejor desempeno en los experimentos realizados.

  4. New method in obtaining correction factor of power confirming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yongjun; Li Rundong; Liu Yongkang; Zhou Wei

    2010-01-01

    Westcott theory is the most widely used method in reactor power calibration, which particularly suited to research reactor. But this method is very fussy because lots of correction parameters which rely on empirical formula to special reactor type are needed. The incidence coefficient between foil activity and reactor power was obtained by Monte-Carlo calculation, which was carried out with precise description of the reactor core and the foil arrangement position by MCNP input card. So the reactor power was determined by the core neutron fluence profile and the foil activity placed in the position for normalization use. The characteristic of this new method is simpler, more flexible and accurate than Westcott theory. In this paper, the results of SPRR-300 obtained by the new method in theory were compared with the experimental results, which verified the possibility of this new method. (authors)

  5. Power factor correction at the Miguel Hidalgo refinery; Correccion del factor de potencia en la refineria Miguel Hidalgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Gonzalez, Gustavo [Petroleos Mexicanos, Refineria Miguel Hidalgo, Tula de Allende (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper the theoretical fundament and formulae of the power factor are analyzed and a relationship among kilowatts, kilovars and power factor, is shown; also it deals with power factor in combination with load groups, as well as the numerical calculation of the required kvar for the desired improvement of the power factor. Additionally the technical and economical aspects of the capacitors and synchronous motors are contemplated, as well as their location in the electric system in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Finally, the savings obtained with the installation of capacitors in the electric power system of the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, are explained. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se analizan los fundamentos teoricos y formulas del factor de potencia y se muestra la relacion entre kilowatts, kilovars y factor de potencia; tambien trata al factor de potencia combinado de grupos de cargas, asi como el calculo numerico de los KVAR necesarios para la mejora deseada del factor de potencia. Ademas se contemplan aspectos tecnicos y economicos de los capacitores y los motores sincronos, asi como la ubicacion de los mismos en el sistema electrico para lograr los maximos beneficios. Finalmente se explican las ganancias economicas que se obtuvieron al instalarse capacitores en el sistema electrico de potencia de la refineria Miguel Hidalgo.

  6. Power factor correction at the Miguel Hidalgo refinery; Correccion del factor de potencia en la refineria Miguel Hidalgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Gonzalez, Gustavo [Petroleos Mexicanos, Refineria Miguel Hidalgo, Tula de Allende (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper the theoretical fundament and formulae of the power factor are analyzed and a relationship among kilowatts, kilovars and power factor, is shown; also it deals with power factor in combination with load groups, as well as the numerical calculation of the required kvar for the desired improvement of the power factor. Additionally the technical and economical aspects of the capacitors and synchronous motors are contemplated, as well as their location in the electric system in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Finally, the savings obtained with the installation of capacitors in the electric power system of the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, are explained. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se analizan los fundamentos teoricos y formulas del factor de potencia y se muestra la relacion entre kilowatts, kilovars y factor de potencia; tambien trata al factor de potencia combinado de grupos de cargas, asi como el calculo numerico de los KVAR necesarios para la mejora deseada del factor de potencia. Ademas se contemplan aspectos tecnicos y economicos de los capacitores y los motores sincronos, asi como la ubicacion de los mismos en el sistema electrico para lograr los maximos beneficios. Finalmente se explican las ganancias economicas que se obtuvieron al instalarse capacitores en el sistema electrico de potencia de la refineria Miguel Hidalgo.

  7. Factors affecting speed in human-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A P

    1994-10-01

    It is shown how to derive the appropriate cubic equation relating power and the effects of friction, gradient and wind resistance on the speed of a human-powered vehicle (HPV). The effects of gradient and wind resistance are explored for parameters representing a typical racing cyclist. The principal conclusion may be summarized as follows: for optimum performance in a time trial, there should be no wind and the course should be level. Any deviation from these conditions will produce a decrement in performance.

  8. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  9. A regulatory perspective on human factors in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper sets out the approaches being taken by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to monitoring the application of human factors principles and practice in the UK industry. The role of NII is outlined, the development of human factors concerns is reviewed, the assessment of the Sizewell 'B' safety case is presented as a particular example, and pertinent future developments in the human factors discipline are proposed. (author)

  10. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Electronic mode of control to obtain increased torque and improved power factor from an asynchronous machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyk, van J.D.

    1970-01-01

    It is indicated that, by changing the electronic switching mode of the rotor current of an induction machine, it is possible to operate the machine at improved (capacitive) power factors and increased torque, or conversely at lower effective current and capacitive power factors at rated torque.

  12. Analytical Investigation on the Power Factor of a Flux-Modulated Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    Flux-modulated permanent-magnet synchronous machine (FM-PMSM) is characterized as a high-torque direct-drive electrical machine, but may suffer from the low power factor. This paper aims to investigate the issue of the low power factor in theory and explore the possibilities for improvement...

  13. Advantages of using a two-switch forward in single-stage power factor corrected power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (discontinues conduction mode) and it is shown that this operation mode ensures the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit...... supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency is between 85% and 88.5% in the range 30 W-500 W and the measured power factor at full load is 0.95....... parameters and therefore independent of load variations. The DCM operation often has a diminishing effect on the efficiency but by use of the two-switch topology high efficiency with minimum circuit complexity can be achieved in this mode. A 500 W 70 V prototype of the two-switch boost-forward PFC power...

  14. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  15. Two-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies: The Low Component-Stress Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2002-01-01

    The discussion concerning the use of single-stage contra two-stage PFC solutions has been going on for the last decade and it continues. The purpose of this paper is to direct the focus back on how the power is processed and not so much as to the number of stages or the amount of power processed...

  16. Isolated battery charger with unit power factor; Carregador de baterias isolado com fator de potencia unitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, Marcio Almeida

    1993-05-01

    This work presents a single phase, isolated AC/DC converter (Battery Charger) with active power factor correction in a single stage of power processing. the topology studied is the fed-current full-bridge, in boost mode operation, at fixed switching frequency. After a complete design of converter and simulations, the results of a 1.500 W e 50 kHz prototype are shown. a Unit Power Factor and Total Harmonic Distortion less than 5% were obtained. (author)

  17. A single-phase PWM controlled AC to DC converter based on control of unity displacement power factor

    OpenAIRE

    Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    1990-01-01

    A modified pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique that improves the displacement power factor and the input power factor of a single-phase AC to DC converter is discussed. The modified converter is shown to have a high input power factor and allows the of DC voltage from zero to more than the maximum value of the source voltage. The displacement power factor is unity, and the input power factor is almost unity in the wide range of current command

  18. Quantum Effects in the Thermoelectric Power Factor of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T; Hasdeo, Eddwi H; Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-07-15

    We theoretically investigate the interplay between the confinement length L and the thermal de Broglie wavelength Λ to optimize the thermoelectric power factor of semiconducting materials. An analytical formula for the power factor is derived based on the one-band model assuming nondegenerate semiconductors to describe quantum effects on the power factor of the low-dimensional semiconductors. The power factor is enhanced for one- and two-dimensional semiconductors when L is smaller than Λ of the semiconductors. In this case, the low-dimensional semiconductors having L smaller than their Λ will give a better thermoelectric performance compared to their bulk counterpart. On the other hand, when L is larger than Λ, bulk semiconductors may give a higher power factor compared to the lower dimensional ones.

  19. Initial absolute calibration factors for some neutron sensitive self-powered detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered flux detectors have found extensive use as monitoring devices in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) cores and CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type power reactors. The detectors measure fuel power distributions and indicate trip parameters for reactor control and safety requirements. Both applications demand accurate absolute initial calibration factors. Experimental results obtained in calibrating some neutron sensitive self-powered detectors is presented. (author)

  20. Power Curve Estimation With Multivariate Environmental Factors for Inland and Offshore Wind Farms

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2015-04-22

    In the wind industry, a power curve refers to the functional relationship between the power output generated by a wind turbine and the wind speed at the time of power generation. Power curves are used in practice for a number of important tasks including predicting wind power production and assessing a turbine’s energy production efficiency. Nevertheless, actual wind power data indicate that the power output is affected by more than just wind speed. Several other environmental factors, such as wind direction, air density, humidity, turbulence intensity, and wind shears, have potential impact. Yet, in industry practice, as well as in the literature, current power curve models primarily consider wind speed and, sometimes, wind speed and direction. We propose an additive multivariate kernel method that can include the aforementioned environmental factors as a new power curve model. Our model provides, conditional on a given environmental condition, both the point estimation and density estimation of power output. It is able to capture the nonlinear relationships between environmental factors and the wind power output, as well as the high-order interaction effects among some of the environmental factors. Using operational data associated with four turbines in an inland wind farm and two turbines in an offshore wind farm, we demonstrate the improvement achieved by our kernel method.

  1. Environmental factors and social adjustment as predictors of a first psychosis in subjects at ultra high risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, Sara; Nieman, Dorien H.; Veltman, Doede; Becker, Hiske E.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The onset of schizophrenia is associated with genetic, symptomatic, social and environmental risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine which environmental factors may contribute to a prediction of a first psychotic episode in subjects at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for

  2. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report “Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.” The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  3. The power series method in the effectiveness factor calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Filipich, C. P.; Villa, L. T.; Grossi, Ricardo Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, exact analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear ordinary differential equations which appear in complex diffusionreaction processes. A technique based on the power series method is used. Numerical results were computed for a number of cases which correspond to boundary value problems available in the literature. Additionally, new numerical results were generated for several important cases. Fil: Filipich, C. P.. Universidad Tecnológica Nacional. Facultad Regiona...

  4. Choosing the nuclear power option: Factors to be considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    To plan and develop a nuclear power program, policies must be formulated and decided at different stages and at different levels by the government and its organizations, by the utility and by other organizations in industry and research and education, each within its sphere of interest and influence. The purpose of this paper is to highlight areas where policy decisions are needed, the options available, what they mean and the contexts in which they should be considered. (author)

  5. I've had a good life, what's left is a bonus: factor analysis of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale in a palliative care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Price, Annabel; Lee, William; Rayner, Lauren; Moorey, Stirling; Monroe, Barbara; Sykes, Nigel; Hansford, Penny; Higginson, Irene J; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale is an assessment tool commonly used to measure coping in cancer patients, which characterises adaptive coping under the label of 'fighting spirit'. This study explores adaptation in patients with advanced cancer, by examining the factor structure of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. Further aims were to examine associations between types of coping and psychological outcomes measured at the same time (time 1) and 4 weeks after referral to palliative care services (time 2). A cross-sectional study with a follow-up assessment 4 weeks later. Factor analysis examined the structure of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale at time 1. A total of 275 patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care, of whom 193 took part at follow-up. This study provided evidence for the internal consistency and validity of a new scale of 'acceptance and positivity' for use in advanced cancer patients. Patients with a desire for hastened death had lower acceptance and positivity, and patients with higher global quality of life reported a higher level. Social support was positively associated with acceptance and positivity. Higher scores on the acceptance and positivity scale were associated with reduced odds of a desire for hastened death at time 2. Adaptation to advanced cancer differs from adaptation to early stage cancer, comprising a general acceptance of the illness and trying to make the most of the time that is left. Individuals with low social support were less likely to evidence appropriate adaptation to their illness.

  6. Factors affecting the future of nuclear power in OECD Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of nuclear power in OECD Europe and addresses the prospects for its future over, say, the next quarter century. Most of the data and findings are drawn from studies published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The NEA is a small agency with a rather modest budget whose 27 members are industrialized countries from North America, Asia and Europe. The Agency works to pool the expertise of our member countries to produce technical, economic and legal work of considerable depth and quality addressing issues of common interest to those countries. Our work covers such fields as nuclear science, nuclear power economics, nuclear safety, radiation protection, waste management and nuclear liability. The studies carried out in the framework of the Agency require fewer resources than would be needed by our member countries if they were to pursue them individually, which is especially important at a time of cut-backs in national programmes in such critical areas as nuclear safety research. (author)

  7. Study of factors governing US utility nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Under DOE contract No. DE-AC02-79ET34009, The S.M. Stoller Corporation has conducted a study of US utility attitudes toward nuclear power. In the course of this study SMSC carried out a utility survey the objectives of which were: (1) to identify and rank in importance the governing considerations in actions taken in the past three years to cancel or defer nuclear projects, and (2) to gain insight into the circumstances and attitudes likely to govern new base-load commitments over the next several years. During the survey, contacts were made at the senior management level with utilities representing approximately half of the country's total electric capacity and two-thirds of its present nuclear commitment. Analysis of the responses led to the conclusion that most, if not all, of the decisions reached by the respondent utilities in the past several years to cancel or defer nuclear projects were triggered by one or a combination of the following four considerations: financial constraints; reduction in expected system load growth; schedule delay in licensing and construction and/or unpredictability; and adverse state government policies or attitudes regarding nuclear power

  8. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  9. The power of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Leon; Eichmann, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their high-affinity tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) are key regulators of both angiogenesis and neurogenesis. The current issue of CMLS discusses recent literature and work implementing these signals in nervous system development, maintenance and disease pathology.

  10. Delayed heart rate recovery after exercise as a risk factor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjusting for glycometabolic parameters in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tae Yang; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Hong, Won-Jung; Jin, Sang-Man; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have reported that delayed heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association of delayed HRR following a graded exercise treadmill test (GTX) with the development of T2DM including glucose-associated parameters as an adjusting factor in healthy Korean men. Analyses including fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and HbA1c as confounding factors and known confounders were performed. HRR was calculated as peak heart rate minus heart rate after a 1-min rest (HRR 1). Cox proportional hazards model was used to quantify the independent association between HRR and incident T2DM. During 9082 person-years of follow-up between 2006 and 2012, there were 180 (10.1%) incident cases of T2DM. After adjustment for age, BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, smoking status, peak heart rate, peak oxygen uptake, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and HbA1c, the hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of incident T2DM comparing the second and third tertiles to the first tertile of HRR 1 were 0.867 (0.609-1.235) and 0.624 (0.426-0.915), respectively (p for trend=0.017). As a continuous variable, in the fully-adjusted model, the HR (95% CI) of incident T2DM associated with each 1 beat increase in HRR 1 was 0.980 (0.960-1.000) (p=0.048). This study demonstrated that delayed HRR after exercise predicts incident T2DM in men, even after adjusting for fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and HbA1c. However, only HRR 1 had clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-examining the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale in a sample of 364 Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ted C T; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2015-02-01

    The Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) is widely used to evaluate cancer patients' psychological responses. Validation studies of the scale have shown methodological shortcomings and inconsistency in the factor solutions. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-MAC. A large sample of 364 Chinese patients with breast or colorectal cancer completed the Mini-MAC and psychosocial measures (general health, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression). Exploratory factor analyses examined the relative fit of two- to six-factor models using robust weighted least square estimation and oblique target rotation. Convergent validity was evaluated via correlations between the Mini-MAC factor scores and the psychosocial outcomes. The five-factor model showed the best model fit and largely replicated the original Mini-MAC's helpless/hopeless (HH), anxious preoccupation (AP), fighting spirit (FS), fatalism (FA), and cognitive avoidance (CA) subscales. The five factors had acceptable reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.67-0.88) and 4-month test-retest reliability (r = 0.45-0.64). HH, AP, and CA were positively associated with the psychosocial outcomes (r = 0.19-0.60). Modest and negative correlations were found between the psychosocial outcomes and FS and FA. The results support the Mini-MAC's original five-factor structure with satisfactory reliability and convergent validity. The results demonstrate that the Mini-MAC is a valid measure for assessing psychological responses in cancer patients.

  12. Asymmetric adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method of adjusting a signal processing parameter for a first hearing aid and a second hearing aid forming parts of a binaural hearing aid system to be worn by a user is provided. The binaural hearing aid system comprises a user specific model representing a desired asymmetry between a first ear

  13. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  14. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry-scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-04-13

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  15. Effect of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding on Metabolic Syndrome and Its Risk Factors in Morbidly Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushika Conroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on weight loss, inflammatory markers, and components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MeS in morbidly obese adolescents and determined if those with MeS lose less weight post-LAGB than those without. Data from 14–18 yr adolescents were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months following LAGB. Significant weight loss and improvements in MeS components were observed 6 months and one year following LAGB. The incidence of MeS declined 56.8% after 6 months and 69.6% after 12 months. There was no significant difference in amount of weight lost post-LAGB between those with and without MeS at either timepoint. Correlations between change in weight parameters and components of MeS in those with and without MeS at baseline were examined and found to vary by diagnostic category. LAGB is effective for short-term improvement in weight, inflammatory markers, and components of MeS in morbidly obese adolescents.

  16. Discussion on verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hualong; Liu Yanzi; Jia Ming; Huang Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent or reduce human error and ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, control device should be verified from the perspective of human factors engineering (HFE). The domestic and international human factors engineering guidelines about nuclear power plant controller were considered, the verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller were discussed and the application examples were provided for reference in this paper. The results show that the appropriate verification criterion and method should be selected to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the conclusion. (authors)

  17. Study of greenhouse gases emission factor for nuclear power chain of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhonghai; Pan Ziqiang; Xie Jianlun; Xiu Binglin

    2001-01-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Emission Factor (GGEF) for nuclear power chain of China is calculated based on Life Cycle Analysis method and the definition of full energy chain. There is no greenhouse gases released directly from nuclear power plant. The greenhouse gases emission from nuclear power plant is mainly from coal-fired electricity supply to nuclear power plant for its normal operation and the production of construction materials those are used in the nuclear power plant. The total GGEF of nuclear power chain in China is 13.71 g-co 2 /kWh. It is necessary to regulate un-rational power source mix and to use the energy sources in rational way for reducing the greenhouse gas effect. Nuclear power for electricity generation is one of effective ways to reduce greenhouse gases emission and retard the greenhouse effect

  18. Human factors in the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaton, E.; Neboyan, V.; Lederman, L.

    1987-01-01

    In large and complex interactive systems, human error can contribute substantially to system failures. At nuclear power plants, operational experience demonstrates that human error accounts for a considerable proportion of safety-related incidents. However, experience also shows that human intervention can be very effective if there is a thorough understanding of the situation in the plant. Thus, an efficient interface of man and machine is important not only to prevent human errors but also to assist the operator in coping with unforeseen events. Human reliability can be understood as a qualitative as well as a quantitative term. Qualitatively it can be described as the aim for successful human performance of activities necessary for system reliability and availability. Quantitatively, it refers to data on failure rates or error probabilities that can be used, for example, for probabilistic safety assessments

  19. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables

  1. Curtailment in a Highly Renewable Power System and Its Effect on Capacity Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kies

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity factor of a power plant is the ratio of generation over its potential generation. It is an important measure to describe wind and solar resources. However, the fluctuating nature of renewable power generation makes it difficult to integrate all generation at times. Whenever generation exceeds the load, curtailment or storage of energy is required. With increasing renewable shares in the power system, the level of curtailment will further increase. In this work, the influence of the curtailment on the capacity factors for a highly renewable German power system is studied. An effective capacity factor is introduced, and the implications for the distribution of renewable power plants are discussed. Three years of highly-resolved weather data were used to model wind and solar power generation. Together with historical load data and a transmission model, a possible future German power system was simulated. It is shown that effective capacity factors for unlimited transmission are strongly reduced by up to 60% (wind and 70% (photovoltaics and therefore of limited value in a highly renewable power system. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that wind power benefits more strongly from a reinforced transmission grid than photovoltaics (PV does.

  2. Research & Implementation of AC - DC Converter with High Power Factor & High Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiou-Hsian Nien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we design and develop a high power factor, high efficiency two-stage AC - DC power converter. This paper proposes a two-stage AC - DC power converter. The first stage is boost active power factor correction circuit. The latter stage is near constant frequency LLC resonant converter. In addition to traditional LLC high efficiency advantages, light-load conversion efficiency of this power converter can be improved. And it possesses high power factor and near constant frequency operating characteristics, can significantly reduce the electromagnetic interference. This paper first discusses the main structure and control manner of power factor correction circuit. And then by the LLC resonant converter equivalent model proceed to circuit analysis to determine the important parameters of the converter circuit elements. Then design a variable frequency resonant tank. The resonant frequency can change automatically on the basis of the load to reach near constant frequency operation and a purpose of high efficiency. Finally, actually design and produce an AC – DC power converter with output of 190W to verify the characteristics and feasibility of this converter. The experimental results show that in a very light load (9.5 W the efficiency is as high as 81%, the highest efficiency of 88% (90 W. Full load efficiency is 87%. At 19 W ~ 190 W power changes, the operating frequency change is only 0.4 kHz (AC 110 V and 0.3 kHz (AC 220 V.

  3. Factors that influence consumers' acceptance of future energy systems : the effects of adjustment type, production level, and price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R. M.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Keizer, Kees; Gorsira, Madelijne; van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To promote the successful introduction of sustainable energy systems, more insight is needed into factors influencing consumer's acceptance of future energy systems. A questionnaire study among 139 Dutch citizens (aged 18-85) was conducted. Participants rated the acceptability of energy systems made

  4. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  5. Acculturation and Adjustment in Latino Adolescents: How Cultural Risk Factors and Assets Influence Multiple Domains of Adolescent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L.; Bacallao, Martica L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample…

  6. On the importance of adjusting for distorting factors in benchmarking analysis, as illustrated by a cost comparison of the different forms of implementation of the EU Packaging Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Heinz-Georg; Schuch, Dieter

    2017-12-01

    Benchmarking is a proven and widely used business tool for identifying best practice. To produce robust results, the objects of comparison used in benchmarking analysis need to be structurally comparable and distorting factors need to be eliminated. We focus on a specific example - a benchmark study commissioned by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Environment on the implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for packaging at the national level - to discuss potential distorting factors and take them into account in the calculation. The cost of compliance per inhabitant and year, which is used as the key cost efficiency indicator in the study, is adjusted to take account of seven factors. The results clearly show that differences in performance may play a role, but the (legal) implementation of EPR - which is highly heterogeneous across countries - is the single most important cost determinant and must be taken into account to avoid misinterpretation and false conclusions.

  7. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Various computational tools are currently available that facilitate patient organ dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine, yet they are typically restricted to reporting organ doses to ICRP-defined reference phantoms. The present study, while remaining computational phantom based, provides straightforward tools to adjust reference phantom organ dose for both internal photon and electron sources. A wide variety of monoenergetic specific absorbed fractions were computed using radiation transport simulations for tissue spheres of varying size and separation distance. Scaling methods were then constructed for both photon and electron self-dose and cross-dose, with data validation provided from patient-specific voxel phantom simulations, as well as via comparison to the scaling methodology given in MIRD Pamphlet No. 11. Photon and electron self-dose was found to be dependent on both radiation energy and sphere size. Photon cross-dose was found to be mostly independent of sphere size. Electron cross-dose was found to be dependent on sphere size when the spheres were in close proximity, owing to differences in electron range. The validation studies showed that this dataset was more effective than the MIRD 11 method at predicting patient-specific photon doses for at both high and low energies, but gave similar results at photon energies between 100 keV and 1 MeV. The MIRD 11 method for electron self-dose scaling was accurate for lower energies but began to break down at higher energies. The photon cross-dose scaling methodology developed in this study showed gains in accuracy of up to 9% for actual patient studies, and the electron cross-dose scaling methodology showed gains in accuracy up to 9% as well when only the bremsstrahlung component of the cross-dose was scaled. These dose scaling methods are readily available for incorporation into internal dosimetry software for diagnostic phantom-based organ dosimetry.

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Bases of Leader Power: First-Order Factor Model and Its Invariance Across Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M A; Magner, N R

    1996-10-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses of data (from five samples: N = 308 accountants and finance professionals, N = 578 management and non-management employees, and N = 588 employed management students in the U.S.; N = 728 management and non-management employees in S. Korea, N = 250 management and non-management bank employees in Bangladesh) on the 29 items of the Rahim Leader Power Inventory were performed with LISREL 7. The results provided support for the convergent and discriminant validities of the subscales measuring the five bases of leader power (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, and referent), and the invariance of factor pattern and factor loadings across organizational levels and the three American samples. Additional analysis indicated that leader power profiles differed across the three national cultures represented in the study.

  9. Ajuste de las simulaciones de flujos continuados para el cálculo del Límite de Potencia Eólica; Calculation of Wind Power Limit adjusting the Continuation Power Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Santos Fuentefria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La integración de la energía eólica en los sistemas eléctricos puede provocar problemas de estabilidad ligados fundamentalmente a la variación aleatoria del viento y que se reflejan en la tensión y la frecuencia del sistema. Por lo que conocer el Límite de Potencia Eólica (LPE que puede insertarse en la red sin que esta pierda la estabilidad es un aspecto de extrema importancia, en el cual se han realizando métodos de cálculo para encontrar dicho límite. Estos métodos se desarrollan teniendo en cuenta las restricciones del sistema en estado estacionario, en estado dinámico o ambos. En el siguiente trabajo se desarrolla un método para el cálculo de LPE teniendo en cuenta las restricciones en estado estacionario del sistema. El método propuesto se basa en un análisis de flujo continuado, complementado con el método de Producción Mínima de Potencia Activa, desarrollado en la bibliografía. Se prueba en el sistema eléctrico de la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba y se usa elsoftware libre PSAT para la realización de estos estudios.  The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit is a very importantmatter. Existing In bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit. The calculation is based in static constrains, dynamic constraints or both. In this paper is developed a method for the calculation of wind power limit using some adjust in the continuation power flow, and having into account the static constrains. The method is complemented with Minimal Power Production Criterion. The method is proved in the Isla de la Juventud Electric System. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT.

  10. Social-political factors influencing the expansion of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    As humanity marches closer to entering a new millennium, it is crucial that we nuclear professionals take renewed stock in the importance of our role in public interactions. The lack of public support has been very influential in bringing the once robust nuclear power construction program in America, Europe and Russia to a grinding halt. In trying to understand the key forces that shape public opinion on technologies such as ours, it becomes clear that the major force is the media enterprise. If we compare the basic driving forces behind successful media with the basic drivers behind successful science, we quickly come to the realization that the media are fundamentally in the entertainment business. Capturing instant attention and holding it are the principal ingredients of success for newspapers, radio, and television. Recognizing that these success drivers are diametrically opposite of those governing good science, we can readily understand why the antinuclear movement has been so successful in orchestrating their message in a package ideally suited to a receptive media enterprise. However, before blaming all our woes on the media, we need to assess at least four technical areas where additional professional work could be of substantial value. These include determining the real health effects of low-level radiation, further developing intrinsic robustness to enhance reactor safety, refining and articulating the environmental ethic associated with the recycling of nuclear waste, and exposing the myth that burying plutonium solves our nuclear non-proliferation problems. We suggest six key ingredients as necessary steps that merit strong consideration in regaining public support for nuclear power. These include 1) seriously addressing the four technical issues summarized above; 2) expressing our key issues and results in language understandable at the high school (or lower) level; 3) continually striving for an open and honest management of the Industry; 4

  11. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  12. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  13. Computerized aids and human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1988-01-01

    When guiding a complex process and associated intermeshed systems in a nuclear power plant, a primary issue consists of the call for excellent information. Technically speaking, today's centralized control rooms are at the end of a development phase which has been governed by the introduction of remote information and remote control systems. But by centralization, an information overload problem arose, and it has been solved by dividing panels according to systems, operational phases and specific tasks. In addition, the overview and relationship of systems have been visualized by mimic diagrams. It is attempted to make transparent the technical back-ground of the processes and systems to be controlled, thus to provide the necessary basis for understanding the problems of operators. Practical examples are used for the purpose. The information dilemma, the systems for high level information, automation and information, plant safety and information, and the problem of where to go from here are described. Computerized operator aids must be discussed along assistance in information and assistance in automatic control. (Kako, I.)

  14. Human factors estimation methods in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nagasaka, Akihiko; Ishii, Keichiro; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1985-01-01

    To improve the operational and maintenance work reliability, it is neccessary for workers to maintain his performance always at high level, that leads to decreasing mistaken judgements and operations. This paper inuolves the development and evaluation of ''Multi-Purpose Physiological Information Measurement system'' to estimate human performance and conditions with a highly fixed quantity. The following itemes is mentioned : (1) Most suitable physiological informations are selected to measure worker' performance in nuclear power plant with none-disturbance, ambulatory, continual, and multi channel measurement. (2) Relatively important physiological informations are measured with the real-time monitoring functions. (electrocardiogram, respirometric functions and EMG (electromyogram) pulse rete). (3) It is made to optimize the measurement condition and analysing methods in the use of a noise-cut function and a D.C. drift cutting method. (4) As a example, it is clear that, when the different weight is loaded to the arm and make it strech-bend motion, the EMG signal is measured and analysed by this system, the analysed EMG pulse rate and maximum amplitude is related to the arm loaded weight. (author)

  15. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  16. Power profiling of Cholesky and QR factorizations on distributed memory systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bosilca, George; Ltaief, Hatem; Dongarra, Jack

    2012-01-01

    with a dynamic distributed scheduler (DAGuE) to leverage distributed memory systems. We present performance results (Gflop/s) as well as the power profile (Watts) of two common dense factorizations needed to solve linear systems of equations, namely

  17. Capacity factor of nuclear power stations in Japan in fiscal year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agawa, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    In Japan presently a total of 28 nuclear power plants are in operation with aggregate capacity 20,561 MW, 22 % of the total power generation. Around 1975 there occurred such as stress corrosion cracking and to repair them much time was consumed, leading to the low capacity factor. With such troubles removed, in fiscal 1984, the capacity factor on average of the nuclear power stations is 73.9 %, the highest so far. Contributing to this are long period of the continuous operation, short period of the periodical inspection and increase in the in-operation capacity factor. Contents are the following : construction state of nuclear power stations, operation state in fiscal 1984, causes leading to the high capacity factor, future directions. (Mori, K.)

  18. Giant electrical power factor in single-walled chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.

    2001-10-01

    Using the semiclassical approach we studied the thermoelectrical properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We predict a giant electrical power factor and hence proposed the use of carbon nanotubes as thermoelements for refrigeration. (author)

  19. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, Hasan, E-mail: babaei@illinois.edu, E-mail: babaei@auburn.edu [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2906 (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5341 (United States); Khodadadi, J. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5341 (United States); Sinha, Sanjiv [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2906 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS{sub 2} utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS{sub 2} on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} to peak at ∼2.8 × 10{sup 4} μW/m K{sup 2} at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized.

  20. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, Hasan; Khodadadi, J. M.; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS 2 utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS 2 on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS 2 to peak at ∼2.8 × 10 4 μW/m K 2 at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10 12 cm −2 . This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi 2 Te 3 , for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS 2 may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized

  1. THE POWER FACTOR IMPROVING OF THE MOTORS IN ENTERPRISES WITH REPAIR OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Marenych

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the following problem has been considered: ways of power factor increase for electric drives installed at the railway machinery repair enterprises with taking into account the specific conditions of technological processes.

  2. Power Factors that Define Gender Inequity within the Missouri Public School Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kristina; Grispino, Frank D.; Messner, Phillip E.

    2004-01-01

    Although women have access to the superintendency power position, evidence has shown that women have not been able to consistently break the glass ceiling. A review of related literature failed to identify specific and practical employment factors that must be resolved or overcome if women are to reach power parity in Missouri. This study was…

  3. The use of energy pattern factor (EPF) in estimating wind power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Energy Pattern Factor (EPF) method is a less computational method of estimating the available wind power density of an area and wind speed variation account for the energy power density throughout a given period. Using the Average daily wind speed data for an 11 year period (2004-2014) obtained from the ...

  4. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application

  5. Research on cognitive reliability model for main control room considering human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianjun; Zhang Li; Wang Yiqun; Zhang Kun; Peng Yuyuan; Zhou Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Facing the shortcomings of the traditional cognitive factors and cognitive model, this paper presents a Bayesian networks cognitive reliability model by taking the main control room as a reference background and human factors as the key points. The model mainly analyzes the cognitive reliability affected by the human factors, and for the cognitive node and influence factors corresponding to cognitive node, a series of methods and function formulas to compute the node cognitive reliability is proposed. The model and corresponding methods can be applied to the evaluation of cognitive process for the nuclear power plant operators and have a certain significance for the prevention of safety accidents in nuclear power plants. (authors)

  6. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  7. Calculation and application of energy transaction allocation factors in electric power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Aniss

    The ability to allocate the active power (MW) loading on transmission lines and transformers, is the basis of the "flow based" transmission allocation system developed by the North American Electric Reliability Council. In such a system, the active power flows must be allocated to each line or transformer in proportion to the active power being transmitted by each transaction imposed on the system. Currently, this is accomplished through the use of the linear Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs). Unfortunately, no linear allocation models exist for other energy transmission quantities, such as MW and MVAR losses, MVAR and MVA flows, etc. Early allocation schemes were developed to allocate MW losses due to transactions to branches in a transmission system, however they exhibited diminished accuracy, since most of them are based on linear power flow modeling of the transmission system. This thesis presents a new methodology to calculate Energy Transaction Allocation factors (ETA factors, or eta factors), using the well-known process of integration of a first derivative function, as well as consistent and well-established mathematical and AC power flow models. The factors give a highly accurate allocation of any non-linear system quantity to transactions placed on the transmission system. The thesis also extends the new ETA factors calculation procedure to restructure a new economic dispatch scheme where multiple sets of generators are economically dispatched to meet their corresponding load and their share of the losses.

  8. Human factors estimation method in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nagasaka, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    It is need for improving a NPS reliability to prevent human-errors of operators in a control room. Especially, the time error or omission error may be often caused by a exceed of the mental work load. Therefore, in order to decrease such kinds of human errors, not only the planning of an equipment and a console is well considered about proper level of mental work load but also the exceeded mental work load must be let down by trainning etc. This paper present measurement techniques of the mental work load by physiological informations and the relation between the error rate and mental work load on the basis of the experiment by various modeled tasks. Following results are obtained. (1) TSF, the indicator of the mental work load, is well correlated to the subsidary task reaction time. Therefore it is able to estimate the TSF by subsidary tasks if the task was loaded instanteniously with main task. (2) The relation between the TSF and GSR pulses rate has a 0.81 correlation factor except the case of a parallel processing task. Because we can evaluate the mental work load by the measurement of the GSR pulses rate if the task was processed by a single channel. But if uses GSR, the atomospheric condition is kept constant and the arousal level must be at the well stage. (3) The human error is greatly increase when the TSF exceed above 60 %, that values are almost agreed to the tolerance limit of the TTS methods. (author)

  9. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height as a prognostic factor of the effectiveness of growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilczer, Maciej; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Parental height is the most important identifiable factor influencing final height (FH) of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD), treated with GH. Assessment of FH of patients with GHD--classified into familial short stature (FSS) and non-familial short stature (non-FSS) according to parentally adjusted deficit of height. The analysis comprised 101 patients (76 boys) with childhood-onset GHD. Final height was compared with patients' height before GH therapy, predicted adult height (PAH) and target height (TH). Both GH peak in stimulating tests and height standard deviation score (SDS) before the therapy were significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS. Target height was significantly lower in FSS than in non-FSS. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height was significantly more profound in non-FSS than in FSS. The prognosis of adult height was very similar in both groups of patients, being significantly worse in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. The absolute FH was similar in FSS and non-FSS, being, however, significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. Improvement of height was significantly better in non-FSS than in FSS. In both groups, FH SDS was significantly better than height SDS before the therapy (H0SDS). In FSS group, PAH was similar to TH, moreover, FH corresponded to both PAH and TH. In non-FSS group FH was significantly higher than PAH, but both FH and PAH were significantly lower than TH. 1) Growth hormone therapy was more effective in the patients with non-FSS than in those with FSS. 2) Parentally-adjusted deficit of height is an important prognostic factor of GH therapy effectiveness.

  10. Factors influencing CO2 emissions in China's power industry: Co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    More than 40% of China's total CO 2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO 2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO 2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO 2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO 2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO 2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO 2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ► We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO 2 emissions. ► The average annual growth rate of CO 2 emission from power industry is calculated. ► Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO 2 emission. ► The Granger causality between CO 2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed

  11. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING POST-POWER SYNDROME AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Indarwati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life is the individual's perception of their place in life in the context of the cultural system and values in which they live, along with their goals, expectations, and worries. Retirement is an adaptable period that results in a change of role, changes in social interactions, and limited financial resources. Aim: This study aims to analyze the factors that affect post power syndrome and quality of life of the elderly. Methods: The design of this research was a correlation study with a cross-sectional approach. The population consisted of 44 retired elderly individuals. Purposive sampling was applied to the determined sample size. The independent variables were physiological stressors, psychological stressors and aging attitudes. The dependent variables were post-power syndrome and the quality of life of elderly people. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling- Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS with a significance t statistic ≥ 1.96. Results: The findings showed all of the significant indicators measured to the variable factor. Physical stressor factors affect post-power syndrome with a t value of 2,366, and psychological stress factors affect post-power syndrome with a t value of 3,326. Aging behavior factors affects post-power syndrome with a t statistic of 5.296 and the post-power syndrome effect on the quality of life of the elderly has a t value of 7,689. Conclusion: There were significant effects in relation to physiological stressor factors, psychological stress factors, and aging attitudes towards post-power syndrome. There was an influence of post-power syndrome on the quality of elderly life.

  12. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  13. Perceived positive teacher-student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected in rural communities of two provinces of China, this study examined the protective role of perceived positive teacher-student relationship for Chinese left-behind children. The participants included 1442 children with a mean age of 14.13 classified into two groups: a left-behind group (104 boys and 110 girls) and a comparison group (588 boys and 640 girls). Self-reported questionnaires concerning self-esteem, depression, problem behaviours and the teacher-student relationship were administered. Relative to the comparison group, after controlling for age, gender and family socioeconomic status, the left-behind group was disadvantaged in terms of self-esteem and depression but not in problem behaviours. As hypothesised, the results of regression analyses indicated that teacher-student relationship positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted depression and problem behaviours for both groups. Moreover, the association between teacher-student relationship and depression was stronger among the left-behind group, suggesting that left-behind children were more responsive to the positive effect of a desired teacher-student relationship. Taken together, the results of our study support the idea that perceived positive teacher-student relationship may serve as a protective factor for left-behind children. Practical implications and limitations of the present study are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Development of a current-type PWM converter with high power factor. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yushi; Matsukawa, Makoto; Miyachi, Kengo; Kimura, Toyoaki

    1998-01-01

    A power supply system for superconducting poloidal field coils of a next generation tokamak-type fusion device can be operated on the relatively low voltage for the duration of discharge except the plasma initiation. In the case of the conventional phase-controlled thyristor converters are adopted in such a system, the input power factor would be low in average, and a reactive power fluctuation caused by the change of DC output voltage may produce serious effects on the commercial transmission line. From the above viewpoint, a current-type PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) converter, which can work with the power factor of unity for the input power, is regarded as one of the promising candidates of the converters for the power supplies of next generation fusion devices. Hence, a 100kW-class current-type PWM converter has been developed by using IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) as switching devices. In this development, the basic performance has been preliminary investigated whether this converter is applicable to the power supply for the next generation fusion device. In addition, two different PWM control methods were examined whether these methods can realize a unit power factor and suppress the transient oscillation of converter input current at the same time in case that the reference of DC output current is changed rapidly. (author)

  15. Estimation of a Reactor Core Power Peaking Factor Using Support Vector Regression and Uncertainty Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In Ho; Naa, Man Gyun; Lee, Yoon Joon; Park, Goon Cherl

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring of detailed 3-dimensional (3D) reactor core power distribution is a prerequisite in the operation of nuclear power reactors to ensure that various safety limits imposed on the LPD and DNBR, are not violated during nuclear power reactor operation. The LPD and DNBR should be calculated in order to perform the two major functions of the core protection calculator system (CPCS) and the core operation limit supervisory system (COLSS). The LPD at the hottest part of a hot fuel rod, which is related to the power peaking factor (PPF, F q ), is more important than the LPD at any other position in a reactor core. The LPD needs to be estimated accurately to prevent nuclear fuel rods from melting. In this study, support vector regression (SVR) and uncertainty analysis have been applied to estimation of reactor core power peaking factor

  16. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Patrícia Ataíde Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level, including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05: the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for

  17. Standardization of the Korean version of Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (K-Mini-MAC) scale: factor structure, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jee In; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Se Joo; Choi, Hye Jin; Ahn, Joong Bae; Jeung, Hei-Cheul; Namkoong, Kee

    2008-06-01

    Mental adjustment and coping affect the physical outcome and survival as well as quality of life in cancer patients. The Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC) scale is a new refined, economical and reliable self-rating instrument measuring cognitive and behavioral responses to cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mini-MAC in Korean cancer patients. A total of 208 cancer patients recruited from the Yonsei Cancer Center were assessed with the Mini-MAC and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Principal component analysis with varimax rotation for the Korean version of Mini-MAC (K-Mini-MAC) confirmed four factors. Three had psychometric properties similar to Helpless-Hopeless (HH), Anxious Preoccupation (AP) and Cognitive Avoidance (CA) of the original Mini-MAC. A novel factor, named Positive Attitude, included items of both Fatalism (FA) and Fighting Spirit (FS) from the original version. The five subscales from the original version (AP, HH, FS, FA and CA) and Positive Attitude had acceptable internal reliabilities in our sample (Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.50-0.86; correlation coefficient of test-retest 0.68-0.88). For the validity, significant interscale correlation was observed in the original five subscales and Positive Attitude. Each subscale including Positive Attitude was also significantly related to Depression and Anxiety of HADS. As a whole, the K-Mini-MAC was a reliable, valid and acceptable tool for Korean cancer patients. These findings can provide information about the cross-cultural validity of Mini-MAC scale's factor structure. Cultural differences were also discussed.

  18. Job Stress Risk Factors Among Power Generation and Machine Production Employees: A Case Study-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Naghavi; M.R. Hajgholami; Y. Shokoohi; F. Zayeri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Job stress has been adverse effects on performance, quality of work, absents, unsafe behaviors and occupational accidents and also health problems. Risk factors of job stress can be different in various workplaces. Risk factors determination is the first step of job stress management. Identifying these risk factors among workers of Power production & Machine production industries was the aim of this study. Methods: First parts of Osipow questionnaire was used for ...

  19. An improvement of the applicability of human factors guidelines for coping with human factors issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Human factors have been well known as one of the key factors to the system effectiveness as well as the efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants(NPPs). Human factors engineering(HFE) are included in periodic safety review(PSR) on the existing NPPs and the formal safety assessment for the new ones. However, HFE for NPPs is still neither popular in practice nor concrete in methodology. Especially, the human factors guidelines, which are the most frequent form of human factors engineering in practice, reveal the limitations in their applications. We discuss the limitations and their casual factors found in human factors guidelines in order to lesson the workload of HFE practitioners and to improve the applicability of human factors guidelines. According to the purposes and the phases of HFE for NPPs, more selective items and specified criteria should be prepared carefully in the human factors guidelines for the each HFE applications in practice. These finding on the human factors guidelines can be transferred to the other HFE application field, such as military, aviation, telecommunication, HCI, and product safety

  20. High thermoelectric power factor in two-dimensional crystals of Mo S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Wang, Ying; Ye, Yu; Qiu, Diana Y.; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Moore, Joel; Louie, Steven G.; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The quest for high-efficiency heat-to-electricity conversion has been one of the major driving forces toward renewable energy production for the future. Efficient thermoelectric devices require high voltage generation from a temperature gradient and a large electrical conductivity while maintaining a low thermal conductivity. For a given thermal conductivity and temperature, the thermoelectric power factor is determined by the electronic structure of the material. Low dimensionality (1D and 2D) opens new routes to a high power factor due to the unique density of states (DOS) of confined electrons and holes. The 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductors represent a new class of thermoelectric materials not only due to such confinement effects but especially due to their large effective masses and valley degeneracies. Here, we report a power factor of Mo S2 as large as 8.5 mW m-1K-2 at room temperature, which is among the highest measured in traditional, gapped thermoelectric materials. To obtain these high power factors, we perform thermoelectric measurements on few-layer Mo S2 in the metallic regime, which allows us to access the 2D DOS near the conduction band edge and exploit the effect of 2D confinement on electron scattering rates, resulting in a large Seebeck coefficient. The demonstrated high, electronically modulated power factor in 2D TMDCs holds promise for efficient thermoelectric energy conversion.

  1. Nuclear Power and Resource Efficiency—A Proposal for a Revised Primary Energy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for nuclear waste management mostly include final disposal. Based on a literature review and mathematical calculations of the power-to-fuel ratio for nuclear power, PEF values for the open nuclear fuel cycle (NFC option of nuclear power and different power mixes are calculated. These calculations indicate that a more correct PEF for nuclear power would be 60 (range 32–88; for electricity in Sweden (41% nuclear power PEF would change from 1.8 to 25.5, and the average PEF for electricity in the European Union (EU would change from 2.5 to 18. The results illustrate the poor resource efficiency of nuclear power, which paves the way for the fourth generation of nuclear power and illustrates the policy implication of using PEFs which are inconsistent with current waste management plans.

  2. Human factors in maintenance: Development and research in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, I.; Svensson, Ola

    2001-11-01

    The present report investigated previously completed, ongoing, and planned research and development projects focusing human factors and maintenance work carried out at Swedish nuclear power plants and SKI. In addition, needs for future research and development works were also investigated. Participants from all nuclear power plants and SKI were included in the study. Participants responded to a set of questions in an interview. The interviews also generated a list of future research and development projects

  3. Relationship between Power Factors of Mixer Drive and Selected Technological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wrona; E. Ziółkowski; K. Smyksy

    2008-01-01

    Thc paper summarizes the selected results of tcsts pcrforrncd to find thc relationship bctwcca thc tcchnological and operational paramctcrsand power consumption by a mixcr drivc. Major tcchnological pammetcrs of moulding sand to considcr arc: mixing lime. moisturecontent. pan load. EIectric power demand is cxprcsscd by crfcctivc valucs, assuming thc bnlanccd tod. Thc propcrtics of moulding sandare shown to be correlated with pwcr factors. As thc mixing lcvcts changc, thc tcchnologicnl pararna...

  4. Human factors in maintenance: development and research in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, I.; Svenson, O.

    2001-11-01

    The report investigated previously completed, ongoing, and planned research and development projects focusing human factors and maintenance work carried out at Swedish nuclear power plants and SKI. In addition, needs for future research and development works were also investigated. Participants from all nuclear power plants and SKI were included in the study. Participants responded to a set of questions in an interview. The interviews also generated a list of future research and development projects. (au)

  5. Human factors in maintenance: Development and research in Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, I. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Svensson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-11-01

    The present report investigated previously completed, ongoing, and planned research and development projects focusing human factors and maintenance work carried out at Swedish nuclear power plants and SKI. In addition, needs for future research and development works were also investigated. Participants from all nuclear power plants and SKI were included in the study. Participants responded to a set of questions in an interview. The interviews also generated a list of future research and development projects.

  6. Long-term impact of changing childhood malnutrition on rotavirus diarrhoea: Two decades of adjusted association with climate and socio-demographic factors from urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sarker, Mohammad Habibur Rahman; Das, Jui; Ahmed, Shawnawaz; Shahunja, K M; Nahar, Shamsun; Gibbons, Nora; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Rahman, Mustafizur; J Fuchs, George; Al Mamun, Abdullah; John Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition) with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh. Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity). Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors. The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010). In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (pchildhood malnutrition is significantly associated with increasing rotavirus diarrhoea among under-5 children. Thus mass vaccination in addition to interventions directed at man-made modifiable predictors for prevention and control is warranted.

  7. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  8. Self-Excited Single-Stage Power Factor Correction Driving Circuit for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pa\tper proposes a self-excited single-stage high power factor LED lighting driving circuit. Being featured with power factor correction capability without needing any control devices, the proposed circuit structure is with low cost and suitable for commercial production. The power factor correction function is accomplished by using inductor in combination with a half-bridge quasi resonant converter to achieve active switching and yield out voltage regulation according to load requirement. Furthermore, the zero-voltage switching in the half-bridge converter can be attained to promote the overall performance efficiency of the proposed circuit. Finally, the validity and production availability of the proposed circuit will be verified as well.

  9. Status of human factors research program in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabetani, Tetsuji

    1989-01-01

    The Human Factors Research Center was established within CRIEPI on July 1, 1987 as its research efforts to reduce human error during operation and maintenance at Japanese nuclear power plants. The Research Program has seven subjects, composed of the original subjects that include the human behavior monitoring method, and the subjects requested by the Federation of Electric Power Companies that include the establishment of techniques of analysing and evaluating information on human error. Some results of the activity are applied in nuclear power plants. We plan to obtain good results to apply to plants, and to improve the results already obtained. (author)

  10. Space Vector Modulation for an Indirect Matrix Converter with Improved Input Power Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Tuyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulse width modulation strategies have been developed for indirect matrix converters (IMCs in order to improve their performance. In indirect matrix converters, the LC input filter is used to remove input current harmonics and electromagnetic interference problems. Unfortunately, due to the existence of the input filter, the input power factor is diminished, especially during operation at low voltage outputs. In this paper, a new space vector modulation (SVM is proposed to compensate for the input power factor of the indirect matrix converter. Both computer simulation and experimental studies through hardware implementation were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modulation strategy.

  11. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  12. Development of a Pilot Program for Human Factors Management in Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong-Il; Kim, Dae-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The human factors of operating NPPs have been reviewed as a part of Periodic Safety Reviews (PSRs). This human factors PSR covers a wide range of human factors including control room man-machine interfaces (MMIs), procedures, working conditions, qualification, training, information requirements and workload. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed human factors PSRs from the first PSR for Kori 1. It was determined in 2005 that for a Continuous Operation of the Korean NPPs an enhanced PSR should be performed and issues raised from the PSRs should be resolved. From the results of the PSR for Kori 1, several safety enhancement issues related to human factors were raised. KAERI is working on a resolution of some of the human factors issues for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP). As a part of the resolution, we are developing a human factors management program (HFMP) for Kori 1. This paper introduces the status of our development of HFMP

  13. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  14. The potential estimation and factor analysis of China′s energy conservation on thermal power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Yang, Lisha

    2013-01-01

    At present, researches about energy conservation are focused on prediction. But there are few researches focused on the estimation of effective input and energy conservation potential, and there has been even no research on energy conservation of thermal power industry of China. This paper will try to fill in such a blank. Panel data on Chinese thermal power industry over 2005–2010 are established, and we adopt the stochastic frontier analysis approach to estimate the energy saving potential of thermal power industry. The results are as follows: (1) the average efficiency of energy inputs in China′s thermal power industry over 2005–2010 was about 0.85, and cumulative energy saving potential equals to 551.04 (Mtce); (2) by improving the non-efficiency factors, the relatively backward inland cities could achieve higher energy saving in thermal power industry; (3) the energy input efficiency of Eastern China Grid is shown to be the highest; (4) in order to realize the energy-saving goal of thermal power industry, one important policy method the government should adopt is to conduct a market-oriented reform in power industry and break the state-owned monopoly to provide incentives for private and foreign direct investment in thermal power sector. -- Highlights: •We adopt SFA model to estimate the coal input efficiency of power sector in China. •We calculate the cumulative energy saving potential equals to 551.04 Mtce. •East China power grid has the highest energy input efficiency. •Some backward inland cities may be the main force for future energy conservation. •Encourage private and foreign direct investment in power sector might be effective

  15. Long-term impact of changing childhood malnutrition on rotavirus diarrhoea: Two decades of adjusted association with climate and socio-demographic factors from urban Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh.Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors.The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010. In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (p<0.001; 53%-21% (p<0.001 and 32%-22% (p<0.001 respectively over the same period. Mean ambient temperature increased from 25.76°C-26.62°C (p = 0.07; mean rainfall, sea level pressure and mean humidity decreased from 234.92-111.75 mm (p = 0.5, 1008.30-1006.61 mm of hg (p = 0.02 and 76.63%-70.26% (p<0.001, respectively. In the adjusted model, a decrease in monthly proportion of underweight [coef.: -0.189 (95% CI:-0.376, -0.003] and wasting [-0.265 (-0.455, -0.075] were significantly and inversely associated with rotavirus infection. However, an inverse but insignificant association was observed for

  16. Determination of engineering safety factor -routine in Hungary (a methodology for the normal operation local power engineering safety factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsenyi, Z.; Korpas, L.; Bona, G.; Kereszturi, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the late nineties Paks Nuclear Power Plant-in collaboration with KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI)- is developing a system for determining the normal operation local power engineering safety factors. The system is based on a Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertain model input parameters. Additionally, the comparison of the calculation to the in-core measurements plays essential role for determining some important input parameters. By using new fuel types and the corresponding more recent detailed technological data, the applied method is being improved from time to time. Presently, the actually used and authorized engineering safety factors at Paks NPP are determined by using this method. In the paper, the system.s main properties are described (not going beyond the possible extent). The main points are as follows:-Mathematical definition of the engineering safety factor;-Sources of the uncertainties;-Input error propagation method constituting the basis of the system;-Flow-chart of the subsequent steps of the determination Finally, in the paper the engineering safety factors values of some selected parameters are presented as examples for demonstration of the capability of the method. (Authors)

  17. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  18. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were

  19. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Zarafshan, Hadi

    2014-04-01

    Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism. The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better. Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control) were significantly

  20. Peak power factor determination of the RA-6 Argentinean Research Reactor using measurement-calculations correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F. A.; Blaumann, H.; Lopasso, E.; Longhino, J

    2009-01-01

    The maximum power of a reactor is limited by the power peaking factor. During the design stage it is calculated with neutronic calculation codes. This is not enough for ensuring its value due to modelling approximations. For the RA-6s low enrichment new core a calculus-measurement correlation method have been applied. Position and magnitude of the maximum power density estimated by calculus are used by this method. For this work 249 cooper-gold alloy (1.55% Au) wires have been distributed along the core using 19 aluminium blades. Their positions have been selected using information given by a 5 groups PUMA reactor model. Wire s activity have been measured with a HPGe detector. Gold activity have been used only for verifying the calculated core spectrum. The measured power peaking factor was 2.48±0.3 (3σ), 15% above the calculated value. About 97% of measured points had less than 20% calculation-measurement difference and about 80% had less than 10%. The power peaking factor determined by this method consolidates also the calculations models. [es

  1. High thermoelectric power factor from multilayer solution-processed organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guangzheng; Andersson, Olof; Abdalla, Hassan; Kemerink, Martijn

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the suitability of the "sequential doping" method of organic semiconductors for thermoelectric applications. The method consists of depositing a dopant (F4TCNQ) containing solution on a previously cast semiconductor (P3HT) thin film to achieve high conductivity, while preserving the morphology. For very thin films (˜25 nm), we achieve a high power factor around 8 μW/mK-2 with a conductivity over 500 S/m. For the increasing film thickness, conductivity and power factor show a decreasing trend, which we attribute to the inability to dope the deeper parts of the film. Since thick films are required to extract significant power from thermoelectric generators, we developed a simple additive technique that allows the deposition of an arbitrary number of layers without significant loss in conductivity or power factor that, for 5 subsequent layers, remain at ˜300 S/m and ˜5 μW/mK-2, respectively, whereas the power output increases almost one order of magnitude as compared to a single layer. The efficient doping in multilayers is further confirmed by an increased intensity of (bi)polaronic features in the UV-Vis spectra.

  2. A Novel Bridgeless Power Factor Correction with Interleaved Boost Stages in Continous Current Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    The operation and trade-off of Bridgeless Power Factor Correction (BPFC) circuit with interleaved Boost stages are investigated. By using interleaved BPFC, an overall reduction of the size of EMI filter can be achieved without increasing the switching frequency of the converter. And higher...

  3. Research on EMI Reduction of Multi-stage Interleaved Bridgeless Power Factor Corrector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Working as an electronic pollution eliminator, the Power Factor Corrector's (PFC) own Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems have been blocking its performance improvement for long. In this paper, a systematic research on EMI generation of a multi-stage Two-Boost-Circuit Interleaved Bridgeless...

  4. Conduction Losses and Common Mode EMI Analysis on Bridgeless Power Factor Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a review of Bridgeless Boost power factor correction (PFC) converters is presented at first. Performance comparison on conduction losses and common mode electromagnetic interference (EMI) are analyzed between conventional Boost PFC converter and members of Bridgeless PFC family...

  5. Three Phase Six-Switch PWM Buck Rectifier with Power Factor Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar Ullah Khan, M; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional Phase Controlled Rectifier injects low order current harmonics into the AC mains. Large size filtering components are required to attenuate these harmonics. In this paper, Three Phase Six-Switch PWM Buck Rectifier[1] is presented which operates at nearly unity power factor and provides...

  6. High efficiency three-phase power factor correction rectifier using SiC switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents designing procedure of a high efficiency 5 kW silicon-carbide (SiC) based threephase power factor correction (PFC). SiC switches present low capacitive switching loss compared to the alternative Si switches. Therefore, the switching frequency can be increased and hence the siz...

  7. Identification of the Predictive Power of Five Factor Personality Traits for Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra

    2017-01-01

    This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…

  8. Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind-thermal Power System Considering the Dynamic penalty factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENG, Siyu; LUO, Jianchun; WANG, Yunyu; YANG, Jun; RAN, Hong; PENG, Xiaodong; HUANG, Ming; LIU, Wanyu

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new dynamic economic dispatch model for power system is presented.Objective function of the proposed model presents a major novelty in the dynamic economic dispatch including wind farm: introduced the “Dynamic penalty factor”, This factor could be computed by using fuzzy logic considering both the variable nature of active wind power and power demand, and it could change the wind curtailment cost according to the different state of the power system. Case studies were carried out on the IEEE30 system. Results show that the proposed optimization model could mitigate the wind curtailment and the total cost effectively, demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  9. An analysis of factors that influence the technical efficiency of Malaysian thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Kok Fong; Coelli, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are to measure the technical efficiency levels of Malaysian thermal power plants and to investigate the degree to which various factors influence efficiency levels in these plants. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) methods are applied to plant-level data over an eight year period from 1998 to 2005. This is the first comprehensive analysis (to our knowledge) of technical efficiency in the Malaysian electricity generation industry using parametric method. Our empirical results indicate that ownership, plant size and fuel type have a significant influence on technical efficiency levels. We find that publicly-owned power plants obtain average technical efficiencies of 0.68, which is lower than privately-owned power plants, which achieve average technical efficiencies of 0.88. We also observe that larger power plants with more capacity and gas-fired power plants tend to be more technically efficient than other power plants. Finally, we find that plant age and peaking plant type have no statistically significant influence on the technical efficiencies of Malaysian thermal power plants. - Highlights: ► We examine the technical efficiency (TE) levels of Malaysian thermal power plants. ► We also investigate the degree to which various factors influence efficiency levels in these plants. ► Stochastic frontier analysis methods are used. ► Average plant would have to increase their TE level by 21% to reach the efficient frontier. ► Ownership, plant size and fuel type have a significant influence on the TE levels.

  10. Experimental/analytical determination of optimal piezoelectric actuator locations on complex structures based on the actuator power factor

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Adesh

    1995-01-01

    The actuator power factor is defined as the ratio of the total dissipative mechanical power of a PZT actuator to the total supplied electrical power to the PZT actuator. If measured experimentally, it can be used to optinlize the actuator location and configuration for complex structures. The concept of actuator power factor is based on the ability of an integrated induced strain actuator such as a PZT actuator to transfer supplied electrical energy into structural mechanical energy. For a gi...

  11. The human factor and organization to support nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis reveals three basic factors which affect the safety of nuclear power reactors: (1) Internal physical properties of the reactor which provide self protection under breakdown and accident conditions; (2) The reliability of technical systems which provide monitoring, control, accident prevention, heat release, and localization of hazardous products during accidents; (3) Reliability of the reactor control personnel. The last of these factors is usually called the human factor. From published data, this factor makes a large contribution to the downtime and accident statistics at nuclear power plants: from 30 to 80% in various countries. Today the importance of the human factor in operating a nuclear power units is rather well recognized. Current ideas on how to increase the reliability of a human operator are reflected in IAEA recommendations and domestic official documents. The concept of 'a culture of safety' is introduced. Basic types of actions to increase the reliability of personnel who control a nuclear reactor are discussed, including: (1) The qualifying and psychological selection and the training of candidates on the operator's obligations. (2) The automation of routine operations which do not require the operator's intellect. (3) Perfecting the work place, information input to the operator, and the organization of the controls

  12. Adjustments in the Almod 3W2 code models for reproducing the net load trip test in Angra I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.T.M.; Madeira, A.A.; Pontedeiro, A.C.; Dominguez, L.

    1986-09-01

    The recorded traces got from the net load trip test in Angra I NPP yelded the oportunity to make fine adjustments in the ALMOD 3W2 code models. The changes are described and the results are compared against plant real data. (Author) [pt

  13. Statistical analysis on the fluence factor of surveillance test data of Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeong Geun; Kim, Min Chul; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Bong Sang; Lim, Sang Yeob; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The transition temperature shift (TTS) of the reactor pressure vessel materials is an important factor that determines the lifetime of a nuclear power plant. The prediction of the TTS at the end of a plant’s lifespan is calculated based on the equation of Regulatory Guide 1.99 revision 2 (RG1.99/2) from the US. The fluence factor in the equation was expressed as a power function, and the exponent value was determined by the early surveillance data in the US. Recently, an advanced approach to estimate the TTS was proposed in various countries for nuclear power plants, and Korea is considering the development of a new TTS model. In this study, the TTS trend of the Korean surveillance test results was analyzed using a nonlinear regression model and a mixed-effect model based on the power function. The nonlinear regression model yielded a similar exponent as the power function in the fluence compared with RG1.99/2. The mixed-effect model had a higher value of the exponent and showed superior goodness of fit compared with the nonlinear regression model. Compared with RG1.99/2 and RG1.99/3, the mixed-effect model provided a more accurate prediction of the TTS.

  14. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  15. Compressive strain induced enhancement in thermoelectric-power-factor in monolayer MoS2 nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimple; Jena, Nityasagar; De Sarkar, Abir

    2017-01-01

    Strain and temperature induced tunability in the thermoelectric properties in monolayer MoS 2 (ML-MoS 2 ) has been demonstrated using density functional theory coupled to semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory. Compressive strain, in general and uniaxial compressive strain (along the zig-zag direction), in particular, is found to be most effective in enhancing the thermoelectric power factor, owing to the higher electronic mobility and its sensitivity to lattice compression along this direction. Variation in the Seebeck coefficient and electronic band gap with strain is found to follow the Goldsmid–Sharp relation. n-type doping is found to raise the relaxation time-scaled thermoelectric power factor higher than p-type doping and this divide widens with increasing temperature. The relaxation time-scaled thermoelectric power factor in optimally n-doped ML-MoS 2 is found to undergo maximal enhancement under the application of 3% uniaxial compressive strain along the zig-zag direction, when both the ( direct ) electronic band gap and the Seebeck coefficient reach their maximum, while the electron mobility drops down drastically from 73.08 to 44.15 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . Such strain sensitive thermoelectric responses in ML-MoS 2 could open doorways for a variety of applications in emerging areas in 2D-thermoelectrics, such as on-chip thermoelectric power generation and waste thermal energy harvesting. (paper)

  16. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist-guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  17. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+ after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure, respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy “Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?” [1]. Keywords: Tidal volume, Compliance, Driving pressure

  18. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  19. A Simple PV Inverter Power Factor Control Method Based on Solar Irradiance Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant rise in photovoltaic (PV) system installations throughout the last decade. This has posed some technical challenges to the distribution grid operators. Unfamiliar impacts of these relatively new energy sources now should be handled more comprehensively. The rigidity...... of these impacts mostly depends on PV penetration level, grid and weather characteristics as well as the interaction of load and generation. In this study, a reactive power control method is proposed benefitting from solar irradiance measurements in weather stations. Accordingly, power factors of PV inverters...

  20. City-Level Adult Stroke Prevalence in Relation to Remote Sensing Derived PM2.5 Adjusting for Unhealthy Behaviors and Medical Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC "500 Cities Project" which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the "The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), V1 (1998-2012)" datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  1. CITY-LEVEL ADULT STROKE PREVALENCE IN RELATION TO REMOTE SENSING DERIVED PM2.5 ADJUSTING FOR UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS AND MEDICAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC “500 Cities Project” which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the “The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, V1 (1998–2012” datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  2. Trends of the electricity output, power conversion efficiency, and the grid emission factor in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, concerns about the atmospheric environmental problems in North Korea (NK) have been growing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2017), NK was the first ranked country in mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution in 2012. Reliable energy-related data in NK were needed to understand the characteristics of air quality in NK. However, data from the North Korean government were limited. Nevertheless, we could find specific energy-related data produced by NK in the Project Design Documents (PDDs) of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). There were the 6 registered CDM projects hosted by North Korea, developed as small hydropower plants. Several data of each power plant, such as the electricity output, connected to the Eastern Power Grid (EPG) or the Western Power Grid (WPG) in North Korea were provided in the CDM PDDs. We (1) figured out the trends of the electricity output, the `power conversion efficiency' which we defined the amount of generated electricity to the supplied input primary energy for power generation, and fuel mix as grid emission factor in NK as using the data produced by NK between 2005 and 2009, (2) discussed the operating status of the thermal power plants in NK, and (3) discussed the energy/environmental-related policies and the priority issues in NK in this study.

  3. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  4. Factor analysis for imperfect maintenance planning at nuclear power plants by cognitive task analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi; Iida, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    Imperfect maintenance planning was frequently identified in domestic nuclear power plants. To prevent such an event, we analyzed causal factors in maintenance planning stages and showed the directionality of countermeasures in this study. There is a pragmatic limit in finding the causal factors from the items based on report descriptions. Therefore, the idea of the systemic accident model, which is used to monitor the performance variability in normal circumstances, is taken as a new concept instead of investigating negative factors. As an actual method for analyzing usual activities, cognitive task analysis (CTA) was applied. Persons who experienced various maintenance activities at one electric power company were interviewed about sources related to decision making during maintenance planning, and then usual factors affecting planning were extracted as performance variability factors. The tendency of domestic events was analyzed using the classification item of those factors, and the directionality of countermeasures was shown. The following are critical for preventing imperfect maintenance planning: the persons in charge should fully understand the situation of the equipment for which they are responsible in the work planning and maintenance evaluation stages, and they should definitely understand, for example, the maintenance bases of that equipment. (author)

  5. Process for improving the load factor of an electricity generating power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostaing, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of a process for improving the load factor of an electricity generating power station feeding a supply network in which all or part of the power not required by the network during off-peak hours is used for producing hydrogen which is then stored. The stored hydrogen is then burned and the heat generated is employed for superheating the steam generated by the nuclear reactor of the power plant. This combustion is carried out permanently. The hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis. The oxygen also produced in this manner is used as a comburent in the combustion of the hydrogen. The reactor is of the pressurized water type [fr

  6. Power factor controllers: their markets and performance. Applications and marketing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents the findings of a UK market investigation into the potential application for three phase power factor controllers (pfc's) in the range 0.375-150 kW. It looks in detail at various pieces of equipment which are commonly driven by case rotor induction motors (eg pumps, fans, compressors, machine tools) and provides estimates of the numbers of each such type of equipment in use in UK industry broken down by power band. It also provides guidelines concerning annual usages of such pieces of equipment and the motor loadings commonly associated with them. The importance of electricity as a source of energy and the pattern and type of motive power usage is then presented for a wide range of industry sectors in an attempt to identify the most promising prima facie markets for the pfc concept of motor control and energy saving. The report is one of a series.

  7. Soil to plant transfer factor in the vicinity of coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, M.; Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the monitoring of working and living environment results in 5 coal fired powered plants, for the period from 2004. to 2009. are presented. Soil-plant transfer factor, suitable for estimation of possible contamination of food chain was chosen, as a measure of influence of power plants on the environment. The results gathered over the years of monitoring of working and living environment in the vicinity of the coal fired power plant were analyzed, and it was determined that no significant discrepancy exists comparing to the results reported in world literature. Also, the basic mathematical analysis was conducted, in order to assess the model of the behavior of the results in respect to the frequency count. (author) [sr

  8. Robustness of a Neural Network Model for Power Peak Factor Estimation in Protection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents results of robustness verification of artificial neural network correlations that improve the real time prediction of the power peak factor for reactor protection systems. The input variables considered in the correlation are those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial power differences obtained from measured ex-core detectors, and the position of control rods. The correlations, based on radial basis function (RBF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, estimate the power peak factor, without faulty signals, with average errors between 0.13%, 0.19% and 0.15%, and maximum relative error of 2.35%. The robustness verification was performed for three different neural network correlations. The results show that they are robust against signal degradation, producing results with faulty signals with a maximum error of 6.90%. The average error associated to faulty signals for the MLP network is about half of that of the RBF network, and the maximum error is about 1% smaller. These results demonstrate that MLP neural network correlation is more robust than the RBF neural network correlation. The results also show that the input variables present redundant information. The axial power difference signals compensate the faulty signal for the position of a given control rod, and improves the results by about 10%. The results show that the errors in the power peak factor estimation by these neural network correlations, even in faulty conditions, are smaller than the current PWR schemes which may have uncertainties as high as 8%. Considering the maximum relative error of 2.35%, these neural network correlations would allow decreasing the power peak factor safety margin by about 5%. Such a reduction could be used for operating the reactor with a higher power level or with more flexibility. The neural network correlation has to meet requirements of high integrity software that performs safety grade actions. It is shown that the

  9. [Factors affecting in-hospital mortality in patients with sepsis: Development of a risk-adjusted model based on administrative data from German hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Volker; Kolzter, Olaf; Albuszies, Gerd; Thölen, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Inpatient administrative data from hospitals is already used nationally and internationally in many areas of internal and public quality assurance in healthcare. For sepsis as the principal condition, only a few published approaches are available for Germany. The aim of this investigation is to identify factors influencing hospital mortality by employing appropriate analytical methods in order to improve the internal quality management of sepsis. The analysis was based on data from 754,727 DRG cases of the CLINOTEL hospital network charged in 2015. The association then included 45 hospitals of all supply levels with the exception of university hospitals (range of beds: 100 to 1,172 per hospital). Cases of sepsis were identified via the ICD codes of their principal diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors influencing in-hospital lethality for this population. The model was developed using sociodemographic and other potential variables that could be derived from the DRG data set, and taking into account current literature data. The model obtained was validated with inpatient administrative data of 2016 (51 hospitals, 850,776 DRG cases). Following the definition of the inclusion criteria, 5,608 cases of sepsis (2016: 6,384 cases) were identified in 2015. A total of 12 significant and, over both years, stable factors were identified, including age, severity of sepsis, reason for hospital admission and various comorbidities. The AUC value of the model, as a measure of predictability, is above 0.8 (H-L test p>0.05, R 2 value=0.27), which is an excellent result. The CLINOTEL model of risk adjustment for in-hospital lethality can be used to determine the mortality probability of patients with sepsis as principal diagnosis with a very high degree of accuracy, taking into account the case mix. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the model presented here will prove its value in the internal quality assurance of hospitals

  10. Policies and market factors driving wind power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Gagliano, Troy; Wiser, Ryan; Brown, Matthew; Parsons, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. During 2003, development activity has remained strong, with an estimated 1600 MW of capacity installed. With this growth, an increasing number of States are experiencing investment in wind energy projects: currently about half of all States host at least one wind power project. This paper explores the key factors at play in the 12 States in which a substantial amount of wind energy capacity has been developed or planned. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), Federal and State financial incentives; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules

  11. Calculation of the power factor using the neutron diffusion hybrid equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa da Silva, Adilson; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A neutron diffusion hybrid equation with an external neutron source was used. ► Nodal expansion method to obtain the neutron flux was used. ► Nuclear power factors in each fuel element in the reactor core were calculated. ► The results obtained were very accurate. -- Abstract: In this paper, we used a neutron diffusion hybrid equation with an external neutron source to calculate nuclear power factors in each fuel element in the reactor core. We used the nodal expansion method to obtain the neutron flux for a given control rods bank position. The results were compared with results obtained for eigenvalue problem near criticality condition and fixed source problem during the start-up of the reactor, where external neutron sources are extremely important for the stabilization of external neutron detectors.

  12. Low-temperature thermoelectric power factor enhancement by controlling nanoparticle size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Bian, Zhixi; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-01-12

    Coherent potential approximation is used to study the effect of adding doped spherical nanoparticles inside a host matrix on the thermoelectric properties. This takes into account electron multiple scatterings that are important in samples with relatively high volume fraction of nanoparticles (>1%). We show that with large fraction of uniform small size nanoparticles (∼1 nm), the power factor can be enhanced significantly. The improvement could be large (up to 450% for GaAs) especially at low temperatures when the mobility is limited by impurity or nanoparticle scattering. The advantage of doping via embedded nanoparticles compared to the conventional shallow impurities is quantified. At the optimum thermoelectric power factor, the electrical conductivity of the nanoparticle-doped material is larger than that of impurity-doped one at the studied temperature range (50-500 K) whereas the Seebeck coefficient of the nanoparticle doped material is enhanced only at low temperatures (∼50 K).

  13. Low Capacitive Inductors for Fast Switching Devices in Active Power Factor Correction Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines different winding strategies for reduced capacitance inductors in active power factor correction circuits (PFC). The effect of the parasitic capacitance is analyzed from an electro magnetic compatibility (EMI) and efficiency point of views. The purpose of this work is to inves......This paper examines different winding strategies for reduced capacitance inductors in active power factor correction circuits (PFC). The effect of the parasitic capacitance is analyzed from an electro magnetic compatibility (EMI) and efficiency point of views. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate different winding approaches and identify suitable solutions for high switching frequency/high speed transition PFC designs. A low parasitic capacitance PCB based inductor design is proposed to address the challenges imposed by high switching frequency PFC Boost converters....

  14. The human factor in operating nuclear power plants during crisis situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnauder, H.; Smidt, D.

    1981-10-01

    Human factors in nuclear power plant operation are a main part of safety analyses. A considerable reduction in the influence of human factors has been obtained through ergonomic control room design, automation, clearly formulated operating manuals, and appropriate personnel education and training. These precautions are directed primarily at skill- and rule-based behaviour and are intended for normal operation and design accidents. In addition, one can construct an area of uncommon and very rare events where a partial failure of the safety systems is assumed. This is an area of knowledge-based behaviour. This report describes and assesses the present situation in German nuclear power plants. Recommendations for further research activity are made and, as a main result, for improvements in knowledge-based behaviour. (orig.) [de

  15. Research and development on the human factors technologies for nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, B.S.; Lee, J.W.; Cheon, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces our research project on the development of human factors technologies for nuclear power plants in Korea. The project is divided into two sub-projects. The first sub-project is the development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques, which aims to develop the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement and data collection/analysis, and to construct an integrated test facility (ITF) suitable for the experimental evaluation of man-machine interfaces (MMIs) at an advanced control room. The second is the development of human behavior analysis techniques, which has two research areas: one is the development of a task simulation analyzer and the other is human error case studies for nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Applicability of perturbative QCD and NLO power corrections for the pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh Tsungwen

    2002-01-01

    As is well recognized, the asymptotic of the perturbative QCD prediction for the pion form factor is much smaller than the upper end of the data. We investigate this problem. We first evaluate the next-to-leading-order (NLO) power correction for the pion form factor. The corrected form factor contains nonperturbative parameters which are determined from a χ 2 fit to the data. Interpreting these parameters leads to the fact that the involved strong interaction coupling constant should be identified as an effective coupling constant under a nonperturbative QCD vacuum. If the scale associated with the effective coupling constant is identified as 2 Q 2 , then Q 2 , the momentum transfer square for the pion form factor to be measured, can have a value about 1 GeV 2 , and , the averaged momentum fraction variable, can locate around 0.5. This circumstance is consistent with the asymptotic model for the pion wave function

  17. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  18. Quality factors quantification/assurance for software related to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance plan is needed to guarantee the software quality. The use of such a plan involves activities that should take place all along the life cycle, and which can be evaluated using the so called quality factors. This is due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be measured, but some of its manifestations can be used for this purpose. In the present work, a methodology to quantify a set of quality factors is proposed, for software based systems to be used in safety related areas in nuclear power plants. (author) [es

  19. Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengzhuo

    1998-01-01

    Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPP) is in a forward position of science and technology, which began at American TMI severe accident and had been implemented in China. The importance and the significance of the safety review are expounded, the requirements of its scope and profundity are explained in detail. In addition, the situation of the technical document system for nuclear safety regulation on human factors engineering and control rooms of NPP in China is introduced briefly, on which the safety review is based

  20. Human factors evaluation of man-machine interface for periodic safety review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jang, Tong Il; Ku, Jin Young; Kim, Soo Jin

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area

  1. Proceedings of the international topical meeting on advances in human factors in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the human factors engineering of nuclear power plants. Topics considered at the conference included human modeling, artificial intelligence, expert systems, robotics and teleoperations, organizational issues, innovative applications, testing and evaluation, training systems technology, a modeling framework for crew decisions during reactor accident sequences, intelligent operator support systems, control algorithms for robot navigation, and personnel management

  2. Interesting pressure dependence of power factor in BiTeI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, San-Dong; Wang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate pressure dependence of electronic structures and thermoelectric properties in BiTeI by using a modified Becke and Johnson exchange potential. Spin–orbit coupling (SOC) effects are also included due to giant Rashba splitting. Thermoelectric properties are illuminated through solving Boltzmann transport equations within the constant scattering time approximation. The calculated energy band gap of 0.36 eV agrees well with the experimental value of 0.38 eV. As the pressure increases, the energy band gap first decreases, and then increases. The Rashba energy has the opposite trend with the energy band gap. SOC has obvious detrimental influence on the power factor in both n-type and p-type doping. For low doping concentration, the power factor has the same trend with the energy band gap with increasing pressure, but shows a monotonic changing trend in high doping. It is found that the pressure can induce a significantly enhanced power factor in high n-type doping, which can be understood as pressure leading to two-dimensional-like density of states in the conduction bands. These results suggest that BiTeI may be a potential candidate for efficient thermoelectricity in n-type doping by pressure, turning an ordinary insulator into a topological insulator. (paper)

  3. Perancangan Zeta Converter yang dilengkapi Power Factor Correction pada Aplikasi Pengaturan Kecepatan Motor Brushless DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhika Prajna Nandiwardhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan motor brushless DC telah banyak digunakan dalam berbagai bidang seperti peralatan rumah tangga maupun industri dikarenakan motor ini memiliki struktur yang sederhana, efisiensi dan torsi yang tinggi, serta menggunakan konsep komutasi elektris yang berbeda dari motor DC lainnya. Namun pengoperasian pada umumnya yang menggunakan sumber AC, penyearah serta inverter membuat tingginya nilai harmonisa arus (THD sebesar 73,33% dan power factor sebesar 0,803 dimana nilai ini kurang baik dalam pengaplikasiannya. Pada penelitian ini akan dikaji mengenai proses power factor correction yang mereduksi harmonisa arus (THD sumber AC dengan menggunakan zeta converter dalam pengaplikasian motor brushless DC, serta pengoperasian motor dengan mengamati respon motor terhadap kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah dan mengamati kestabilan motor terhadap pembebanan yang bervariasi. Dalam menerapkan metode yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini, pengoperasian motor brushless DC yang telah dirancang dapat bekerja dengan baik meliputi respon motor yang dapat mengikuti kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah, serta kestabilan motor dalam mempertahankan kecepatannya pada pembebanan yang bervariasi. Proses power factor correction dapat meningkatkan kualitas daya pada berbagai kecepatan dan mode penerapan yang berbeda-beda, dimana peningkatan tersebut membuktikan kinerja yang baik dalam sistem ini dan memiliki nilai kualitas daya yang baik.

  4. The Principle of Power Distribution as a Factor of Democracy: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimieras Monkevičius

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of power distribution is directly connected with the theory of power distribution, which was first launched by the philosophers John Locke and Charles de Montesquieu. This principle was first established in democratic constitutions and soon became one of the main factors of the democratic development of countries. After the regaining of independence of Lithuania, the principle of power distribution was established in the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania in 1992. Therefore, when analyzing the principle of power distribution as the aspect of democracy, one can take into account the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania of 1992, which had a significant impact on the development of contemporary democratic Lithuania. The aim of this article is to reveal the rarely raised topic of the establishment of the principle of power distribution in the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania of 1992, as well as to discuss its importance in the process of democratizing the independent country of Lithuania.   

  5. From equity to power: Critical Success Factors for Twinning between midwives, a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadée, Franka; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; de Vries, Raymond

    2018-02-28

    To gain consensus for Critical Success Factors associated with Twinning in Midwifery. International publications identify midwifery as important for improving maternity care worldwide. Midwifery is a team effort where midwives play a key role. Yet their power to take on this role is often lacking. Twinning has garnered potential to develop power in professionals, however, its success varies because implementation is not always optimal. Critical Success Factors have demonstrated positive results in the managerial context and can be helpful to build effective Twinning relationships. We approached 56 midwife Twinning experts from 19 countries to participate in three Delphi rounds between 2016 - 2017. In round 1, experts gave input through an open ended questionnaire and this was analysed to formulate Critical Success Factors statements that were scored on a 1-7 Likert scale aiming to gain consensus in rounds 2 and 3. These statements were operationalized for practical use such as a check list in planning, monitoring and evaluation in the field. Thirty-three experts from 14 countries took part in all three Delphi rounds, producing 58 initial statements. This resulted in 25 Critical Success Factors covering issues of management, communication, commitment and values, most focus on equity. The Critical Success Factors formulated represent the necessary ingredients for successful Twinning by providing a practical implementation framework and promote further research into the effect of Twinning. Findings show that making equity explicit in Twinning may contribute towards the power of midwives to take on their identified key role. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Calculation of the Power Peaking Factor Using CFNN and Its Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Choi, Geon Pil; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The local power density (LPD) and DNBR must be calculated in order to perform the main functions of the core protection calculator (CPC) and the core operation limit supervisory system (COLSS). CPC and COLSS play a role in the protection and monitoring systems of the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) and the advanced power reactor 1400 (APR1400). LPD should be estimated accurately to prevent fuel rods from melting. LPD at the hottest part of the core is called the power peaking factor (PPF, F{sub q} ). LPD at the hottest part of the core is more important than LPD at any other position in a reactor core. DNBR and PPF are the most important factors that must be continuously monitored from a safety aspect. The aim of the study is to calculate PPF in a reactor core by a cascaded fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) model according to operating conditions. The operation condition is reactor power, core inlet temperature, pressurizer pressure, mass flowrate, axial shape index (ASI), and variety of control rod position. The proposed CFNN model that is a PPF estimation algorithm is verified by using the nuclear and thermal data acquired from numerical simulations of OPR1000. The CFNN regression models were optimized by using the data set prepared as training data and tested by using verification data. The developed CFNN models were applied to the OPR 1000. As a result, the RMS error of the estimated PPF values is below 0.05%. In addition, their uncertainty was analyzed by a bootstrap method using 100 sampled development data sets.

  7. Measurement and evaluation of human factor training in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of human factor training aimed at awareness and behavioral changes, conducted by electric power company for the nuclear power plant staff. As the first step, the researcher investigated recent trends in training measurement and evaluation methods in the United States. It was found that many instances of training measurement/evaluation had been reported, and that the ROI model was the mainstream method for such measurement and evaluation. However, there had been no instances reported in which the effectiveness of human factor training for plant staff had been measured. The researcher therefore developed a new questionnaire-type of effectiveness measurement/evaluation method, based on the framework of the ROI model. Two-years of research was then conducted, in which the effectiveness of a human factor training program was measured using the newly developed method. This research revealed that participants' overall satisfaction and knowledge/skill acquisition levels were high. The percentage of participants who demonstrated awareness/behavioral change after returning to the workplace increased from 50% at first measurement to 81% at second measurement. It can therefore be concluded that the effectiveness of the second training is greater than that of the first training. Use of the new effectiveness measurement/evaluation method will enable quantification of human factor training effectiveness and help improve training quality. (author)

  8. Incorporating organizational factors into probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants through canonical probabilistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, S.F. [Dpto. de Inteligencia Artificial, E.T.S.I. Informatica (UNED), Juan del Rosal, 16, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: seve@dia.uned.es; Mosleh, A. [2100A Marie Mount Hall, Materials and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)]. E-mail: mosleh@umd.edu; Izquierdo, J.M. [Area de Modelado y Simulacion, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado, 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jmir@csn.es

    2007-08-15

    The {omega}-factor approach is a method that explicitly incorporates organizational factors into Probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants. Bayesian networks (BNs) are the underlying formalism used in this approach. They have a structural part formed by a graph whose nodes represent organizational variables, and a parametric part that consists of conditional probabilities, each of them quantifying organizational influences between one variable and its parents in the graph. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we discuss some important limitations of current procedures in the {omega}-factor approach for either assessing conditional probabilities from experts or estimating them from data. We illustrate the discussion with an example that uses data from Licensee Events Reports of nuclear power plants for the estimation task. Second, we introduce significant improvements in the way BNs for the {omega}-factor approach can be constructed, so that parameter acquisition becomes easier and more intuitive. The improvements are based on the use of noisy-OR gates as model of multicausal interaction between each BN node and its parents.

  9. Incorporating organizational factors into probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants through canonical probabilistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, S.F.; Mosleh, A.; Izquierdo, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The ω-factor approach is a method that explicitly incorporates organizational factors into Probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants. Bayesian networks (BNs) are the underlying formalism used in this approach. They have a structural part formed by a graph whose nodes represent organizational variables, and a parametric part that consists of conditional probabilities, each of them quantifying organizational influences between one variable and its parents in the graph. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we discuss some important limitations of current procedures in the ω-factor approach for either assessing conditional probabilities from experts or estimating them from data. We illustrate the discussion with an example that uses data from Licensee Events Reports of nuclear power plants for the estimation task. Second, we introduce significant improvements in the way BNs for the ω-factor approach can be constructed, so that parameter acquisition becomes easier and more intuitive. The improvements are based on the use of noisy-OR gates as model of multicausal interaction between each BN node and its parents

  10. The DELILAH correlation code for adjusting the parameters of the one-group diffusion equations to give best estimate power distributions for thermal reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, A.N.

    1978-10-01

    Details of the coding techniques, with flow diagrams are given for the correlation code DELILAH which is a replacement for the SAMSON code for SGHW and other thermal systems. An improved method of rejecting inaccurate channel power measurements is described in detail. A list of the input data requirements for the code will be published separately. (author)

  11. Adjusting the horrors of civil war. Reforming the senate in small power democracies in the nationalistic crises of the 1860’s: Canada, Denmark and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the 1860s, political crises erupted in the Atlantic world which had repercussions on political thinking about parliamentary systems. Conservative forces gained control in several small powers in the North Atlantic after the preceding more liberal decades had, according to many, contributed to

  12. Software for automated evaluation of technical and economic performance factors of nuclear power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvan, M.; Zadrazil, J.; Barnak, M.

    1989-01-01

    Computer codes TEP V2, TEP EDU and TEP V1 are used especially in real-time evaluation of technical and economic performance factors of the power unit. Their basic functions include filtration of credibility of input data obtained by measurement, simultaneous calculation of flows of various types of energy, calculation of technical and economic factors, listings and filing of the results. Code ZMEK is designed for executing changes in the calculation constants file for codes TEP V2 and TEP EDU. Code TEP DEN is used in processing the complete daily report on the technical and economic performance factors of the unit. Briefly described are the basic algorithms of credibility filtration for the measured quantities, the methodology of fundamental balances and the method of guaranteeing the continuity of measurement. Experiences are given with the use of the codes, and the trends are outlined of their future development. (J.B.). 5 refs

  13. Human factor analysis and preventive countermeasures of maintenance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Hu Chao

    2008-01-01

    Based on the human error analysis theory and the characteristics of maintenance in a nuclear power plant, human factors of maintenance in NPP are divided into three different areas: human, technology, and organization, in which human refers to the individual factors, mainly including psychological quality, physiological characteristic, state of health, knowledge, skill level, and interpersonal relationship. Technology includes the maintenance technology, maintenance strategy, maintenance tool, maintenance interface, maintenance regulation, and work environment. Organization includes task arrangement, information communication, training, personnel external environment, team construction, and leadership. The analysis also reveals that the organization factors, which can indirectly influence personnel performance, are the primary initiators of human error. Based on these, some countermeasures are brought forward in order to reduce human errors. (authors)

  14. The human factor data management system of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zhang Ning; Guo Jianbing; Huang Weigang; Zhu Minhong; Wang Jin

    1999-12-01

    The collection, analysis and quantification of human factor data are very important parts of human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. Therefore various human databases have been created. But a human data management system with the functions of data collection, classification, analysis, computation and forecast is scarcely seen at home and abroad. So the authors have developed the human data management system of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The system includes three modules and four databases. The authors firstly set forth some basic problems on the human factor data, which are concerned during the development of the system. Then the structure and function of the system are described. In view of the important role of human factor databases in the system, the authors also discuss the structure problems of the data in the databases in detail

  15. Potential human factors research relating to modern technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.; Fink, R.; Hanes, L.; Williges, R.; Williges, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses proposed human factors research to address advanced human-machine interface technology in nuclear power plants. It relates to a current EPRI project to identify a prioritized list of specific research issues that could be assessed to improve control room and other user interface areas. The project seeks to bridge the gap between the functional requirements of advanced design initiatives and the human factors research needed to support them. It seeks to identify potential benefits to be expected, as well as potential problems that might be introduced by advanced technology. It provides an organized approach to identifying human factors research needs, information already available, and measures of performance and effectiveness that might be used to assess the value of potential improvements. Those parts of the proposed plan that are subsequently approved by EPRI management and by the utility advisory committee will provide a basis for recommending research priorities

  16. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  17. Greenhouse gas emission factor development for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eui-Chan; Myeong, Soojeong; Sa, Jae-Whan; Kim, Jinsu; Jeong, Jae-Hak

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas emissions is essential for developing an appropriate strategy to mitigate global warming. This study examined the characteristics of greenhouse gas emission from power plants, a major greenhouse gas source in Korea. The power plants examined use bituminous coal, anthracite, and sub-bituminous coal as fuel. The CO 2 concentration from power plants was measured using GC-FID with methanizer. The amount of carbon, hydrogen, and calorific values in the input fuel was measured using an elemental analyzer and calorimeter. For fuel analysis, CO 2 emission factors for anthracite, bituminous coal, and sub-bituminous coal were 108.9, 88.4, and 97.9 Mg/kJ, respectively. The emission factors developed in this study were compared with those for IPCC. The results showed that CO 2 emission was 10.8% higher for anthracite, 5.5% lower for bituminous coal, and 1.9% higher for sub-bituminous coal than the IPCC figures.

  18. High Thermoelectric Power Factor Organic Thin Films through Combination of Nanotube Multilayer Assembly and Electrochemical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Cho, Chungyeon; Krecker, Michelle; Smith, Ryan; Song, Yixuan; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2017-02-22

    In an effort to produce effective thermoelectric nanocomposites with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), layer-by-layer assembly was combined with electrochemical polymerization to create synergy that would produce a high power factor. Nanolayers of MWCNT stabilized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or sodium deoxycholate were alternately deposited from water. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) [PEDOT] was then synthesized electrochemically by using this MWCNT-based multilayer thin film as the working electrode. Microscopic images show a homogeneous distribution of PEDOT around the MWCNT. The electrical resistance, conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficient (S) were measured before and after the PEDOT polymerization. A 30 bilayer MWCNT film (<1 μm thick) infused with PEDOT is shown to achieve a power factor (PF = S 2 σ) of 155 μW/m K 2 , which is the highest value ever reported for a completely organic MWCNT-based material and competitive with lead telluride at room temperature. The ability of this MWCNT-PEDOT film to generate power was demonstrated with a cylindrical thermoelectric generator that produced 5.5 μW with a 30 K temperature differential. This unique nanocomposite, prepared from water with relatively inexpensive ingredients, should open up new opportunities to recycle waste heat in portable/wearable electronics and other applications where low weight and mechanical flexibility are needed.

  19. A factorization approach to next-to-leading-power threshold logarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonocore, D. [Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laenen, E. [Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); ITFA, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Amsterdam (Netherlands); ITF, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht (Netherlands); Magnea, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino (Italy); Melville, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Vernazza, L. [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); White, C.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-03

    Threshold logarithms become dominant in partonic cross sections when the selected final state forces gluon radiation to be soft or collinear. Such radiation factorizes at the level of scattering amplitudes, and this leads to the resummation of threshold logarithms which appear at leading power in the threshold variable. In this paper, we consider the extension of this factorization to include effects suppressed by a single power of the threshold variable. Building upon the Low-Burnett-Kroll-Del Duca (LBKD) theorem, we propose a decomposition of radiative amplitudes into universal building blocks, which contain all effects ultimately responsible for next-to-leading-power (NLP) threshold logarithms in hadronic cross sections for electroweak annihilation processes. In particular, we provide a NLO evaluation of the radiative jet function, responsible for the interference of next-to-soft and collinear effects in these cross sections. As a test, using our expression for the amplitude, we reproduce all abelian-like NLP threshold logarithms in the NNLO Drell-Yan cross section, including the interplay of real and virtual emissions. Our results are a significant step towards developing a generally applicable resummation formalism for NLP threshold effects, and illustrate the breakdown of next-to-soft theorems for gauge theory amplitudes at loop level.

  20. Distribution factors for reactive power in the presence of bilateral transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Tuglie, E.; Torelli, F.

    2004-01-01

    The twin factors of limited investment in electric transmission systems and the overexploitation of electrical resources results in an increase in the need for reactive power to support system voltage profile and to supply loads. It is reasonable to expect that generators and compensators, heavily involved in reactive support on a voluntary basis, will be remunerated for their service by market transactions. This remuneration will depend on the network topology, i.e. of buyers, sellers and reactive injection locations, on the active power exchanged and the reactive power required by loads. All these aspects are taken into account in developing a methodology based on circuit considerations. Using this approach, at a given system operating point characterised by a predefined set of transactions, reactive responsibilities can be formulated as the sum of two terms: one strictly related to transactions and the other dependent on electric network parameters. Test results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology in sharing reactive power responsibilities in a fair way among market participants. (author)

  1. Factors affecting economic performance of nuclear power projects in the USA and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.

    1988-01-01

    Trends in nuclear power economics in the USA, as well as in other large power programmes, are reviewed in this paper. The current US coal/nuclear economic situation, the implications for operating cost improvements and the potential for the introduction of new low-cost nuclear units are discussed. The average economic advantage of nuclear over coal plants has been significantly eroded over the last four years, though the rate of decline has recently slowed. Discussion of an average plant's performance indices is always imprecise, given the wide distribution of the costs data. However, several nuclear power plants can be identified whose total generation costs in 1985 were less than coal units' variable costs or total generation expenses. It is concluded that the impact of new, low-cost plants on improving the overall US nuclear/coal economics will require a long time to make itself felt. In the near term the most cost effective methods for improving US nuclear power economics are a reduction in operating expenses and an increase in average plant capacity factors. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs

  2. Factors associated with positive adjustment in siblings of children with severe emotional disturbance: the role of family resources and community life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Ryan P; Cook, James R; Munsell, Eylin Palamaro; Salvador, Samantha Kane

    2010-10-01

    This study builds on the scant research involving siblings of children with severe emotional disturbances (SED) and examines: associations between adversity experiences and adjustment among 5- to 10-year-old siblings, and relations among family resources, community life, and sibling adjustment. Caregivers from 100 families completed standardized indicators of sibling adjustment and scales reflecting multiple contextual variables. Results document negative associations between stress exposure and sibling adjustment. Regression models also indicate positive associations between the caregiver-child relationship and broader family resources on sibling behavioral and emotional strengths, even after accounting for adversity experiences; adversity exposure was the prime correlate in regression models involving sibling oppositional behavior. Analyses also suggest that strain related to parenting a child with SED is associated with sibling adjustment. This work documents the needs of these siblings and their family systems and highlights the relevance of not only core proximal influences (e.g., child-caregiver relationship) but also elements of their broader contexts. Implications and recommendations are described, including the need to support plans of care that involve services, supports, or preventive strategies for these siblings. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  3. A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Florence

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

  4. A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Dympna

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

  5. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  6. Review of human factors R and D in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parris, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    The history of human factors (HF) R and D in the nuclear power industry can clearly be divided into two phases: pre- and post-Three Mile Island (TMI). Pre-TMI, most people in the industry were unfamiliar with the discipline and its contributions to military and space system designs, and the number of HF professionals involved with nuclear power could essentially be counted on the fingers of two hands. Consequently, there was little research into the improvement of plant man/machine interfaces. The picture changed dramatically in the aftermath of TMI as investigation after investigation pointed to deficiencies in the operator/control room interface, training, procedures, communications, and organizational effectiveness. This paper first outlines pre-TMI events, then examines the post-TMI scenario, and concludes with summary observations and suggestions for future efforts

  7. Critical factors supporting the confidence in U.S. nuclear power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoaki

    2004-01-01

    The risk informed regulation in U.S. is summarized and factors supporting the confidence in U.S. nuclear power industries are thought to be helpful to our country for improving the state of nuclear power industries. In U.S., on the basis of clear Regulatory Guide, an entrepreneur constructs and practices corrective action of nonconformance. A regulatory commission submitted by the nation watches their movements. The movements related to regulatory are opened to the people and they make a thousand preparations for the rule to make correct the insufficient part. These above system get good results in U.S. It is important in Japan that we are not going to get away with anything on the system satisfied above conditions and practice. The risk informed regulation, effectiveness of risk informed regulation supporting conditions, a part of NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and entrepreneur are described. (S.Y.)

  8. Reluctance motor of new design with improved efficiency and power factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen-Goos, P; Pieper, W

    1981-09-01

    Improvement of operating conditions and efficiency by development of new configurations of lamination and production methods for reluctance motors. Investigations during the starting-up period and of the operating behaviour in connection with variable frequency. Reluctance motors are designed in the range from 0,6-4kW with 4-pole winding. They are due to the following identification: 1. The power of motors is in accordance with VDE 42673. 2. The volume of lamination is equal to asynchronous motors of the same IED size. 3. Synchronous pull-out torque is in compliance with VDE 0530: Msub(K)sub(S) > 1,35 Mn (nominal torque). As against standard reluctance motors the following improvements with the new ones have been realized: 4. Increase of nominal power by approx. 100%. 5. Increase of quality factor by approx. 50%. 6. The efficiency is equal to asynchronous motors of the same IEC size.

  9. On the exergetic capacity factor of a wind – Solar power generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    production. In this paper, a detailed exergetic analysis aiming to identify the overall Exergetic Capacity Factor (ExCF) for a wind – solar power generation system was done. ExCF, as a new parameter, can be used for better classification and evaluation of renewable energy sources (RES). All the energy...... and exergy characteristics of wind and solar energy were examined in order to identify the variables that affect the power output of the hybrid system. A validated open source PV optimization tool was also included in the analysis, It was shown that parameters as e.g. air density or tracking losses, low......In the recent years, exergy analysis has become a very important tool in the evaluation of systems’ efficiency. It aims on minimizing the energy related-system losses and therefore maximizing energy savings and helps society substantially to move towards sustainable development and cleaner...

  10. Power profiling of Cholesky and QR factorizations on distributed memory systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bosilca, George

    2012-08-30

    This paper presents the power profile of two high performance dense linear algebra libraries on distributed memory systems, ScaLAPACK and DPLASMA. From the algorithmic perspective, their methodologies are opposite. The former is based on block algorithms and relies on multithreaded BLAS and a two-dimensional block cyclic data distribution to achieve high parallel performance. The latter is based on tile algorithms running on top of a tile data layout and uses fine-grained task parallelism combined with a dynamic distributed scheduler (DAGuE) to leverage distributed memory systems. We present performance results (Gflop/s) as well as the power profile (Watts) of two common dense factorizations needed to solve linear systems of equations, namely Cholesky and QR. The reported numbers show that DPLASMA surpasses ScaLAPACK not only in terms of performance (up to 2X speedup) but also in terms of energy efficiency (up to 62 %). © 2012 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  11. Human-factors methods for assessing and enhancing power-plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.

    1982-05-01

    EPRI Final Report NP-1567, dated February 1981, presented the results of a human factors review of plant maintainability at nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil). This investigation revealed a wide range of plant and equipment design features that can potentially compromise the effectiveness, safety, and productivity of maintenance personnel. The present study is an extension of the earlier work. It provides those utilities that did not participate in the original study with the methodological tools to conduct a review of maintenance provisions, facilities, and practices. This report describes and provides a self-review checklist; a structured interview; a task analysis approach; methods for reviewing maintenance errors or accidents; and recommended survey techniques for evaluating such factors as noise, illumination, and communications. Application of the human factors methods described in this report should reveal avenues for enhancing existing power plants from the maintainability and availability standpoints. This document may also serve a useful purpose for designers or reviewers of new plant designs or near-operational plants presently being constructed

  12. Establishing a value chain for human factors in nuclear power plantcontrol room modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Laboratory; Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) have operated reliably and efficiently for decades. With the life extensions of plants now being planned for operation beyond their original operating licenses, there are opportunities to achieve even greater efficiencies, while maintaining high operational reliabilities, with strategic, risk- and economically-informed, upgrades to plant systems and infrastructure. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program supports the commercial nuclear industry’s modernization efforts through research and development (R&D) activities across many areas to help establish the technical and economic bases for modernization activities. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies pathway is one R&D focus area for the LWRS program, and has researchers at Idaho National Laboratory working with select utility partners to use human factors and instrumentation and controls R&D to help modernize the plant’s main control room. However, some in the nuclear industry have not been as enthusiastic about using human factors R&D to inform life extension decision making. Part of the reason for this may stem from uncertainty decision-makers have regarding how human factors fits into the value chain for nuclear power plant control room modernization. This paper reviews past work that has attempted to demonstrate the value of human factors, and then describes the value chain concept, how it applies to control room modernization, and then makes a case for how and why human factors is an essential link in the modernization value chain.

  13. A preliminary study on related factors of mental health in nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Tingting; Liu Yulong; Li Yuan; Liao Haihong; Qiu Mengyue; Bian Huahui; Chen Weibo; Liu Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the status of nuclear power plant operators in mental health and its correlation with emotional stability, liveliness, anxiety and urgency. Methods: 255 male operators were randomly selected from three nuclear power bases, meanwhile 61 undergraduates were used as control group. The mental health and neurobehavioral evaluation system of Chinese nuclear power plant operators was developed by Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, which was used to assess mental health of the subjects. The scores of mental health personality factors were recorded, together with four main personality factors including emotional stability, liveliness, anxiety and urgency. Results: The score of lie was lower than 8 which showed all inspected groups were normal. 1.57% (4/255) operators had psychological disorders, 3.92% (10/255) had poor mental health, 27.84% (71/255) had general mental health, 66.7% (170/255) had excellent mental health, whereas 9.84% (6/61) for control group had psychological disorders. Obvious difference was observed in the final scores between the nuclear power plant operators and control group. The former gained higher scores on mental health,emotional stability,and lower scores on anxiety and urgency (t=3.437, 4.423, -2.493, -2.093, P<0.05). Both groups aged over 27 years and with length of service over 5 years were awarded higher scores on mental health, emotional stability (t=2.585, 2.349; t=2.606, 2.947, P<0.05), lower scores on anxiety and urgency (t=-3.407, -2.138; t=- 2.941, -2.256, P<0.05). The mental health was positively correlated with emotional stability and liveliness (r=0.721, 0.650, P<0.05), but negatively correlated with anxiety and urgency (r=-0.809, -0.693, P<0.05). Conclusions: The majority of nuclear power plant operators had excellent psychological quality, but some factors should be paid more attention, such as different ages and length of service time. (authors)

  14. NOx emission calculations for bulk carriers by using engine power probabilities as weighting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Hua, Jian; Hwang, Daw-Shang

    2017-10-01

    An important marine pollution issue identified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is NO x emissions; however, the stipulated method for determining the NO x certification value does not reflect the actual high emission factors of slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines over long-term slow steaming. In this study, an accurate method is presented for calculating the NO x emission factors and total amount of NO x emissions by using the actual power probabilities of the diesel engines in four types of bulk carriers. The proposed method is suitable for all types and purposes of diesel engines, is not restricted to any operating modes, and is highly accurate. Moreover, it is recommended that the IMO-stipulated certification value calculation method be modified accordingly to genuinely reduce the amount of NO x emissions. The successful achievement of this level of reduction will help improve the air quality, especially in coastal and port areas, and the health of local residents. As per the IMO, the NO x emission certification value of marine diesel engines having a rated power over 130 kW must be obtained using specified weighting factor (WF)-based calculation. However, this calculation fails to represent the current actual situation. Effective emission reductions of 6.91% (at sea) and 31.9% (in ports) were achieved using a mathematical model of power probability functions. Thus, we strongly recommend amending the certification value of NO x Technical Code 2008 (NTC 2008) by removing the WF constraints, such that the NO x emissions of diesel engines is lower than the Tier-limits at any load level to obtain genuine NO x emission reductions.

  15. Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Shota; Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2015-01-01

    We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration

  16. Evaluation of response factors for seismic probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Abe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Itoh, M.; Kohno, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating 'response factors' of components in nuclear power plants for use in a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The response factor here is a measure of conservatism included in response calculations in seismic design analysis of components and is defined as a ratio of conservative design resonse to actual response. This method has the following characteristic features: (1) The components are classified into several groups based on the differences in their location and in the vibration models used in design response analyses; (2) the response factors are decomposed into subfactors corresponding to the stages of the seismic response analyses in the design practices; (3) the response factors for components are calculated as products of subfactors; (4) the subfactors are expressed either as a single value or as a function of parameters that influence the response of components. This paper describes the outline of this method and results from an application to a sample problem in which response factors were quantified for examples of components selected from the groups. (orig.)

  17. A proposal for human factors education in a power plant company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikono, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    The author was asked by a power plant company to investigate how to change the actual education system concerning human factor education for the plant staff. First, the problems faced by actual education system were investigated based on the results of a large number of surveys conducted in educational fields, and various documents. In the present paper, the author describes the newly proposed educational program., using as illustration a case study. The findings of the present study suggests that, concerning the content of the educational program, it is indispensable for each company to develop a curriculum based on its specific needs. (author)

  18. Analysis of chemical factors affecting marine ecosystem around nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Chun, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Jung, Kyeong Chai; Lee, Yeong Keun; Park, Hyo Kook

    1994-06-01

    The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author)

  19. A fast automatic power control circuit for a small form-factor pluggable laser diode drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huan; Wang Zhigong; Xu Jian; Miao Peng; Li Wei [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Luo Yin; Yang Siyong, E-mail: wanghuan@seu.edu.c [Jiangsu Sino-Chip OE-IC Co. Ltd, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A fast automatic power control (APC) circuit for a laser diode driver (LDD) has been implemented in a 0.6-{mu}m BiCMOS process. The APC circuit adopts double-loops and variable-bandwidth techniques to achieve a turn-on time of < 400 {mu}s for most kinds of TOSAs. Thus, it meets the small form-factor pluggable (SFP) agreement. Such techniques make a good tradeoff between stability, accuracy, turn-on time, noise and convenience. The measured results indicate that the APC circuit is suitable for SFP LDD. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Magnetic field emission comparison at different quality factors with series-series compensation network for inductive power transfer to vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Inductive power transfer is non-contact transfer of energy by means of magnetic fields. A higher secondary side quality factor at fixed input current ensures a linear increase in power transfer across the air gap. But also at the same time magnetic emissions to the surroundings increase. First...... of all in this paper an analytic expression for comparing the magnetic emissions at different quality factors is introduced. It is shown with help of simulations on Comsol that emissions have a lower increase as compared to linear increase in the power transferred with the quality factor as suggested...

  1. A Study on Human Factors in Maintenance of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ho; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2006-01-01

    In human factors research, more attention has been devoted to the operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) than to their maintenance. However, more NPP incidents are caused by inadequate maintenance rather than by faulty operation. There is a trend in NPP toward introducing digital technology into safety and non-safety systems. This lead to changes of maintenance, and support systems such as diagnosis system, augmentation system and handy terminal will be developed. In this context, it is important to identify tasks of human related to each phase of maintenance and their relation in order to apply those to maintenance. However, there are few researches of human factors in maintenance. This paper studies on framework of cognitive task analysis for developing maintenance support systems

  2. Lessons Learned from Human Factor Technical Support for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeon Sub; Song, Tae Young

    2011-01-01

    NETEC is on the frontier to support Korean nuclear power plants. Requests of service are distributed through web based system. Human factor requests are occasionally posted. This paper analyzes interesting human factors requests/responses serviced, and summarizes the lesson learned. Subjects of the service include man machine interface, equipment label, procedure writing, procedure adherence, BISI, hand switch and alarm tile. Specifically the man machine interface is related to control command generated by acknowledge button, arrangement of switches. Procedure writing is about how to write contingency actions with proper numbering scheme. BISI is analyzed in view of automation level. Alarm tile is about how to handle the common alarm tile originated from local alarm boards. These topics seem to be legacies of past technology. Even though there are still human engineering discrepancies, these have been less evaluated because the topics need knowledge of other field domains

  3. Organizational/institutional factors affecting performance in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The dramatic macro experiences occurring at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as well as the cumulative micro experiences represented by sky-rocketing costs and public concerns have demonstrated how the institutionally and organizationally related aspects of the nuclear power industry have dominated and shaped the technical ones. Further, given the relatively stable or evolutionary nature of the technology as it is currently applied, these institutional and organizational factors contain the roots of most of the complications/problems associated with the industry relative to achieving any or all of its future performance objectives (technical, economic, and safety). Some technology transfer was attempted by the author from the field of general systems/cybernetics, which was explicitly aimed at dealing with the organizational/institutional factors, i.e., the problems and issues were approached using principles and methodology substantially different from that typically seen from applications based on the more traditional paradigmic engineering/industrial management orientation

  4. System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Turek, M.G.; Eubanks, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

  5. Power correction to the asymptotics of the pion electromagnetic form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geshkenbein, B.V.; Terentyev, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    The contribution of the power correction approximately (μ 2 /Q 2 ) 2 enhanced by the factor approximately μ 2 /anti m 2 , to the pion form factor (FF) is calculated (here μ is the pion mass, anti m=1/2(msub(u)+msub(α)) is the mean value of the u- and d-quark masses, Q 2 =-(p-p') 2 > 0, where p, p' are meson momenta at initial and final state. It is shown that the only source of large corrections is due to the contribution of the local pseudoscalar current. The main (approximately 1/Q 2 ) asymptotics of FF associated with the axial current contribution, is derived. The contribution (approximately 1/Q 4 ) of the pseudoscalar current is calculated

  6. Adjustable speed drive study, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

  7. Transfer-factors for radionuclides in the coal-fired power plants environments in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, Dragana; Jankovic, Marija; Joksic, Jasminka; Radenkovic, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the coal combustion in power plants, radionuclides are distributed in solid and gaseous combustion products and discharged into environment. Radioactivity monitoring of coal-fired power-plants environments (PP Nikola Tesla, PP Kolubara, PP Morava and PP Kostolac) in Serbia was carried out during 2003-2006. Here are presented results concerning the soil-plant and ash-plant systems. Plant samples growing at the soil and ash disposals are analyzed by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%) and corresponding transfer factors (TF) for natural isotopes 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were calculated and discussed. Obtained concentrations values of naturally occurring radionuclides are in following ranges: (0.4 - 29) Bq/kg 226 Ra, (0.16 - 23) Bq/kg 232 Th, (245 - 1274) Bq/kg 40 K, (1.7 - 30) Bq/kg 238 U, (0.08 - 4.7) Bq/kg 235 U, (5.6 - 95) Bq/kg 210 Pb; (28 - 288) Bq/kg 7 Be and man-made 137 Cs in range 0.06 - 2.8 Bq/kg. Ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are calculated for several sampling points. Values for both ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors are much higher for 40 K than 226 Ra and 232 Th probably due to different assimilation mechanisms of these elements by plants. Analyzed radionuclides have higher concentrations in the ash disposal than soil, and corresponding transfer-factors values obtained for ash-plant systems (ranged from 0,007 to 0,179 for 226 Ra, from 0,015 to 0,174 for 232 Th and from 0,418 to 2,230 for 40 K) are higher, indicating that there is no limit value for absorption in plants. (author)

  8. Evaluation of protection factors of a breath-responsive-powered air-purifying respirator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masahiro; Nojima, Shun; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Shishido, Nobuhito; Sakai, Toshiya; Umehara, Takashi; Shimizu, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    It is essential to wear an air-purifying respirator in the radiation works in a contaminated atmosphere. A breath-responsive-powered air-purifying respirator (BR-PAPR) has been recently developed. However, no research has yet been conducted to determine the protection factor (PF) of the BR-PAPR in actual workplaces. In this study, the PFs of the BR-PAPR were measured by a man-test apparatus and compared with those of a non-powered full face mask. The PFs were measured under three different situations; normal wearing condition, clogging the filter and leaving a gap between the face and the mask. Under these situations, it was found that the PFs of the BR-PAPR are higher than those of the non-powered full face mask. PFs greater than 4,000 were obtained for 95% of the subjects who wear the BR-PAPR, and PFs over 6,667, the upper limit of the man-test apparatus, were obtained for 49% of them. The questionnaire survey was conducted for workers. The results showed that the workers feel a reduced burden when they wear the BR-PAPR. The results of this study showed high protection performance and operation efficiency of the BR-PAPR. (author)

  9. The evaluation of equipment and Instrumentation Reliability Factors on Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriatna, Piping; Karlina, Itjeu; Widagdo, Suharyo; Santosa, Kussigit; Darlis; Sudiyono, Bambang; Yuniyanta, Sasongko; Sudarmin

    1999-01-01

    Equipment and instrumentation reliability on type power reactor control room was determined by its pattern and design. the principle of ergonomy applied on equipment and instrumentation layout in this ABWR type reactor are geometric pattern appropriate with economic body motion, average anthropometry data of operator especially operator hand-reach, range of vision, angle of vision, lighting, color arrangement and harmony as will as operator case in operating the equipment system. Limitation criteria of the parameter mentioned above are based on EPRI NP-3659, NURG 0700, and NUREG/CR-3331 documents. Besides that, the (working) physical environment parameter factor of the control room must be designed in order to fulfil the standard criteria of ergonomic condition based on NUREG-0800. The reliability evaluation of equipment and instrumentation system also occurs observed from man machine interaction side which happen between operator and equipment and instrumentation in the ABWR type power reactor control room. From the MMI analysis can be known the working failure possibility which is caused by the operator. The evaluation result of equipment and instrumentation reliability on ABWR type power reactor control room showed that the design of this ABWR control room is good and fulfils the ergonomy standard criteria have been determined

  10. Interpolating by a factor of 3 in low-voltage low-power ∑Δ DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the power optimization of a sigma-delta (RD) modulator based digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing aid audio back-end application. In a number of state-of-the-art publications the oversampling ratio (OSR) of the RD modulator is chosen as a factor of integer power of two...... by a factor of 3 are investigated. This new design freedom is used to lower the operating frequency of the whole back-end and save considerable amount of power. It is shown that the figure of- merit of such designs can be lower than designs using oversampling by a factor of integer powers of two. The same...... optimization approach can be used for other low voltage low power portable audio applications (mobile phones, notebook computers etc.)....

  11. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi 2 Te 3 were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (∼500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  12. Effects of neutral gas collisions on the power transmission factor at the divertor sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H.; Matthews, G.F.; Buchenauer, D.; Hill, D.N.; Jong, R.A.; Porter, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    We show that charge-exchange and other ion-neutral collision can reduce the power transmission factor of the plasma sheath, thereby lowering the ion impact energy and target plate sputtering. The power transmission factor relates the heat flux reaching the divertor target to the plasma density and temperature just in front of the surface: δ=Q surf /J ew k T e . Experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak suggests that δ could be as low as 2-3 near the region of peak divertor particle flux, instead of the 7-8 expected from usual sheath theory. Several effects combine to allow ion-neutral interactions to be important in the divertor plasma sheath. The shallow angle of incidence of the magnetic field (1-3deg in DIII-D) leads to the spatial extension of the sheath from approximately ρ i ∝1 mm normal to the plate to several centimeters along the field lines. Ionization reduces the sheath potential, and collisions reduce the ion impact energy. (orig.)

  13. An analytical inductor design procedure for three-phase PWM converters in power factor correction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Haase, Frerk

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyze...... to calculate the core loss in the PFC application. To investigate the impact of the dc link voltage level, two inductors for different dc voltage levels are designed and the results are compared.......This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyzes...... circuit is used to provide the inductor current harmonic spectrum. Therefore, using the harmonic spectrum, the low and high frequency copper losses are calculated. The high frequency minor B-H loops in one switching cycle are also analyzed. Then, the loss map provided by the measurement setup is used...

  14. The need and direction of a human factors research program for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, H.S.; Meyer, O.R.; Nelson, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    It is axiomatic that the need for a human factors program in the nuclear power industry must be based upon an examination of the process of nuclear energy production and the role that the human plays in this process. It has been pointed out by others that a large number of incidents in technology based industries can be attributed to human error, thereby demonstrating the need to understand the human in interacting with complex processes. But an emphasis upon human ''error'' is a negative approach and can be non-productive, particularly when the ''correct'' human action has not been clearly defined prior to the incident. Some industries have expended great resources in a positive attempt to maximize the performance of the human in critical roles, e.g., the man-in-space program, the commercial airlines industry, deep-sea exploration. Central to this issue of human factors in nuclear power is the question of the role that the human plays in reducing the risk of the total system. If, as in other areas of application, the nuclear industry can make substantial improvements in the performance of humans, one needs to know how much risk is really reduced

  15. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during 1995 to 1996. The three-dimension joint frequency are obtained by hourly observation of wind and temperature on a 100m high tower; the frequency of the “event day of land and sea breezes” are given by observation of surface wind and land and sea breezes; the diffusion parameters are got from measurements of turbulent and wind tunnel simulation test.A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established.This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast.The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.0.

  16. Basic factors to forecast maintenance cost and failure processes for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elmira; Yu, Wei; Kee, Ernie; Sun, Alice; Richards, Drew; Grantom, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Two types of maintenance interventions are usually administered at nuclear power plants: planned and corrective. The cost incurred includes the labor (manpower) cost, cost for new parts, or emergency order of expensive items. At the plant management level there is a budgeted amount of money to be spent every year for such operations. It is very important to have a good forecast for this cost since unexpected events can trigger it to a very high level. In this research we present a statistical factor model to forecast the maintenance cost for the incoming month. One of the factors is the expected number of unplanned (due to failure) maintenance interventions. We introduce a Bayesian model for the failure rate of the equipment, which is input to the cost forecasting model. The importance of equipment reliability and prediction in the commercial nuclear power plant is presented along with applicable governmental and industry organization requirements. A detailed statistical analysis is performed on a set of maintenance cost and failure data gathered at the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) in Bay City, Texas, USA

  17. RSS-based localization of isotropically decaying source with unknown power and pathloss factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shunyuan; Sun, Li; Ding, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the localization of an isotropically decaying source based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements that are collected from nearby active sensors that are position-known and wirelessly connected, and it propose a novel iterative algorithm for RSS-based source localization in order to improve the location accuracy and realize real-time location and automatic monitoring for hospital patients and medical equipment in the smart hospital. In particular, we consider the general case where the source power and pathloss factor are both unknown. For such a source localization problem, we propose an iterative algorithm, in which the unknown source position and two other unknown parameters (i.e. the source power and pathloss factor) are estimated in an alternating way based on each other, with our proposed sub-optimum initial estimate on source position obtained based on the RSS measurements that are collected from a few (closest) active sensors with largest RSS values. Analysis and simulation study show that our proposed iterative algorithm guarantees globally convergence to the least-squares (LS) solution, where for our suitably assumed independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) zero-mean Gaussian RSS measurement errors the converged localization performance achieves the optimum that corresponds to the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB).

  18. A HUMAN FACTORS META MODEL FOR U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several years, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored human factors research and development (R&D) and human factors engineering (HFE) activities through its Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to modernize the main control rooms (MCR) of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with numerous commercial nuclear utilities, has conducted some of this R&D to enable the life extension of NPPs (i.e., provide the technical basis for the long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of U.S. NPPs). From these activities performed to date, a human factors meta model for U.S. NPP control room modernization can now be formulated. This paper discusses this emergent HFE meta model for NPP control room modernization, with the goal of providing an integrated high level roadmap and guidance on how to perform human factors R&D and HFE for those in the U.S. nuclear industry that are engaging in the process of upgrading their MCRs.

  19. Interpolation by a prime factor other than 2 in low-voltage low-power ΣΔ DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Chen, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents power optimization of a sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulator based digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio back-end application. In a number of state-of-the-art publications the oversampling ratio (OSR) of the ΣΔ modulator is chosen as a factor of integer power of two...... optimization approach can be used for other low voltage low power portable audio applications (mobile phones, notebook computers etc.)....

  20. THE SUBJECTIVAL CONTENT OF IMAGES “SUCCESSFUL MAN” AND “SUCCESSFUL WOMAN” AS A FACTOR OF PSYCHIC ADJUSTMENT OF WOMEN IN INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Геннадьевна Лопухова

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study is investigation of correlation between a content of gender appearance of image “successful person” and parameters of psychic and social adjustment of women belonging to different generations.Methodology.  Subjective image “successful person” means a stable and possibly gender differentiated element of “Ideal Me” images system. It includes cognitive component (conscious and verbalization representations of typical description of successful person, and affective component (positive or negative positions in regards to image “successful person”. We have compared results of survey and valuation of 265 women belonging to different generations and staying in different social situations: involuntary unemployment situation, employment and getting professional education. Subjective and projective methods were used in survey of cognitive and affective components of “successful person” image. Valuation of psychic adjustment based on parameters of internal conflict in comparison with manifestations of anxiety, frustration, aggression, rigidity, neurotic. Data analysis used parametric and nonparametric methods, including ANOVA/MANOVA.Results. It has been discovered that level of psychic adjustment of women depends much more on proper integration of subjective “successful person” image content with individual features of self-conception than on objective “social status” (being in involuntary unemployment situation.Practical implications are psychology consulting and correction of social or psychic unadjustment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-41

  1. A Human Factors Study on an Information Visualization System for Nuclear Power Plants Decommissioning Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Yang, Li Chen [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Longtan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Most nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world have an operating life of up to 40 years. The utility should prepare a comprehensive decommissioning plan with purpose to document and to display how decommissioning activities can be safely performed. In the past, most studies related to NPPs decommissioning planning put emphasis on technical issues, little attention have been given to human factors in decommissioning activities. In fact, human factors are a critical factor to successful NPPs decommissioning. NPPs decommissioning will face potential risks. These risks include not only dismantling and moving large equipment but also treating with the radioactive materials. Using information visualization system, such as virtual reality (VR) technology, for staff training can improve decommissioning work safety and economy. Therefore, this study presents a study using VR to solve real world problems in the nuclear plant decommissioning. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR systems are summarized and future prospects are given. This study assesses availability and performance of the work training system by using heuristic evaluation and actual experiment. In the result, block type of radiation visibility was found relatively better both in performance and person's preference than other types. The results presented in this paper illustrate the VR applications a NPP decommissioning perspective.

  2. The human factors and job task analysis in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Petre; Mihailescu, Nicolae; Dragusin, Octavian

    1999-01-01

    After a long period of time, during the development of the NPP technology, where the plant hardware has been considered to be the main factor for a safe, reliable and economic operation, the industry is now changing to an adequate responsibility of plant hardware and operation. Since the human factors has been not discussed methodically so far, there is still a lack of improved classification systems for human errors as well as a lack of methods for the systematic approach in designing the operator's working system, as for instance by using the job task analysis (J.T.A.). The J.T.A. appears to be an adequate method to study the human factor in the nuclear power plant operation, enabling an easy conversion to operational improvements. While the results of the analysis of human errors tell 'what' is to be improved, the J.T.A. shows 'how' to improve, for increasing the quality of the work and the safety of the operator's working system. The paper analyses the issue of setting the task and displays four criteria used to select aspects in NPP operation which require special consideration as personal training, design of control room, content and layout of the procedure manual, or organizing the operating personnel. The results are given as three tables giving: 1- Evaluation of deficiencies in the Working System; 2- Evaluation of the Deficiencies of Operator's Disposition; 3- Evaluation of the Mental Structure of Operation

  3. Relationship between organizational factors, safety culture and PSA in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    There are four nuclear safety imperatives or ''4Ms'': machine (hardware, design, QA/QC), milieux (operating conditions, environment, natural phenomena), man (human reliability) and management (organizational and management influences). Nuclear safety evaluations as well as evolution of its most powerful tool, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), followed chronologically the 4M constituents. The nuclear industry worldwide, and the nuclear safety regulators in particular, have been preoccupied with the first M almost to the point of obsession with belated and only intuitive interest in the third and fourth M (human dimension). Human factors or economics in the nuclear industry was an afterthought. Human reliability was essentially born in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident. Impact of organizational factors on nuclear safety is only in the early stages of R and D. This paper describes some of the concepts being pursued by APG to link organizational factors and safety culture to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and to integrate such into probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), e.g. [APG, 1993]. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  4. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  5. Factors Determining the Size of Sealing Clearance in Hydraulic Legs of Powered Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyalich Gennady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that directly influence the formation of a sealing clearance between the piston and the working cylinder in hydraulic legs of powered supports are considered in this article, the size thereof has a direct effect on the tightness of the legs and, as a result, on the safety of work at the production face. A detailed description of these factors is given, which is supported by the dependencies obtained from the results of finite element modeling of various types of legs under various strength and geometric parameters, external load types and locations in the support section. The problems of formation of radial deformations of a working cylinder loaded with working fluid pressure are considered, and their dependence on the level of this pressure and extension. Based on the simulation results, the mechanisms for the formation of additional clearances due to rod and cylinder misalignments are described, and the conditions and causes of the resonant phenomena development are given. The classification of these factors according to the degree of generalization and the functional interaction between each other is proposed.

  6. A Human Factors Study on an Information Visualization System for Nuclear Power Plants Decommissioning Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Yang, Li Chen

    2014-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world have an operating life of up to 40 years. The utility should prepare a comprehensive decommissioning plan with purpose to document and to display how decommissioning activities can be safely performed. In the past, most studies related to NPPs decommissioning planning put emphasis on technical issues, little attention have been given to human factors in decommissioning activities. In fact, human factors are a critical factor to successful NPPs decommissioning. NPPs decommissioning will face potential risks. These risks include not only dismantling and moving large equipment but also treating with the radioactive materials. Using information visualization system, such as virtual reality (VR) technology, for staff training can improve decommissioning work safety and economy. Therefore, this study presents a study using VR to solve real world problems in the nuclear plant decommissioning. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR systems are summarized and future prospects are given. This study assesses availability and performance of the work training system by using heuristic evaluation and actual experiment. In the result, block type of radiation visibility was found relatively better both in performance and person's preference than other types. The results presented in this paper illustrate the VR applications a NPP decommissioning perspective

  7. Report on results of audit related to charges for wholesale electric service by New England Power Company under the Fuel-Adjustment Clause filed with the Federal Power Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    During the 39-month period beginning in April 1972 and ending in June 1975, NEPCO, through monthly fuel-adjustment clause (FAC) billings, charged its wholesale customers and certain other customers about $316.1 million. The audit disclosed that in computing FAC charges applicable to its wholesale customers, NEPCO included certain costs not eligible for inclusion in FAC billings under the applicable FAC on file with the Commission. As a result, for the 39-month period ending in June 1975, wholesale customers were overbilled through the FAC an estimated $800,000. The fact that certain costs were not eligible for inclusion under the FAC were not construed as meaning that the costs may not be proper for consideration in establishing NEPCO's cost of service for rate purposes, apart from the FAC. The staff concluded that in all other respects NEPCO had properly billed its customers for charges in the cost of fossil fuel in accordance with its filed fuel-adjustment clause.

  8. Analyze the factors effecting the development of hydro power projects in hydro rich regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameesh Kumar Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power is considered as the major back bone for all the nations throughout the world including India on the basis of which development of the country depends. If a country has the resources to generate the power at competitive price in that case the people of the country get the benefits in terms of improvement in their social and economical life. When we talk about India, various locations in the country where still there is no electricity people are living in dark without having the access of the modern technology. The total hydro power potential of India is 1, 50,000 MW out of this total hydro potential only 40,195 MW is exploited till 2014. More than 80% of the total hydro potential of the country is lying in the western Himalayan states (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and Arunachal Pradesh. Small hydro projects are also playing a very important role in the modern world for the development of the remote areas which are not main grid connected specially in western Himalayan region of India. India has a total potential 19,749 MW of small hydro projects and of this total potential only 3990.9 MW harnessed till 2014. Ministry of new and renewable energy in India is also providing special incentives to hydro rich states of India. In this research article we are taken the case study of the small hydro projects in the western Himalayan region because theses states are having vast small hydro potential which is still needed to be harnessed. So, it is very important to identify the factors which are effecting the development of these small ventures especially in western Himalayan region in India.

  9. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  10. Colossal thermoelectric power factor in K7/8RhO2

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2012-04-12

    The thermoelectric properties of the layered oxides KxRhO 2 (x = 1/2 and 7/8) are investigated by means of the electronic structure, as determined by ab inito calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. In general, the electronic structure of K xRhO 2 is similar to Na xCoO 2, but with strongly enhanced transport. K 7/8RhO 2 exceeds the ultrahigh power factor of Na 0.88CoO 2 reported previously by more than 50%. The roles of the cation concentration and the lattice parameters in the transport properties in this class of compounds are explained. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Analysis of human factors in incidents reported by Swiss nuclear power plants to the inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, H.P.; Hausmann, W.

    1997-01-01

    197 reported incidents in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants were analyzed by a team of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) using the OECD/NEA Incident Reporting System. The following conclusions could be drawn from this exercise. While the observed cause reported by the plant was ''technical failure'' in about 90% of the incidents, the HSK-Team identified for more than 60% of the incidents ''human factors'' as the root cause. When analyzing this root cause further it was shown that only a smaller contribution came from the side of the operators and the more important shares were caused by plant maintenance, vendors/constructors and plant management with procedural and organizational deficiencies. These findings demonstrate that root cause analysis of incidents by the IRS-Code is a most useful tool to analyze incidents and to find weak points in plant performance. (author). 5 tabs

  12. Mitigation of voltage sag, swell and power factor correction using solid-state transformer b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Banaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel topology of solid-state transformer (SST. In the design process, the AC/DC, DC/AC and AC/AC converters have been integrated to achieve higher efficiency. To obtain higher efficiency from other SST with DC-link topologies, the AC/DC and DC/AC converters have been integrated in one matrix converter. The proposed SST performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, voltage sag and swell elimination, voltage flicker reduction and protection capability in fault situations. In addition, it has other benefits such as light weight, low volume and elimination of hazardous liquid dielectrics because it uses medium frequency transformer. The operation and some performances of the proposed SST have been verified by the simulation results.

  13. Factors affecting CO2 emission from the power sector of selected countries in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Liyanage, Migara H.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the key factors behind the CO 2 emissions from the power sector in fifteen selected countries in Asia and the Pacific using the Log-Mean Divisia Index method of decomposition. The roles of changes in economic output, electricity intensity of the economy, fuel intensity of power generation and generation structure are examined in the evolution of CO 2 emission from the power sector of the selected countries during 1980-2004. The study shows that the economic growth was the dominant factor behind the increase in CO 2 emission in ten of the selected countries (i.e., Australia, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, while the increasing electricity intensity of the economy was the main factor in three countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia and Philippines). Structural changes in power generation were found to be the main contributor to changes in the CO 2 emission in the case of Sri Lanka and New Zealand.

  14. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  15. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

  16. Benzothienobenzothiophene-Based Molecular Conductors: High Conductivity, Large Thermoelectric Power Factor, and One-Dimensional Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyota, Yasuhiro; Kadoya, Tomofumi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Iijima, Kodai; Higashino, Toshiki; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Takimiya, Kazuo; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-03-23

    On the basis of an excellent transistor material, [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT), a series of highly conductive organic metals with the composition of (BTBT)2XF6 (X = P, As, Sb, and Ta) are prepared and the structural and physical properties are investigated. The room-temperature conductivity amounts to 4100 S cm(-1) in the AsF6 salt, corresponding to the drift mobility of 16 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Owing to the high conductivity, this salt shows a thermoelectric power factor of 55-88 μW K(-2) m(-1), which is a large value when this compound is regarded as an organic thermoelectric material. The thermoelectric power and the reflectance spectrum indicate a large bandwidth of 1.4 eV. These salts exhibit an abrupt resistivity jump under 200 K, which turns to an insulating state below 60 K. The paramagnetic spin susceptibility, and the Raman and the IR spectra suggest 4kF charge-density waves as an origin of the low-temperature insulating state.

  17. Unexpected low thermal conductivity and large power factor in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Sihang, Liang; Junzhi, Cao; Xiang, Yuan; Yanwen, Liu; Yao, Shen; Qisi, Wang; Jun, Zhao; Zhongqin, Yang; Faxian, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectrics has long been considered as a promising way of power generation for the next decades. So far, extensive efforts have been devoted to the search of ideal thermoelectric materials, which require both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Recently, the emerging Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, a three-dimensional analogue of graphene, has been reported to host ultra-high mobility and good electrical conductivity as metals. Here, we report the observation of unexpected low thermal conductivity in Cd3As2, one order of magnitude lower than the conventional metals or semimetals with a similar electrical conductivity, despite the semimetal band structure and high electron mobility. The power factor also reaches a large value of 1.58 mW·m-1·K-2 at room temperature and remains non-saturated up to 400 K. Corroborating with the first-principles calculations, we find that the thermoelectric performance can be well-modulated by the carrier concentration in a wide range. This work demonstrates the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 as a potential candidate of thermoelectric materials. Project supported by the National Young 1000 Talent Plan China, the Pujiang Talent Plan in Shanghai, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322407 and 11474058), the Fund for Fostering Talents in Basic Science of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. J1103204), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803).

  18. Design engineer perceptions and attitudes regarding human factors application to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    With the renewed interest in nuclear power and the possibility of constructing new reactors within the next decade in the U.S., there are several challenges for the regulators, designers, and vendors. One challenge is to ensure that Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is involved, and correctly applied in the life-cycle design of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). As an important part of the effort, people would ask: 'is the system-design engineer effectively incorporating HFE in the NPPs design?' The present study examines the sagacity of Instrumentation and Control design engineers on issues relating to awareness, attitude, and application of HFE in NPP design. A questionnaire was developed and distributed, focusing on the perceptions and attitudes of the design engineers. The responses revealed that, while the participants had a relatively high positive attitude about HFE, their awareness and application of HFE were moderate. The results also showed that senior engineers applied HFE more frequently in their design work than young engineers. This study provides some preliminary results and implications for improved HFE education and application in NPP design. (authors)

  19. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program

  20. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  1. Determining of the Parking Manoeuvre and the Taxi Blockage Adjustment Factor for the Saturation Flow Rate at the Outlet Legs of Signalized Intersections: Case Study from Rasht City (Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Hamid; Jahangir Samet, Mehdi; Najafi Moghaddam Gilani, Vahid; Amini, Amir

    2017-10-01

    The presence of taxi stops within the area of signalized intersections at the outlet legs due to unnatural behaviour of the taxis, sudden change of lanes, parking manoeuvres activities and stopping the vehicle to discharge or pick up the passengers have led to reduction of saturation flow rate at the outlet leg of signalized intersections and increased delay as well as affecting the performance of a crossing lane. So far, in term of evaluating effective adjustment factors on saturation flow rate at the inlet legs of the signalized intersections, various studies have been carried out, however; there has not been any studies on effective adjustment factors on saturation flow rate at the inlet legs. Hence, the evaluating of the traffic effects of unique behaviours on the saturation flow rate of the outlet leg is very important. In this research the parking manoeuvre time and taxi blockage time were evaluated and analyzed based on the available lane width as well as determining the effective adjustment factors on the saturation flow rate using recording related data at four signalized intersections in Rasht city. The results show that the average parking manoeuvre time is a function of the lane width and is increased as the lane width is reduced. Also, it is suggested to use the values of 7.37 and 11.31 seconds, respectively for the average parking manoeuvre time and the average blockage time of taxies at the outlet legs of signalized intersections for the traffic designing in Rasht city.

  2. Malnutrition Increases With Obesity and Is a Stronger Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Complications: A Propensity-Adjusted Analysis of Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Padgett, Douglas E; Cross, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is often concomitant with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent morbidity risk of malnutrition relative to obesity. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2005 to 2013 was queried for elective primary THA cases. Malnutrition was defined as albumin malnutrition with 30-day outcomes. A total of 40,653 THA cases were identified, of which 20,210 (49.7%) had preoperative albumin measurements. Propensity score adjustment successfully reduced potential selection bias, with P > .05 for differences between those with and without albumin data. Malnutrition incidence increased from 2.8% in obese I to 5.7% in obese III patients. With multivariable propensity-adjusted logistic regression, malnutrition was a more robust predictor than any obesity class for any postoperative complication(s) (odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.08), major complications (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.19), respiratory complications (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.37), blood transfusions (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), and extended length of stay (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.59). Malnutrition incidence increased significantly from obese I to obese III patients and was a stronger and more consistent predictor than obesity of complications after THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants - part 2. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2008-04-01

    The first report contained a summary of relevant research of decision making, a case study at Ringhals power plant and an analysis of some real cases of operational readiness decisions. In this report two case studies in the Swedish power plants, OKG and Forsmark are presented. The case study description consists of three parts; a description of the support from the management system for the decision making process, interviews with decision makers and an analysis of real cases of operational readiness decisions. The purpose of the project has been to increase the understanding of the decision process in operational readiness decisions as well as the support given from the management system and what factors influence the decisions. From a general point of view the circumstances where the decision must be taken varies, but situations and events that lead to questioning of the operational readiness are often easy to identify. There are often support documents such as procedures, rules and technical documents which specify operational limitations which give explicit decision criteria. These decisions are easy. When needed colleagues can be consulted for support. In unclear situations and/or when the technical criteria is not clear, e.g. when the rules and regulations are vague or even in conflict or when it is not evident that you need to question the operational readiness, the decision is more difficult to make. The results from the study shows that such decisions in general are not made by the shift crew manager but handed over to the next management level. The decision making process differs between the power plants. At one of the power plants the decision process is organised in specific meetings where decision made are reviewed by the next higher management level. At another plant the decisions are often made in groups or in consultation with colleagues. The management system makes a distinction between decisions made in consultation and when decisions already

  4. Power Curve Estimation With Multivariate Environmental Factors for Inland and Offshore Wind Farms

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun; Ding, Yu; Genton, Marc G.; Xie, Le

    2015-01-01

    In the wind industry, a power curve refers to the functional relationship between the power output generated by a wind turbine and the wind speed at the time of power generation. Power curves are used in practice for a number of important tasks

  5. Estimation of energy storage capacity in power system in japan under future demand and supply factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ikuo; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1996-01-01

    The desirable capacity of future energy storage facility in power system in Japan is discussed in this paper, putting emphasis on future new electric demand/supply factors such as CO 2 emission problems and social structure change. The two fundamental demand scenarios are considered; one is base case scenario which extrapolates the trend until now and the other is social structure change scenario. The desirable capacity of the energy storage facility is obtained from the result of optimum generation mix which minimizes the yearly expenses of the target year (2030 and 2050). The result shows that the optimum capacity of energy storage facility is about 10 to 15%. The social structure change and demand side energy storage have great influences on the optimum capacity of supply side storage. The former increases storage capacity. The latter reduces it and also contributes to the reduction of generation cost. Suppression of CO 2 emission basically affects to reduce the storage capacity. The load following operation of nuclear plant also reduces the optimum storage capacity in the case it produces surplus energy at night. Though there exist many factors which increase or decrease the capacity of energy storage facility, as a whole, it is concluded that the development of new energy storage technology is necessary for future. (author)

  6. Human factors affecting the performance of inspection personnel in nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    This study investigates the problem of poor performance among nuclear power plant inspection personnel both in training and in the field. First, a systems perspective is employed to explore the psychological processes and relevant human factors that may be associated with workers' inadequate performance. Second, two separate yet related approaches are used to clarify the definition of competence: (1) a theory-based (or ''top-down'') approach, in which effective performance is construed as a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and (2) an empirical (or ''bottom-up'') approach, in which key persons and context characteristics are generated based on the opinions of experts in the industry. Using a series of semi-structured interviews, two empirical studies were conducted in the latter approach. Overall, the results of both studies converged with the theoretical analysis emphasizing (1) the reciprocal and dynamic interplay of contextual and motivational factors influencing performance, and (2) the salient role of supervisory practices in terms of support, cooperation, and efficiency in contributing to the outcome of performance. 53 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on ''Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies'' in the period August 27-August 31, 2001. The Summer School was intended for scientists, engineers and technicians working for nuclear installations, engineering companies, industry and members of universities and research institutes, who wanted to broaden their nuclear background by getting acquainted with Man-Technology-Organisation-related subjects and issues. The Summer School should also serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the nuclear field. The following presentations were given: (1) Overview of the Nuclear Community and Current issues, (2) The Elements of Safety Culture; Evaluation of Events, (3) Quality Management (QM), (4) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA), (5) Human Behaviour from the Viewpoint of Industrial Psychology, (6) Technical tour of the Halden Project Experimental Facilities, (7) Human Factors in Control Room Design, (8) Computerised Operator Support Systems (COSSs) and (9) Artificial Intelligence; a new Approach. Most of the contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  8. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on ''Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies'' in the period August 27-August 31, 2001. The Summer School was intended for scientists, engineers and technicians working for nuclear installations, engineering companies, industry and members of universities and research institutes, who wanted to broaden their nuclear background by getting acquainted with Man-Technology-Organisation-related subjects and issues. The Summer School should also serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the nuclear field. The following presentations were given: (1) Overview of the Nuclear Community and Current issues, (2) The Elements of Safety Culture; Evaluation of Events, (3) Quality Management (QM), (4) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA), (5) Human Behaviour from the Viewpoint of Industrial Psychology, (6) Technical tour of the Halden Project Experimental Facilities, (7) Human Factors in Control Room Design, (8) Computerised Operator Support Systems (COSSs) and (9) Artificial Intelligence; a new Approach. Most of the contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures

  9. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on ''Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies'' in the period August 27-August 31, 2001. The Summer School was intended for scientists, engineers and technicians working for nuclear installations, engineering companies, industry and members of universities and research institutes, who wanted to broaden their nuclear background by getting acquainted with Man-Technology-Organisation-related subjects and issues. The Summer School should also serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the nuclear field. The following presentations were given: (1) Overview of the Nuclear Community and Current issues, (2) The Elements of Safety Culture; Evaluation of Events, (3) Quality Management (QM), (4) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA), (5) Human Behaviour from the Viewpoint of Industrial Psychology, (6) Technical tour of the Halden Project Experimental Facilities, (7) Human Factors in Control Room Design, (8) Computerised Operator Support Systems (COSSs) and (9) Artificial Intelligence; a new Approach. Most of the contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  10. Neutron spectrum adjustment. The role of covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron spectrum adjustment method is shortly reviewed. Practical example dealing with power reactor pressure vessel exposure rates determination is analysed. Adjusted exposure rates are found only slightly affected by the covariances of measured reaction rates and activation cross sections, while the multigroup spectra covariances were found important. Approximate spectra covariance matrices, as suggested in Astm E944-89, were found useful but care is advised if they are applied in adjustments of spectra at locations without dosimetry. (author) [sl

  11. Analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.; Freitag, M.; Miller, R.

    1993-01-01

    Goal of the present study is the analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants. Based on psychological theories and empirical studies this study develops a classification scheme which permits the identification of foci of erroneous human actions. This classification scheme is applied to a selection of human factor relevant incidents by calculating frequencies of the occurrence of human error categories. The results allow insights into human factor related problem areas. (orig.) [de

  12. Studies of safety and critical work situations in nuclear power plants: A human factors perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson Kecklund, L.

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop and apply different approaches for analyzing safety in critical work situations in real work settings in nuclear power plants, and also to identify safety enhancing measures by using the framework of interaction between human, organizational and technical subsystems. A Cognitive Psychology as well as a Stress Psychology framework was used. All studies were related to the annual outage operational state where the need for coping with many infrequent tasks, often carried out under high time pressure, puts great strain on the staff and organisation of the plant. In three studies the natural variations in the plant state, normal operation and annual outage operation, were used to explore human performance, work-related factors as well as coping and the operators' own resources and the relationship between them. In the annual outage condition high work demands, decreased sleepiness at night shift, more errors and less satisfaction with work performance quality was reported by maintenance as well as by control room operators. A relationship between high work demands and more organizational problems and reports of more frequent human errors and lower satisfactions with work performance quality was also identified in the annual outage condition. Moreover, a relationship between increased sleepiness during night shift, more frequent use of coping strategies and a higher frequency of human errors was reported. In two studies the Event and Barrier Function Model was applied to analyze the safety of barrier function systems inserted into work process sequences to protect the systems from the negative consequences of failures and errors. The model was also used to assess safety in relation to a technical and organizational change. The last study addressed changes in work performance and work-related factors in relation to a technical and organizational change of a safety significant work process involving increased automation and new

  13. A hybrid filter to mitigate harmonics caused by nonlinear load and resonance caused by power factor correction capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, N. F.; Soomro, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Power factor correction capacitor (PFCC) is commonly installed in industrial applications for power factor correction (PFC). With the expanding use of non-linear equipment such as ASDs, power converters, etc., power factor (PF) improvement has become difficult due to the presence of harmonics. The resulting capacitive impedance of the PFCC may form a resonant circuit with the source inductive reactance at a certain frequency, which is likely to coincide with one of the harmonic frequency of the load. This condition will trigger large oscillatory currents and voltages that may stress the insulation and cause subsequent damage to the PFCC and equipment connected to the power system (PS). Besides, high PF cannot be achieved due to power distortion. This paper presents the design of a three-phase hybrid filter consisting of a single tuned passive filter (STPF) and shunt active power filter (SAPF) to mitigate harmonics and resonance in the PS through simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC software. SAPF was developed using p-q theory. The hybrid filter has resulted in significant improvement on both total harmonic distortion for voltage (THDV) and total demand distortion for current (TDDI) with maximum values of 2.93% and 9.84% respectively which were within the recommended IEEE 519-2014 standard limits. Regarding PF improvement, the combined filters have achieved PF close to desired PF at 0.95 for firing angle, α values up to 40°.

  14. A Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Light-Emitting Diode (LED Driver with Coupled Inductors for Streetlight Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier into a single-stage power conversion circuit. Coupled inductors inside the interleaved buck-boost PFC converter sub-circuit are designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM for achieving input-current shaping, and the half-bridge-type series resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier is designed for obtaining zero-voltage switching (ZVS on two power switches to reduce their switching losses. Analysis of operational modes and design equations for the presented LED driver are described and included. In addition, the presented driver features a high power factor, low total harmonic distortion (THD of input current, and soft switching. Finally, a prototype driver is developed and implemented to supply a 165-W-rated LED streetlight module with utility-line input voltages ranging from 210 to 230 V. Experimental results demonstrate that high power factor (>0.99, low utility-line current THD (<7%, low-output voltage ripples (<1%, low-output current ripples (<10%, and high circuit efficiency (>90% are obtained in the presented single-stage driver for LED streetlight applications.

  15. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  16. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...

  17. High Resolution Modeling of the Impacts of Exogenous Factors on Power Systems—Case Study of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antriksh Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reliably design the planning and operation of large interconnected power systems that can incorporate a high penetration of renewables, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the potential impacts of exogenous factors on individual components within the systems. Previously, the assessment has often been conducted with nodes that are aggregated at the country or regional scale; this makes it impossible to reliably extrapolate the impact of higher penetration of renewables on individual transmission lines and/or power plants within an aggregated node. In order to be able to develop robust power systems this study demonstrates an integrated framework that employs high resolution spatial and temporal, physical modeling of power generation, electricity transmission and electricity demand, across the scale of a continent or country. Using Germany as a test case, an assessment of the impacts of exogenous factors, including local changes in ambient weather conditions, effect of timely implementation of policy, and contingency for scenarios in 2020 are demonstrated. It is shown that with the increased penetration of renewables, while the power production opportunities of conventional power plants are reduced, these power plants are required during periods of low renewables production due to the inherent variability of renewables. While the planned reinforcements in Germany, including high voltage direct current lines, reduce congestion on the grid and alleviate the differentials in power price across the country, on the other hand the reinforcements make the interconnected transmission system more vulnerable as local perturbations have a more widespread impact.

  18. Integrated System Validation of Barakah Nuclear Power Plant in UAE for The Human Factor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Munsoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    APR1400 simulator has been developed based on the state-of-the-art object-oriented simulation technology of TH(Thermo-Hydraulic) and Reactor Core model, which is applied for the first time in the our country and for the exportation, to well simulate characteristics of APR1400. Barakah unit 1,2 simulator are constructed and supplied with this type simulator model. Integrated system validation was performed using a simulator to verify the HFE(Human Factor Engineering) design of the MCR(Maim Control Room) for instrumentation and control system validation of the UAE nuclear power plant. APR1400 for the Barakah unit 1,2 has many specific features such as digital I and C, and digitalized main control room (MCR) design. From January 2016 to February, during six weeks, the tests carried out three times repeatedly and the various proposals for ergonomical satisfactation were derived. However, the HFE errors that cause significant change of validation target for APR1400 MCR design safety fidelity wasn't found. This has resulted in the conclusion to prove the stability of the basic design of APR1400 MCR. In the future, using the simulator derives the HFE requirements of the MCR systems and continually improve the simulator will be built in close to real high-fidelity power plant. These Integrated system validations are likely to be a great help in operating safety and preventing human errors by operators. Therefore successful completion of the Integrated System Validation for BNPP simulation will be effective to promotion the distinction of our simulator and APR1400 NPP.

  19. Assessment of job stress factors and organizational personality types for procedure-based jobs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the organizational types and the job stress factors that affect procedure-based job performances in nuclear power plants. We derived 24 organizational factors affecting job stress level in nuclear power plants from the job stress analysis models developed by NIOSH, JDI, and IOR. Considering the safety characteristics in the operating tasks of nuclear power plants, we identified the job contents and characteristics through the analyses of job assignments that appeared in the organizational chart and the results of an activity-based costing. By using questionnaire surveys and structured interviews with the plant personnel and expert panels, we assessed 70 jobs among the 777 jobs managed officially in accordance with the procedures. They consist of the representative jobs of each department and are directly related to safety. We utilized the organizational personality type indicators to characterize the personality types of each organization in nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Factors underlying organizational resilience: The case of electric power restoration in New York City after 11 September 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonça, David; Wallace, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The 2001 World Trade Center attack resulted in widespread and highly non-routine failures to critical infrastructure systems. An immediate priority following the attack was the restoration of electric power in lower Manhattan. A study of the organization responsible for conducting this restoration is here presented in order to provide a productive critique of factors theorized by Woods (2006) [1] to affect organizational resilience. Data sources include logs of the behavior of the electric power infrastructure and extensive interviews with personnel at various levels of the organization. The conclusions of the analysis are used to frame a refined set of factors that shape organizational resilience, and to provide observations on the processes that underlie how organizations achieve—or fail to achieve—the potential for resilience. - Highlights: • Provide a case-based critique of factors theorized to underlie organizational resilience. • Present an clarified and expanded set of factors. • Develop and discuss approaches to measuring these factors