WorldWideScience

Sample records for potential volumetric surrogate

  1. Quantitative prediction of respiratory tidal volume based on the external torso volume change: a potential volumetric surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guang; Arora, Naveen C; Xie Huchen; Ning, Holly; Citrin, Deborah; Kaushal, Aradhana; Zach, Leor; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W; Lu Wei; Low, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An external respiratory surrogate that not only highly correlates with but also quantitatively predicts internal tidal volume should be useful in guiding four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), as well as 4D radiation therapy (4DRT). A volumetric surrogate should have advantages over external fiducial point(s) for monitoring respiration-induced motion of the torso, which deforms in synchronization with a patient-specific breathing pattern. This study establishes a linear relationship between the external torso volume change (TVC) and lung air volume change (AVC) by validating a proposed volume conservation hypothesis (TVC = AVC) throughout the respiratory cycle using 4DCT and spirometry. Fourteen patients' torso 4DCT images and corresponding spirometric tidal volumes were acquired to examine this hypothesis. The 4DCT images were acquired using dual surrogates in cine mode and amplitude-based binning in 12 respiratory stages, minimizing residual motion artifacts. Torso and lung volumes were calculated using threshold-based segmentation algorithms and volume changes were calculated relative to the full-exhalation stage. The TVC and AVC, as functions of respiratory stages, were compared, showing a high correlation (r = 0.992 ± 0.005, p 2 = 0.980) without phase shift. The AVC was also compared to the spirometric tidal volumes, showing a similar linearity (slope = 1.030 ± 0.092, R 2 = 0.947). In contrast, the thoracic and abdominal heights measured from 4DCT showed relatively low correlation (0.28 ± 0.44 and 0.82 ± 0.30, respectively) and location-dependent phase shifts. This novel approach establishes the foundation for developing an external volumetric respiratory surrogate.

  2. Quantitative prediction of respiratory tidal volume based on the external torso volume change: a potential volumetric surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guang; Arora, Naveen C; Xie Huchen; Ning, Holly; Citrin, Deborah; Kaushal, Aradhana; Zach, Leor; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lu Wei; Low, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: ligeorge@mail.nih.gov

    2009-04-07

    An external respiratory surrogate that not only highly correlates with but also quantitatively predicts internal tidal volume should be useful in guiding four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), as well as 4D radiation therapy (4DRT). A volumetric surrogate should have advantages over external fiducial point(s) for monitoring respiration-induced motion of the torso, which deforms in synchronization with a patient-specific breathing pattern. This study establishes a linear relationship between the external torso volume change (TVC) and lung air volume change (AVC) by validating a proposed volume conservation hypothesis (TVC = AVC) throughout the respiratory cycle using 4DCT and spirometry. Fourteen patients' torso 4DCT images and corresponding spirometric tidal volumes were acquired to examine this hypothesis. The 4DCT images were acquired using dual surrogates in cine mode and amplitude-based binning in 12 respiratory stages, minimizing residual motion artifacts. Torso and lung volumes were calculated using threshold-based segmentation algorithms and volume changes were calculated relative to the full-exhalation stage. The TVC and AVC, as functions of respiratory stages, were compared, showing a high correlation (r = 0.992 {+-} 0.005, p < 0.0001) as well as a linear relationship (slope = 1.027 {+-} 0.061, R{sup 2} = 0.980) without phase shift. The AVC was also compared to the spirometric tidal volumes, showing a similar linearity (slope = 1.030 {+-} 0.092, R{sup 2} = 0.947). In contrast, the thoracic and abdominal heights measured from 4DCT showed relatively low correlation (0.28 {+-} 0.44 and 0.82 {+-} 0.30, respectively) and location-dependent phase shifts. This novel approach establishes the foundation for developing an external volumetric respiratory surrogate.

  3. Using multiscale spatial models to assess potential surrogate habitat for an imperiled reptile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Fill

    Full Text Available In evaluating conservation and management options for species, practitioners might consider surrogate habitats at multiple scales when estimating available habitat or modeling species' potential distributions based on suitable habitats, especially when native environments are rare. Species' dependence on surrogates likely increases as optimal habitat is degraded and lost due to anthropogenic landscape change, and thus surrogate habitats may be vital for an imperiled species' survival in highly modified landscapes. We used spatial habitat models to examine a potential surrogate habitat for an imperiled ambush predator (eastern diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus adamanteus; EDB at two scales. The EDB is an apex predator indigenous to imperiled longleaf pine ecosystems (Pinus palustris of the southeastern United States. Loss of native open-canopy pine savannas and woodlands has been suggested as the principal cause of the species' extensive decline. We examined EDB habitat selection in the Coastal Plain tidewater region to evaluate the role of marsh as a potential surrogate habitat and to further quantify the species' habitat requirements at two scales: home range (HR and within the home range (WHR. We studied EDBs using radiotelemetry and employed an information-theoretic approach and logistic regression to model habitat selection as use vs.We failed to detect a positive association with marsh as a surrogate habitat at the HR scale; rather, EDBs exhibited significantly negative associations with all landscape patches except pine savanna. Within home range selection was characterized by a negative association with forest and a positive association with ground cover, which suggests that EDBs may use surrogate habitats of similar structure, including marsh, within their home ranges. While our HR analysis did not support tidal marsh as a surrogate habitat, marsh may still provide resources for EDBs at smaller scales.

  4. Structural brain alterations of Down's syndrome in early childhood evaluation by DTI and volumetric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunbey, Hediye Pinar; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Aslan, Kerim; Incesu, Lutfi; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Ogur, Methiye Gonul; Alhan, Aslihan

    2017-01-01

    To provide an initial assessment of white matter (WM) integrity with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the accompanying volumetric changes in WM and grey matter (GM) through volumetric analyses of young children with Down's syndrome (DS). Ten children with DS and eight healthy control subjects were included in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used in the DTI study for whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of WM. Volumetric analyses were performed with an automated segmentation method to obtain regional measurements of cortical volumes. Children with DS showed significantly reduced FA in association tracts of the fronto-temporo-occipital regions as well as the corpus callosum (CC) and anterior limb of the internal capsule (p < 0.05). Volumetric reductions included total cortical GM, cerebellar GM and WM volume, basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem and CC in DS compared with controls (p < 0.05). These preliminary results suggest that DTI and volumetric analyses may reflect the earliest complementary changes of the neurodevelopmental delay in children with DS and can serve as surrogate biomarkers of the specific elements of WM and GM integrity for cognitive development. (orig.)

  5. Licensing Surrogate Decision-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2017-06-01

    As medical technology continues to improve, more people will live longer lives with multiple chronic illnesses with increasing cumulative debilitation, including cognitive dysfunction. Combined with the aging of society in most developed countries, an ever-growing number of patients will require surrogate decision-makers. While advance care planning by patients still capable of expressing their preferences about medical interventions and end-of-life care can improve the quality and accuracy of surrogate decisions, this is often not the case, not infrequently leading to demands for ineffective, inappropriate and prolonged interventions. In 1980 LaFollette called for the licensing of prospective parents, basing his argument on the harm they can do to vulnerable people (children). In this paper, I apply his arguments to surrogate decision-makers for cognitively incapacitated patients, rhetorically suggesting that we require potential surrogates to qualify for this position by demonstrating their ability to make reasonable and rational decisions for others. I employ this theoretical approach to argue that the loose criteria by which we authorize surrogates' generally unchallenged power should be reconsidered.

  6. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies.

  7. Structural brain alterations of Down's syndrome in early childhood evaluation by DTI and volumetric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunbey, Hediye Pinar; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Aslan, Kerim; Incesu, Lutfi [Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Has, Arzu Ceylan [Bilkent University, National Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Ankara (Turkey); Ogur, Methiye Gonul [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Genetics, Samsun (Turkey); Alhan, Aslihan [Ufuk University, Department of Statistics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-07-15

    To provide an initial assessment of white matter (WM) integrity with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the accompanying volumetric changes in WM and grey matter (GM) through volumetric analyses of young children with Down's syndrome (DS). Ten children with DS and eight healthy control subjects were included in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used in the DTI study for whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of WM. Volumetric analyses were performed with an automated segmentation method to obtain regional measurements of cortical volumes. Children with DS showed significantly reduced FA in association tracts of the fronto-temporo-occipital regions as well as the corpus callosum (CC) and anterior limb of the internal capsule (p < 0.05). Volumetric reductions included total cortical GM, cerebellar GM and WM volume, basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem and CC in DS compared with controls (p < 0.05). These preliminary results suggest that DTI and volumetric analyses may reflect the earliest complementary changes of the neurodevelopmental delay in children with DS and can serve as surrogate biomarkers of the specific elements of WM and GM integrity for cognitive development. (orig.)

  8. What are the potential advantages and disadvantages of volumetric CT scanning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Szilard

    2009-01-01

    After the introduction and dissemination of 64-slice multislice computed tomography systems, cardiovascular CT has arrived at a crossroad, and different philosophies lead down different paths of technologic development. Increased number of detector rows in the z-axis led to the introduction of dynamic, volumetric scanning of the heart and allows for whole-organ imaging. Dynamic, volumetric "whole-organ" scanning significantly reduces image acquisition time; "single-beat whole-heart imaging" results in improved image quality and reduced radiation exposure and reduced contrast dose. It eliminates helical and pitch artifacts and allows for simultaneous imaging of the base and apex of the heart. Beyond coronary arterial luminal imaging, such innovations open up the opportunity for myocardial perfusion and viability imaging and coronary arterial plaque imaging. Dual-source technology with 2 x-ray tubes placed at 90-degree angles provides heart rate-independent temporal resolution and has the potential for tissue characterization on the basis of different attenuation values at different energy levels. Refined detector technology allows for improved low-contrast resolution and may be beneficial for more detailed evaluation of coronary arterial plaque composition. The clinical benefit of each of these technologies will have to be evaluated in carefully designed clinical trials and in everyday clinical practice. Such combined experience will probably show the relative benefit of each of these philosophies in different patient populations and in different clinical scenarios.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were......) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2...... be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. KEY POINTS: • A 1:11 min CSF MRI volumetric sequence can evaluate brain atrophy. • CSF MRI provides accurate atrophy assessment without partial volume effects. • CSF MRI data can be processed quickly without user interaction. • The measured T 2 of the CSF is related...

  10. Altruistic surrogacy: the necessary objectification of surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, M M

    2009-03-01

    One of the major concerns about surrogacy is the potential harm that may be inflicted upon the surrogate mother and the child after relinquishment. Even if one were to take the liberal view that surrogacy should be presumptively allowed on the basis of autonomy and/or compassion, evidence of harm must be taken seriously. In this paper I review the evidence from psychological studies on the effect that relinquishing a child has on the surrogate mother and while it appears that many surrogates are able to cope with relinquishment, I argue that there are good reasons, grounded in empirical evidence, to support the view that the subsequent management of the relinquishment necessarily objectifies the surrogate mother.

  11. Evaluation of the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gated VMAT using intrafraction kilovoltage x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruijiang; Mok, Edward; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Xing Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric accuracy of beam targeting in external surrogate-based gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. Methods: Gated VMAT treatments were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam STx Linac for both physical phantoms and patients. Multiple gold fiducial markers were implanted near the target. The reference position was created for each implanted marker, representing its correct position at the gating threshold. The gating signal was generated from the RPM system. During the treatment, kV images were acquired immediately before MV beam-on at every breathing cycle, using the on-board imaging system. All implanted markers were detected and their 3D positions were estimated using in-house developed software. The positioning error of a marker is defined as the distance of the marker from its reference position for each frame of the images. The overall error of the system is defined as the average over all markers. For the phantom study, both sinusoidal motion (1D and 3D) and real human respiratory motion was simulated for the target and surrogate. In the baseline case, the two motions were synchronized for the first treatment fraction. To assess the effects of surrogate-target correlation on the geometric accuracy, a phase shift of 5% and 10% between the two motions was introduced. For the patient study, intrafraction kV images of five stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients were acquired for one or two fractions. Results: For the phantom study, a high geometric accuracy was achieved in the baseline case (average error: 0.8 mm in the superior-inferior or SI direction). However, the treatment delivery is prone to geometric errors if changes in the target-surrogate relation occur during the treatment: the average error was increased to 2.3 and 4.7 mm for the phase shift of 5% and 10%, respectively. Results obtained with real human respiratory curves show a similar trend

  12. Soft bilateral filtering volumetric shadows using cube shadow maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam H Ali

    Full Text Available Volumetric shadows often increase the realism of rendered scenes in computer graphics. Typical volumetric shadows techniques do not provide a smooth transition effect in real-time with conservation on crispness of boundaries. This research presents a new technique for generating high quality volumetric shadows by sampling and interpolation. Contrary to conventional ray marching method, which requires extensive time, this proposed technique adopts downsampling in calculating ray marching. Furthermore, light scattering is computed in High Dynamic Range buffer to generate tone mapping. The bilateral interpolation is used along a view rays to smooth transition of volumetric shadows with respect to preserving-edges. In addition, this technique applied a cube shadow map to create multiple shadows. The contribution of this technique isreducing the number of sample points in evaluating light scattering and then introducing bilateral interpolation to improve volumetric shadows. This contribution is done by removing the inherent deficiencies significantly in shadow maps. This technique allows obtaining soft marvelous volumetric shadows, having a good performance and high quality, which show its potential for interactive applications.

  13. Psychological Well-Being, Maternal-Foetal Bonding and Experiences of Indian Surrogates

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Nishtha

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, India has become an international hub of cross-border surrogacy. The extreme economic and cultural differences between international couples seeking surrogacy and the surrogates themselves, clinics compromising health of surrogates for profit, the stigmatisation of surrogacy in India, and the constant surveillance of these women living in a ‘surrogate house’, have raised concerns regarding the potentially negative psychological impact of surrogacy on Indian surrogat...

  14. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  15. Selection of Surrogate Bacteria for Use in Food Safety Challenge Studies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengyi; Gurtler, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    Nonpathogenic surrogate bacteria are prevalently used in a variety of food challenge studies in place of foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Clostridium botulinum because of safety and sanitary concerns. Surrogate bacteria should have growth characteristics and/or inactivation kinetics similar to those of target pathogens under given conditions in challenge studies. It is of great importance to carefully select and validate potential surrogate bacteria when verifying microbial inactivation processes. A validated surrogate responds similar to the targeted pathogen when tested for inactivation kinetics, growth parameters, or survivability under given conditions in agreement with appropriate statistical analyses. However, a considerable number of food studies involving putative surrogate bacteria lack convincing validation sources or adequate validation processes. Most of the validation information for surrogates in these studies is anecdotal and has been collected from previous publications but may not be sufficient for given conditions in the study at hand. This review is limited to an overview of select studies and discussion of the general criteria and approaches for selecting potential surrogate bacteria under given conditions. The review also includes a list of documented bacterial pathogen surrogates and their corresponding food products and treatments to provide guidance for future studies.

  16. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  17. Cost-effectiveness of volumetric alcohol taxation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Doran, Christopher M; Vos, Theo; Shakeshaft, Anthony P

    2010-04-19

    To estimate the potential health benefits and cost savings of an alcohol tax rate that applies equally to all alcoholic beverages based on their alcohol content (volumetric tax) and to compare the cost savings with the cost of implementation. Mathematical modelling of three scenarios of volumetric alcohol taxation for the population of Australia: (i) no change in deadweight loss, (ii) no change in tax revenue, and (iii) all alcoholic beverages taxed at the same rate as spirits. Estimated change in alcohol consumption, tax revenue and health benefit. The estimated cost of changing to a volumetric tax rate is $18 million. A volumetric tax that is deadweight loss-neutral would increase the cost of beer and wine and reduce the cost of spirits, resulting in an estimated annual increase in taxation revenue of $492 million and a 2.77% reduction in annual consumption of pure alcohol. The estimated net health gain would be 21 000 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), with potential cost offsets of $110 million per annum. A tax revenue-neutral scenario would result in an 0.05% decrease in consumption, and a tax on all alcohol at a spirits rate would reduce consumption by 23.85% and increase revenue by $3094 million [corrected]. All volumetric tax scenarios would provide greater health benefits and cost savings to the health sector than the existing taxation system, based on current understandings of alcohol-related health effects. An equalized volumetric tax that would reduce beer and wine consumption while increasing the consumption of spirits would need to be approached with caution. Further research is required to examine whether alcohol-related health effects vary by type of alcoholic beverage independent of the amount of alcohol consumed to provide a strong evidence platform for alcohol taxation policies.

  18. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  19. Use of surrogate travel to lower training costs and reduce person-rems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scully, M.C.; Porter, N.J.; Scott, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In the commercial nuclear power industry where access on site may be prohibited by regulations, procedures, or the potential of extremely high radiation levels, a surrogate travel system has potential for the reduction of both exposure and personnel training time. A prototype surrogate travel system using a microcomputer-assisted laser optical video disc has been developed by Southern California Edison and Combustion Engineering

  20. Public’s Approach to Surrogate Consent for Dementia Research: Cautious Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond; Ryan, Kerry A.; Stanczyk, Aimee; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Damschroder, Laura; Knopman, David S.; Kim, Scott Y. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe how members of the older general public deliberate with one another in finding solutions to the dilemma of involving decisionally incapable persons in dementia research. Design, Setting, and Participants 160 persons aged 50+ who participated in an all-day deliberative democracy (DD) session on the ethics of surrogate consent for dementia research. The DD day consisted of both extensive, interactive education with experts in clinical research and ethics, as well as small group deliberations. Measurements Audiotaped small group deliberations were transcribed and analyzed, and the main thematic elements were coded. Results During deliberation, participants acknowledged the limitations of advanced research directives and discussed ways to improve their use. Although there was consensus about the necessity of surrogate consent, the participants recognized potential pitfalls and looked for ways to safeguard the process. Participants supporting surrogate consent for research emphasized societal and individual benefit, the importance of assent, and trust in surrogates and the oversight system. Other participants felt that the high risk of some research scenarios was not sufficiently offset by benefits to patients or society. Conclusions Members of the older general public are able to make use of in-depth education and peer deliberation to provide reasoned and informed opinions on the ethical use of surrogate consent for dementia research. The public’s approach to surrogate consent is one of cautious pragmatism: an overall trust in science and future surrogates with awareness of the potential pitfalls, suggesting that their trust cannot be taken for granted. PMID:23498383

  1. Surrogate Marker Evaluation from an Information Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Abad, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2006-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen lots of work in the area of surrogate marker validation, partly devoted to frame the evaluation in a multitrial framework, leading to definitions in terms of the quality of trial- and individual-level association between a potential surrogate and a true endpoint (Buyse et al., 2000, Biostatistics 1, 49–67). A drawback is that different settings have led to different measures at the individual level. Here, we use information theory to create a unified framework, lea...

  2. Surrogate waveform models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    With the advanced detector era just around the corner, there is a strong need for fast and accurate models of gravitational waveforms from compact binary coalescence. Fast surrogate models can be built out of an accurate but slow waveform model with minimal to no loss in accuracy, but may require a large number of evaluations of the underlying model. This may be prohibitively expensive if the underlying is extremely slow, for example if we wish to build a surrogate for numerical relativity. We examine alternate choices to building surrogate models which allow for a more sparse set of input waveforms. Research supported in part by NSERC.

  3. Surrogate mothering: exploitation or empowerment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Laura M

    1989-01-01

    The morality of surrogate mothering is analyzed from a "consequentialist" framework which attempts to separate those consequences that invariably accompany a given act from those that accompany it only in particular circumstances. Critics of surrogacy argue that it transfers the burden and risk of pregnancy onto another woman, separates sex and reproduction, and separates reproduction and childrearing; none of these acts is necessarily wrong, either morally or for women's or society's basic interests. While surrogate mothering can be rendered immoral if women are coerced into the practice or become victims of subordinating or penalizing contracts, it has the potential to empower women and increase their status in society by providing a job that is less risky and more enjoyable than other jobs women are forced to take and by achieving greater social recognition for reproductive labor.

  4. Surrogacy assessment using principal stratification when surrogate and outcome measures are multivariate normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Anna S C; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Elliott, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    In clinical trials, a surrogate outcome variable (S) can be measured before the outcome of interest (T) and may provide early information regarding the treatment (Z) effect on T. Using the principal surrogacy framework introduced by Frangakis and Rubin (2002. Principal stratification in causal inference. Biometrics 58, 21-29), we consider an approach that has a causal interpretation and develop a Bayesian estimation strategy for surrogate validation when the joint distribution of potential surrogate and outcome measures is multivariate normal. From the joint conditional distribution of the potential outcomes of T, given the potential outcomes of S, we propose surrogacy validation measures from this model. As the model is not fully identifiable from the data, we propose some reasonable prior distributions and assumptions that can be placed on weakly identified parameters to aid in estimation. We explore the relationship between our surrogacy measures and the surrogacy measures proposed by Prentice (1989. Surrogate endpoints in clinical trials: definition and operational criteria. Statistics in Medicine 8, 431-440). The method is applied to data from a macular degeneration study and an ovarian cancer study.

  5. The representation of healthcare end users' perspectives by surrogates in healthcare decisions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra; Robinson, Ian

    2009-12-01

    The representation of end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions requires involvement of their surrogates when the end users, i.e. certain patients, elderly people, children and people with disabilities, are unable to present their views. To review critical issues, and the advantages and disadvantages of involving surrogates in representing end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions. A systematic review of literature published in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 to 2005. Findings show that surrogates are used widely in health care and that they are necessary to represent end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions when the latter are unable to do so themselves. Critical issues in using surrogates include key ethical, social, cultural, legal and medico-technological factors; ascertaining the best interest of end users; potential conflict of interest; possible biased decisions and the burden on surrogates. The key advantage of surrogate involvement in healthcare decisions is their ability to represent end users' needs, values and wishes. The main disadvantages include potential discrepancies between the decisions and conclusions of surrogates and end users; the failure of surrogates to predict end users' preferences accurately and the lack of certainty that useful information will be obtained through the surrogacy process. This systematic review has revealed that the involvement of surrogates is an additional vital way to represent end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions where for a range of reasons their opinions are unable to be effectively ascertained. However, because of the heterogeneity of surrogates and end users, the selection of appropriate surrogates and deploying surrogate decisions require particularly careful consideration of their value in individual cases; thus, subsequent decision-making must be reviewed on a case-to-case basis to seek to ensure that the best interests, needs and wishes of the end user are fully and accurately

  6. Surrogate losses: Understandings of pregnancy loss and assisted reproduction among surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Zsuzsa

    2010-06-01

    I explore surrogate mothers' narrative construction of pregnancy loss on surrogacy support websites. Communicating via the Internet, women construct the public online world of surrogacy. Drawing on anthropological and sociological literature I investigate the connections between conceptualizations of loss and understandings of technological practices and the consequences of these understandings for assisted reproduction. Surrogate mothers define loss broadly, ranging from failure to conceive to miscarriage and stillbirth; loss means the failure to give a baby to the intended parents. Assisted reproductive technologies contribute to loss by raising expectations of success, by attempting to maximize results through the transfer of multiple fertilized ova, and by early monitoring and testing. However, surrogates collectively understand technology as a positive force and advocate for reproductive technology. Surrogates' resolve to "give the gift of life" makes them vulnerable to failure and loss, yet also informs repeated efforts to bear children for others with technological assistance.

  7. Surrogate marker evaluation from an information theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-03-01

    The last 20 years have seen lots of work in the area of surrogate marker validation, partly devoted to frame the evaluation in a multitrial framework, leading to definitions in terms of the quality of trial- and individual-level association between a potential surrogate and a true endpoint (Buyse et al., 2000, Biostatistics 1, 49-67). A drawback is that different settings have led to different measures at the individual level. Here, we use information theory to create a unified framework, leading to a definition of surrogacy with an intuitive interpretation, offering interpretational advantages, and applicable in a wide range of situations. Our method provides a better insight into the chances of finding a good surrogate endpoint in a given situation. We further show that some of the previous proposals follow as special cases of our method. We illustrate our methodology using data from a clinical study in psychiatry.

  8. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; MacCallum, Fiona; Golombok, Susan

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. Thirty-four women who had given birth to a surrogate child approximately 1 year previously were interviewed by trained researchers, and the data rated using standardized coding criteria. Information was obtained on: (i) reasons for the woman's decision to become a surrogate mother; (ii) her retrospective view of the relationship with the commissioning couple before the pregnancy, during the pregnancy, and after the birth; (iii) her experiences during and after relinquishing the child; and (iv) how others reacted to her decision to become a surrogate mother. It was found that surrogate mothers do not generally experience major problems in their relationship with the commissioning couple, in handing over the baby, or from the reactions of those around them. The emotional problems experienced by some surrogate mothers in the weeks following the birth appeared to lessen over time. Surrogate mothers do not appear to experience psychological problems as a result of the surrogacy arrangement.

  9. Volumetric image processing: A new technique for three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Drebin, B.; Magid, D.; St Ville, J.A.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Siegelman, S.S.; Ney, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Volumetric three-dimensional (3D) image processing was performed on CT scans of 25 normal hips, and image quality and potential diagnostic applications were assessed. In contrast to surface detection 3D techniques, volumetric processing preserves every pixel of transaxial CT data, replacing the gray scale with transparent ''gels'' and shading. Anatomically, accurate 3D images can be rotated and manipulated in real time, including simulated tissue layer ''peeling'' and mock surgery or disarticulation. This pilot study suggests that volumetric rendering is a major advance in signal processing of medical image data, producing a high quality, uniquely maneuverable image that is useful for fracture interpretation, soft-tissue analysis, surgical planning, and surgical rehearsal

  10. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM 3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  12. WE-D-303-02: Applications of Volumetric Images Generated with a Respiratory Motion Model Based On An External Surrogate Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Dhou, S; Lewis, J; Mishra, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion can vary significantly over the course of simulation and treatment. Our goal is to use volumetric images generated with a respiratory motion model to improve the definition of the internal target volume (ITV) and the estimate of delivered dose. Methods: Ten irregular patient breathing patterns spanning 35 seconds each were incorporated into a digital phantom. Ten images over the first five seconds of breathing were used to emulate a 4DCT scan, build the ITV, and generate a patient-specific respiratory motion model which correlated the measured trajectories of markers placed on the patients’ chests with the motion of the internal anatomy. This model was used to generate volumetric images over the subsequent thirty seconds of breathing. The increase in the ITV taking into account the full 35 seconds of breathing was assessed with ground-truth and model-generated images. For one patient, a treatment plan based on the initial ITV was created and the delivered dose was estimated using images from the first five seconds as well as ground-truth and model-generated images from the next 30 seconds. Results: The increase in the ITV ranged from 0.2 cc to 6.9 cc for the ten patients based on ground-truth information. The model predicted this increase in the ITV with an average error of 0.8 cc. The delivered dose to the tumor (D95) changed significantly from 57 Gy to 41 Gy when estimated using 5 seconds and 30 seconds, respectively. The model captured this effect, giving an estimated D95 of 44 Gy. Conclusion: A respiratory motion model generating volumetric images of the internal patient anatomy could be useful in estimating the increase in the ITV due to irregular breathing during simulation and in assessing delivered dose during treatment. This project was supported, in part, through a Master Research Agreement with Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and Radiological Society of North America Research Scholar Grant #RSCH1206

  13. Hologlyphics: volumetric image synthesis performance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Walter

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a novel volumetric image synthesis system and artistic technique, which generate moving volumetric images in real-time, integrated with music. The system, called the Hologlyphic Funkalizer, is performance based, wherein the images and sound are controlled by a live performer, for the purposes of entertaining a live audience and creating a performance art form unique to volumetric and autostereoscopic images. While currently configured for a specific parallax barrier display, the Hologlyphic Funkalizer's architecture is completely adaptable to various volumetric and autostereoscopic display technologies. Sound is distributed through a multi-channel audio system; currently a quadraphonic speaker setup is implemented. The system controls volumetric image synthesis, production of music and spatial sound via acoustic analysis and human gestural control, using a dedicated control panel, motion sensors, and multiple musical keyboards. Music can be produced by external acoustic instruments, pre-recorded sounds or custom audio synthesis integrated with the volumetric image synthesis. Aspects of the sound can control the evolution of images and visa versa. Sounds can be associated and interact with images, for example voice synthesis can be combined with an animated volumetric mouth, where nuances of generated speech modulate the mouth's expressiveness. Different images can be sent to up to 4 separate displays. The system applies many novel volumetric special effects, and extends several film and video special effects into the volumetric realm. Extensive and various content has been developed and shown to live audiences by a live performer. Real world applications will be explored, with feedback on the human factors.

  14. Toward a Psychology of Surrogate Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Richard J; Ziegler, Fenja V

    2015-11-01

    In everyday life, many of the decisions that we make are made on behalf of other people. A growing body of research suggests that we often, but not always, make different decisions on behalf of other people than the other person would choose. This is problematic in the practical case of legally designated surrogate decision makers, who may not meet the substituted judgment standard. Here, we review evidence from studies of surrogate decision making and examine the extent to which surrogate decision making accurately predicts the recipient's wishes, or if it is an incomplete or distorted application of the surrogate's own decision-making processes. We find no existing domain-general model of surrogate decision making. We propose a framework by which surrogate decision making can be assessed and a novel domain-general theory as a unifying explanatory concept for surrogate decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Robust estimation of the proportion of treatment effect explained by surrogate marker information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parast, Layla; McDermott, Mary M; Tian, Lu

    2016-05-10

    In randomized treatment studies where the primary outcome requires long follow-up of patients and/or expensive or invasive obtainment procedures, the availability of a surrogate marker that could be used to estimate the treatment effect and could potentially be observed earlier than the primary outcome would allow researchers to make conclusions regarding the treatment effect with less required follow-up time and resources. The Prentice criterion for a valid surrogate marker requires that a test for treatment effect on the surrogate marker also be a valid test for treatment effect on the primary outcome of interest. Based on this criterion, methods have been developed to define and estimate the proportion of treatment effect on the primary outcome that is explained by the treatment effect on the surrogate marker. These methods aim to identify useful statistical surrogates that capture a large proportion of the treatment effect. However, current methods to estimate this proportion usually require restrictive model assumptions that may not hold in practice and thus may lead to biased estimates of this quantity. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric procedure to estimate the proportion of treatment effect on the primary outcome that is explained by the treatment effect on a potential surrogate marker and extend this procedure to a setting with multiple surrogate markers. We compare our approach with previously proposed model-based approaches and propose a variance estimation procedure based on a perturbation-resampling method. Simulation studies demonstrate that the procedure performs well in finite samples and outperforms model-based procedures when the specified models are not correct. We illustrate our proposed procedure using a data set from a randomized study investigating a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention for peripheral artery disease participants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Use of Surrogate end points in HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiapane, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The different actors involved in health system decision-making and regulation have to deal with the question which are valid parameters to assess the health value of health technologies.So called surrogate endpoints represent in the best case preliminary steps in the casual chain leading to the relevant outcome (e. g. mortality, morbidity and are not usually directly perceptible by patients. Surrogate endpoints are not only used in trials of pharmaceuticals but also in studies of other technologies. Their use in the assessment of the benefit of a health technology is however problematic. In this report we intend to answer the following research questions: Which criteria need to be fulfilled for a surrogate parameter to be considered a valid endpoint? Which methods have been described in the literature for the assessment of the validity of surrogate endpoints? Which methodological recommendations concerning the use of surrogate endpoints have been made by international HTA agencies? Which place has been given to surrogate endpoints in international and German HTA reports? For this purpose, we choose three different approaches. Firstly, we conduct a review of the methodological literature dealing with the issue of surrogate endpoints and their validation. Secondly, we analyse current methodological guidelines of HTA agencies members of the International network of agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA as well as of agencies concerned with assessments for reimbursement purposes. Finally, we analyse the outcome parameter used in a sample of HTA reports available for the public. The analysis of methodological guidelines shows a very cautious position of HTA institutions regarding the use of surrogate endpoints in technology assessment. Surrogate endpoints have not been prominently used in HTA reports. None of the analysed reports based its conclusions solely on the results of surrogate endpoints. The analysis of German HTA reports shows a

  17. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    *-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  18. Surrogate versus couple therapy in vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zion, Itzhak; Rothschild, Shelly; Chudakov, Bella; Aloni, Ronit

    2007-05-01

    Women who do not have a cooperative partner cannot complete the usual therapeutic process in the treatment of vaginismus, because they cannot progress to the stage of practicing the insertion of the man partner's fingers and the insertion of a penis. To compare traditional couple therapy with therapy utilizing a surrogate partner. The study was controlled and retrospective. Data were obtained from the treatment charts of patients who had come to the clinic for treatment of vaginismus. Sixteen vaginismus patients who were treated with a man surrogate partner were compared with 16 vaginismus patients who were treated with their own partners. Successful pain-free intercourse upon completion of therapy. One hundred percent of the surrogate patients succeeded in penile-vaginal intercourse compared with 75% in the couples group (P = 0.1). All surrogate patients ended the therapy because it was fully successful, compared with 69% in the couples group. Twelve percent of the couples group ended the therapy because it failed, and 19% because the couples decided to separate. Treating vaginismus with a man surrogate partner was at least as effective as couple therapy. Surrogate therapy may be considered for vaginismus patients who have no cooperative partner.

  19. Nonspinning numerical relativity waveform surrogates: assessing the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott; Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Recently, multi-modal gravitational waveform surrogate models have been built directly from data numerically generated by the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). I will describe ways in which the surrogate model error can be quantified. This task, in turn, requires (i) characterizing differences between waveforms computed by SpEC with those predicted by the surrogate model and (ii) estimating errors associated with the SpEC waveforms from which the surrogate is built. Both pieces can have numerous sources of numerical and systematic errors. We make an attempt to study the most dominant error sources and, ultimately, the surrogate model's fidelity. These investigations yield information about the surrogate model's uncertainty as a function of time (or frequency) and parameter, and could be useful in parameter estimation studies which seek to incorporate model error. Finally, I will conclude by comparing the numerical relativity surrogate model to other inspiral-merger-ringdown models. A companion talk will cover the building of multi-modal surrogate models.

  20. Full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion via photonic nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglei; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-10-12

    Volumetric solar thermal conversion is an emerging technique for a plethora of applications such as solar thermal power generation, desalination, and solar water splitting. However, achieving broadband solar thermal absorption via dilute nanofluids is still a daunting challenge. In this work, full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion is demonstrated over a thin layer of the proposed 'photonic nanofluids'. The underlying mechanism is found to be the photonic superposition of core resonances, shell plasmons, and core-shell resonances at different wavelengths, whose coexistence is enabled by the broken symmetry of specially designed composite nanoparticles, i.e., Janus nanoparticles. The solar thermal conversion efficiency can be improved by 10.8% compared with core-shell nanofluids. The extinction coefficient of Janus dimers with various configurations is also investigated to unveil the effects of particle couplings. This work provides the possibility to achieve full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion, and may have potential applications in efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization.

  1. Self- and surrogate-reported communication functioning in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patrick J; Hula, William D; Austermann Hula, Shannon N; Stone, Clement A; Wambaugh, Julie L; Ross, Katherine B; Schumacher, James G

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the aphasia communication outcome measure (ACOM), a self- and surrogate-reported measure of communicative functioning in aphasia. Responses to a large pool of items describing communication activities were collected from 133 community-dwelling persons with aphasia of ≥ 1 month post-onset and their associated surrogate respondents. These responses were evaluated using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. Chi-square difference tests of nested factor models were used to evaluate patient-surrogate measurement invariance and the equality of factor score means and variances. Association and agreement between self- and surrogate reports were examined using correlation and scatterplots of pairwise patient-surrogate differences. Three single-factor scales (Talking, Comprehension, and Writing) approximating patient-surrogate measurement invariance were identified. The variance of patient-reported scores on the Talking and Writing scales was higher than surrogate-reported variances on these scales. Correlations between self- and surrogate reports were moderate-to-strong, but there were significant disagreements in a substantial number of individual cases. Despite minimal bias and relatively strong association, surrogate reports of communicative functioning in aphasia are not reliable substitutes for self-reports by persons with aphasia. Furthermore, although measurement invariance is necessary for direct comparison of self- and surrogate reports, the costs of obtaining invariance in terms of scale reliability and content validity may be substantial. Development of non-invariant self- and surrogate report scales may be preferable for some applications.

  2. Adaptive controller for volumetric display of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, Ben; Senseney, Justin; Caban, Jesus

    2014-03-01

    Volumetric display of medical images is an increasingly relevant method for examining an imaging acquisition as the prevalence of thin-slice imaging increases in clinical studies. Current mouse and keyboard implementations for volumetric control provide neither the sensitivity nor specificity required to manipulate a volumetric display for efficient reading in a clinical setting. Solutions to efficient volumetric manipulation provide more sensitivity by removing the binary nature of actions controlled by keyboard clicks, but specificity is lost because a single action may change display in several directions. When specificity is then further addressed by re-implementing hardware binary functions through the introduction of mode control, the result is a cumbersome interface that fails to achieve the revolutionary benefit required for adoption of a new technology. We address the specificity versus sensitivity problem of volumetric interfaces by providing adaptive positional awareness to the volumetric control device by manipulating communication between hardware driver and existing software methods for volumetric display of medical images. This creates a tethered effect for volumetric display, providing a smooth interface that improves on existing hardware approaches to volumetric scene manipulation.

  3. Counterfactual reasoning in surrogate decision making -- another look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats; Broström, Linus

    2011-06-01

    Incompetent patients need to have someone else make decisions on their behalf. According to the Substituted Judgment Standard the surrogate decision maker ought to make the decision that the patient would have made, had he or she been competent. Objections have been raised against this traditional construal of the standard on the grounds that it involves flawed counterfactual reasoning, and amendments have been suggested within the framework of possible worlds semantics. The paper shows that while this approach may circumvent the alleged problem, the way it has so far been elaborated reflects insufficient understanding of the moral underpinnings of the idea of substituted judgment. Proper recognition of these moral underpinnings has potentially far-reaching implications for our normative assumptions about accuracy and objectivity in surrogate decision making.

  4. Predicting freshwater habitat integrity using land-use surrogates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Quantification of potential surrogates of freshwater habitat integrity. We chose a series of land-use variables that might be suitable predictors for assessing freshwater habitat integrity from the land cover map (CSIR 2005) and added separate GIS surfaces for human population density and the distribution of ...

  5. ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE SURROGATE MATERNITY PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRK, Rukiye; TERZİOĞLU, Fusun

    2014-01-01

    The assisted reproductive technology was initially considered to be a treatment tool for infertile couples. However, as it was started in time to use the uteri of other women for the embryos of the other ones, the concept of surrogate maternity appeared.The surrogate maternity is practiced in three types. In the first type of surrogate maternity, the sperm of the spouse of the prospective mother is inseminated with the ovum of the surrogate mother. The second method is the in-vitro inseminati...

  6. Psychosocial aspects of surrogate motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Olga B A

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses the psychosocial research carried out on surrogacy triads (surrogate mothers, commissioning mothers and offspring) and shows that research has focused on a number of specific issues: attachment and disclosure to surrogate offspring; experiences, characteristics and motivations of surrogate mothers; and changes in profiles of the commissioning/intended mothers. Virtually all studies have used highly selected samples making generalizations difficult. There have been a notable lack of theory, no interventions and only a handful of longitudinal studies or studies comparing different populations. Few studies have specifically questioned the meaning of and need for a family or the influence and impact that professionals, treatment availability and financial factors have on the choices made for surrogate and intended mothers. Societal attitudes have changed somewhat; however, according to public opinion, women giving up babies still fall outside the acceptable remit. Surrogate and intended mothers appear to reconcile their unusual choice through a process of cognitive restructuring, and the success or failure of this cognitive appraisal affects people's willingness to be open and honest about their choices. Normal population surveys, on the contrary, are less accepting of third party reproduction; they have no personal need to reconsider and hence maintain their original normative cognitively consonant state.

  7. Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Landers, Mark N.

    2015-10-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Tools to process and evaluate the data are critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research and on surrogate monitoring sites currently (2015) in operation.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  9. A Large-Scale Study of Surrogate Physicality and Gesturing on Human–Surrogate Interactions in a Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangsoo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological human surrogates, including robotic and virtual humans, have been popularly used in various scenarios, including training, education, and entertainment. Prior research has investigated the effects of the surrogate’s physicality and gesturing in human perceptions and social influence of the surrogate. However, those studies have been carried out in research laboratories, where the participants were aware that it was an experiment, and the participant demographics are typically relatively narrow—e.g., college students. In this paper, we describe and share results from a large-scale exploratory user study involving 7,685 people in a public space, where they were unaware of the experimental nature of the setting, to investigate the effects of surrogate physicality and gesturing on their behavior during human–surrogate interactions. We evaluate human behaviors using several variables, such as proactivity and reactivity, and proximity. We have identified several interesting phenomena that could lead to hypotheses developed as part of future hypothesis-based studies. Based on the measurements of the variables, we believe people are more likely to be engaged in a human–surrogate interaction when the surrogate is physically present, but movements and gesturing with its body parts have not shown the expected benefits for the interaction engagement. Regarding the demographics of the people in the study, we found higher overall engagement for females than males, and higher reactivity for younger than older people. We discuss implications for practitioners aiming to design a technological surrogate that will directly interact with real humans.

  10. Ethical Problems Related to Surrogate Motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Aydin

    2006-01-01

    Being unable to have children is an important problem for married couples. At present, new reproduction techniques help these couples while those who can not find any solution try new approaches. One of these is the phenomenon of surrogate motherhood, which is based upon an agreement between the infertile couple and surrogate mother. Surrogate mother may conceive with the sperm of the male of the involved couple as well as by the transfer of the embryo formed by invitro fertilization. Couples...

  11. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir; Kalghatgi, Gautam T.

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  12. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2017-12-06

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  13. Volumetric B1 (+) mapping of the brain at 7T using DREAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrke, Kay; Versluis, Maarten J; Webb, Andrew; Börnert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To tailor and optimize the Dual Refocusing Echo Acquisition Mode (DREAM) approach for volumetric B1 (+) mapping of the brain at 7T. A new DREAM echo timing scheme based on the virtual stimulated echo was derived to minimize potential effects of transverse relaxation. Furthermore, the DREAM B1 (+) mapping performance was investigated in simulations and experimentally in phantoms and volunteers for volumetric applications, studying and optimizing the accuracy of the sequence with respect to saturation effects, slice profile imperfections, and T1 and T2 relaxation. Volumetric brain protocols were compiled for different isotropic resolutions (5-2.5 mm) and SENSE factors, and were studied in vivo for different RF drive modes (circular/linear polarization) and the application of dielectric pads. Volumetric B1 (+) maps with good SNR at 2.5 mm isotropic resolution were acquired in about 20 s or less. The specific absorption rate was well below the safety limits for all scans. Mild flow artefacts were observed in the large vessels. Moreover, a slight contrast in the ventricle was observed in the B1 (+) maps, which could be attributed to T1 and T2 relaxation effects. DREAM enables safe, very fast, and robust volumetric B1 (+) mapping of the brain at ultrahigh fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Optical Addressing of Multi-Colour Photochromic Material Mixture for Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that colour transformations in the volume of a photochromic material (PM) are induced at the intersections of two control light channels, one controlling PM colouration and the other controlling decolouration. Thus, PM colouration is induced by position selectivity, and therefore, a dynamic volumetric display may be realised using these two control lights. Moreover, a mixture of multiple PM types with different absorption properties exhibits different colours depending on the control light spectrum. Particularly, the spectrum management of the control light allows colour-selective colouration besides position selectivity. Therefore, a PM-based, full-colour volumetric display is realised. We experimentally construct a mixture of two PM types and validate the operating principles of such a volumetric display system. Our system is constructed simply by mixing multiple PM types; therefore, the display hardware structure is extremely simple, and the minimum size of a volume element can be as small as the size of a molecule. Volumetric displays can provide natural three-dimensional (3D) perception; therefore, the potential uses of our system include high-definition 3D visualisation for medical applications, architectural design, human-computer interactions, advertising, and entertainment.

  15. Hypothesis test for synchronization: twin surrogates revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Engbert, Ralf

    2009-03-01

    The method of twin surrogates has been introduced to test for phase synchronization of complex systems in the case of passive experiments. In this paper we derive new analytical expressions for the number of twins depending on the size of the neighborhood, as well as on the length of the trajectory. This allows us to determine the optimal parameters for the generation of twin surrogates. Furthermore, we determine the quality of the twin surrogates with respect to several linear and nonlinear statistics depending on the parameters of the method. In the second part of the paper we perform a hypothesis test for phase synchronization in the case of experimental data from fixational eye movements. These miniature eye movements have been shown to play a central role in neural information processing underlying the perception of static visual scenes. The high number of data sets (21 subjects and 30 trials per person) allows us to compare the generated twin surrogates with the "natural" surrogates that correspond to the different trials. We show that the generated twin surrogates reproduce very well all linear and nonlinear characteristics of the underlying experimental system. The synchronization analysis of fixational eye movements by means of twin surrogates reveals that the synchronization between the left and right eye is significant, indicating that either the centers in the brain stem generating fixational eye movements are closely linked, or, alternatively that there is only one center controlling both eyes.

  16. So not mothers: responsibility for surrogate orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jennifer A; Murphy, Timothy F

    2018-04-12

    The law ordinarily recognises the woman who gives birth as the mother of a child, but in certain jurisdictions, it will recognise the commissioning couple as the legal parents of a child born to a commercial surrogate. Some commissioning parents have, however, effectively abandoned the children they commission, and in such cases, commercial surrogates may find themselves facing unexpected maternal responsibility for children they had fully intended to give up. Any assumption that commercial surrogates ought to assume maternal responsibility for abandoned children runs contrary to the moral suppositions that typically govern contract surrogacy, in particular, assumptions that gestational carriers are not 'mothers' in any morally significant sense. In general, commercial gestational surrogates are almost entirely conceptualised as 'vessels'. In a moral sense, it is deeply inconsistent to expect commercial surrogates to assume maternal responsibility simply because commissioning parents abandon children for one reason or another. We identify several instances of child abandonment and discuss their implications with regard to the moral conceptualisation of commercial gestational surrogates. We conclude that if gestational surrogates are to remain conceptualised as mere vessels, they should not be expected to assume responsibility for children abandoned by commissioning parents, not even the limited responsibility of giving them up for adoption or surrendering them to the state. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....

  18. Surrogate screening models for the low physical activity criterion of frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Sandrah P; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Chaves, Paulo H M; Fried, Linda P; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    Low physical activity, one of five criteria in a validated clinical phenotype of frailty, is assessed by a standardized, semiquantitative questionnaire on up to 20 leisure time activities. Because of the time demanded to collect the interview data, it has been challenging to translate to studies other than the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), for which it was developed. Considering subsets of activities, we identified and evaluated streamlined surrogate assessment methods and compared them to one implemented in the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS). Using data on men and women ages 65 and older from the CHS, we applied logistic regression models to rank activities by "relative influence" in predicting low physical activity.We considered subsets of the most influential activities as inputs to potential surrogate models (logistic regressions). We evaluated predictive accuracy and predictive validity using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves and assessed criterion validity using proportional hazards models relating frailty status (defined using the surrogate) to mortality. Walking for exercise and moderately strenuous household chores were highly influential for both genders. Women required fewer activities than men for accurate classification. The WHAS model (8 CHS activities) was an effective surrogate, but a surrogate using 6 activities (walking, chores, gardening, general exercise, mowing and golfing) was also highly predictive. We recommend a 6 activity questionnaire to assess physical activity for men and women. If efficiency is essential and the study involves only women, fewer activities can be included.

  19. Visualization and computer graphics on isotropically emissive volumetric displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Benjamin; Maciejewski, Ross; Chen, Min; Ebert, David S

    2009-01-01

    The availability of commodity volumetric displays provides ordinary users with a new means of visualizing 3D data. Many of these displays are in the class of isotropically emissive light devices, which are designed to directly illuminate voxels in a 3D frame buffer, producing X-ray-like visualizations. While this technology can offer intuitive insight into a 3D object, the visualizations are perceptually different from what a computer graphics or visualization system would render on a 2D screen. This paper formalizes rendering on isotropically emissive displays and introduces a novel technique that emulates traditional rendering effects on isotropically emissive volumetric displays, delivering results that are much closer to what is traditionally rendered on regular 2D screens. Such a technique can significantly broaden the capability and usage of isotropically emissive volumetric displays. Our method takes a 3D dataset or object as the input, creates an intermediate light field, and outputs a special 3D volume dataset called a lumi-volume. This lumi-volume encodes approximated rendering effects in a form suitable for display with accumulative integrals along unobtrusive rays. When a lumi-volume is fed directly into an isotropically emissive volumetric display, it creates a 3D visualization with surface shading effects that are familiar to the users. The key to this technique is an algorithm for creating a 3D lumi-volume from a 4D light field. In this paper, we discuss a number of technical issues, including transparency effects due to the dimension reduction and sampling rates for light fields and lumi-volumes. We show the effectiveness and usability of this technique with a selection of experimental results captured from an isotropically emissive volumetric display, and we demonstrate its potential capability and scalability with computer-simulated high-resolution results.

  20. Neutron-induced cross-sections via the surrogate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.

    2011-11-01

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining neutron-induced cross sections through transfer or inelastic scattering reactions. This method presents the advantage that in some cases the target material is stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. The method is based on the hypothesis that the excited nucleus is a compound nucleus whose decay depends essentially on its excitation energy and on the spin and parity state of the populated compound state. Nevertheless, the spin and parity population differences between the compound-nuclei produced in the neutron and transfer-induced reactions may be different. This work reviews the surrogate method and its validity. Neutron-induced fission cross sections obtained with the surrogate method are in general good agreement. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the surrogate method can be applied to infer radiative capture cross sections. We performed an experiment to determine the gamma decay probabilities for 176 Lu and 173 Yb by using the surrogate reactions 174 Yb( 3 He,pγ) 176 Lu * and 174 Yb( 3 He,αγ) 173 Yb * , respectively, and compare them with the well-known corresponding probabilities obtained in the 175 Lu(n,γ) and 172 Yb(n,γ) reactions. This experiment provides answers to understand why, in the case of gamma-decay, the surrogate method gives significant deviations compared to the corresponding neutron-induced reaction. In this work, we have also assessed whether the surrogate method can be applied to extract capture probabilities in the actinide region. Previous experiments on fission have also been reinterpreted. Thus, this work provides new insights into the surrogate method. This work is organised in the following way: in chapter 1, the theoretical aspects related to the surrogate method will be introduced. The validity of the surrogate method will be investigated by means of statistical model calculations. In chapter 2, a review on

  1. Surrogate Based Uni/Multi-Objective Optimization and Distribution Estimation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Duan, Q.; Huo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Parameter calibration has been demonstrated as an effective way to improve the performance of dynamic models, such as hydrological models, land surface models, weather and climate models etc. Traditional optimization algorithms usually cost a huge number of model evaluations, making dynamic model calibration very difficult, or even computationally prohibitive. With the help of a serious of recently developed adaptive surrogate-modelling based optimization methods: uni-objective optimization method ASMO, multi-objective optimization method MO-ASMO, and probability distribution estimation method ASMO-PODE, the number of model evaluations can be significantly reduced to several hundreds, making it possible to calibrate very expensive dynamic models, such as regional high resolution land surface models, weather forecast models such as WRF, and intermediate complexity earth system models such as LOVECLIM. This presentation provides a brief introduction to the common framework of adaptive surrogate-based optimization algorithms of ASMO, MO-ASMO and ASMO-PODE, a case study of Common Land Model (CoLM) calibration in Heihe river basin in Northwest China, and an outlook of the potential applications of the surrogate-based optimization methods.

  2. SU-D-BRE-06: Modeling the Dosimetric Effects of Volumetric and Layer-Based Repainting Strategies in Spot Scanning Proton Treatment Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J E; Beltran, C; Herman, M G; Kruse, J J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare multiple repainting techniques as strategies for mitigating the interplay effect in free-breathing, spot scanning proton plans. Methods: An analytic routine modeled three-dimensional dose distributions of pencil-beam proton plans delivered to a moving target. The interplay effect was studied in subsequent calculations by modeling proton delivery from a clinical synchrotron based spot scanning system and respiratory target motion, patterned from surrogate breathing traces from clinical 4DCT scans and normalized to nominal 0.5 and 1 cm amplitudes. Two distinct repainting strategies were modeled. In idealized volumetric repainting, the plan is divided up and delivered multiple times successively, with each instance only delivering a fraction of the total MU. Maximum-MU repainting involves delivering a fixed number of MU per spot and repeating a given energy layer until the prescribed MU are reached. For each of 13 patient breathing traces, the dose was computed for up to four volumetric repaints and an array of maximum-MU values. Delivery strategies were inter-compared based on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and delivery time. Results: Increasing levels of repainting generally improved plan quality and reduced dosimetric variability at the expense of longer delivery time. Motion orthogonal to the scan direction yielded substantially greater dose deviations than motion parallel to the scan direction. For a fixed delivery time, maximum-MU repainting was most effective relative to idealized volumetric repainting at small maximum-MU values. For 1 cm amplitude motion orthogonal to the scan direction, the average homogeneity metric (D5 – D95)[%] of 23.4% was reduced to 7.6% with a 168 s delivery using volumetric repainting compared with 8.7% in 157.2 s for maximum-MU repainting. The associated static target homogeneity metric was 2.5%. Conclusion: Maximum-MU repainting can provide a reasonably effective alternative to volumetric repainting for

  3. Bedload-surrogate monitoring technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in technologies for quantifying bedload fluxes and in some cases bedload size distributions in rivers show promise toward supplanting traditional physical samplers and sampling methods predicated on the collection and analysis of physical bedload samples. Four workshops held from 2002 to 2007 directly or peripherally addressed bedload-surrogate technologies, and results from these workshops have been compiled to evaluate the state-of-the-art in bedload monitoring. Papers from the 2007 workshop are published for the first time with this report. Selected research and publications since the 2007 workshop also are presented. Traditional samplers used for some or all of the last eight decades include box or basket samplers, pan or tray samplers, pressure-difference samplers, and trough or pit samplers. Although still useful, the future niche of these devices may be as a means for calibrating bedload-surrogate technologies operating with active- and passive-type sensors, in many cases continuously and automatically at a river site. Active sensors include acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), sonar, radar, and smart sensors. Passive sensors include geophones (pipes or plates) in direct contact with the streambed, hydrophones deployed in the water column, impact columns, and magnetic detection. The ADCP for sand and geophones for gravel are currently the most developed techniques, several of which have been calibrated under both laboratory and field conditions. Although none of the bedload-surrogate technologies described herein are broadly accepted for use in large-scale monitoring programs, several are under evaluation. The benefits of verifying and operationally deploying selected bedload-surrogate monitoring technologies could be considerable, providing for more frequent and consistent, less expensive, and arguably more accurate bedload data obtained with reduced personal risk for use in managing the world's sedimentary resources. Twenty-six papers are

  4. Ethical Problems Related to Surrogate Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Aydin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Being unable to have children is an important problem for married couples. At present, new reproduction techniques help these couples while those who can not find any solution try new approaches. One of these is the phenomenon of surrogate motherhood, which is based upon an agreement between the infertile couple and surrogate mother. Surrogate mother may conceive with the sperm of the male of the involved couple as well as by the transfer of the embryo formed by invitro fertilization. Couples who choose to have a child born from a pregnancy or to whom they are genetically partially connected rather than adopting a child give rise to the emergence of some ethical problems. Traditional family notion based upon having children after the union of the reproductive cells of the mother and father do not receive the pheneomenon of surrogate mother favourably. Such practices are criticised as they are far from being natural and other ethical problems are faced in the implementation.

  5. The Reparative Motive in Surrogate Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefield, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Explores the motivations of surrogate mothers, focusing on underlying reparative motive--to compensate for or repair an earlier loss or sense of damage. Provides an overview of the typical surrogate's characteristics and personality, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the reparative motive, and considers the tension between reparation and…

  6. Imaging Seeker Surrogate for IRCM evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Carpenter, S.R.; Mellier, B.; Dimmeler, A.

    2007-01-01

    NATO-SCI-139 and its predecessor groups have more than a decade of history in the evaluation and recommendation of EO and IR Countermeasures against anti-aircraft missiles. Surrogate Seekers have proven to be a valuable tool for this work. The use of surrogate seekers in international co-operations

  7. The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, N; Jadva, V; Kadam, K; Golombok, S

    2018-02-23

    How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers. Studies in the West have found that surrogates do not suffer long-term psychological harm. One study has shown that surrogates bond less with the foetus than expectant mothers. This study uses a prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional design. Surrogates and a matched group of expectant mothers were seen twice, during 4-9 months of pregnancy and 4-6 months after the birth. Semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires were administered to 50 surrogates and 69 expectant mothers during pregnancy and 45 surrogates and 49 expectant mothers post-birth. All gestational surrogates were hosting pregnancies for international intended parents. Surrogates had higher levels of depression compared to the comparison group of mothers, during pregnancy and post-birth (P surrogacy and criticism from others were found to be predictive of higher depression in surrogates post-birth (P < 0.05). Regarding prenatal bonding, surrogates interacted less with and thought less about the foetus but adopted better eating habits and were more likely to avoid unhealthy practices during pregnancy, than expectant mothers (P < 0.05). No associations were found between greater prenatal bonding and greater psychological distress during pregnancy or after relinquishment. All surrogates were recruited from one clinic in Mumbai, and thus the representativeness of this sample is not known. Also, the possibility of socially desirable responding from surrogates cannot be ruled out. As this is the first study of the psychological well-being of surrogates in low-income countries, the findings have important policy implications. Providing

  8. A feasibility study of digital tomosynthesis for volumetric dental imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M K; Kim, H K; Youn, H; Kim, S S

    2012-01-01

    We present a volumetric dental tomography method that compensates for insufficient projection views obtained from limited-angle scans. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the backprojection filtering method which employs apodizing filters that reduce out-of-plane blur artifacts and suppress high-frequency noise. In order to accompolish this volumetric imaging two volume-reconstructed datasets are synthesized. These individual datasets provide two different limited-angle scans performed at orthogonal angles. The obtained reconstructed images, using less than 15% of the number of projection views needed for a full skull phantom scan, demonstrate the potential use of the proposed method in dental imaging applications. This method enables a much smaller radiation dose for the patient compared to conventional dental tomography.

  9. Time-varying surrogate data to assess nonlinearity in nonstationary time series: application to heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Zhao, He; Chon, Ki H; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2009-03-01

    We propose a method to extend to time-varying (TV) systems the procedure for generating typical surrogate time series, in order to test the presence of nonlinear dynamics in potentially nonstationary signals. The method is based on fitting a TV autoregressive (AR) model to the original series and then regressing the model coefficients with random replacements of the model residuals to generate TV AR surrogate series. The proposed surrogate series were used in combination with a TV sample entropy (SE) discriminating statistic to assess nonlinearity in both simulated and experimental time series, in comparison with traditional time-invariant (TIV) surrogates combined with the TIV SE discriminating statistic. Analysis of simulated time series showed that using TIV surrogates, linear nonstationary time series may be erroneously regarded as nonlinear and weak TV nonlinearities may remain unrevealed, while the use of TV AR surrogates markedly increases the probability of a correct interpretation. Application to short (500 beats) heart rate variability (HRV) time series recorded at rest (R), after head-up tilt (T), and during paced breathing (PB) showed: 1) modifications of the SE statistic that were well interpretable with the known cardiovascular physiology; 2) significant contribution of nonlinear dynamics to HRV in all conditions, with significant increase during PB at 0.2 Hz respiration rate; and 3) a disagreement between TV AR surrogates and TIV surrogates in about a quarter of the series, suggesting that nonstationarity may affect HRV recordings and bias the outcome of the traditional surrogate-based nonlinearity test.

  10. Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in digestive oncology trials: which candidates? A questionnaires survey among clinicians and methodologists

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnetain Franck; Bedenne Laurent; Methy Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Overall survival (OS) is the gold standard for the demonstration of a clinical benefit in cancer trials. Replacement of OS by a surrogate endpoint allows to reduce trial duration. To date, few surrogate endpoints have been validated in digestive oncology. The aim of this study was to draw up an ordered list of potential surrogate endpoints for OS in digestive cancer trials, by way of a survey among clinicians and methodologists. Secondary objective was to obtain their opin...

  11. 34 CFR 303.406 - Surrogate parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surrogate parents. 303.406 Section 303.406 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.406 Surrogate parents. (a) General. Each lead agency shall ensure that the rights of children eligible under this part are protected if— (1) No parent (as defined...

  12. 34 CFR 300.519 - Surrogate parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surrogate parents. 300.519 Section 300.519 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.519 Surrogate parents... parent (as defined in § 300.30) can be identified; (2) The public agency, after reasonable efforts...

  13. Interpretations, perspectives and intentions in surrogate motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    van Zyl, L.; van Niekerk, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we examine the questions "What does it mean to be a surrogate mother?" and "What would be an appropriate perspective for a surrogate mother to have on her pregnancy?" In response to the objection that such contracts are alienating or dehumanising since they require women to suppress their evolving perspective on their pregnancies, liberal supporters of surrogate motherhood argue that the freedom to contract includes the freedom to enter a contract to bear a child for an infertil...

  14. Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Tashi, Shohreh; Mehran, Nahid; Eskandari, Narges; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2014-07-01

    Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers. The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers. This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi's seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done. The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy). Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy.

  15. Error modeling for surrogates of dynamical systems using machine learning: Machine-learning-based error model for surrogates of dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trehan, Sumeet; Carlberg, Kevin T.; Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    A machine learning–based framework for modeling the error introduced by surrogate models of parameterized dynamical systems is proposed. The framework entails the use of high-dimensional regression techniques (eg, random forests, and LASSO) to map a large set of inexpensively computed “error indicators” (ie, features) produced by the surrogate model at a given time instance to a prediction of the surrogate-model error in a quantity of interest (QoI). This eliminates the need for the user to hand-select a small number of informative features. The methodology requires a training set of parameter instances at which the time-dependent surrogate-model error is computed by simulating both the high-fidelity and surrogate models. Using these training data, the method first determines regression-model locality (via classification or clustering) and subsequently constructs a “local” regression model to predict the time-instantaneous error within each identified region of feature space. We consider 2 uses for the resulting error model: (1) as a correction to the surrogate-model QoI prediction at each time instance and (2) as a way to statistically model arbitrary functions of the time-dependent surrogate-model error (eg, time-integrated errors). We then apply the proposed framework to model errors in reduced-order models of nonlinear oil-water subsurface flow simulations, with time-varying well-control (bottom-hole pressure) parameters. The reduced-order models used in this work entail application of trajectory piecewise linearization in conjunction with proper orthogonal decomposition. Moreover, when the first use of the method is considered, numerical experiments demonstrate consistent improvement in accuracy in the time-instantaneous QoI prediction relative to the original surrogate model, across a large number of test cases. When the second use is considered, results show that the proposed method provides accurate statistical predictions of the time- and well

  16. Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T; McMahan, Ryan D; Williams, Brie A; Sharma, Rashmi K; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  17. Family Matters: Effects of Birth Order, Culture, and Family Dynamics on Surrogate Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Williams, Brie A.; Sharma, Rashmi K.; Sudore, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English- and Spanish-speakers from county and Veterans hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants’ experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 years ± 14 and 29% were African American, 26% were White, 26% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within 3 overarching categories of communication, emotion, and conflict: Communication – (1) unspoken expectations and (2) discussion of death as taboo; Emotion – (3) emotional stress and (4) feelings of loneliness; and Conflict – (5) family conflict and (6) potential solutions to prevent conflict. These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. PMID:24383459

  18. Generation of fluoroscopic 3D images with a respiratory motion model based on an external surrogate signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, Martina; Williams, Christopher L; Mishra, Pankaj; Rottmann, Joerg; Dhou, Salam; Wagar, Matthew; Mannarino, Edward G; Mak, Raymond H; Lewis, John H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion during radiotherapy can cause uncertainties in definition of the target volume and in estimation of the dose delivered to the target and healthy tissue. In this paper, we generate volumetric images of the internal patient anatomy during treatment using only the motion of a surrogate signal. Pre-treatment four-dimensional CT imaging is used to create a patient-specific model correlating internal respiratory motion with the trajectory of an external surrogate placed on the chest. The performance of this model is assessed with digital and physical phantoms reproducing measured irregular patient breathing patterns. Ten patient breathing patterns are incorporated in a digital phantom. For each patient breathing pattern, the model is used to generate images over the course of thirty seconds. The tumor position predicted by the model is compared to ground truth information from the digital phantom. Over the ten patient breathing patterns, the average absolute error in the tumor centroid position predicted by the motion model is 1.4 mm. The corresponding error for one patient breathing pattern implemented in an anthropomorphic physical phantom was 0.6 mm. The global voxel intensity error was used to compare the full image to the ground truth and demonstrates good agreement between predicted and true images. The model also generates accurate predictions for breathing patterns with irregular phases or amplitudes. (paper)

  19. Generation of fluoroscopic 3D images with a respiratory motion model based on an external surrogate signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Martina; Williams, Christopher L.; Mishra, Pankaj; Rottmann, Joerg; Dhou, Salam; Wagar, Matthew; Mannarino, Edward G.; Mak, Raymond H.; Lewis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion during radiotherapy can cause uncertainties in definition of the target volume and in estimation of the dose delivered to the target and healthy tissue. In this paper, we generate volumetric images of the internal patient anatomy during treatment using only the motion of a surrogate signal. Pre-treatment four-dimensional CT imaging is used to create a patient-specific model correlating internal respiratory motion with the trajectory of an external surrogate placed on the chest. The performance of this model is assessed with digital and physical phantoms reproducing measured irregular patient breathing patterns. Ten patient breathing patterns are incorporated in a digital phantom. For each patient breathing pattern, the model is used to generate images over the course of thirty seconds. The tumor position predicted by the model is compared to ground truth information from the digital phantom. Over the ten patient breathing patterns, the average absolute error in the tumor centroid position predicted by the motion model is 1.4 mm. The corresponding error for one patient breathing pattern implemented in an anthropomorphic physical phantom was 0.6 mm. The global voxel intensity error was used to compare the full image to the ground truth and demonstrates good agreement between predicted and true images. The model also generates accurate predictions for breathing patterns with irregular phases or amplitudes.

  20. Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2005-05-01

    Surrogate end points in clinical research pose real danger. A surrogate end point is an outcome measure, commonly a laboratory test, that substitutes for a clinical event of true importance. Resistance to activated protein C, for example, has been used as a surrogate for venous thrombosis in women using oral contraceptives. Other examples of inappropriate surrogate end points in contraception include the postcoital test instead of pregnancy to evaluate new spermicides, breakage and slippage instead of pregnancy to evaluate condoms, and bone mineral density instead of fracture to assess the safety of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate. None of these markers captures the effect of the treatment on the true outcome. A valid surrogate end point must both correlate with and accurately predict the outcome of interest. Although many surrogate markers correlate with an outcome, few have been shown to capture the effect of a treatment (for example, oral contraceptives) on the outcome (venous thrombosis). As a result, thousands of useless and misleading reports on surrogate end points litter the medical literature. New drugs have been shown to benefit a surrogate marker, but, paradoxically, triple the risk of death. Thousands of patients have died needlessly because of reliance on invalid surrogate markers. Researchers should avoid surrogate end points unless they have been validated; that requires at least one well done trial using both the surrogate and true outcome. The clinical maxim that "a difference to be a difference must make a difference" applies to research as well. Clinical research should focus on outcomes that matter.

  1. Volumetric CT-images improve testing of radiological image interpretation skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J., E-mail: C.J.Ravesloot@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Schaaf, Marieke F. van der, E-mail: M.F.vanderSchaaf@uu.nl [Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, Jan P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Cate, Olle Th.J. ten, E-mail: T.J.tenCate@umcutrecht.nl [Center for Research and Development of Education at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Gijp, Anouk van der, E-mail: A.vanderGijp-2@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P., E-mail: C.Mol@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Vincken, Koen L., E-mail: K.Vincken@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Rationale and objectives: Current radiology practice increasingly involves interpretation of volumetric data sets. In contrast, most radiology tests still contain only 2D images. We introduced a new testing tool that allows for stack viewing of volumetric images in our undergraduate radiology program. We hypothesized that tests with volumetric CT-images enhance test quality, in comparison with traditional completely 2D image-based tests, because they might better reflect required skills for clinical practice. Materials and methods: Two groups of medical students (n = 139; n = 143), trained with 2D and volumetric CT-images, took a digital radiology test in two versions (A and B), each containing both 2D and volumetric CT-image questions. In a questionnaire, they were asked to comment on the representativeness for clinical practice, difficulty and user-friendliness of the test questions and testing program. Students’ test scores and reliabilities, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 2D and volumetric CT-image tests were compared. Results: Estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) were higher for volumetric CT-image scores (version A: .51 and version B: .54), than for 2D CT-image scores (version A: .24 and version B: .37). Participants found volumetric CT-image tests more representative of clinical practice, and considered them to be less difficult than volumetric CT-image questions. However, in one version (A), volumetric CT-image scores (M 80.9, SD 14.8) were significantly lower than 2D CT-image scores (M 88.4, SD 10.4) (p < .001). The volumetric CT-image testing program was considered user-friendly. Conclusion: This study shows that volumetric image questions can be successfully integrated in students’ radiology testing. Results suggests that the inclusion of volumetric CT-images might improve the quality of radiology tests by positively impacting perceived representativeness for clinical practice and increasing reliability of the test.

  2. Surrogate-Based Optimization of Biogeochemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieß, Malte; Slawig, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    First approaches towards a surrogate-based optimization method for a one-dimensional marine biogeochemical model of NPZD type are presented. The model, developed by Oschlies and Garcon [1], simulates the distribution of nitrogen, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus in a water column and is driven by ocean circulation data. A key issue is to minimize the misfit between the model output and given observational data. Our aim is to reduce the overall optimization cost avoiding expensive function and derivative evaluations by using a surrogate model replacing the high-fidelity model in focus. This in particular becomes important for more complex three-dimensional models. We analyse a coarsening in the discretization of the model equations as one way to create such a surrogate. Here the numerical stability crucially depends upon the discrete stepsize in time and space and the biochemical terms. We show that for given model parameters the level of grid coarsening can be choosen accordingly yielding a stable and satisfactory surrogate. As one example of a surrogate-based optimization method we present results of the Aggressive Space Mapping technique (developed by John W. Bandler [2, 3]) applied to the optimization of this one-dimensional biogeochemical transport model.

  3. [The surrogate: Partner in the shared decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradon-Eck, Aline; Capodano, Géraldine; Bureau, Eve; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The legislative process of the surrogate appears to be unclear to health professionals and to patients and next of kin. To better adapt this process to the clinical practice our objective was here to document how the persons designated as surrogate perceived their role and how they described the difficulties encountered in oncology. Qualitative survey with an ethnographic approach carried out in 2014-2015, fieldwork, face-to-face interviews (n=26 including 20 surrogates and 6 patients) in a mobile palliative care unit located at a Regional Comprehensive Cancer Centre. Close relationship, psychological and cognitive competences were the main attribute to designate a surrogate. Perceived roles included the fact to be involved in decisions, to protect the patient, to be present, and to be a messenger. This process gives the next of kin the feeling to be part of the patient management. In the context of divorced families, it sometimes allows to rehabilitate and to reinforce the affective links. Our data highlight the confusion between the designation of the 'person to call' and 'the surrogate'. Our results highlight the 'surrogate' protective role of the patient, and the positive sides of the process, in particular in the context of divorced/rebuilt families. We recommend splitting the process to designate the 'person to call' and the 'surrogate', as administrative and medical duties, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of Bacterial Pathogens and Potential Surrogates on the Surface of Almonds Using High-Intensity 405-Nanometer Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Gurtler, Joshua B; Tyrell, Breanna; Fleck, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    The disinfecting properties of high-intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and nonpathogenic bacteria inoculated onto the surface of almonds. MBL was generated from an array of narrow-band 405-nm light-emitting diodes. Almonds were inoculated with higher or lower levels (8 or 5 CFU/g) of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella , as well as nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 and an avirulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, for evaluation as potential surrogates for their respective pathogens. Inoculated almonds were treated with MBL for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min at a working distance of 7 cm. Simultaneous to treatment, cooling air was directed onto the almonds at a rate of 4 ft 3 /min (1.89 ×10 -3 m 3 /s), sourced through a container of dry ice. An infrared camera was used to monitor the temperature readings after each run. For E. coli K-12, reductions of up to 1.85 or 1.63 log CFU/g were seen for higher and lower inoculum levels, respectively; reductions up to 2.44 and 1.44 log CFU/g were seen for E. coli O157:H7 (higher and lower inoculation levels, respectively). Attenuated Salmonella was reduced by up to 0.54 and 0.97 log CFU/g, whereas pathogenic Salmonella was reduced by up to 0.70 and 0.55 log CFU/g (higher and lower inoculation levels, respectively). Inoculation level did not significantly impact minimum effective treatment times, which ranged from 1 to 4 min. Temperatures remained below ambient throughout treatment, indicating that MBL is a nonthermal antimicrobial process. The nonpathogenic strains of E. coli and Salmonella each responded to MBL in a comparable manner to their pathogenic counterparts. These results suggest that these nonpathogenic strains may be useful in experiments with MBL in which a surrogate is required, and that MBL warrants further investigation as a potential antimicrobial treatment for low-moisture foods.

  5. Coaxial volumetric velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio; Jux, Constantin; Sciacchitano, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    This study describes the working principles of the coaxial volumetric velocimeter (CVV) for wind tunnel measurements. The measurement system is derived from the concept of tomographic PIV in combination with recent developments of Lagrangian particle tracking. The main characteristic of the CVV is its small tomographic aperture and the coaxial arrangement between the illumination and imaging directions. The system consists of a multi-camera arrangement subtending only few degrees solid angle and a long focal depth. Contrary to established PIV practice, laser illumination is provided along the same direction as that of the camera views, reducing the optical access requirements to a single viewing direction. The laser light is expanded to illuminate the full field of view of the cameras. Such illumination and imaging conditions along a deep measurement volume dictate the use of tracer particles with a large scattering area. In the present work, helium-filled soap bubbles are used. The fundamental principles of the CVV in terms of dynamic velocity and spatial range are discussed. Maximum particle image density is shown to limit tracer particle seeding concentration and instantaneous spatial resolution. Time-averaged flow fields can be obtained at high spatial resolution by ensemble averaging. The use of the CVV for time-averaged measurements is demonstrated in two wind tunnel experiments. After comparing the CVV measurements with the potential flow in front of a sphere, the near-surface flow around a complex wind tunnel model of a cyclist is measured. The measurements yield the volumetric time-averaged velocity and vorticity field. The measurements of the streamlines in proximity of the surface give an indication of the skin-friction lines pattern, which is of use in the interpretation of the surface flow topology.

  6. Surrogate analysis and index developer (SAID) tool and real-time data dissemination utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Wood, Molly S.; Landers, Mark N.; Wall, Gary R.; Brady, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates are tools to process and evaluate the data along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research, and on surrogate monitoring sites currently in operation. The Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) standalone tool, under development by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), assists in the creation of regression models that relate response and explanatory variables by providing visual and quantitative diagnostics to the user. SAID also processes acoustic parameters to be used as explanatory variables for suspended-sediment concentrations. The sediment acoustic method utilizes acoustic parameters from fixed-mount stationary equipment. The background theory and method used by the tool have been described in recent publications, and the tool also serves to support sediment-acoustic-index methods being drafted by the multi-agency Sediment Acoustic Leadership Team (SALT), and other surrogate guidelines like USGS Techniques and Methods 3-C4 for turbidity and SSC. The regression models in SAID can be used in utilities that have been developed to work with the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and for the USGS National Real-Time Water Quality (NRTWQ) Web site. The real-time dissemination of predicted SSC and prediction intervals for each time step has substantial potential to improve understanding of sediment-related water-quality and associated engineering and ecological management decisions.

  7. A novel surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vangipurapu, J

    2011-03-01

    In epidemiological and genetic studies surrogate indices are needed to investigate insulin resistance in different insulin-sensitive tissues. Our objective was to develop a surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

  8. Attitudes toward surrogate motherhood in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V

    1994-01-01

    The issue of surrogate motherhood captured worldwide attention with the Baby M case in the United States. Some medical practitioners now claim that the surrogate arrangement may be the answer for certain women who are unable to conceive children naturally. Feminist activists are highly critical about the issue. In her landmark book The Mother Machine, Corea (1985) called surrogates "breeders," women whose bodies are being used by men. Lawyers and ethicists debate whether surrogacy is baby selling or not, and religious fundamentalists have condemned any form of procreation outside the "normal" or "natural" form of sexual relations within a marriage. But what do Canadian women think about commercial surrogacy? Findings pertaining to this issue from the latest national fertility survey of 5,315 women in the reproductive ages of 18-49 are reported.

  9. Concordance Between Veterans' Self-Report and Documentation of Surrogate Decision Makers: Implications for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Kimberly K; Dubbert, Patricia; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H

    2017-01-01

    The Measuring What Matters initiative of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association identified documentation of a surrogate decision maker as one of the top 10 quality indicators in the acute hospital and hospice settings. To better understand the potential implementation of this Measuring What Matters quality measure #8, Documentation of Surrogate in outpatient primary care settings by describing primary care patients' self-reported identification and documentation of a surrogate decision maker. Examination of patient responses to self-assessment questions from advance health care planning educational groups conducted in one medical center primary care clinic and seven community-based outpatient primary care clinics. We assessed the concordance between patient reports of identifying and naming a surrogate decision maker and having completed an advance directive (AD) with presence of an AD in the electronic medical record. Of veterans without a documented AD on file, more than half (66%) reported that they had talked with someone they trusted and nearly half (52%) reported that they had named someone to communicate their preferences. Our clinical project data suggest that many more veterans may have initiated communications with surrogate decision makers than is evident in the electronic medical record. System changes are needed to close the gap between veterans' plans for a surrogate decision maker and the documentation available to acute care health care providers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2018-03-20

    Surrogate fuel formulation has drawn significant interest due to its relevance towards understanding combustion properties of complex fuel mixtures. In this work, we present a novel approach for surrogate fuel formulation by matching target fuel functional groups, while minimizing the number of surrogate species. Five key functional groups; paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, naphthenic CH–CH and aromatic C–CH groups in addition to structural information provided by the Branching Index (BI) were chosen as matching targets. Surrogates were developed for six FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline target fuels, namely FACE A, C, F, G, I and J. The five functional groups present in the fuels were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using high resolution H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A further constraint was imposed in limiting the number of surrogate components to a maximum of two. This simplifies the process of surrogate formulation, facilitates surrogate testing, and significantly reduces the size and time involved in developing chemical kinetic models by reducing the number of thermochemical and kinetic parameters requiring estimation. Fewer species also reduces the computational expenses involved in simulating combustion in practical devices. The proposed surrogate formulation methodology is denoted as the Minimalist Functional Group (MFG) approach. The MFG surrogates were experimentally tested against their target fuels using Ignition Delay Times (IDT) measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT), as specified by the standard ASTM D6890 methodology, and in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). Threshold Sooting Index (TSI) and Smoke Point (SP) measurements were also performed to determine the sooting propensities of the surrogates and target fuels. The results showed that MFG surrogates were able to reproduce the aforementioned combustion properties of the target FACE gasolines across a wide range of conditions

  11. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani; Naser, Nimal; Issayev, Gani; Touitou, Jamal; Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Farooq, Aamir; Dooley, Stephen; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Surrogate fuel formulation has drawn significant interest due to its relevance towards understanding combustion properties of complex fuel mixtures. In this work, we present a novel approach for surrogate fuel formulation by matching target fuel functional groups, while minimizing the number of surrogate species. Five key functional groups; paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, naphthenic CH–CH and aromatic C–CH groups in addition to structural information provided by the Branching Index (BI) were chosen as matching targets. Surrogates were developed for six FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline target fuels, namely FACE A, C, F, G, I and J. The five functional groups present in the fuels were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using high resolution H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A further constraint was imposed in limiting the number of surrogate components to a maximum of two. This simplifies the process of surrogate formulation, facilitates surrogate testing, and significantly reduces the size and time involved in developing chemical kinetic models by reducing the number of thermochemical and kinetic parameters requiring estimation. Fewer species also reduces the computational expenses involved in simulating combustion in practical devices. The proposed surrogate formulation methodology is denoted as the Minimalist Functional Group (MFG) approach. The MFG surrogates were experimentally tested against their target fuels using Ignition Delay Times (IDT) measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT), as specified by the standard ASTM D6890 methodology, and in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). Threshold Sooting Index (TSI) and Smoke Point (SP) measurements were also performed to determine the sooting propensities of the surrogates and target fuels. The results showed that MFG surrogates were able to reproduce the aforementioned combustion properties of the target FACE gasolines across a wide range of conditions

  12. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  13. Long-term characterization of residential runoff and assessing potential surrogates of fecal indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reano, Dane C; Haver, Darren L; Oki, Lorence R; Yates, Marylynn V

    2015-05-01

    Investigations into the microbiological impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies, especially during storm conditions, have yielded general paradigms that influence runoff abatement and control management strategies. To determine whether these trends are present in other runoff sources, the physical, chemical, and microbiological components of residential runoff from eight neighborhoods in Northern and Southern California were characterized over the course of five years. Sampling occurred regularly and during storm events, resulting in 833 data sets. Analysis of runoff data assisted in characterizing residential runoff, elucidating differences between dry and storm conditions, and identifying surrogates capable of assessing microbiological quality. Results indicate that although microbial loading increases during storm events similar to urban runoff, annual microbial loading in these study sites principally occurs during dry conditions (24% storm, 76% dry). Generated artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models assessed surrogate performance by accurately predicting Escherichia coli concentrations from validation data sets (R(2) = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively), but required input from other fecal indicator organism (FIO) variables to maintain performance (R(2) = 0.27 and 0.18, respectively, without FIO). This long-term analysis of residential runoff highlights characteristics distinct from urban runoff and establishes necessary variables for determining microbiological quality, thus better informing future management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Different Moral Bases of Patient and Surrogate Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudney, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    My topic is a problem with our practice of surrogate decision-making in health care, namely, the problem of the surrogate who is not doing her job-the surrogate who cannot be reached or the surrogate who seems to refuse to understand or to be unable to understand the clinical situation. The analysis raises a question about the surrogate who simply disagrees with the medical team. One might think that such a surrogate is doing her job-the team just doesn't like how she is doing it. My analysis raises the question of whether (or perhaps when) she should be overridden. In approaching this problem, I focus not on the range of difficulties in practice but on the underlying moral conceptual issue. My concern will be to show that the moral values that underpin patient decision-making are fundamentally different from those that underpin surrogate decision-making. Identifying the distinctions will set parameters for any successful solution to the "Who should decide?" A patient has a specific kind of moral right to make her own medical decisions. A surrogate has no analogous moral right to decide for someone else. We want the surrogate to make the decision because we believe that she has a relevant epistemological advantage over anyone else on the scene. If and when she has no such advantage or if she refuses or is unable to use it, then there might not be sufficient reason to let her be the decision-maker. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  15. Evaluation and comparison of predictive individual-level general surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Erin E; Sachs, Michael C; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2018-07-01

    An intermediate response measure that accurately predicts efficacy in a new setting at the individual level could be used both for prediction and personalized medical decisions. In this article, we define a predictive individual-level general surrogate (PIGS), which is an individual-level intermediate response that can be used to accurately predict individual efficacy in a new setting. While methods for evaluating trial-level general surrogates, which are predictors of trial-level efficacy, have been developed previously, few, if any, methods have been developed to evaluate individual-level general surrogates, and no methods have formalized the use of cross-validation to quantify the expected prediction error. Our proposed method uses existing methods of individual-level surrogate evaluation within a given clinical trial setting in combination with cross-validation over a set of clinical trials to evaluate surrogate quality and to estimate the absolute prediction error that is expected in a new trial setting when using a PIGS. Simulations show that our method performs well across a variety of scenarios. We use our method to evaluate and to compare candidate individual-level general surrogates over a set of multi-national trials of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.

  16. Statistical characteristics of surrogate data based on geophysical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Venema

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the statistical properties of a range of measurements are compared with those of their surrogate time series. Seven different records are studied, amongst others, historical time series of mean daily temperature, daily rain sums and runoff from two rivers, and cloud measurements. Seven different algorithms are used to generate the surrogate time series. The best-known method is the iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT algorithm, which is able to reproduce the measured distribution as well as the power spectrum. Using this setup, the measurements and their surrogates are compared with respect to their power spectrum, increment distribution, structure functions, annual percentiles and return values. It is found that the surrogates that reproduce the power spectrum and the distribution of the measurements are able to closely match the increment distributions and the structure functions of the measurements, but this often does not hold for surrogates that only mimic the power spectrum of the measurement. However, even the best performing surrogates do not have asymmetric increment distributions, i.e., they cannot reproduce nonlinear dynamical processes that are asymmetric in time. Furthermore, we have found deviations of the structure functions on small scales.

  17. Multiple Surrogate Modeling for Wire-Wrapped Fuel Assembly Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, Wasim; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this work, shape optimization of seven pin wire wrapped fuel assembly has been carried out in conjunction with RANS analysis in order to evaluate the performances of surrogate models. Previously, Ahmad and Kim performed the flow and heat transfer analysis based on the three-dimensional RANS analysis. But numerical optimization has not been applied to the design of wire-wrapped fuel assembly, yet. Surrogate models are being widely used in multidisciplinary optimization. Queipo et al. reviewed various surrogates based models used in aerospace applications. Goel et al. developed weighted average surrogate model based on response surface approximation (RSA), radial basis neural network (RBNN) and Krigging (KRG) models. In addition to the three basic models, RSA, RBNN and KRG, the multiple surrogate model, PBA also has been employed. Two geometric design variables and a multi-objective function with a weighting factor have been considered for this problem

  18. Reduced cost mission design using surrogate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhacker, Juliana D.; Jones, Brandon A.; Doostan, Alireza; Hampton, Jerrad

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses surrogate models to reduce the computational cost associated with spacecraft mission design in three-body dynamical systems. Sampling-based least squares regression is used to project the system response onto a set of orthogonal bases, providing a representation of the ΔV required for rendezvous as a reduced-order surrogate model. Models are presented for mid-field rendezvous of spacecraft in orbits in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem, including a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 libration point (EML-2) and a distant retrograde orbit (DRO) about the Moon. In each case, the initial position of the spacecraft, the time of flight, and the separation between the chaser and the target vehicles are all considered as design inputs. The results show that sample sizes on the order of 102 are sufficient to produce accurate surrogates, with RMS errors reaching 0.2 m/s for the halo orbit and falling below 0.01 m/s for the DRO. A single function call to the resulting surrogate is up to two orders of magnitude faster than computing the same solution using full fidelity propagators. The expansion coefficients solved for in the surrogates are then used to conduct a global sensitivity analysis of the ΔV on each of the input parameters, which identifies the separation between the spacecraft as the primary contributor to the ΔV cost. Finally, the models are demonstrated to be useful for cheap evaluation of the cost function in constrained optimization problems seeking to minimize the ΔV required for rendezvous. These surrogate models show significant advantages for mission design in three-body systems, in terms of both computational cost and capabilities, over traditional Monte Carlo methods.

  19. Imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Wolf S.

    2006-01-01

    The employment of biomarkers (including imaging biomarkers, especially PET) in drug development has gained increasing attention during recent years. This has been partly stimulated by the hope that the integration of biomarkers into drug development programmes may be a means to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the drug development process by early identification of promising drug candidates - thereby counteracting the rising costs of drug development. More importantly, however, the interest in biomarkers for drug development is the logical consequence of recent advances in biosciences and medicine which are leading to target-specific treatments in the framework of ''personalised medicine''. A considerable proportion of target-specific drugs will show effects in subgroups of patients only. Biomarkers are a means to identify potential responders, or patient subgroups at risk for specific side-effects. Biomarkers are used in early drug development in the context of translational medicine to gain information about the drug's potential in different patient groups and disease states. The information obtained at this stage is mainly important for designing subsequent clinical trials and to identify promising drug candidates. Biomarkers in later phases of clinical development may - if properly validated - serve as surrogate endpoints for clinical outcomes. Regulatory agencies in the EU and the USA have facilitated the use of biomarkers early in the development process. The validation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints is part of FDA's ''critical path initiative''. (orig.)

  20. System Reliability Analysis Capability and Surrogate Model Application in RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Huang, Dongli [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Bei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adbel-Khalik, Hany S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report collect the effort performed to improve the reliability analysis capabilities of the RAVEN code and explore new opportunity in the usage of surrogate model by extending the current RAVEN capabilities to multi physics surrogate models and construction of surrogate models for high dimensionality fields.

  1. Active Subspaces for Wind Plant Surrogate Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Adcock, Christiane [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2018-01-12

    Understanding the uncertainty in wind plant performance is crucial to their cost-effective design and operation. However, conventional approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ), such as Monte Carlo techniques or surrogate modeling, are often computationally intractable for utility-scale wind plants because of poor congergence rates or the curse of dimensionality. In this paper we demonstrate that wind plant power uncertainty can be well represented with a low-dimensional active subspace, thereby achieving a significant reduction in the dimension of the surrogate modeling problem. We apply the active sub-spaces technique to UQ of plant power output with respect to uncertainty in turbine axial induction factors, and find a single active subspace direction dominates the sensitivity in power output. When this single active subspace direction is used to construct a quadratic surrogate model, the number of model unknowns can be reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude without compromising performance on unseen test data. We conclude that the dimension reduction achieved with active subspaces makes surrogate-based UQ approaches tractable for utility-scale wind plants.

  2. Surrogate Model for Recirculation Phase LBLOCA and DET Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynan, Douglas A; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Lee, John C.

    2014-01-01

    In the nuclear safety field, response surfaces were used in the first demonstration of the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty (CSAU) methodology to quantify the uncertainty of the peak clad temperature (PCT) during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). Surrogates could have applications in other nuclear safety areas such as dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Dynamic PSA attempts to couple the probabilistic nature of failure events, component transitions, and human reliability to deterministic calculations of time-dependent nuclear power plant (NPP) responses usually through the use of thermal-hydraulic (TH) system codes. The overall mathematical complexity of the dynamic PSA architectures with many embedded computational expensive TH code calculations with large input/output data streams have limited realistic studies of NPPs. This paper presents a time-dependent surrogate model for the recirculation phase of a hot leg LBLOCA in the OPR-1000. The surrogate model is developed through the ACE algorithm, a powerful nonparametric regression technique, trained on RELAP5 simulations of the LBLOCA. Benchmarking of the surrogate is presented and an application to a simplified dynamic event tree (DET). A time-dependent surrogate model to predict core subcooling during the recirculation phase of a hot leg LBLOCA in the OPR-1000 has been developed. The surrogate assumed the structure of a general discrete time dynamic model and learned the nonlinear functional form by performing nonparametric regression on RELAP5 simulations with the ACE algorithm. The surrogate model input parameters represent mass and energy flux terms to the RCS that appeared as user supplied or code calculated boundary conditions in the RELAP5 model. The surrogate accurately predicted the TH behavior of the core for a variety of HPSI system performance and containment conditions when compared with RELAP5 simulations. The surrogate was applied in a DET application replacing

  3. Adaptive surrogate model based multiobjective optimization for coastal aquifer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Yang, Yun; Wu, Jianfeng; Wu, Jichun; Sun, Xiaomin; Lin, Jin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a novel surrogate model assisted multiobjective memetic algorithm (SMOMA) is developed for optimal pumping strategies of large-scale coastal groundwater problems. The proposed SMOMA integrates an efficient data-driven surrogate model with an improved non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm-II (NSGAII) that employs a local search operator to accelerate its convergence in optimization. The surrogate model based on Kernel Extreme Learning Machine (KELM) is developed and evaluated as an approximate simulator to generate the patterns of regional groundwater flow and salinity levels in coastal aquifers for reducing huge computational burden. The KELM model is adaptively trained during evolutionary search to satisfy desired fidelity level of surrogate so that it inhibits error accumulation of forecasting and results in correctly converging to true Pareto-optimal front. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale coastal aquifer management in Baldwin County, Alabama. Objectives of minimizing the saltwater mass increase and maximizing the total pumping rate in the coastal aquifers are considered. The optimal solutions achieved by the proposed adaptive surrogate model are compared against those solutions obtained from one-shot surrogate model and original simulation model. The adaptive surrogate model does not only improve the prediction accuracy of Pareto-optimal solutions compared with those by the one-shot surrogate model, but also maintains the equivalent quality of Pareto-optimal solutions compared with those by NSGAII coupled with original simulation model, while retaining the advantage of surrogate models in reducing computational burden up to 94% of time-saving. This study shows that the proposed methodology is a computationally efficient and promising tool for multiobjective optimizations of coastal aquifer managements.

  4. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions.

  5. Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in digestive oncology trials: which candidates? A questionnaires survey among clinicians and methodologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methy, Nicolas; Bedenne, Laurent; Bonnetain, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Overall survival (OS) is the gold standard for the demonstration of a clinical benefit in cancer trials. Replacement of OS by a surrogate endpoint allows to reduce trial duration. To date, few surrogate endpoints have been validated in digestive oncology. The aim of this study was to draw up an ordered list of potential surrogate endpoints for OS in digestive cancer trials, by way of a survey among clinicians and methodologists. Secondary objective was to obtain their opinion on surrogacy and quality of life (QoL). In 2007 and 2008, self administered sequential questionnaires were sent to a panel of French clinicians and methodologists involved in the conduct of cancer clinical trials. In the first questionnaire, panellists were asked to choose the most important characteristics defining a surrogate among six proposals, to give advantages and drawbacks of the surrogates, and to answer questions about their validation and use. Then they had to suggest potential surrogate endpoints for OS in each of the following tumour sites: oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, biliary tract, lymphoma, colon, rectum, and anus. They finally gave their opinion on QoL as surrogate endpoint. In the second questionnaire, they had to classify the previously proposed candidate surrogates from the most (position N1) to the least relevant in their opinion. Frequency at which the endpoints were chosen as first, second or third most relevant surrogates was calculated and served as final ranking. Response rate was 30% (24/80) in the first round and 20% (16/80) in the second one. Participants highlighted key points concerning surrogacy. In particular, they reminded that a surrogate endpoint is expected to predict clinical benefit in a well-defined therapeutic situation. Half of them thought it was not relevant to study QoL as surrogate for OS. DFS, in the neoadjuvant settings or early stages, and PFS, in the non operable or metastatic settings, were ranked first, with a frequency of more than

  6. Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in digestive oncology trials: which candidates? A questionnaires survey among clinicians and methodologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methy, Nicolas; Bedenne, Laurent; Bonnetain, Franck

    2010-06-10

    Overall survival (OS) is the gold standard for the demonstration of a clinical benefit in cancer trials. Replacement of OS by a surrogate endpoint allows to reduce trial duration. To date, few surrogate endpoints have been validated in digestive oncology. The aim of this study was to draw up an ordered list of potential surrogate endpoints for OS in digestive cancer trials, by way of a survey among clinicians and methodologists. Secondary objective was to obtain their opinion on surrogacy and quality of life (QoL). In 2007 and 2008, self administered sequential questionnaires were sent to a panel of French clinicians and methodologists involved in the conduct of cancer clinical trials. In the first questionnaire, panellists were asked to choose the most important characteristics defining a surrogate among six proposals, to give advantages and drawbacks of the surrogates, and to answer questions about their validation and use. Then they had to suggest potential surrogate endpoints for OS in each of the following tumour sites: oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, biliary tract, lymphoma, colon, rectum, and anus. They finally gave their opinion on QoL as surrogate endpoint. In the second questionnaire, they had to classify the previously proposed candidate surrogates from the most (position #1) to the least relevant in their opinion.Frequency at which the endpoints were chosen as first, second or third most relevant surrogates was calculated and served as final ranking. Response rate was 30% (24/80) in the first round and 20% (16/80) in the second one. Participants highlighted key points concerning surrogacy. In particular, they reminded that a surrogate endpoint is expected to predict clinical benefit in a well-defined therapeutic situation. Half of them thought it was not relevant to study QoL as surrogate for OS.DFS, in the neoadjuvant settings or early stages, and PFS, in the non operable or metastatic settings, were ranked first, with a frequency of more than 69

  7. Surrogate motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Arteta-Acosta Cindy

    2011-01-01

    Surrogate motherhood, also known as surrogacy, has recently become achance to exercise the right of paternity by some people. Surrogacy itself did notinvolve a disadvantaged idea, but when this is coupled with scientific experimentsand economic and personal interests, requires intervention of the State tolegislate about consequences arising from the unlimited execution of this practice. Since 70’s,developed countries have been creating laws, decrees and regulations to regulateassisted reprodu...

  8. Aspects of volumetric efficiency measurement for reciprocating engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric efficiency significantly influences engine output. Both design and dimensions of an intake and exhaust system have large impact on volumetric efficiency. Experimental equipment for measuring of airflow through the engine, which is placed in the intake system, may affect the results of measurements and distort the real picture of the impact of individual structural factors. This paper deals with the problems of experimental determination of intake airflow using orifice plates and the influence of orifice plate diameter on the results of the measurements. The problems of airflow measurements through a multi-process Otto/Diesel engine were analyzed. An original method for determining volumetric efficiency was developed based on in-cylinder pressure measurement during motored operation, and appropriate calibration of the experimental procedure was performed. Good correlation between the results of application of the original method for determination of volumetric efficiency and the results of theoretical model used in research of influence of the intake pipe length on volumetric efficiency was determined. [Acknowledgments. The paper is the result of the research within the project TR 35041 financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia

  9. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow.

  10. Urethral and periurethral dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy: is there a convenient surrogate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, Joseph; Spadinger, Ingrid; Hilts, Michelle; Sidhu, Sabeena; Smith, Clarke; Keyes, Mira; Morris, W. James

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare two models for a surrogate urethra to be used for postimplant dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty men with a urinary catheter present at the time of postimplant computed tomographic imaging were studied. Urethral and periurethral volumes were defined as 5-mm and 10-mm diameter volumes, respectively. Three contours of each were used: one contour of the true urethra (and periurethra), and two surrogate models. The true volumes were centered on the catheter center. One surrogate model used volumes centered on the geometrical center of each prostate contour (centered surrogate). The other surrogate model was based on the average deviation of the true urethra from a reference line through the geometrical center of the axial midplane of the prostate (deviated surrogate). Maximum point doses and the D 10 , D 25 , D 50 , D 90 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 of the true and surrogate volumes were measured and compared (D n is the minimum dose [Gy] received by n% of the structure, and V m is the volume [%] of the structure that received m% of the prescribed dose) as well as the distances between the surrogate urethras and the true urethra. Results: Doses determined from both surrogate urethral and periurethral volumes were in good agreement with the true urethral and periurethral doses except in the superior third of the gland. The deviated surrogate provided a physically superior likeness to the true urethra. Certain dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based parameters could also be predicted reasonably well on the basis of the surrogates. Correlation coefficients ≥0.85 were seen for D 25 , D 50 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 for both models. All the other parameters had correlation coefficients in the range of 0.73 - 0.85. Conclusions: Both surrogate models predicted true urethral dosimetry reasonably well. It is recommended that the simpler deviated surrogate would be a more suitable surrogate for routine clinical practice

  11. Term clouds as surrogates for user generated speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; Larson, M.; de Rijke, M.; Myaeng, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    User generated spoken audio remains a challenge for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and content-based audio surrogates derived from ASR-transcripts must be error robust. An investigation of the use of term clouds as surrogates for podcasts demonstrates that ASR term clouds closely

  12. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  13. Outcomes for Gestational Carriers Versus Traditional Surrogates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erika L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the obstetric and procedural outcomes of traditional surrogates and gestational carriers. Participants included 222 women living in the United States who completed a brief online survey between November 2015 and February 2016. Differences between gestational carriers (n = 204) and traditional surrogates (n = 18) in demographic characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, and procedural outcomes were examined using chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact tests, and t-tests. Out of 248 eligible respondents, 222 surveys were complete, for a response rate of 89.5%. Overall, obstetric outcomes were similar among gestational carriers and traditional surrogates. Traditional surrogates were more likely than gestational carriers to have a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised score of 16 or higher (37.5% vs. 4.0%). Gestational carriers reported higher mean compensation ($27,162.80 vs. $17,070.07) and were more likely to travel over 400 miles (46.0% vs. 0.0%) than traditional surrogates. Procedural differences, but not differences in obstetric outcomes, emerged between gestational carriers and traditional surrogates. To ensure that both traditional surrogates and gestational carriers receive optimal medical care, it may be necessary to extend practice guidelines to ensure that traditional surrogates are offered the same level of care offered to gestational carriers.

  14. Application of proximal surrogate indicators for safety evaluation: A review of recent developments and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sohel Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a number of recent reviews on the use of traffic conflict techniques (TCTs, none have focused on the use of proximal surrogate indicators. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and application of proximal surrogate safety indicators to address this gap. There is a particular focus on more recent advancements in the application of such indicators. For each of the main indicators reviewed, the paper provides a synthesis of the main guiding principles, as well as the most prominent features, including critical or threshold values used in the past. In addition, the main advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed indicators are highlighted. Finally, a number of research gaps are identified together with recommendations for potentially useful avenues of future research. Keywords: Safety evaluation, Traffic conflict, Surrogate, Proximal, Indicators

  15. Human surrogate neck response to +Gz vertical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Uittenbogaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates - the RID 3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models - was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates.

  16. Improving Communication With Surrogate Decision-Makers: A Pilot Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Ellen C; Shi, Zhenzhen; Suppes, Alexandra; Hersh, Jennifer E; Orlander, Jay D; Calhoun, Aaron W; Tung, Judy; Logio, Lia; Manna, Ruth; Bialer, Philip A; Acres, Cathleen A; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-08-01

    Difficult conversations in medical care often occur between physicians and patients' surrogates, individuals entrusted with medical decisions for patients who lack the capacity to make them. Poor communication between patients' surrogates and physicians may exacerbate anxiety and guilt for surrogates, and may contribute to physician stress and burnout. This pilot study assesses the effectiveness of an experiential learning workshop that was conducted in a clinical setting, and aimed at improving resident physician communication skills with a focus on surrogate decision-making. From April through June 2016, we assessed internal medicine residents' baseline communication skills through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with actors representing standardized surrogates. After an intensive, 6-hour communication skills workshop, residents were reassessed via an OSCE on the same day. A faculty facilitator and the surrogate evaluated participants' communication skills via the expanded Gap Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Form. Wilcoxon signed rank tests (α of .05) compared mean pre- and postworkshop scores. Of 44 residents, 33 (75%) participated. Participants' average preworkshop OSCE scores ( M  = 3.3, SD = 0.9) were significantly lower than postworkshop scores ( M  = 4.3; SD = 0.8; Z  = 4.193; P  decision-making benefit from focused interventions. Our pilot assessment of a workshop showed promise, and additionally demonstrated the feasibility of bringing OSCEs and simulated encounters into a busy clinical practice.

  17. Environmental and geographic variables are effective surrogates for genetic variation in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffrey O; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Riginos, Cynthia; Fuller, Richard A

    2017-11-28

    Protected areas buffer species from anthropogenic threats and provide places for the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity to continue. However, genetic variation, the raw material for evolution, is difficult to capture in conservation planning, not least because genetic data require considerable resources to obtain and analyze. Here we show that freely available environmental and geographic distance variables can be highly effective surrogates in conservation planning for representing adaptive and neutral intraspecific genetic variation. We obtained occurrence and genetic data from the IntraBioDiv project for 27 plant species collected over the European Alps using a gridded sampling scheme. For each species, we identified loci that were potentially under selection using outlier loci methods, and mapped their main gradients of adaptive and neutral genetic variation across the grid cells. We then used the cells as planning units to prioritize protected area acquisitions. First, we verified that the spatial patterns of environmental and geographic variation were correlated, respectively, with adaptive and neutral genetic variation. Second, we showed that these surrogates can predict the proportion of genetic variation secured in randomly generated solutions. Finally, we discovered that solutions based only on surrogate information secured substantial amounts of adaptive and neutral genetic variation. Our work paves the way for widespread integration of surrogates for genetic variation into conservation planning.

  18. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  19. Visualization and volumetric structures from MR images of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Robertson, D.

    1994-03-01

    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  20. Surrogate alcohol: what do we know and where do we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of surrogate alcohols (i.e., nonbeverage alcohols and illegally produced alcohols) was shown to impact on different causes of death, not only poisoning or liver disease, and appears to be a major public health problem in Russia and elsewhere. A computer-assisted literature review on chemical composition and health consequences of "surrogate alcohol" was conducted and more than 70 references were identified. A wider definition of the term "surrogate alcohol" was derived, including both nonbeverage alcohols and illegally produced alcohols that contain nonbeverage alcohols. Surrogate alcohol may contain substances that cause severe health consequences including death. Known toxic constituents include lead, which may lead to chronic toxicity, and methanol, which leads to acute poisoning. On the other hand, the role of higher alcohols (e.g., propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol) in the etiology of surrogate-associated diseases is currently unclear. Whether other constituents of surrogates have contributed to the high all-cause mortality over and above the effect of ethanol in recent studies also remains unclear. Given the high public health importance associated with the consumption of surrogate alcohols, further knowledge on its chemical composition is required as well as research on its links to various disease endpoints should be undertaken with priority. Some interventions to reduce the harm resulting from surrogate alcohol could be undertaken already at this point. For example, the use of methanol or methanol-containing wood alcohol should be abolished in denatured alcohol. Other possible surrogates (e.g., automobile products) should be treated with bittering agents to avoid consumption.

  1. Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in digestive oncology trials: which candidates? A questionnaires survey among clinicians and methodologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnetain Franck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall survival (OS is the gold standard for the demonstration of a clinical benefit in cancer trials. Replacement of OS by a surrogate endpoint allows to reduce trial duration. To date, few surrogate endpoints have been validated in digestive oncology. The aim of this study was to draw up an ordered list of potential surrogate endpoints for OS in digestive cancer trials, by way of a survey among clinicians and methodologists. Secondary objective was to obtain their opinion on surrogacy and quality of life (QoL. Methods In 2007 and 2008, self administered sequential questionnaires were sent to a panel of French clinicians and methodologists involved in the conduct of cancer clinical trials. In the first questionnaire, panellists were asked to choose the most important characteristics defining a surrogate among six proposals, to give advantages and drawbacks of the surrogates, and to answer questions about their validation and use. Then they had to suggest potential surrogate endpoints for OS in each of the following tumour sites: oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, biliary tract, lymphoma, colon, rectum, and anus. They finally gave their opinion on QoL as surrogate endpoint. In the second questionnaire, they had to classify the previously proposed candidate surrogates from the most (position #1 to the least relevant in their opinion. Frequency at which the endpoints were chosen as first, second or third most relevant surrogates was calculated and served as final ranking. Results Response rate was 30% (24/80 in the first round and 20% (16/80 in the second one. Participants highlighted key points concerning surrogacy. In particular, they reminded that a surrogate endpoint is expected to predict clinical benefit in a well-defined therapeutic situation. Half of them thought it was not relevant to study QoL as surrogate for OS. DFS, in the neoadjuvant settings or early stages, and PFS, in the non operable or metastatic settings

  2. Hepatology may have problems with putative surrogate outcome measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper; Gong, Yan

    2007-01-01

    A surrogate outcome measure is a laboratory measurement, a physical sign, or another intermediate substitute that is able to predict an intervention's effect on a clinically meaningful outcome. A clinical outcome detects how a patient feels, functions, or survives. Surrogate outcome measures occur...... faster or more often, are cheaper, and/or are less invasively achieved than the clinical outcome. In practice, validation is surprisingly often overlooked, especially if a biologic plausible rationale is proposed. Surrogate outcomes must be validated before use. The first step in validation...... predicts the intervention's effect on the clinical outcome. In hepatology a number of putative surrogate outcomes are used both in clinical research and in clinical practice without having been properly validated. Sustained virological response to interferons and ribavirin in patients with chronic...

  3. A cross-cultural study on surrogate mother's empathy and maternal-foetal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenceau, Ellen Schenkel; Mazzucca, Luis; Tisseron, Serge; Pizitz, Todd D

    2015-06-01

    Traditional and gestational surrogate mothers assist infertile couples by carrying their children. In 2005, a meta-analysis on surrogacy was conducted but no study had examined empathy and maternal-foetal attachment of surrogate mothers. Assessments of surrogate mothers show no sign of psychopathology, but one study showed differences on several MMPI-2 scales compared to a normative sample: surrogate mothers identified with stereotypically masculine traits such as assertiveness and competition. They had a higher self-esteem and lower levels of anxiety and depression. To determine if there is a difference in empathy and maternal-foetal attachment of surrogate mothers compared to a comparison group of mothers. Three groups of European traditional and gestational surrogate mothers (n=10), Anglo-Saxon traditional and gestational surrogate mothers (n=34) and a European normative sample of mothers (n=32) completed four published psychometric instruments: the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy index), the Hospital Anxiety and Depressions Scale and the MC20, a social desirability scale. Pregnant surrogate mothers filled the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (n=11). Statistical non-parametric analyses of variance were conducted. Depending on cultural background, surrogate mothers present differences in terms of empathy, anxiety and depression, social desirability and quality of attachment to the foetus compared to a normative sample. Environment plays a role for traditional and gestational surrogacy. Surrogate mothers of both groups are less anxious and depressed than normative samples. Maternal-foetal attachment is strong with a slightly lower quality of attachment. Surrogate mother's empathy indexes are similar to normative samples, sometimes higher. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health information-seeking on behalf of others: characteristics of "surrogate seekers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Mazor, Kathleen M; Vieux, Sana N; Luger, Tana M; Volkman, Julie E; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the behaviors of surrogate seekers (those who seek health information for others) may guide efforts to improve health information transmission. We used 2011-2012 data from the Health Information National Trends Survey to describe behaviors of online surrogate seekers. Respondents were asked about use of the Internet for surrogate-seeking over the prior 12 months. Data were weighted to calculate population estimates. Two thirds (66.6%) reported surrogate-seeking. Compared to those who sought health information online for only themselves, surrogate seekers were more likely to live in households with others (weighted percent 89.4 vs. 82.5% of self-seekers; p user-generated content: email communication with healthcare providers; visits to social networking sites to read and share about medical topics and participation in online health support groups. On multivariate analysis, those who had looked online for healthcare providers were more likely to be surrogate seekers (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.59). In addition to seeking health information, surrogate seekers create and pass along communications that may influence medical care decisions. Research is needed to identify ways to facilitate transmission of accurate health information.

  5. Solubility of actinides and surrogates in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear wastes are currently incorporated in borosilicate glass matrices. The resulting glass must be perfectly homogeneous. The work discussed here is a study of actinide (thorium and plutonium) solubility in borosilicate glass, undertaken to assess the extent of actinide solubility in the glass and to understand the mechanisms controlling actinide solubilization. Glass specimens containing; actinide surrogates were used to prepare and optimize the fabrication of radioactive glass samples. These preliminary studies revealed that actinide Surrogates solubility in the glass was enhanced by controlling the processing temperature, the dissolution kinetic of the surrogate precursors, the glass composition and the oxidizing versus reducing conditions. The actinide solubility was investigated in the borosilicate glass. The evolution of thorium solubility in borosilicate glass was determined for temperatures ranging from 1200 deg C to 1400 deg C.Borosilicate glass specimens containing plutonium were fabricated. The experimental result showed that the plutonium solubility limit ranged from 1 to 2.5 wt% PuO 2 at 1200 deg C. A structural approach based on the determination of the local structure around actinides and their surrogates by EXAFS spectroscopy was used to determine their structural role in the glass and the nature of their bonding with the vitreous network. This approach revealed a correlation between the length of these bonds and the solubility of the actinides and their surrogates. (author)

  6. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...... effects are analyzed. The applied consolidation pressure is found to have a marked effect on the volumetric composition. A power-law relationship is found to well describe the found relations between the maximum obtainable fiber volume fraction and the consolidation pressure. The degree of fiber...

  7. Using surrogate biomarkers to improve measurement error models in nutritional epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology relies largely on self-reported measures of dietary intake, errors in which give biased estimated diet–disease associations. Self-reported measurements come from questionnaires and food records. Unbiased biomarkers are scarce; however, surrogate biomarkers, which are correlated with intake but not unbiased, can also be useful. It is important to quantify and correct for the effects of measurement error on diet–disease associations. Challenges arise because there is no gold standard, and errors in self-reported measurements are correlated with true intake and each other. We describe an extended model for error in questionnaire, food record, and surrogate biomarker measurements. The focus is on estimating the degree of bias in estimated diet–disease associations due to measurement error. In particular, we propose using sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of changes in values of model parameters which are usually assumed fixed. The methods are motivated by and applied to measures of fruit and vegetable intake from questionnaires, 7-day diet diaries, and surrogate biomarker (plasma vitamin C) from over 25000 participants in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Our results show that the estimated effects of error in self-reported measurements are highly sensitive to model assumptions, resulting in anything from a large attenuation to a small amplification in the diet–disease association. Commonly made assumptions could result in a large overcorrection for the effects of measurement error. Increased understanding of relationships between potential surrogate biomarkers and true dietary intake is essential for obtaining good estimates of the effects of measurement error in self-reported measurements on observed diet–disease associations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23553407

  8. The effectiveness of surrogate taxa to conserve freshwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Underwood, Zachary E.; Rahel, Frank J.; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing protected areas has long been an effective conservation strategy, and is often based on more readily surveyed species. The potential of any freshwater taxa to be a surrogate of other aquatic groups has not been fully explored. We compiled occurrence data on 72 species of freshwater fish, amphibians, mussels, and aquatic reptiles for the Great Plains, Wyoming. We used hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models and MaxEnt models to describe species distributions, and program Zonation to identify conservation priority areas for each aquatic group. The landscape-scale factors that best characterized aquatic species distributions differed among groups. There was low agreement and congruence among taxa-specific conservation priorities (<20%), meaning that no surrogate priority areas would include or protect the best habitats of other aquatic taxa. We found that common, wide-ranging aquatic species were included in taxa-specific priority areas, but rare freshwater species were not included. Thus, the development of conservation priorities based on a single freshwater aquatic group would not protect all species in the other aquatic groups.

  9. Conservative strategy-based ensemble surrogate model for optimal groundwater remediation design at DNAPLs-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Lu, Wenxi; Lin, Jin; Deng, Wenbing; Cheng, Weiguo

    2017-08-01

    The surrogate-based simulation-optimization techniques are frequently used for optimal groundwater remediation design. When this technique is used, surrogate errors caused by surrogate-modeling uncertainty may lead to generation of infeasible designs. In this paper, a conservative strategy that pushes the optimal design into the feasible region was used to address surrogate-modeling uncertainty. In addition, chance-constrained programming (CCP) was adopted to compare with the conservative strategy in addressing this uncertainty. Three methods, multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP), Kriging (KRG) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to construct surrogate models for a time-consuming multi-phase flow model. To improve the performance of the surrogate model, ensemble surrogates were constructed based on combinations of different stand-alone surrogate models. The results show that: (1) the surrogate-modeling uncertainty was successfully addressed by the conservative strategy, which means that this method is promising for addressing surrogate-modeling uncertainty. (2) The ensemble surrogate model that combines MGGP with KRG showed the most favorable performance, which indicates that this ensemble surrogate can utilize both stand-alone surrogate models to improve the performance of the surrogate model.

  10. Italian gay fathers' experiences of transnational surrogacy and their relationship with the surrogate pre- and post-birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Nicola; Baiocco, Roberto; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to explore the experience of transnational surrogacy and the relationship with the surrogate pre- and post-birth in Italian gay father families. Couple and individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 Italian gay partnered fathers with at least one child born through gestational surrogacy in California or Canada. No couples had known their surrogates or egg donors previously. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis indicated that three interrelated themes could be helpful for understanding the gay fathers' experience of their geographical distance from the surrogate: the perceived loss of control over the pregnancy; the surrogate as a person who facilitates the fathers' feelings of being emotionally connected to their developing child; the surrogate as an 'aunty' who, along with her family, maintains a relationship with the fathers. None of the fathers mentioned the egg donor during the interview. The study inspires reflections in offshore fertility practitioners on how pre- and ongoing surrogacy counselling for prospective gay fathers should be tailored. It further calls for the necessity of offering psychological counselling in gay fathers' resident countries in order to promote informed decisions before starting surrogacy abroad and to elaborate on potential difficulties related to surrogacy after the child's birth. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surrogate for oropharyngeal cancer HPV status in cancer database studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Chen, Michelle M; Ma, Yifei; Divi, Vasu

    2017-12-01

    The utility of cancer databases for oropharyngeal cancer studies is limited by lack of information on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. The purpose of this study was to develop a surrogate that can be used to adjust for the effect of HPV status on survival. The study cohort included 6419 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012, identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The HPV surrogate score was developed using a logistic regression model predicting HPV-positive status. The HPV surrogate score was predictive of HPV status (area under the curve [AUC] 0.73; accuracy of 70.4%). Similar to HPV-positive tumors, HPV surrogate positive tumors were associated with improved overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.91; P = .005), after adjusting for important covariates. The HPV surrogate score is useful for adjusting for the effect of HPV status on survival in studies utilizing cancer databases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Error modeling for surrogates of dynamical systems using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Sumeet; Carlberg, Kevin T.; Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2017-12-01

    A machine-learning-based framework for modeling the error introduced by surrogate models of parameterized dynamical systems is proposed. The framework entails the use of high-dimensional regression techniques (e.g., random forests, LASSO) to map a large set of inexpensively computed `error indicators' (i.e., features) produced by the surrogate model at a given time instance to a prediction of the surrogate-model error in a quantity of interest (QoI). This eliminates the need for the user to hand-select a small number of informative features. The methodology requires a training set of parameter instances at which the time-dependent surrogate-model error is computed by simulating both the high-fidelity and surrogate models. Using these training data, the method first determines regression-model locality (via classification or clustering), and subsequently constructs a `local' regression model to predict the time-instantaneous error within each identified region of feature space. We consider two uses for the resulting error model: (1) as a correction to the surrogate-model QoI prediction at each time instance, and (2) as a way to statistically model arbitrary functions of the time-dependent surrogate-model error (e.g., time-integrated errors). We apply the proposed framework to model errors in reduced-order models of nonlinear oil--water subsurface flow simulations. The reduced-order models used in this work entail application of trajectory piecewise linearization with proper orthogonal decomposition. When the first use of the method is considered, numerical experiments demonstrate consistent improvement in accuracy in the time-instantaneous QoI prediction relative to the original surrogate model, across a large number of test cases. When the second use is considered, results show that the proposed method provides accurate statistical predictions of the time- and well-averaged errors.

  13. Systematic review: the effect on surrogates of making treatment decisions for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Rid, Annette

    2011-03-01

    Clinical practice relies on surrogates to make or help to make treatment decisions for incapacitated adults; however, the effect of this practice on surrogates has not been evaluated. To assess the effect on surrogates of making treatment decisions for adults who cannot make their own decisions. Empirical studies published in English and listed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BIOETHICSLINE, PsycINFO, or Scopus before 1 July 2010. Eligible studies provided quantitative or qualitative empirical data, by evaluating surrogates, regarding the effect on surrogates of making treatment decisions for an incapacitated adult. Information on study location, number and type of surrogates, timing of data collection, type of decisions, patient setting, methods, main findings, and limitations. 40 studies, 29 using qualitative and 11 using quantitative methods, provided data on 2854 surrogates, more than one half of whom were family members of the patient. Most surrogates were surveyed several months to years after making treatment decisions, the majority of which were end-of-life decisions. The quantitative studies found that at least one third of surrogates experienced a negative emotional burden as the result of making treatment decisions. The qualitative studies reported that many or most surrogates experienced negative emotional burden. The negative effects on surrogates were often substantial and typically lasted months or, in some cases, years. The most common negative effects cited by surrogates were stress, guilt over the decisions they made, and doubt regarding whether they had made the right decisions. Nine of the 40 studies also reported beneficial effects on a few surrogates, the most common of which were supporting the patient and feeling a sense of satisfaction. Knowing which treatment is consistent with the patient's preferences was frequently cited as reducing the negative effect on surrogates. Thirty-two of the 40 articles reported data collected in the United States

  14. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  15. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Venkatesan, Ramesh; Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  16. ACOG committee opinion number 397, February 2008: surrogate motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Ethical responsibilities are described for obstetrician-gynecologists who choose to participate in surrogacy arrangements by 1) advising couples who are considering surrogacy, 2) counseling potential surrogate mothers, 3) providing obstetric services for pregnant women participating in surrogacy, or 4) offering assisted reproductive technologies related to surrogacy. Although the obligations of physicians will vary depending on the type and level of their involvement, in all cases physicians should carefully examine all relevant issues related to surrogacy, including medical, ethical, legal, and psychologic aspects.

  17. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  18. Uncertainty quantification for accident management using ACE surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varuttamaseni, A.; Lee, J. C.; Youngblood, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The alternating conditional expectation (ACE) regression method is used to generate RELAP5 surrogates which are then used to determine the distribution of the peak clad temperature (PCT) during the loss of feedwater accident coupled with a subsequent initiation of the feed and bleed (F and B) operation in the Zion-1 nuclear power plant. The construction of the surrogates assumes conditional independence relations among key reactor parameters. The choice of parameters to model is based on the macroscopic balance statements governing the behavior of the reactor. The peak clad temperature is calculated based on the independent variables that are known to be important in determining the success of the F and B operation. The relationship between these independent variables and the plant parameters such as coolant pressure and temperature is represented by surrogates that are constructed based on 45 RELAP5 cases. The time-dependent PCT for different values of F and B parameters is calculated by sampling the independent variables from their probability distributions and propagating the information through two layers of surrogates. The results of our analysis show that the ACE surrogates are able to satisfactorily reproduce the behavior of the plant parameters even though a quasi-static assumption is primarily used in their construction. The PCT is found to be lower in cases where the F and B operation is initiated, compared to the case without F and B, regardless of the F and B parameters used. (authors)

  19. TOXICITY OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality criteria (WQC) generally are based on the responses of easily cultured and tested surrogate species. Little is known about the relative sensitivity of surrogate and endangered species. The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic (early life-stage) ...

  20. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is of importance for the prediction of mechanical and physical properties, and in particular to assess the best possible (normally the highest) values for these properties. The volumetric model for the composition of (fibrous) composites gives...... guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....

  1. Effectiveness of biological surrogates for predicting patterns of marine biodiversity: a global meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mellin

    Full Text Available The use of biological surrogates as proxies for biodiversity patterns is gaining popularity, particularly in marine systems where field surveys can be expensive and species richness high. Yet, uncertainty regarding their applicability remains because of inconsistency of definitions, a lack of standard methods for estimating effectiveness, and variable spatial scales considered. We present a Bayesian meta-analysis of the effectiveness of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems. Surrogate effectiveness was defined both as the proportion of surrogacy tests where predictions based on surrogates were better than random (i.e., low probability of making a Type I error; P and as the predictability of targets using surrogates (R(2. A total of 264 published surrogacy tests combined with prior probabilities elicited from eight international experts demonstrated that the habitat, spatial scale, type of surrogate and statistical method used all influenced surrogate effectiveness, at least according to either P or R(2. The type of surrogate used (higher-taxa, cross-taxa or subset taxa was the best predictor of P, with the higher-taxa surrogates outperforming all others. The marine habitat was the best predictor of R(2, with particularly low predictability in tropical reefs. Surrogate effectiveness was greatest for higher-taxa surrogates at a <10-km spatial scale, in low-complexity marine habitats such as soft bottoms, and using multivariate-based methods. Comparisons with terrestrial studies in terms of the methods used to study surrogates revealed that marine applications still ignore some problems with several widely used statistical approaches to surrogacy. Our study provides a benchmark for the reliable use of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems, and highlights directions for future development of biological surrogates in predicting biodiversity.

  2. Gating treatment delivery QA based on a surrogate motion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnowski, J.; Simpson, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: To develop a methodology to estimate intrafractional target position error during a phase-based gated treatment. Westmead Cancer Care Centre is using respiratory correlated phase-based gated beam delivery in the treatment of lung cancer. The gating technique is managed by the Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) system, version 1.7.5. A 6-dot block is placed on the abdomen of the patient and acts as a surrogate for the target motion. During a treatment session, the motion of the surrogate can be recorded by RPM application. Analysis of the surrogate motion file by in-house developed software allows the intrafractional error of the treatment session to be computed. To validate the computed error, a simple test that involves the introduction of deliberate errors is performed. Errors of up to 1.1 cm are introduced to a metal marker placed on a surrogate using the Varian Breathing Phantom. The moving marker was scanned in prospective mode using a GE Lightspeed 16 CT scanner. Using the CT images, a difference of the marker position with and without introduced errors is compared to the calculated errors based on the surrogate motion. The average and standard deviation of a difference between calculated target position errors and measured introduced artificial errors of the marker position is 0.02 cm and 0.07 cm respectively. Conclusion The calculated target positional error based on surrogate motion analysis provides a quantitative measure of intrafractional target positional errors during treatment. Routine QA for gated treatment using surrogate motion analysis is relatively quick and simple.

  3. One mum too few: maternal status in host surrogate motherhood arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    In a host surrogate motherhood arrangement, the surrogate agrees to be implanted with, and carry to term, an embryo created from the commissioning couple's gametes. When the surrogate child is born, it is the surrogate mother who, according to UK law, holds the legal status of mother. By contrast, the commissioning mother possesses no maternal status and she can only attain it once the surrogate agrees to the completion of the arrangement. One consequence of this is that, in the event that a host arrangement fails, the commissioning mother is left without maternal status. In this paper, I argue that this denial of maternal status misrepresents the commissioning mother's role in the host arrangement and her relationship with the surrogate child. Consequently, I suggest that commissioning mothers participating in host surrogacy arrangements ought to be granted the status of mother in the event that the arrangement fails. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Legal regulation of surrogate motherhood in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, D A

    2001-01-01

    The Israeli Law on surrogate motherhood demands a preconception agreement to include payments to be made to the surrogate mother. Surrogacy arrangements with family members are forbidden. Commercial surrogacy is allowed and encouraged. The Law causes many problems. Validity of consent given by surrogate mothers is doubtful. Possible future psychological harm are ignored. There is a danger of "commodification" of children. Abusing women of low socio-economic status as breeding machines may be another outcome. No clear responsibility is imposed on the "intended parents" for an impaired child. The law ignores possibility of divorce or death of the "intended parents" before the child's birth. Splitting motherhood is another social problem that has to be dealt with. So far the sperm of the husband from the "intended parents" has to be used, but further steps may follow. It is not certain that a policy of "positive eugenics" will not develop.

  5. Influence of ethanol and EGR on laminar burning behaviors of FACE-C gasoline and its surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama Abde El Hamid; Mansour, Morkous; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Laminar burning velocities of FACE-C gasoline and a surrogate comprised of toluene primary reference fuels (TPRFs) were investigated under the effects of EGR dilution and ethanol blending. Measurements were conducted in a spherical constant volume combustion chamber for a range of equivalence ratios from 0.8 to 1.6 at initial temperatures and pressures up to 383 K and 0.6 MPa, respectively. These measurements highlighted the effects of real combustion residuals at mole fractions up to 0.3 and various volumetric percentages of ethanol blending. For both studied fuels, significant reductions in stretched and un-stretched flame speeds were observed for mixtures laden with real combustion residuals. Blends with less than 50% ethanol showed a minimal enhancement in the flame speed. By combining both EGR and ethanol blending, the flame speed reduction by EGR can be compensated for with ethanol addition. For example, up to 10% of EGR requires 60% ethanol blending to maintain the same flame speed. Flame stability enhancement by EGR addition was also quantified through the determination of the Markstein length.

  6. Influence of ethanol and EGR on laminar burning behaviors of FACE-C gasoline and its surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama Abde El Hamid

    2017-10-31

    Laminar burning velocities of FACE-C gasoline and a surrogate comprised of toluene primary reference fuels (TPRFs) were investigated under the effects of EGR dilution and ethanol blending. Measurements were conducted in a spherical constant volume combustion chamber for a range of equivalence ratios from 0.8 to 1.6 at initial temperatures and pressures up to 383 K and 0.6 MPa, respectively. These measurements highlighted the effects of real combustion residuals at mole fractions up to 0.3 and various volumetric percentages of ethanol blending. For both studied fuels, significant reductions in stretched and un-stretched flame speeds were observed for mixtures laden with real combustion residuals. Blends with less than 50% ethanol showed a minimal enhancement in the flame speed. By combining both EGR and ethanol blending, the flame speed reduction by EGR can be compensated for with ethanol addition. For example, up to 10% of EGR requires 60% ethanol blending to maintain the same flame speed. Flame stability enhancement by EGR addition was also quantified through the determination of the Markstein length.

  7. Comparing and combining biomarkers as principle surrogates for time-to-event clinical endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Erin E; Sachs, Michael C; Gilbert, Peter B

    2015-02-10

    Principal surrogate endpoints are useful as targets for phase I and II trials. In many recent trials, multiple post-randomization biomarkers are measured. However, few statistical methods exist for comparison of or combination of biomarkers as principal surrogates, and none of these methods to our knowledge utilize time-to-event clinical endpoint information. We propose a Weibull model extension of the semi-parametric estimated maximum likelihood method that allows for the inclusion of multiple biomarkers in the same risk model as multivariate candidate principal surrogates. We propose several methods for comparing candidate principal surrogates and evaluating multivariate principal surrogates. These include the time-dependent and surrogate-dependent true and false positive fraction, the time-dependent and the integrated standardized total gain, and the cumulative distribution function of the risk difference. We illustrate the operating characteristics of our proposed methods in simulations and outline how these statistics can be used to evaluate and compare candidate principal surrogates. We use these methods to investigate candidate surrogates in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Surrogate Parenthood Act 1988 (No. 65 of 1988), 6 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1988 Queensland Australia Act prohibiting surrogate parenthood contracts. The Act defines "surrogate parent" and "prescribed contract" and prohibits the publication of any type of document which intends to induce a person to act as a surrogate parent, to seek such a person, or to state willingness to act as a surrogate. Offering to enter into a prescribed contract holds a penalty of 100 penalty units or three years' imprisonment or both. This Act applies if the offense occurs in Queensland or if the offender is normally a resident of Queensland, irrespective of where the offense occurs.

  9. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  10. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is l...

  11. The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Nishtha; Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Kadam, K; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2018-01-01

    Study question: How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? Summary answer: Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers. What is already known: Studies in the West have found that surrogates do not suffer long-term psychol...

  12. Surrogate utility estimation by long-term partners and unfamiliar dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Richard J; Ziegler, Fenja V

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are people able to make predictions about other people's preferences and values?We report two experiments that present a novel method assessing some of the basic processes in surrogate decision-making, namely surrogate-utility estimation. In each experiment participants formed dyads who were asked to assign utilities to health related items and commodity items, and to predict their partner's utility judgments for the same items. In experiment one we showed that older adults in long-term relationships were able to accurately predict their partner's wishes. In experiment two we showed that younger adults who were relatively unfamiliar with one another were also able to predict other people's wishes. Crucially we demonstrated that these judgments were accurate even after partialling out each participant's own preferences indicating that in order to make surrogate utility estimations people engage in perspective-taking rather than simple anchoring and adjustment, suggesting that utility estimation is not the cause of inaccuracy in surrogate decision-making. The data and implications are discussed with respect to theories of surrogate decision-making.

  13. Surrogate utility estimation by long-term partners and unfamiliar dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Tunney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are people able to make predictions about other people’s preferences and values? We report two experiments that present a novel method assessing some of the basic processes in surrogate decision-making, namely surrogate-utility estimation. In each experiment participants formed dyads who were asked to assign utilities to health related items and commodity items, and to predict their partner’s utility judgments for the same items. In experiment one we showed that older adults in long-term relationships were able to accurately predict their partner’s wishes. In experiment two we showed that younger adults who were relatively unfamiliar with one another were also able to predict other people’s wishes. Crucially we demonstrated that these judgments were accurate even after partialling out each participant’s own preferences indicating that in order to make surrogate utility estimations people engage in perspective-taking rather than simple anchoring and adjustment, suggesting that utility estimation is not the cause of inaccuracy in surrogate decision-making. The data and implications are discussed with respect to theories of surrogate decision-making.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest in children with cystic fibrosis: support for use as an outcome surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brody, A.S. [Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Molina, P.L. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Klein, J.S. [Department of Radiology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont (United States); Rothman, B.S. [University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ramagopal, M.; Swartz, D.R. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Background. Outcome surrogates are indicators that reflect, rather than directly measure, patient benefit. In order to provide useful results, however, outcome surrogates must be carefully chosen and must meet specific criteria. Objective. To support development of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) as an outcome surrogate in cystic fibrosis (CF) by demonstrating the ability of HRCT to show short-term improvement in the appearance of the lungs in children with CF. Materials and methods. HRCT was performed at admission and after discharge on 8 children during 15 admissions for acute pulmonary exacerbation of CF. Three radiologists scored each study separately, then compared admission and discharge pairs. Results. HRCT scores improved in 13/15 admissions. Mean score decreased from 25 to 22. The decrease was significant (P = 0.014). Comparison of admission and discharge scans showed improvement in peribronchial thickening (P = 0.007), mucous plugging (P = 0.002), and overall appearance (P = 0.025). Conclusion. HRCT has the potential to be a useful outcome surrogate in CF. A necessary attribute of an outcome surrogate is that it improves rapidly with effective therapy. Despite widespread belief among radiologists and pulmonologists that HRCT meets this criterion, no previous report has demonstrated this ability in children. These findings support further development of HRCT as an outcome surrogate in children with CF. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  15. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest in children with cystic fibrosis: support for use as an outcome surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, A.S.; Molina, P.L.; Klein, J.S.; Rothman, B.S.; Ramagopal, M.; Swartz, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Outcome surrogates are indicators that reflect, rather than directly measure, patient benefit. In order to provide useful results, however, outcome surrogates must be carefully chosen and must meet specific criteria. Objective. To support development of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) as an outcome surrogate in cystic fibrosis (CF) by demonstrating the ability of HRCT to show short-term improvement in the appearance of the lungs in children with CF. Materials and methods. HRCT was performed at admission and after discharge on 8 children during 15 admissions for acute pulmonary exacerbation of CF. Three radiologists scored each study separately, then compared admission and discharge pairs. Results. HRCT scores improved in 13/15 admissions. Mean score decreased from 25 to 22. The decrease was significant (P = 0.014). Comparison of admission and discharge scans showed improvement in peribronchial thickening (P = 0.007), mucous plugging (P = 0.002), and overall appearance (P = 0.025). Conclusion. HRCT has the potential to be a useful outcome surrogate in CF. A necessary attribute of an outcome surrogate is that it improves rapidly with effective therapy. Despite widespread belief among radiologists and pulmonologists that HRCT meets this criterion, no previous report has demonstrated this ability in children. These findings support further development of HRCT as an outcome surrogate in children with CF. (orig.)

  16. Surrogate mothers 10 years on: a longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S; Golombok, S

    2015-02-01

    How do the psychological health and experiences of surrogate mothers change from 1 year to 10 years following the birth of the surrogacy child? The psychological well-being of surrogate mothers did not change 10 years following the birth, with all remaining positive about the surrogacy arrangement and the majority continuing to report good mental health. Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficult, but do not experience psychological problems 6 months or 1 year later. Research has also shown that surrogates can form close relationships with the intended parents during the pregnancy which may continue after the birth. This study used a prospective longitudinal design, in which 20 surrogates were seen at two time points: 1 year following the birth of the surrogacy child and 10 years later. The 20 surrogates (representing 59% of the original sample) participated in a semi-structured interview and completed self-report questionnaires. Eleven surrogates were gestational carriers and nine surrogates had used their own oocyte (genetic surrogacy). Four were previously known to the intended parents and 16 were previously not known. Ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child, surrogate mothers scored within the normal range for self-esteem and did not show signs of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Marital quality remained positive over time. All surrogates reported that their expectations of their relationship with the intended parents had been either met or exceeded and most reported positive feelings towards the child. In terms of expectations for the future, most surrogates reported that they would like to maintain contact or would be available to the child if the child wished to contact them. None expressed regrets about their involvement in surrogacy. The sample size of this study was small and the women may not be representative of all surrogates. Therefore the extent to which these findings can

  17. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  18. Reduced order surrogate modelling (ROSM) of high dimensional deterministic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Mina

    Often, computationally expensive engineering simulations can prohibit the engineering design process. As a result, designers may turn to a less computationally demanding approximate, or surrogate, model to facilitate their design process. However, owing to the the curse of dimensionality, classical surrogate models become too computationally expensive for high dimensional data. To address this limitation of classical methods, we develop linear and non-linear Reduced Order Surrogate Modelling (ROSM) techniques. Two algorithms are presented, which are based on a combination of linear/kernel principal component analysis and radial basis functions. These algorithms are applied to subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data, as well as a model for a chemical spill in a channel. The results of this thesis show that ROSM can provide a significant computational benefit over classical surrogate modelling, sometimes at the expense of a minor loss in accuracy.

  19. Design, Implementation and Characterization of a Quantum-Dot-Based Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Tate, Naoya; Shiraki, Atsushi; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a volumetric display system based on quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a polymer substrate. Unlike conventional volumetric displays, our system does not require electrical wiring; thus, the heretofore unavoidable issue of occlusion is resolved because irradiation by external light supplies the energy to the light-emitting voxels formed by the QDs. By exploiting the intrinsic attributes of the QDs, the system offers ultrahigh definition and a wide range of colours for volumetric displays. In this paper, we discuss the design, implementation and characterization of the proposed volumetric display's first prototype. We developed an 8 × 8 × 8 display comprising two types of QDs. This display provides multicolour three-type two-dimensional patterns when viewed from different angles. The QD-based volumetric display provides a new way to represent images and could be applied in leisure and advertising industries, among others.

  20. Global Optimization Employing Gaussian Process-Based Bayesian Surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Preuss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of complex physics models may lead to enormous computer running times. Since the simulations are expensive it is necessary to exploit the computational budget in the best possible manner. If for a few input parameter settings an output data set has been acquired, one could be interested in taking these data as a basis for finding an extremum and possibly an input parameter set for further computer simulations to determine it—a task which belongs to the realm of global optimization. Within the Bayesian framework we utilize Gaussian processes for the creation of a surrogate model function adjusted self-consistently via hyperparameters to represent the data. Although the probability distribution of the hyperparameters may be widely spread over phase space, we make the assumption that only the use of their expectation values is sufficient. While this shortcut facilitates a quickly accessible surrogate, it is somewhat justified by the fact that we are not interested in a full representation of the model by the surrogate but to reveal its maximum. To accomplish this the surrogate is fed to a utility function whose extremum determines the new parameter set for the next data point to obtain. Moreover, we propose to alternate between two utility functions—expected improvement and maximum variance—in order to avoid the drawbacks of each. Subsequent data points are drawn from the model function until the procedure either remains in the points found or the surrogate model does not change with the iteration. The procedure is applied to mock data in one and two dimensions in order to demonstrate proof of principle of the proposed approach.

  1. Surrogate motherhood in illness that does not cause infertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surrogate motherhood in South Africa (SA) is regulated by the. Children's Act,[1] the National Health Act[2] and its regulations,[3] and court cases.[4-6] The Children's Act formulates the legal requirement for a commissioning parent or parents to legally access surrogacy:[1]. 'A court may not confirm a surrogate motherhood ...

  2. The relationship between limited MRI section analyses and volumetric assessment of synovitis in knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, L.A.; Keenan, A.-M.; Grainger, A.J.; Emery, P.; McGonagle, D.; Conaghan, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether simple, limited section analysis can replace detailed volumetric assessment of synovitis in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with clinical and radiographic OA of the knee were assessed for synovitis using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The volume of enhancing synovium was quantitatively assessed in four anatomical sites (the medial and lateral parapatellar recesses, the intercondylar notch and the suprapatellar pouch) by summing the volumes of synovitis in consecutive sections. Four different combinations of section analysis were evaluated for their ability to predict total synovial volume. RESULTS: A total of 114 intra-articular sites were assessed. Simple linear regression demonstrated that the best predictor of total synovial volume was the analysis containing the inferior, mid and superior sections of each of the intra-articular sites, which predicted between 40-80% (r 2 =0.396, p 2 =0.818, p<0.001 for medial parapatellar recess) of the total volume assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a three-section analysis on axial post-gadolinium sequences provides a simple surrogate measure of synovial volume in OA knees

  3. The relationship between limited MRI section analyses and volumetric assessment of synovitis in knee osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, L.A. [Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds and Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: lar@medphysics.leeds.ac.uk; Keenan, A.-M. [Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal Disease, University of Leeds and Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Emery, P. [Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal Disease, University of Leeds and Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); McGonagle, D. [Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal Disease, University of Leeds and Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Calderdale Royal Hospital, Salterhebble, Halifax (United Kingdom); Conaghan, P.G. [Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal Disease, University of Leeds and Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    AIM: To assess whether simple, limited section analysis can replace detailed volumetric assessment of synovitis in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with clinical and radiographic OA of the knee were assessed for synovitis using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The volume of enhancing synovium was quantitatively assessed in four anatomical sites (the medial and lateral parapatellar recesses, the intercondylar notch and the suprapatellar pouch) by summing the volumes of synovitis in consecutive sections. Four different combinations of section analysis were evaluated for their ability to predict total synovial volume. RESULTS: A total of 114 intra-articular sites were assessed. Simple linear regression demonstrated that the best predictor of total synovial volume was the analysis containing the inferior, mid and superior sections of each of the intra-articular sites, which predicted between 40-80% (r {sup 2}=0.396, p<0.001 for notch; r {sup 2}=0.818, p<0.001 for medial parapatellar recess) of the total volume assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a three-section analysis on axial post-gadolinium sequences provides a simple surrogate measure of synovial volume in OA knees.

  4. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles J; Cannella, William J; Bays, J Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D; Gieleciak, Rafal M; Huber, Marcia L; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S; Pitz, William J; Ratcliff, Matthew A

    2016-02-18

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements.

  5. Surrogate decision making and intellectual virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by a religiously motivated surrogate decision maker whose decisions are contrary to the standard of care; therefore, surrogate decision making should be held to a high standard. Stewart Eskew and Christopher Meyers proposed a two-part rule for deciding which religiously based decisions to honor: (1) a secular reason condition and (2) a rationality condition. The second condition is based on a coherence theory of rationality, which they claim is accessible, generous, and culturally sensitive. In this article, I will propose strengthening the rationality condition by grounding it in a theory of intellectual virtue, which is both rigorous and culturally sensitive. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  6. Discrepant longitudinal volumetric and metabolic evolution of diffuse intrinsic Pontine gliomas during treatment: implications for current response assessment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebel, U. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Hwang, S.; Edwards, A.; Patay, Z. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Li, Y.; Li, X. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Broniscer, A. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Pediatrics, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that in infiltrative high-grade brainstem neoplasms, such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), longitudinal metabolic evaluation of the tumor by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be more accurate than volumetric data for monitoring the tumor's biological evolution during standard treatment. We evaluated longitudinal MRS data and corresponding tumor volumes of 31 children with DIPG. We statistically analyzed correlations between tumor volume and ratios of Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cr at key time points during the course of the disease through the end of the progression-free survival period. By the end of RT, tumor volume had significantly decreased from the baseline (P <.0001) and remained decreased through the last available follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study (P =.007632). However, the metabolic profile of the tumor tissue (Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, and Cho/NAA ratios) did not change significantly over time. Our data show that longitudinal tumor volume and metabolic profile changes are dissociated in patients with DIPG during progression-free survival. Volume changes, therefore, may not accurately reflect treatment-related changes in tumor burden. This study adds to the existing body of evidence that the value of conventional MRI metrics, including volumetric data, needs to be reevaluated critically and, in infiltrative tumors in particular, may not be useful as study end-points in clinical trials. We submit that advanced quantitative MRI data, including robust, MRS-based metabolic ratios and diffusion and perfusion metrics, may be better surrogate markers of key end-points in clinical trials. (orig.)

  7. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Mueller, C J

    2009-12-09

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and n-dodecane that are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For two-ring compounds, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multi-dimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real

  8. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Kaye, Jason; Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform's value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mcfit) online operations, where cfit denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m ≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 105M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in generating new waveforms with a

  9. Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Principal Stratification Criteria and the Prentice Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B; Gabriel, Erin E; Huang, Ying; Chan, Ivan S F

    2015-09-01

    A common problem of interest within a randomized clinical trial is the evaluation of an inexpensive response endpoint as a valid surrogate endpoint for a clinical endpoint, where a chief purpose of a valid surrogate is to provide a way to make correct inferences on clinical treatment effects in future studies without needing to collect the clinical endpoint data. Within the principal stratification framework for addressing this problem based on data from a single randomized clinical efficacy trial, a variety of definitions and criteria for a good surrogate endpoint have been proposed, all based on or closely related to the "principal effects" or "causal effect predictiveness (CEP)" surface. We discuss CEP-based criteria for a useful surrogate endpoint, including (1) the meaning and relative importance of proposed criteria including average causal necessity (ACN), average causal sufficiency (ACS), and large clinical effect modification; (2) the relationship between these criteria and the Prentice definition of a valid surrogate endpoint; and (3) the relationship between these criteria and the consistency criterion (i.e., assurance against the "surrogate paradox"). This includes the result that ACN plus a strong version of ACS generally do not imply the Prentice definition nor the consistency criterion, but they do have these implications in special cases. Moreover, the converse does not hold except in a special case with a binary candidate surrogate. The results highlight that assumptions about the treatment effect on the clinical endpoint before the candidate surrogate is measured are influential for the ability to draw conclusions about the Prentice definition or consistency. In addition, we emphasize that in some scenarios that occur commonly in practice, the principal strata sub-populations for inference are identifiable from the observable data, in which cases the principal stratification framework has relatively high utility for the purpose of effect

  10. Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Principal Stratification Criteria and the Prentice Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B.; Gabriel, Erin E.; Huang, Ying; Chan, Ivan S.F.

    2015-01-01

    A common problem of interest within a randomized clinical trial is the evaluation of an inexpensive response endpoint as a valid surrogate endpoint for a clinical endpoint, where a chief purpose of a valid surrogate is to provide a way to make correct inferences on clinical treatment effects in future studies without needing to collect the clinical endpoint data. Within the principal stratification framework for addressing this problem based on data from a single randomized clinical efficacy trial, a variety of definitions and criteria for a good surrogate endpoint have been proposed, all based on or closely related to the “principal effects” or “causal effect predictiveness (CEP)” surface. We discuss CEP-based criteria for a useful surrogate endpoint, including (1) the meaning and relative importance of proposed criteria including average causal necessity (ACN), average causal sufficiency (ACS), and large clinical effect modification; (2) the relationship between these criteria and the Prentice definition of a valid surrogate endpoint; and (3) the relationship between these criteria and the consistency criterion (i.e., assurance against the “surrogate paradox”). This includes the result that ACN plus a strong version of ACS generally do not imply the Prentice definition nor the consistency criterion, but they do have these implications in special cases. Moreover, the converse does not hold except in a special case with a binary candidate surrogate. The results highlight that assumptions about the treatment effect on the clinical endpoint before the candidate surrogate is measured are influential for the ability to draw conclusions about the Prentice definition or consistency. In addition, we emphasize that in some scenarios that occur commonly in practice, the principal strata sub-populations for inference are identifiable from the observable data, in which cases the principal stratification framework has relatively high utility for the purpose of

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  12. Critical care physicians’ approaches to negotiating with surrogate decision makers: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, David R.; Brown, Crystal E.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how critical care physicians manage conflicts with surrogates about withdrawing or withholding patients’ life support. Design Qualitative analysis of key informant interviews with critical care physicians during 2010. We transcribed interviews verbatim and used grounded theory to code and revise a taxonomy of themes and to identify illustrative quotes. Setting 3 academic medical centers, 1 academic-affiliated medical center and 4 private practice groups or private hospitals in a large Midwestern city Subjects 14 critical care physicians Measurements and main results Physicians reported tailoring their approach to address specific reasons for disagreement with surrogates. Five common approaches were identified: (1) building trust, (2) educating and informing, (3) providing surrogates more time, (4) adjusting surrogate and physician roles, and (5) highlighting specific values. When mistrust was an issue, physicians endeavored to build a more trusting relationship with the surrogate before re-addressing decision making. Physicians also reported correcting misunderstandings by providing targeted education, and some reported highlighting specific patient, surrogate, or physician values that they hoped would guide surrogates to agree with them. When surrogates struggled with decision making roles, physicians attempted to reinforce the concept of substituted judgment. Physicians noted that some surrogates needed time to “come to terms” with the patent’s illness before agreeing with physicians. Many physicians had witnessed colleagues negotiate in ways they found objectionable, such as providing misleading information, injecting their own values into the negotiation, or behaving unprofessionally towards surrogates. While some physicians viewed their efforts to encourage surrogates’ agreement as persuasive, others strongly denied persuading surrogates and described their actions as “guiding” or “negotiating.” Conclusions Physicians

  13. Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Imaging with a Piezoelectric 2-D Row-Column Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row-column addres......The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row...

  14. Comments on Surrogates measures and consistent surrogates (by Tyler VanderWeele)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    as a criterion for “good” surrogate, why can’t we create a new, formal definition of “ surrogacy ” that (1) will automatically avoid the paradox and (2...requirement of avoiding the paradox could not, in itself, constitute a satisfactory definition of surrogacy . As with other paradoxes of causal...situation in practice. A treatment that has such a negative direct effect on outcome would rarely be a candidate for surrogacy analysis. In practice

  15. Plutonium and surrogate fission products in a composite ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D. W.; Frank, S. M.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; O'Holleran, T.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a ceramic waste form to immobilize salt containing fission products and transuranic elements. Preliminary results have been presented for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products such as cesium and the lanthanides. In this work results from scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction are presented in greater detail for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products. Additionally, results for waste forms containing plutonium and surrogate fission products are presented. Most of the surrogate fission products appear to be silicates or aluminosilicates whereas the plutonium is usually found in an oxide form. There is also evidence for the presence of plutonium within the sodalite phase although the chemical speciation of the plutonium is not known

  16. The value of enduring environmental surrogates as predictors of estuarine benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildsmith, Michelle D.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Robinson, Samuel F.

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the extent to which spatial differences in the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of a temperate microtidal estuary were 'explained' by the enduring (biophysical) vs non-enduring (water and sediment quality) environmental attributes of a diverse range of habitats, and thus the potential of those environmental surrogates to support faunal prediction. Species composition differed significantly among habitats in each season, with the greatest differences occurring in winter and spring and the least in summer. The pattern of habitat differences, as defined by their enduring environmental characteristics, was significantly and well matched with that in the fauna in each season. In contrast, significant matches between the non-enduring environmental and faunal data were only detected in winter and/or spring, and to a lesser extent. Field validation of the faunal prediction capacity of the biophysical surrogate framework at various 'test' sites throughout the estuary showed good agreement between the actual vs predicted key species. These findings demonstrate that enduring environmental criteria, which can be readily measured from mapped data, provide a better and more cost-effective surrogate for explaining spatial differences in the invertebrate fauna of this system than non-enduring criteria, and are thus a promising basis for faunal prediction. The approaches developed in this study are also readily adapted to any estuary worldwide.

  17. Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Tashi, Shohreh; Mehran, Nahid; Eskandari, Narges; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires co...

  18. Robust and conductive two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks with exceptionally high volumetric and areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dawei; Lei, Ting; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Park, Jihye; Huang, Zhehao; Lee, Minah; Shaw, Leo; Chen, Shucheng; Yakovenko, Andrey A.; Kulkarni, Ambarish; Xiao, Jianping; Fredrickson, Kurt; Tok, Jeffrey B.; Zou, Xiaodong; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-01-01

    For miniaturized capacitive energy storage, volumetric and areal capacitances are more important metrics than gravimetric ones because of the constraints imposed by device volume and chip area. Typically used in commercial supercapacitors, porous carbons, although they provide a stable and reliable performance, lack volumetric performance because of their inherently low density and moderate capacitances. Here we report a high-performing electrode based on conductive hexaaminobenzene (HAB)-derived two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In addition to possessing a high packing density and hierarchical porous structure, these MOFs also exhibit excellent chemical stability in both acidic and basic aqueous solutions, which is in sharp contrast to conventional MOFs. Submillimetre-thick pellets of HAB MOFs showed high volumetric capacitances up to 760 F cm-3 and high areal capacitances over 20 F cm-2. Furthermore, the HAB MOF electrodes exhibited highly reversible redox behaviours and good cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 90% after 12,000 cycles. These promising results demonstrate the potential of using redox-active conductive MOFs in energy-storage applications.

  19. A volumetric data system for environmental robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellott, J.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional, spatially organized or volumetric data system provides an effective means for integrating and presenting environmental sensor data to robotic systems and operators. Because of the unstructed nature of environmental restoration applications, new robotic control strategies are being developed that include environmental sensors and interactive data interpretation. The volumetric data system provides key features to facilitate these new control strategies including: integrated representation of surface, subsurface and above-surface data; differentiation of mapped and unmapped regions in space; sculpting of regions in space to best exploit data from line-of-sight sensors; integration of diverse sensor data (for example, dimensional, physical/geophysical, chemical, and radiological); incorporation of data provided at different spatial resolutions; efficient access for high-speed visualization and analysis; and geometric modeling tools to update a open-quotes world modelclose quotes of an environment. The applicability to underground storage tank remediation and buried waste site remediation are demonstrated in several examples. By integrating environmental sensor data into robotic control, the volumetric data system will lead to safer, faster, and more cost-effective environmental cleanup

  20. Volumetric full-range magnetomotive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Kim, Jongsik; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MM-OCT) can be utilized to spatially localize the presence of magnetic particles within tissues or organs. These magnetic particle-containing regions are detected by using the capability of OCT to measure small-scale displacements induced by the activation of an external electromagnet coil typically driven by a harmonic excitation signal. The constraints imposed by the scanning schemes employed and tissue viscoelastic properties limit the speed at which conventional MM-OCT data can be acquired. Realizing that electromagnet coils can be designed to exert MM force on relatively large tissue volumes (comparable or larger than typical OCT imaging fields of view), we show that an order-of-magnitude improvement in three-dimensional (3-D) MM-OCT imaging speed can be achieved by rapid acquisition of a volumetric scan during the activation of the coil. Furthermore, we show volumetric (3-D) MM-OCT imaging over a large imaging depth range by combining this volumetric scan scheme with full-range OCT. Results with tissue equivalent phantoms and a biological tissue are shown to demonstrate this technique. PMID:25472770

  1. Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) as Surrogates for Low Sensitivity Gasoline Fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar

    2016-04-05

    Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) - binary mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane based on Research Octane Number (RON) - are popular gasoline surrogates for modeling combustion in spark ignition engines. The use of these two component surrogates to represent real gasoline fuels for simulations of HCCI/PCCI engines needs further consideration, as the mode of combustion is very different in these engines (i.e. the combustion process is mainly controlled by the reactivity of the fuel). This study presents an experimental evaluation of PRF surrogates for four real gasoline fuels termed FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) A, C, I, and J in a motored CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine. This approach enables the surrogate mixtures to be evaluated purely from a chemical kinetic perspective. The gasoline fuels considered in this study have very low sensitivities, S (RON-MON), and also exhibit two-stage ignition behavior. The first stage heat release, which is termed Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR), controls the combustion phasing in this operating mode. As a result, the performance of the PRF surrogates was evaluated by its ability to mimic the low temperature chemical reactivity of the real gasoline fuels. This was achieved by comparing the LTHR from the engine pressure histories. The PRF surrogates were able to consistently reproduce the amount of LTHR, closely match the phasing of LTHR, and the compression ratio for the start of hot ignition of the real gasoline fuels. This suggests that the octane quality of a surrogate fuel is a good indicator of the fuel’s reactivity across low (LTC), negative temperature coefficient (NTC), and high temperature chemical (HTC) reactivity regimes.

  2. Effectiveness of external respiratory surrogates for in vivo liver motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kai-Hsiang; Ho, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lian, Feng-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Yen, Jia-Yush; Chen, Yung-Yaw

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Due to low frame rate of MRI and high radiation damage from fluoroscopy and CT, liver motion estimation using external respiratory surrogate signals seems to be a better approach to track liver motion in real-time for liver tumor treatments in radiotherapy and thermotherapy. This work proposes a liver motion estimation method based on external respiratory surrogate signals. Animal experiments are also conducted to investigate related issues, such as the sensor arrangement, multisensor fusion, and the effective time period. Methods: Liver motion and abdominal motion are both induced by respiration and are proved to be highly correlated. Contrary to the difficult direct measurement of the liver motion, the abdominal motion can be easily accessed. Based on this idea, our study is split into the model-fitting stage and the motion estimation stage. In the first stage, the correlation between the surrogates and the liver motion is studied and established via linear regression method. In the second stage, the liver motion is estimated by the surrogate signals with the correlation model. Animal experiments on cases of single surrogate signal, multisurrogate signals, and long-term surrogate signals are conducted and discussed to verify the practical use of this approach. Results: The results show that the best single sensor location is at the middle of the upper abdomen, while multisurrogate models are generally better than the single ones. The estimation error is reduced from 0.6 mm for the single surrogate models to 0.4 mm for the multisurrogate models. The long-term validity of the estimation models is quite satisfactory within the period of 10 min with the estimation error less than 1.4 mm. Conclusions: External respiratory surrogate signals from the abdomen motion produces good performance for liver motion estimation in real-time. Multisurrogate signals enhance estimation accuracy, and the estimation model can maintain its accuracy for at least 10 min. This

  3. Real-time characterization of partially observed epidemics using surrogate models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safta, Cosmin; Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Crary, David (Applied Research Associates, Arlington, VA); Sargsyan, Khachik; Cheng, Karen (Applied Research Associates, Arlington, VA)

    2011-09-01

    We present a statistical method, predicated on the use of surrogate models, for the 'real-time' characterization of partially observed epidemics. Observations consist of counts of symptomatic patients, diagnosed with the disease, that may be available in the early epoch of an ongoing outbreak. Characterization, in this context, refers to estimation of epidemiological parameters that can be used to provide short-term forecasts of the ongoing epidemic, as well as to provide gross information on the dynamics of the etiologic agent in the affected population e.g., the time-dependent infection rate. The characterization problem is formulated as a Bayesian inverse problem, and epidemiological parameters are estimated as distributions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, thus quantifying the uncertainty in the estimates. In some cases, the inverse problem can be computationally expensive, primarily due to the epidemic simulator used inside the inversion algorithm. We present a method, based on replacing the epidemiological model with computationally inexpensive surrogates, that can reduce the computational time to minutes, without a significant loss of accuracy. The surrogates are created by projecting the output of an epidemiological model on a set of polynomial chaos bases; thereafter, computations involving the surrogate model reduce to evaluations of a polynomial. We find that the epidemic characterizations obtained with the surrogate models is very close to that obtained with the original model. We also find that the number of projections required to construct a surrogate model is O(10)-O(10{sup 2}) less than the number of samples required by the MCMC to construct a stationary posterior distribution; thus, depending upon the epidemiological models in question, it may be possible to omit the offline creation and caching of surrogate models, prior to their use in an inverse problem. The technique is demonstrated on synthetic data as well as

  4. WE-FG-206-12: Enhanced Laws Textures: A Potential MRI Surrogate Marker of Hepatic Fibrosis in a Murine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B; Yu, H; Jara, H; Soto, J; Anderson, S

    2016-01-01

    assessing fibrosis, and can potentially serve as an accurate surrogate marker for hepatic fibrosis.

  5. WE-FG-206-12: Enhanced Laws Textures: A Potential MRI Surrogate Marker of Hepatic Fibrosis in a Murine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, B; Yu, H; Jara, H; Soto, J; Anderson, S [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    assessing fibrosis, and can potentially serve as an accurate surrogate marker for hepatic fibrosis.

  6. A prospective pilot study measuring muscle volumetric change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Thomas M; Burness, Christine; Connolly, Daniel J; Rao, D Ganesh; Hoggard, Nigel; Mawson, Susan; McDermott, Christopher J; Wilkinson, Iain D; Shaw, Pamela J

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate the potential of muscle volume, measured with magnetic resonance (MR), as a biomarker to quantify disease progression in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this longitudinal pilot study, we first sought to determine the stability of volumetric muscle MR measurements in 11 control subjects at two time-points. We assessed feasibility of detecting atrophy in four patients with ALS, followed at three-month intervals for 12 months. Muscle power and MR volume were measured in thenar eminence (TEm), first dorsal interosseous (1DIO), tibialis anterior (TA) and tongue. Changes over time were assessed using linear regression models and t-tests. Results demonstrated that, in controls, no volumetric MR changes were seen (mean volume variation in all muscles 0.1). In patients, between-subject heterogeneity was identified. Trends for volume loss were found in TEm (mean, - 26.84%, p = 0.056) and TA (- 8.29%, p = 0.077), but not in 1DIO (- 18.47%, p = 0.121) or tongue (< 5%, p = 0.367). In conclusion, volumetric muscle MR appears a stable measure in controls, and progressive volume loss was demonstrable in individuals with ALS in whom clinical weakness progressed. In this small study, subclinical atrophy was not demonstrable using muscle MR. Clinico-radiological discordance between muscle weakness and MR atrophy could reflect a contribution of upper motor neuron pathology.

  7. Gradients estimation from random points with volumetric tensor in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoaki; Nagata, Koji

    2017-12-01

    We present an estimation method of fully-resolved/coarse-grained gradients from randomly distributed points in turbulence. The method is based on a linear approximation of spatial gradients expressed with the volumetric tensor, which is a 3 × 3 matrix determined by a geometric distribution of the points. The coarse grained gradient can be considered as a low pass filtered gradient, whose cutoff is estimated with the eigenvalues of the volumetric tensor. The present method, the volumetric tensor approximation, is tested for velocity and passive scalar gradients in incompressible planar jet and mixing layer. Comparison with a finite difference approximation on a Cartesian grid shows that the volumetric tensor approximation computes the coarse grained gradients fairly well at a moderate computational cost under various conditions of spatial distributions of points. We also show that imposing the solenoidal condition improves the accuracy of the present method for solenoidal vectors, such as a velocity vector in incompressible flows, especially when the number of the points is not large. The volumetric tensor approximation with 4 points poorly estimates the gradient because of anisotropic distribution of the points. Increasing the number of points from 4 significantly improves the accuracy. Although the coarse grained gradient changes with the cutoff length, the volumetric tensor approximation yields the coarse grained gradient whose magnitude is close to the one obtained by the finite difference. We also show that the velocity gradient estimated with the present method well captures the turbulence characteristics such as local flow topology, amplification of enstrophy and strain, and energy transfer across scales.

  8. Summary of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    High Explosives Science and Technology (M-7) completed all required formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on April 27, 2016 as specified in PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required in that test plan. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. The work was carried out in three rounds, with the full matrix of samples formulated and tested in each round. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-J6-6042, " Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Results from the second round of formulation and testing were documented in M7-16-6053 , "Results from the Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Initial results from the third round were documented in M7-16-6057, "Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Formulation and Testing."

  9. Rapidly-steered single-element ultrasound for real-time volumetric imaging and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Mark; Western, Craig; Solek, Roman; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dmitre; Schlosser, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric ultrasound (US) imaging has the potential to provide real-time anatomical imaging with high soft-tissue contrast in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic guidance applications. However, existing volumetric US machines utilize "wobbling" linear phased array or matrix phased array transducers which are costly to manufacture and necessitate bulky external processing units. To drastically reduce cost, improve portability, and reduce footprint, we propose a rapidly-steered single-element volumetric US imaging system. In this paper we explore the feasibility of this system with a proof-of-concept single-element volumetric US imaging device. The device uses a multi-directional raster-scan technique to generate a series of two-dimensional (2D) slices that were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) volumes. At 15 cm depth, 90° lateral field of view (FOV), and 20° elevation FOV, the device produced 20-slice volumes at a rate of 0.8 Hz. Imaging performance was evaluated using an US phantom. Spatial resolution was 2.0 mm, 4.7 mm, and 5.0 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions at 7.5 cm. Relative motion of phantom targets were automatically tracked within US volumes with a mean error of -0.3+/-0.3 mm, -0.3+/-0.3 mm, and -0.1+/-0.5 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions, respectively. The device exhibited a mean spatial distortion error of 0.3+/-0.9 mm, 0.4+/-0.7 mm, and -0.3+/-1.9 in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions. With a production cost near $1000, the performance characteristics of the proposed system make it an ideal candidate for diagnostic and image-guided therapy applications where form factor and low cost are paramount.

  10. Determination of Uncertainty for a One Milli Litre Volumetric Pipette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torowati; Asminar; Rahmiati; Arif-Sasongko-Adi

    2007-01-01

    An observation had been conducted to determine the uncertainty of volumetric pipette. The uncertainty was determined from data obtained from a determine process which used method of gravimetry. Calculation result from an uncertainty of volumetric pipette the confidence level of 95% and k=2. (author)

  11. Overview of selected surrogate technologies for high-temporal resolution suspended-sediment monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for characterizing selected properties of suspended sediments in rivers are being augmented and in some cases replaced by cost-effective surrogate instruments and methods that produce a temporally dense time series of quantifiably accurate data for use primarily in sediment-flux computations. Turbidity is the most common such surrogate technology, and the first to be sanctioned by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in producing data used in concert with water-discharge data to compute sediment concentrations and fluxes for storage in the National Water Information System. Other technologies, including laser-diffraction, digital photo-optic, acoustic-attenuation and backscatter, and pressure-difference techniques are being evaluated for producing reliable sediment concentration and, in some cases, particle-size distribution data. Each technology addresses a niche for sediment monitoring. Their performances range from compelling to disappointing. Some of these technologies have the potential to revolutionize fluvial-sediment data collection, analysis, and availability.

  12. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S

    2014-01-01

    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg. Participants were recruited as part of a study of the long-term effects of surrogacy for surrogates and their family members. Data were collected from 36 children of surrogates at a single time point. Participants whose mother had been a surrogate 5-15 years prior to interview and who were aged over 12 years were eligible to take part. Thirty-six participants (14 male and 22 female) aged 12-25 years were interviewed (response rate = 52%). Questionnaires assessing psychological health and family functioning were administered. Forty-four per cent (15) of participants' mothers had undergone gestational surrogacy, 39% (14) had used their own egg (genetic surrogacy) and 19% (7) had completed both types of surrogacy. Most surrogates' children (86%, 31) had a positive view of their mother's surrogacy. Forty-seven per cent (17) of children were in contact with the surrogacy child and all reported good relationships with him/her. Forty per cent (14) of children referred to the child as a sibling or half-sibling and this did not differ between genetic and gestational surrogacy. Most children (89%, 32), reported a positive view of family life, with all enjoying spending time with their mother. Mean scores on the questionnaire assessments of psychological health and self-esteem were within the normal range and did not differ by surrogacy type. The sample size for this study was relatively small and not all children chose to take part, therefore their views cannot be known. Nevertheless, this is the first study to assess the experiences of surrogacy from the perspective of the surrogates' own children. There may be some bias from the inclusion of siblings from the same family. Findings of this study show that family

  13. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Field

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform’s value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mc_{fit} online operations, where c_{fit} denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 10^{5}M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in

  14. [Biomedical Perspective of the Surrogate Motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve de la Barreda, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    The subrogated motherhood takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational mother, by means a contract with her. It can imply to natural families (woman and man) with or without infertility problems, or to monoparental or biparental families of the same sex. Concerning the origin of the gametes used in the IVF emerges different implications on the genetic relationship of the resulting child with the surrogate and the future parents. The subrogated motherhood was initially considered an option to solve infertility problems. Nevertheless this practice has become a possible and attractive option as a source of economic resources for poor women. The cases of benefit of a pregnancy without mediating a contract are exceptional and they are not properly cases of ″subrogated maternity″ but of ″altruistic maternity″ and must be considered as heterologous in vitro fertilization. In this article are analyzed the medical, genetic and bioethics aspects of this new derivation of the fertilization in vitro. As points of special attention are considered the following questions: Is it the surrogate motherhood used preferably to solve infertility problems? Is not this actually a new form of exploitation of the woman? Does not suppose an attack to the natural family? Does not suppose in addition an attack to the dignity of the human being?

  15. Engagement in Advance Care Planning and Surrogates' Knowledge of Patients' Treatment Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Terri R; Zenoni, Maria; Iannone, Lynne; O'Leary, John; Fenton, Brenda T

    2017-08-01

    A key objective of advance care planning (ACP) is improving surrogates' knowledge of patients' treatment goals. Little is known about whether ACP outside of a trial accomplishes this. The objective was to examine patient and surrogate reports of ACP engagement and associations with surrogate knowledge of goals. Cohort study SETTING: Primary care in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. 350 community-dwelling veterans age ≥55 years and the individual they would choose to make medical decisions on their behalf, interviewed separately. Treatment goals were assessed by veterans' ratings of 3 health states: severe physical disability, cognitive disability, and pain, as an acceptable or unacceptable result of treatment for severe illness. Surrogates had knowledge if they correctly predicted all 3 responses. Veterans and surrogates were asked about living will and health care proxy completion and communication about life-sustaining treatment and quality versus quantity of life (QOL). Over 40% of dyads agreed that the veteran had not completed a living will or health care proxy and that there was no QOL communication. For each activity, sizeable proportions (18-34%) disagreed about participation. In dyads who agreed QOL communication had occurred, 30% of surrogates had knowledge, compared to 21% in dyads who agreed communication had not occurred and 15% in dyads who disagreed (P = .01). This relationship persisted in multivariable analysis. Agreement about other ACP activities was not associated with knowledge. Disagreement about ACP participation was common. Agreement about communication regarding QOL was modestly associated with surrogate knowledge of treatment goals. Eliciting surrogates' perspectives is critical to ACP. Even dyads who agree about participation may need additional support for successful engagement. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are 239 Pu, 238 U, 235 U, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 99 Tc, and 90 Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium

  17. Patient Preferences and Surrogate Decision Making in Neuroscience Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuemei; Robinson, Jennifer; Muehlschlegel, Susanne; White, Douglas B.; Holloway, Robert G.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Fraenkel, Liana; Hwang, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU), most patients lack the capacity to make their own preferences known. This fact leads to situations where surrogate decision makers must fill the role of the patient in terms of making preference-based treatment decisions, oftentimes in challenging situations where prognosis is uncertain. The neurointensivist has a large responsibility and role to play in this shared decision making process. This review covers how NICU patient preferences are determined through existing advance care documentation or surrogate decision makers and how the optimum roles of the physician and surrogate decision maker are addressed. We outline the process of reaching a shared decision between family and care team and describe a practice for conducting optimum family meetings based on studies of ICU families in crisis. We review challenges in the decision making process between surrogate decision makers and medical teams in neurocritical care settings, as well as methods to ameliorate conflicts. Ultimately, the goal of shared decision making is to increase knowledge amongst surrogates and care providers, decrease decisional conflict, promote realistic expectations and preference-centered treatment strategies, and lift the emotional burden on families of neurocritical care patients. PMID:25990137

  18. The effect of framing on surrogate optimism bias: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dev; Cohen, Elan D; Barnato, Amber E

    2016-04-01

    To explore the effect of emotion priming and physician communication behaviors on optimism bias. We conducted a 5 × 2 between-subject randomized factorial experiment using a Web-based interactive video designed to simulate a family meeting for a critically ill spouse/parent. Eligibility included age at least 35 years and self-identifying as the surrogate for a spouse/parent. The primary outcome was the surrogate's election of code status. We defined optimism bias as the surrogate's estimate of prognosis with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) > their recollection of the physician's estimate. Of 373 respondents, 256 (69%) logged in and were randomized and 220 (86%) had nonmissing data for prognosis. Sixty-seven (30%) of 220 overall and 56 of (32%) 173 with an accurate recollection of the physician's estimate had optimism bias. Optimism bias correlated with choosing CPR (P optimism bias. Framing the decision as the patient's vs the surrogate's (25% vs 36%, P = .066) and describing the alternative to CPR as "allow natural death" instead of "do not resuscitate" (25% vs 37%, P = .035) decreased optimism bias. Framing of CPR choice during code status conversations may influence surrogates' optimism bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) as Surrogates for Low Sensitivity Gasoline Fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar; Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Atef, Nour; Al Khesho, Issam; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Chung, Suk-Ho; Roberts, William L.; Morganti, Kai; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an experimental evaluation of PRF surrogates for four real gasoline fuels termed FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) A, C, I, and J in a motored CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine. This approach enables the surrogate mixtures to be evaluated purely from a chemical kinetic perspective. The gasoline fuels considered in this study have very low sensitivities, S (RON-MON), and also exhibit two-stage ignition behavior. The first stage heat release, which is termed Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR), controls the combustion phasing in this operating mode. As a result, the performance of the PRF surrogates was evaluated by its ability to mimic the low temperature chemical reactivity of the real gasoline fuels. This was achieved by comparing the LTHR from the engine pressure histories. The PRF surrogates were able to consistently reproduce the amount of LTHR, closely match the phasing of LTHR, and the compression ratio for the start of hot ignition of the real gasoline fuels. This suggests that the octane quality of a surrogate fuel is a good indicator of the fuel’s reactivity across low (LTC), negative temperature coefficient (NTC), and high temperature chemical (HTC) reactivity regimes.

  20. Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE) and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate) evaluation schema (BSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Blood pressure is considered to be a leading example of a valid surrogate endpoint. The aims of this study were to (i) formally evaluate systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction as a surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention and (ii) determine what blood pressure reduction would predict a stroke benefit. Methods We identified randomised trials of at least six months duration comparing any pharmacologic anti-hypertensive treatment to placebo or no treatment, and reporting baseline blood pressure, on-trial blood pressure, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. Trials with fewer than five strokes in at least one arm were excluded. Errors-in-variables weighted least squares regression modelled the reduction in stroke as a function of systolic blood pressure reduction and diastolic blood pressure reduction respectively. The lower 95% prediction band was used to determine the minimum systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure difference, the surrogate threshold effect (STE), below which there would be no predicted stroke benefit. The STE was used to generate the surrogate threshold effect proportion (STEP), a surrogacy metric, which with the R-squared trial-level association was used to evaluate blood pressure as a surrogate endpoint for stroke using the Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema (BSES3). Results In 18 qualifying trials representing all pharmacologic drug classes of antihypertensives, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, the surrogate threshold effect for a stroke benefit was 7.1 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 2.4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The trial-level association was 0.41 and 0.64 and the STEP was 66% and 78% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. The STE and STEP were more robust to measurement error in the independent variable than R-squared trial-level associations. Using the BSES3, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, systolic blood pressure was a B + grade and diastolic blood pressure

  1. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Wanders, JO; Holland, K; Veldhuis, WB; Mann, RM; Pijnappel, RM; Peeters, PH; Van Gils, CH; Karssemeijer, N

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). METHODS: We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the Ameri...

  2. Hall et al., 2016 Artificial Turf Surrogate Surface Methods Paper Data File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mercury dry deposition data quantified via static water surrogate surface (SWSS) and artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) collectors. This dataset is associated...

  3. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E.; Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Keeser, D.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  4. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E. [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); Keeser, D. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innenstadtkliniken Medical Centre, Munich (Germany)

    2014-10-16

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  5. Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Noboru; Maeda, Yuuki; Ohno, Keisuke; Maekawa, Satoshi

    2010-02-01

    A volumetric display system using a roof mirror grid array (RMGA) is proposed. The RMGA consists of a two-dimensional array of dihedral corner reflectors and forms a real image at a plane-symmetric position. A two-dimensional image formed with a RMGA is moved at thigh speed by a mirror scanner. Cross-sectional images of a three-dimensional object are displayed in accordance with the position of the image plane. A volumetric image can be observed as a stack of the cross-sectional images by high-speed scanning. Image formation by a RMGA is free from aberrations. Moreover, a compact optical system can be constructed because a RMGA doesn't have a focal length. An experimental volumetric display system using a galvanometer mirror and a digital micromirror device was constructed. The formation of a three-dimensional image consisting of 1024 × 768 × 400 voxels is confirmed by the experimental system.

  6. Technological advances in suspended‐sediment surrogate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric‐concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium‐to‐large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single‐frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of

  7. Surrogatvalidierung durch Korrelation und Surrogate Threshold Effect – Ergebnisse von Simulationsstudien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillhaus, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progression-free survival (PFS is often used instead of the patient-relevant endpoint overall survival (OS in cancer clinical trials. In order for PFS to be accepted as a patient-relevant outcome within the benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in accordance with the German Social Code, Book Five (SGB V, section 35a, it has to be validated as a surrogate endpoint for OS in the relevant indication. As part of a rapid report the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen – IQWiG presented methods for surrogate endpoints validation and recommendations for correlation-based procedures. These methods include the evaluation of the certainty of conclusion of study results and the correlation between estimates of surrogate outcome and patient-relevant outcome on trial-level. The correlation is estimated by sample Pearson correlation coefficient or coefficient of determination and respective confidence interval (CI. Requirements for surrogate validation are a high correlation and a high certainty of conclusion of the study results. In case of medium correlation IQWiG methods propose applying the concept of surrogate threshold effect (STE to determine thresholds for the estimate of the surrogate endpoint.Methods: In simulation studies we investigate the requirements for a successful surrogate validation when applying a correlation-based approach. Simulation parameters are the estimates of the surrogate and the patient-relevant outcome, the correlation between them, the number of patients and the number of studies. We analyzed different scenarios in order to figure out parameters contributing to high correlation. Furthermore, we investigate requirements of the STE method, allowing conclusions on patient-relevant endpoints by means of surrogate endpoints. Finally, in consideration of IQWiG methods we analyze the challenges of surrogate validation in practical use

  8. Determination of partition behavior of organic surrogates between paperboard packaging materials and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, V I; Akrida-Demertzi, K; Demertzis, P G

    2005-06-03

    The suitability of recycled paperboard packaging materials for direct food contact applications is a major area of investigation. Chemical contaminants (surrogates) partitioning between recycled paper packaging and foods may affect the safety and health of the consumer. The partition behavior of all possible organic compounds between cardboards and individual foodstuffs is difficult and too time consuming for being fully investigated. Therefore it may be more efficient to determine these partition coefficients indirectly through experimental determination of the partitioning behavior between cardboard samples and air. In this work, the behavior of organic pollutants present in a set of two paper and board samples intended to be in contact with foods was studied. Adsorption isotherms have been plotted and partition coefficients between paper and air have been calculated as a basis for the estimation of their migration potential into food. Values of partition coefficients (Kpaper/air) from 47 to 1207 were obtained at different temperatures. For the less volatile surrogates such as dibutyl phthalate and methyl stearate higher Kpaper/air values were obtained. The adsorption curves showed that the more volatile substances are partitioning mainly in air phase and increasing the temperature from 70 to 100 degrees C their concentrations in air (Cair) have almost doubled. The analysis of surrogates was performed with a method based on solvent extraction and gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) quantification.

  9. Long-Term Stability Testing Results Using Surrogates And Sorbents For Savannah River Site Organic And Aqueous Wastestreams - 10016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  10. An improved and explicit surrogate variable analysis procedure by coefficient adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunggeun; Sun, Wei; Wright, Fred A; Zou, Fei

    2017-06-01

    Unobserved environmental, demographic, and technical factors can negatively affect the estimation and testing of the effects of primary variables. Surrogate variable analysis, proposed to tackle this problem, has been widely used in genomic studies. To estimate hidden factors that are correlated with the primary variables, surrogate variable analysis performs principal component analysis either on a subset of features or on all features, but weighting each differently. However, existing approaches may fail to identify hidden factors that are strongly correlated with the primary variables, and the extra step of feature selection and weight calculation makes the theoretical investigation of surrogate variable analysis challenging. In this paper, we propose an improved surrogate variable analysis using all measured features that has a natural connection with restricted least squares, which allows us to study its theoretical properties. Simulation studies and real data analysis show that the method is competitive to state-of-the-art methods.

  11. A fast surrogate model tailor-made for real time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Thrysøe, Cecilie; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    A surrogate model of a detailed hydraulic urban drainage model is created for supplying inflow forecasts to an MPC model for 31 separate locations. The original model is subdivided into 66 relationships extracted from the original model. The surrogate model is 9000 times faster than the original...... model, with just a minor deviation from the original model results....

  12. Act relating to surrogate parenthood contracts, 10 February 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Nebraska Act provides that surrogate parenthood contracts are void and unenforceable and that the "biological father of a child born pursuant to such a contract shall have all the rights and obligations imposed by law with respect to the child." A surrogate parenthood contract is defined as "a contract by which a woman is to be compensated for bearing a child of a man who is not her husband." full text

  13. Surrogate alcohol containing methanol, social deprivation and public health in Novosibirsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk; Hausler, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Surrogate alcohol, i.e. alcohol not intended or not officially intended for human consumption, continues to play an important role in alcohol consumption in Russia, especially for people with alcohol dependence. Among the different types of surrogate alcohol, there are windshield washer antifreeze liquids; these products are the cheapest kinds of non-beverage alcohol available and thus likely to be used by the most deprived and marginalised groups such as homeless people with alcohol dependence. Although it is well known, that non-beverage alcohol is used for consumption by various groups in Russia, and although there are laws to prohibit the use of methanol as part of windshield washer antifreeze liquids for the very reason that such products could be used as surrogate alcohol, we detected products in retail sale which were a mix of water and methanol only. Methanol poses serious health threats including blindness and death, and there had been repeated methanol deaths from surrogate alcohol in Russia over the last years. If law-enforcement does not change for surrogate products, we can expect more methanol-resulting deaths in the most deprived and marginalized groups of people with alcohol dependence in Russia. In addition, ingredients with questionable safety profiles such as formic acid should also be prohibited in non-beverage alcohol products that are likely to be consumed as surrogate alcohol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate evaluation schema (BSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassere Marissa N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure is considered to be a leading example of a valid surrogate endpoint. The aims of this study were to (i formally evaluate systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction as a surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention and (ii determine what blood pressure reduction would predict a stroke benefit. Methods We identified randomised trials of at least six months duration comparing any pharmacologic anti-hypertensive treatment to placebo or no treatment, and reporting baseline blood pressure, on-trial blood pressure, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. Trials with fewer than five strokes in at least one arm were excluded. Errors-in-variables weighted least squares regression modelled the reduction in stroke as a function of systolic blood pressure reduction and diastolic blood pressure reduction respectively. The lower 95% prediction band was used to determine the minimum systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure difference, the surrogate threshold effect (STE, below which there would be no predicted stroke benefit. The STE was used to generate the surrogate threshold effect proportion (STEP, a surrogacy metric, which with the R-squared trial-level association was used to evaluate blood pressure as a surrogate endpoint for stroke using the Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema (BSES3. Results In 18 qualifying trials representing all pharmacologic drug classes of antihypertensives, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, the surrogate threshold effect for a stroke benefit was 7.1 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 2.4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The trial-level association was 0.41 and 0.64 and the STEP was 66% and 78% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. The STE and STEP were more robust to measurement error in the independent variable than R-squared trial-level associations. Using the BSES3, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, systolic blood pressure was a B + grade and

  15. Surrogate Assisted Design Optimization of an Air Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Badhurshah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogates are cheaper to evaluate and assist in designing systems with lesser time. On the other hand, the surrogates are problem dependent and they need evaluation for each problem to find a suitable surrogate. The Kriging variants such as ordinary, universal, and blind along with commonly used response surface approximation (RSA model were used in the present problem, to optimize the performance of an air impulse turbine used for ocean wave energy harvesting by CFD analysis. A three-level full factorial design was employed to find sample points in the design space for two design variables. A Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver was used to evaluate the objective function responses, and these responses along with the design variables were used to construct the Kriging variants and RSA functions. A hybrid genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal point in the design space. It was found that the best optimal design was produced by the universal Kriging while the blind Kriging produced the worst. The present approach is suggested for renewable energy application.

  16. Creation of a retrospective job-exposure matrix using surrogate measures of exposure for a cohort of US career firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Matthew M; Bertke, Stephen; Allee, Steve; Daniels, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    To construct a cohort-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM) using surrogate metrics of exposure for a cancer study on career firefighters from the Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco Fire Departments. Departmental work history records, along with data on historical annual fire-runs and hours, were collected from 1950 to 2009 and coded into separate databases. These data were used to create a JEM based on standardised job titles and fire apparatus assignments using several surrogate exposure metrics to estimate firefighters' exposure to the combustion byproducts of fire. The metrics included duration of exposure (cumulative time with a standardised exposed job title and assignment), fire-runs (cumulative events of potential fire exposure) and time at fire (cumulative hours of potential fire exposure). The JEM consisted of 2298 unique job titles alongside 16,174 fire apparatus assignments from the three departments, which were collapsed into 15 standardised job titles and 15 standardised job assignments. Correlations were found between fire-runs and time at fires (Pearson coefficient=0.92), duration of exposure and time at fires (Pearson coefficient=0.85), and duration of exposure and fire-runs (Pearson coefficient=0.82). Total misclassification rates were found to be between 16-30% when using duration of employment as an exposure surrogate, which has been traditionally used in most epidemiological studies, compared with using the duration of exposure surrogate metric. The constructed JEM successfully differentiated firefighters based on gradient levels of potential exposure to the combustion byproducts of fire using multiple surrogate exposure metrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is limited evidence about the medical and psychological risks ofsurrogacy. Whether theoretical concerns about these risks are clinically relevant remains unknown. In the face of these uncertainties, the prenatal health care provider should have a low threshold for seeking obstetrical, social work, ethical and legal support. PMID:17296962

  18. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dan R

    2007-02-13

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is limited evidence about the medical and psychological risks of surrogacy. Whether theoretical concerns about these risks are clinically relevant remains unknown. In the face of these uncertainties, the prenatal health care provider should have a low threshold for seeking obstetrical, social work, ethical and legal support.

  19. Coastal aquifer management under parameter uncertainty: Ensemble surrogate modeling based simulation-optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, S.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Surrogate models are widely used to develop computationally efficient simulation-optimization models to solve complex groundwater management problems. Artificial intelligence based models are most often used for this purpose where they are trained using predictor-predictand data obtained from a numerical simulation model. Most often this is implemented with the assumption that the parameters and boundary conditions used in the numerical simulation model are perfectly known. However, in most practical situations these values are uncertain. Under these circumstances the application of such approximation surrogates becomes limited. In our study we develop a surrogate model based coupled simulation optimization methodology for determining optimal pumping strategies for coastal aquifers considering parameter uncertainty. An ensemble surrogate modeling approach is used along with multiple realization optimization. The methodology is used to solve a multi-objective coastal aquifer management problem considering two conflicting objectives. Hydraulic conductivity and the aquifer recharge are considered as uncertain values. Three dimensional coupled flow and transport simulation model FEMWATER is used to simulate the aquifer responses for a number of scenarios corresponding to Latin hypercube samples of pumping and uncertain parameters to generate input-output patterns for training the surrogate models. Non-parametric bootstrap sampling of this original data set is used to generate multiple data sets which belong to different regions in the multi-dimensional decision and parameter space. These data sets are used to train and test multiple surrogate models based on genetic programming. The ensemble of surrogate models is then linked to a multi-objective genetic algorithm to solve the pumping optimization problem. Two conflicting objectives, viz, maximizing total pumping from beneficial wells and minimizing the total pumping from barrier wells for hydraulic control of

  20. Volumetric image interpretation in radiology: scroll behavior and cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Larissa; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Chris P; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2018-05-16

    The interpretation of medical images is a primary task for radiologists. Besides two-dimensional (2D) images, current imaging technologies allow for volumetric display of medical images. Whereas current radiology practice increasingly uses volumetric images, the majority of studies on medical image interpretation is conducted on 2D images. The current study aimed to gain deeper insight into the volumetric image interpretation process by examining this process in twenty radiology trainees who all completed four volumetric image cases. Two types of data were obtained concerning scroll behaviors and think-aloud data. Types of scroll behavior concerned oscillations, half runs, full runs, image manipulations, and interruptions. Think-aloud data were coded by a framework of knowledge and skills in radiology including three cognitive processes: perception, analysis, and synthesis. Relating scroll behavior to cognitive processes showed that oscillations and half runs coincided more often with analysis and synthesis than full runs, whereas full runs coincided more often with perception than oscillations and half runs. Interruptions were characterized by synthesis and image manipulations by perception. In addition, we investigated relations between cognitive processes and found an overall bottom-up way of reasoning with dynamic interactions between cognitive processes, especially between perception and analysis. In sum, our results highlight the dynamic interactions between these processes and the grounding of cognitive processes in scroll behavior. It suggests, that the types of scroll behavior are relevant to describe how radiologists interact with and manipulate volumetric images.

  1. Observation of Burial and Migration of Instrumented Surrogate Munitions Deployed in the Swash Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, D.; Puleo, J. A.; Bruder, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions (also known as unexploded ordnance; UXO) in the nearshore environment due to past military activities, may be found on the beach, constituting a risk for beach users. Munitions may be transported from offshore to shallower water and/or migrate along the coast. In addition, munitions may bury in place or be exhumed due to hydrodynamic forcing. Observations on munitions mobility have generally been collected offshore, while observations in the swash zone are scarce. The swash zone is the region of the beach alternately covered by wave runup where hydrodynamic processes may be intense. Studies of munitions mobility require the use of realistic surrogates to quantify mobility/burial and hydrodynamic forcing conditions. Four surrogates (BLU-61 Cluster Bomb, 81 mm Mortar, M151-70 Hydra Rocket and M107 155 mm High Explosive Howitzer) were developed and tested during large-scale laboratory and field studies. Surrogates house sensors that measure different components of motion. Errors between real munitions and surrogate parameters (mass, center of gravity and axial moment of inertia) are all within an absolute error of 20%. Internal munitions sensors consist of inertial motion units (for acceleration and angular velocity in and around the three directions and orientation), pressure transducers (for water depth above surrogate), shock recorders (for high frequency acceleration to detect wave impact on the surrogate), and an in-house designed array of optical sensors (for burial/exposure and rolling). An in situ array of sensors to measure hydrodynamics, bed morphology and sediment concentrations, was deployed in the swash zone, aligned with the surrogate deployment. Data collected during the studies will be shown highlighting surrogate sensor capabilities. Sensors response will be compared with GPS measurements and imagery from cameras overlooking the study sites of surrogate position as a function of time. Examples of burial/exposure and migration of surrogates

  2. The social context for surrogates' motivations and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Zsuzsa

    2014-10-01

    This Commentary takes up two of the main findings by Imrie and Jadva's study, namely surrogates' satisfaction with the post-surrogacy contact with intended parents and their motivation for surrogacy. It argues that the findings are in keeping with other qualitative research on surrogacy and that this similarity is not the result of the similarity of surrogates' psychological makeup. The Commentary highlights the centrality of social meanings and definitions, and following Howard Becker, insists on taking into account the collective doings that inform and shape individual feelings and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synoptic volumetric variations and flushing of the Tampa Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.; Meyers, S. D.; Luther, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    Two types of analyses are used to investigate the synoptic wind-driven flushing of Tampa Bay in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle from 1950 to 2007. Hourly sea level elevations from the St. Petersburg tide gauge, and wind speed and direction from three different sites around Tampa Bay are used for the study. The zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components are rotated clockwise by 40° to obtain axial and co-axial components according to the layout of the bay. First, we use the subtidal observed water level as a proxy for mean tidal height to estimate the rate of volumetric bay outflow. Second, we use wavelet analysis to bandpass sea level and wind data in the time-frequency domain to isolate the synoptic sea level and surface wind variance. For both analyses the long-term monthly climatology is removed and we focus on the volumetric and wavelet variance anomalies. The overall correlation between the Oceanic Niño Index and volumetric analysis is small due to the seasonal dependence of the ENSO response. The mean monthly climatology between the synoptic wavelet variance of elevation and axial winds are in close agreement. During the winter, El Niño (La Niña) increases (decreases) the synoptic variability, but decreases (increases) it during the summer. The difference in winter El Niño/La Niña wavelet variances is about 20 % of the climatological value, meaning that ENSO can swing the synoptic flushing of the bay by 0.22 bay volumes per month. These changes in circulation associated with synoptic variability have the potential to impact mixing and transport within the bay.

  4. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  5. Effectiveness of biodiversity surrogates for conservation planning: different measures of effectiveness generate a kaleidoscope of variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedley S Grantham

    Full Text Available Conservation planners represent many aspects of biodiversity by using surrogates with spatial distributions readily observed or quantified, but tests of their effectiveness have produced varied and conflicting results. We identified four factors likely to have a strong influence on the apparent effectiveness of surrogates: (1 the choice of surrogate; (2 differences among study regions, which might be large and unquantified (3 the test method, that is, how effectiveness is quantified, and (4 the test features that the surrogates are intended to represent. Analysis of an unusually rich dataset enabled us, for the first time, to disentangle these factors and to compare their individual and interacting influences. Using two data-rich regions, we estimated effectiveness using five alternative methods: two forms of incidental representation, two forms of species accumulation index and irreplaceability correlation, to assess the performance of 'forest ecosystems' and 'environmental units' as surrogates for six groups of threatened species-the test features-mammals, birds, reptiles, frogs, plants and all of these combined. Four methods tested the effectiveness of the surrogates by selecting areas for conservation of the surrogates then estimating how effective those areas were at representing test features. One method measured the spatial match between conservation priorities for surrogates and test features. For methods that selected conservation areas, we measured effectiveness using two analytical approaches: (1 when representation targets for the surrogates were achieved (incidental representation, or (2 progressively as areas were selected (species accumulation index. We estimated the spatial correlation of conservation priorities using an index known as summed irreplaceability. In general, the effectiveness of surrogates for our taxa (mostly threatened species was low, although environmental units tended to be more effective than forest ecosystems

  6. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10 B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10 B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18 F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18 F (T 1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123 I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  7. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  8. Methylene blue as a lignin surrogate in manganese peroxidase reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goby, Jeffrey D; Penner, Michael H; Lajoie, Curtis A; Kelly, Christine J

    2017-11-15

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is associated with lignin degradation and is thus relevant to lignocellulosic-utilization technologies. Technological applications require reaction mixture optimization. A surrogate substrate can facilitate this if its susceptibility to degradation is easily monitored and mirrors that of lignin. The dye methylene blue (MB) was evaluated in these respects as a surrogate substrate by testing its reactivity in reaction mixtures containing relevant redox mediators (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids). Relative rates of MB degradation were compared to available literature reports of lignin degradation under similar conditions, and suggest that MB can be a useful lignin surrogate in MnP systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fusion set selection with surrogate metric in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Multi-atlas based image segmentation sees unprecedented opportunities but also demanding challenges in the big data era. Relevant atlas selection before label fusion plays a crucial role in reducing potential performance loss from heterogeneous data quality and high computation cost from extensive data. This paper starts with investigating the image similarity metric (termed ‘surrogate’), an alternative to the inaccessible geometric agreement metric (termed ‘oracle’) in atlas relevance assessment, and probes into the problem of how to select the ‘most-relevant’ atlases and how many such atlases to incorporate. We propose an inference model to relate the surrogates and the oracle geometric agreement metrics. Based on this model, we quantify the behavior of the surrogates in mimicking oracle metrics for atlas relevance ordering. Finally, analytical insights on the choice of fusion set size are presented from a probabilistic perspective, with the integrated goal of including the most relevant atlases and excluding the irrelevant ones. Empirical evidence and performance assessment are provided based on prostate and corpus callosum segmentation. (paper)

  10. Investigation of microalgae HTL fuel effects on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions using surrogate fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Farhad M.; Nabi, Md. Nurun; Rainey, Thomas J.; Bodisco, Timothy; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Suara, Kabir; Rahman, S.M.A.; Van, Thuy Chu; Ristovski, Zoran; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a microalgae HTL surrogate of biocrude fuel using chemical compounds. • Physiochemical properties of surrogate blends were analysed. • Experimentally investigated diesel engine performance and emissions using surrogate fuels. • No significant changes in engine performance were observed with HTL surrogate blends. • Major emissions including PM, PN and CO were reduced significantly with increasing of NOx emission. - Abstract: This paper builds on previous work using surrogate fuel to investigate advanced internal combustion engine fuels. To date, a surrogate fuel of this nature has not been used for microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude. This research used five different chemical groups found in microalgae HTL biocrude to design a surrogate fuel. Those five chemical groups constitute around 65% (by weight) of a microalgae biocrude produced by HTL. Weight percentage of the microalgae HTL biocrude chemical compounds were used to design the surrogate fuel, which was miscible with diesel at all percentages. The engine experiments were conducted on a EURO IIIA turbocharged common-rail direct-injection six-cylinder diesel engine to test engine performance and emissions. Exhaust emissions, including particulate matter and other gaseous emissions, were measured with the surrogate fuel and a reference diesel fuel. Experimental results showed that without significantly deteriorating engine performance, lower particulate mass, particulate number and CO emissions were observed with a penalty in NOx emissions for all surrogate blends compared to those of the reference diesel.

  11. Families in the making: gestational surrogate mothers in California

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn, Henriette Hårseide

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is based on a field work I conducted in California from January to June 2012, where I explore how gestational surrogate mothers experience the process of surrogacy and how California law has dealt with ART-cases. Through exploring surrogacy from different view point, and in particular from the view of surrogate mothers, this has given an insightful view into surrogacy in California. I have identified two court cases which are important for the establishment of parental rights in s...

  12. Baby M Turns 30: The Law and Policy of Surrogate Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Eric A

    2018-03-01

    This article marks the 30 th anniversary of the Supreme Court of New Jersey's Baby M decision by offering a critical analysis of surrogacy policy in the United States. Despite fundamental changes in both science and society since the case was decided, state courts and legislatures remain bitterly divided on the legality of surrogacy. In arguing for a more uniform, permissive legal posture toward surrogacy, the article addresses five central debates in the surrogacy literature. First, should the legal system accommodate those seeking conception through surrogacy, or should it prohibit such arrangements? Second, if surrogacy is permitted, what steps can be taken to minimize the potential exploitation of women who are willing to rent their wombs for income? Third, what criteria should govern the eligibility to serve as a surrogate mother and an intended parent? Fourth, what principle(s) should serve as the basis for determining the parentage of children born through surrogacy? Fifth, is regulatory uniformity in the surrogacy realm desirable? Is it achievable? The article concludes that courts and legislatures should accept the validity of surrogacy contracts, determine parentage according to intent, and identify transparent criteria for the eligibility of both surrogates and intended parents.

  13. A computational methodology for formulating gasoline surrogate fuels with accurate physical and chemical kinetic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2015-03-01

    Gasoline is the most widely used fuel for light duty automobile transportation, but its molecular complexity makes it intractable to experimentally and computationally study the fundamental combustion properties. Therefore, surrogate fuels with a simpler molecular composition that represent real fuel behavior in one or more aspects are needed to enable repeatable experimental and computational combustion investigations. This study presents a novel computational methodology for formulating surrogates for FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines A and C by combining regression modeling with physical and chemical kinetics simulations. The computational methodology integrates simulation tools executed across different software platforms. Initially, the palette of surrogate species and carbon types for the target fuels were determined from a detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA). A regression algorithm implemented in MATLAB was linked to REFPROP for simulation of distillation curves and calculation of physical properties of surrogate compositions. The MATLAB code generates a surrogate composition at each iteration, which is then used to automatically generate CHEMKIN input files that are submitted to homogeneous batch reactor simulations for prediction of research octane number (RON). The regression algorithm determines the optimal surrogate composition to match the fuel properties of FACE A and C gasoline, specifically hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, density, distillation characteristics, carbon types, and RON. The optimal surrogate fuel compositions obtained using the present computational approach was compared to the real fuel properties, as well as with surrogate compositions available in the literature. Experiments were conducted within a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine operating under controlled autoignition (CAI) mode to compare the formulated surrogates against the real fuels. Carbon monoxide measurements indicated that the proposed surrogates

  14. I don't want to be the one saying 'we should just let him die': intrapersonal tensions experienced by surrogate decision makers in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Dohan, Daniel; Tiver, Greer A; Arnold, Robert M; White, Douglas B

    2012-12-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed external factors associated with difficulty in surrogate decision making, intrapersonal sources of tension are an important element of decision making that have received little attention. To characterize key intrapersonal tensions experienced by surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit (ICU), and explore associated coping strategies. Qualitative interview study. Thirty surrogates from five ICUs at two hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who were actively involved in making life-sustaining treatment decisions for a critically ill loved one. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with surrogates, focused on intrapersonal tensions, role challenges, and coping strategies. We analyzed transcripts using constant comparative methods. Surrogates experience significant emotional conflict between the desire to act in accordance with their loved one's values and 1) not wanting to feel responsible for a loved one's death, 2) a desire to pursue any chance of recovery, and 3) the need to preserve family well-being. Associated coping strategies included 1) recalling previous discussions with a loved one, 2) sharing decisions with family members, 3) delaying or deferring decision making, 4) spiritual/religious practices, and 5) story-telling. Surrogates' struggle to reconcile personal and family emotional needs with their loved ones' wishes, and utilize common coping strategies to combat intrapersonal tensions. These data suggest reasons surrogates may struggle to follow a strict substituted judgment standard. They also suggest ways clinicians may improve decision making, including attending to surrogates' emotions, facilitating family decision making, and eliciting potential emotional conflicts and spiritual needs.

  15. Multi-model polynomial chaos surrogate dictionary for Bayesian inference in elasticity problems

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Andres A.; Le Maî tre, Olivier P.; Aquino, Wilkins; Knio, Omar

    2016-01-01

    of stiff inclusions embedded in a soft matrix, mimicking tumors in soft tissues. We rely on a polynomial chaos (PC) surrogate to accelerate the inference process. The PC surrogate predicts the dependence of the displacements field with the random elastic

  16. Application of computational fluid dynamics and surrogate-coupled evolutionary computing to enhance centrifugal-pump performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ahmed Imran Bellary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the total design and optimization time, numerical analysis with surrogate-based approaches is being used in turbomachinery optimization. In this work, multiple surrogates are coupled with an evolutionary genetic algorithm to find the Pareto optimal fronts (PoFs of two centrifugal pumps with different specifications in order to enhance their performance. The two pumps were used a centrifugal pump commonly used in industry (Case I and an electrical submersible pump used in the petroleum industry (Case II. The objectives are to enhance head and efficiency of the pumps at specific flow rates. Surrogates such as response surface approximation (RSA, Kriging (KRG, neural networks and weighted-average surrogates (WASs were used to determine the PoFs. To obtain the objective functions’ values and to understand the flow physics, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations were solved. It is found that the WAS performs better for both the objectives than any other individual surrogate. The best individual surrogates or the best predicted error sum of squares (PRESS surrogate (BPS obtained from cross-validation (CV error estimations produced better PoFs but was still unable to compete with the WAS. The high CV error-producing surrogate produced the worst PoFs. The performance improvement in this study is due to the change in flow pattern in the passage of the impeller of the pumps.

  17. Volumetric, dashboard-mounted augmented display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David; Grabowski, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    The optical design of a compact volumetric display for drivers is presented. The system displays a true volume image with realistic physical depth cues, such as focal accommodation, parallax and convergence. A large eyebox is achieved with a pupil expander. The windshield is used as the augmented reality combiner. A freeform windshield corrector is placed at the dashboard.

  18. Construction of accuracy-preserving surrogate for the eigenvalue radiation diffusion and/or transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, North Caroline State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The construction of surrogate models for high fidelity models is now considered an important objective in support of all engineering activities which require repeated execution of the simulation, such as verification studies, validation exercises, and uncertainty quantification. The surrogate must be computationally inexpensive to allow its repeated execution, and must be computationally accurate in order for its predictions to be credible. This manuscript introduces a new surrogate construction approach that reduces the dimensionality of the state solution via a range-finding algorithm from linear algebra. It then employs a proper orthogonal decomposition-like approach to solve for the reduced state. The algorithm provides an upper bound on the error resulting from the reduction. Different from the state-of-the-art, the new approach allows the user to define the desired accuracy a priori which controls the maximum allowable reduction. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using an eigenvalue radiation diffusion model, where the accuracy is selected to match machine precision. Results indicate that significant reduction is possible for typical reactor assembly models, which are currently considered expensive given the need to employ very fine mesh many group calculations to ensure the highest possible fidelity for the downstream core calculations. Given the potential for significant reduction in the computational cost, we believe it is possible to rethink the manner in which homogenization theory is currently employed in reactor design calculations. (authors)

  19. Surrogate Motherhood II: Reflections after "Baby M."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)

  20. Acoustic signal propagation and measurement in natural stream channels for application to surrogate bed load measurements: Halfmoon Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring sediment-generated noise using submerged hydrophones is a surrogate method for measuring bed load transport in streams with the potential for improving estimates of bed load transport through widespread, inexpensive monitoring. Understanding acoustic signal propagation in natural stream e...

  1. Reference volumetric samples of gamma-spectroscopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, E.; Taskaeva, M.; Grigorov, T.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the requirements for matrices of reference volumetric radiation sources necessary for detector calibration. The first stage of this determination consists in analysing some available organic and nonorganic materials. Different sorts of food, grass, plastics, minerals and building materials have been considered, taking into account the various procedures of their processing (grinding, screening, homogenizing) and their properties (hygroscopy, storage life, resistance to oxidation during gamma sterilization). The procedures of source processing, sample preparation, matrix irradiation and homogenization have been determined. A rotation homogenizing device has been elaborated enabling to homogenize the matrix activity irrespective of the vessel geometry. 33 standard volumetric radioactive sources have been prepared: 14 - on organic matrix and 19 - on nonorganic matrix. (author)

  2. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabel, M.; Biederer, J.; Jochens, A.; Bornemann, L.; Soza, G.; Heller, M.; Bolte, H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible image evaluation. The current standard is one-dimensional measurement (e.g. RECIST) with inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is discussed as an alternative for therapy monitoring of lung and liver metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph node metastases in a phantom study. Materials and methods: Fifty artificial lymph nodes were produced in a size range from 10 to 55 mm; some of them enhanced using iodine contrast media. All nodules were placed in an artificial chest phantom (artiCHEST ® ) within different surrounding tissues. MDCT was performed using different collimations (1–5 mm) at varying reconstruction kernels (B20f, B40f, B60f). Volume and RECIST measurements were performed using Oncology Software (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) and were compared to reference volume and diameter by calculating absolute percentage errors. Results: The software performance allowed a robust volumetric analysis in a phantom setting. Unsatisfying segmentation results were frequently found for native nodules within surrounding muscle. The absolute percentage error (APE) for volumetric analysis varied between 0.01 and 225%. No significant differences were seen between different reconstruction kernels. The most unsatisfactory segmentation results occurred in higher slice thickness (4 and 5 mm). Contrast enhanced lymph nodes showed better segmentation results by trend. Conclusion: The semi-automated 3D-volumetric analysis software tool allows a reliable and convenient segmentation of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom setting. Lymph nodes adjacent to tissue of similar density cause segmentation problems. For volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases in clinical routine a slice thickness of ≤3 mm and a medium soft reconstruction kernel (e.g. B40f for Siemens scan systems) may be a suitable

  3. A volumetric three-dimensional digital light photoactivatable dye display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreya K.; Cao, Jian; Lippert, Alexander R.

    2017-07-01

    Volumetric three-dimensional displays offer spatially accurate representations of images with a 360° view, but have been difficult to implement due to complex fabrication requirements. Herein, a chemically enabled volumetric 3D digital light photoactivatable dye display (3D Light PAD) is reported. The operating principle relies on photoactivatable dyes that become reversibly fluorescent upon illumination with ultraviolet light. Proper tuning of kinetics and emission wavelengths enables the generation of a spatial pattern of fluorescent emission at the intersection of two structured light beams. A first-generation 3D Light PAD was fabricated using the photoactivatable dye N-phenyl spirolactam rhodamine B, a commercial picoprojector, an ultraviolet projector and a custom quartz imaging chamber. The system displays a minimum voxel size of 0.68 mm3, 200 μm resolution and good stability over repeated `on-off' cycles. A range of high-resolution 3D images and animations can be projected, setting the foundation for widely accessible volumetric 3D displays.

  4. Potential Applications of Flat-Panel Volumetric CT in Morphologic, Functional Small Animal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Greschus

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive radiologic imaging has recently gained considerable interest in basic, preclinical research for monitoring disease progression, therapeutic efficacy. In this report, we introduce flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (fpVCT as a powerful new tool for noninvasive imaging of different organ systems in preclinical research. The three-dimensional visualization that is achieved by isotropic high-resolution datasets is illustrated for the skeleton, chest, abdominal organs, brain of mice. The high image quality of chest scans enables the visualization of small lung nodules in an orthotopic lung cancer model, the reliable imaging of therapy side effects such as lung fibrosis. Using contrast-enhanced scans, fpVCT displayed the vascular trees of the brain, liver, kidney down to the subsegmental level. Functional application of fpVCT in dynamic contrast-enhanced scans of the rat brain delivered physiologically reliable data of perfusion, tissue blood volume. Beyond scanning of small animal models as demonstrated here, fpVCT provides the ability to image animals up to the size of primates.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided versus Surrogate-Based Motion Tracking in Liver Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.paganelli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Seregni, Matteo; Fattori, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: This study applied automatic feature detection on cine–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver images in order to provide a prospective comparison between MRI-guided and surrogate-based tracking methods for motion-compensated liver radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In a population of 30 subjects (5 volunteers plus 25 patients), 2 oblique sagittal slices were acquired across the liver at high temporal resolution. An algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was used to extract and track multiple features throughout the image sequence. The position of abdominal markers was also measured directly from the image series, and the internal motion of each feature was quantified through multiparametric analysis. Surrogate-based tumor tracking with a state-of-the-art external/internal correlation model was simulated. The geometrical tracking error was measured, and its correlation with external motion parameters was also investigated. Finally, the potential gain in tracking accuracy relying on MRI guidance was quantified as a function of the maximum allowed tracking error. Results: An average of 45 features was extracted for each subject across the whole liver. The multi-parametric motion analysis reported relevant inter- and intrasubject variability, highlighting the value of patient-specific and spatially-distributed measurements. Surrogate-based tracking errors (relative to the motion amplitude) were were in the range 7% to 23% (1.02-3.57mm) and were significantly influenced by external motion parameters. The gain of MRI guidance compared to surrogate-based motion tracking was larger than 30% in 50% of the subjects when considering a 1.5-mm tracking error tolerance. Conclusions: Automatic feature detection applied to cine-MRI allows detailed liver motion description to be obtained. Such information was used to quantify the performance of surrogate-based tracking methods and to provide a prospective comparison with respect to MRI

  6. Mechanical Properties of K Basin Sludge Constituents and Their Surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the technical literature was performed to summarize the mechanical properties of inorganic components in K Basins sludge. The components included gibbsite, ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and goethite, hematite, quartz, anorthite, calcite, basalt, Zircaloy, aluminum, and, in particular, irradiated uranium metal and uranium dioxide. Review of the technical literature showed that information on the hardness of uranium metal at irradiation exposures similar to those experienced by the N Reactor fuel present in the K Basins (typically up to 3000 MWd/t) were not available. Measurements therefore were performed to determine the hardness of coupons taken from three irradiated N Reactor uranium metal fuel elements taken from K Basins. Hardness values averaged 30 ± 8 Rockwell C units, similar to values previously reported for uranium irradiated to ∼1200 MWd/t. The physical properties of candidate uranium metal and uranium dioxide surrogates were gathered and compared. Surrogates having properties closest to those of irradiated uranium metal appear to be alloys of tungsten. The surrogate for uranium dioxide, present both as particles and agglomerates in actual K Basin sludge, likely requires two materials. Cerium oxide, CeO2, was identified as a surrogate of the smaller UO2 particles while steel grit was identified for the UO2 agglomerates

  7. LVAD patients' and surrogates' perspectives on SPIRIT-HF: An advance care planning discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Maureen; Song, Mi-Kyung; Devane-Johnson, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    To describe LVAD patients' and surrogates' experiences with, and perspectives on SPIRIT-HF, an advance care planning (ACP) intervention. ACP is important for patients with LVAD, yet little is known about their experiences or those of their surrogates who have participated in ACP discussions. We used qualitative content analysis techniques to conduct a secondary analysis of 28 interviews with patients with LVAD (n = 14) and their surrogates (n = 14) who had participated in an RCT pilot study of SPIRIT-HF. Main themes from the data include: 1) sharing their HF stories was very beneficial; 2) participating in SPIRIT-HF led to greater peace of mind for patients and surrogates; 3) "one size does not fit all" when it comes to timing of ACP discussions. An understanding patient and surrogate perspectives may inform clinicians' approach to ACP discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Validating (d,p gamma) as a Surrogate for Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratkiewicz, A. [Rutgers University; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Pain, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Adekola, A. S. [Rutgers University; Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Casperson, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fotiades, N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McCleskey, M. [Texas A& M University; Burcher, S. [Rutgers University; Shand, C. M. [Rutgers Univ./Univ. of Surrey, UK; Austin, R. A. E. [Saint Mary’s University, Halifa, Canada; Baugher, T. [Rutgers University; Carpenter, M. P. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Devlin, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hardy, S. [Rutgers Univ./Univ. of Surrey, UK; Hatarik, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Howard, M. [Rutgers University; Hughes, R. [University of Richmond, VA; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Lister, C. J. [University of Massachusetts, Lowell; Manning, B. [Rutgers University; O' Donnell, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Peters, W. A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Ross, T.J. [University of Richmond, VA; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Seweryniak, D. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhu, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01

    The r-process is responsible for creating roughly half of the elements heavier than iron. It has recently become understood that the rates at which neutron capture reactions proceed at late times in the rprocess may dramatically affect the final abundance pattern. However, direct measurements of neutron capture reaction rates on exotic nuclei are exceptionally difficult, necessitating the development of indirect approaches such as the surrogate technique. The (d,py) reaction at low energies was identified as a promising surrogate for the (n,y) reaction, as both reactions share many characteristics. We report on a program to validate (d,py) as a surrogate for (n,y) using 95Mo as a target. The experimental campaign includes direct measurements of the y-ray intensities from the decay of excited states populated in the 95Mo(n,y) and 95Mo(d,py) reactions.

  9. Development of an instrumented spinal cord surrogate using optical fibers: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinello, Yann; Wagnac, Éric; Ung, Bora; Petit, Yvan; Pradhan, Prabin; Peyrache, Louis-Marie; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    In vitro replication of traumatic spinal cord injury is necessary to understand its biomechanics and to improve animal models. During a traumatic spinal cord injury, the spinal cord withstands an impaction at high velocity. In order to fully assess the impaction, the use of spinal canal occlusion sensor is necessary. A physical spinal cord surrogate is also often used to simulate the presence of the spinal cord and its surrounding structures. In this study, an instrumented physical spinal cord surrogate is presented and validated. The sensing is based on light transmission loss observed in embedded bare optical fibers subjected to bending. The instrumented surrogate exhibits similar mechanical properties under static compression compared to fresh porcine spinal cords. The instrumented surrogate has a compression sensing threshold of 40% that matches the smallest compression values leading to neurological injuries. The signal obtained from the sensor allows calculating the compression of the spinal cord surrogate with a maximum of 5% deviation. Excellent repeatability was also observed under repetitive loading. The proposed instrumented spinal cord surrogate is promising with satisfying mechanical properties and good sensing capability. It is the first attempt at proposing a method to assess the internal loads sustained by the spinal cord during a traumatic injury. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations

  11. First Trimester Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets Syndrome in a Surrogate Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Emily; Hill, James

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome before 20 weeks of gestation is rare. HELLP is a possible but rare syndrome in gestational surrogate pregnancies for surrogates with risk factors for development of preeclampsia. Case A 32-year-old patient with chronic hypertension and positive antinuclear antibody presented for prenatal care at 13 weeks and 1 day. She was a surrogate for the embryo of a 43-year-old couple. By 15 weeks she developed...

  12. System analysis of formation and perception processes of three-dimensional images in volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, Alexander; Sgibnev, Arthur

    2018-03-01

    One of the promising devices is currently a volumetric display. Volumetric displays capable to visualize complex three-dimensional information as nearly as possible to its natural – volume form without the use of special glasses. The invention and implementation of volumetric display technology will expand opportunities of information visualization in various spheres of human activity. The article attempts to structure and describe the interrelation of the essential characteristics of objects in the area of volumetric visualization. Also there is proposed a method of calculation of estimate total number of voxels perceived by observers during the 3D demonstration, generated using a volumetric display with a rotating screen. In the future, it is planned to expand the described technique and implement a system for estimation the quality of generated images, depending on the types of biplanes and their initial characteristics.

  13. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Hans

    1933-01-01

    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  14. Perinatal outcomes after natural conception versus in vitro fertilization (IVF) in gestational surrogates: a model to evaluate IVF treatment versus maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Irene; Hindoyan, Rita; Landay, Melanie; Ho, Jacqueline; Ingles, Sue Ann; McGinnis, Lynda K; Paulson, Richard J; Chung, Karine

    2017-12-01

    To study the perinatal outcomes between singleton live births achieved with the use of commissioned versus spontaneously conceived embryos carried by the same gestational surrogate. Retrospective cohort study. Academic in vitro fertilization center. Gestational surrogate. None. Pregnancy outcome, gestational age at birth, birth weight, perinatal complications. We identified 124 gestational surrogates who achieved a total of 494 pregnancies. Pregnancy outcomes for surrogate and spontaneous pregnancies were significantly different (Psurrogate pregnancies more likely to result in twin pregnancies: 33% vs. 1%. Miscarriage and ectopic rates were similar. Of these pregnancies, there were 352 singleton live births: 103 achieved from commissioned embryos and 249 conceived spontaneously. Surrogate births had lower mean gestational age at delivery (38.8 ± 2.1 vs. 39.7 ± 1.4), higher rates of preterm birth (10.7% vs. 3.1%), and higher rates of low birth weight (7.8% vs. 2.4%). Neonates from surrogacy had birth weights that were, on average, 105 g lower. Surrogate births had significantly higher obstetrical complications, including gestational diabetes, hypertension, use of amniocentesis, placenta previa, antibiotic requirement during labor, and cesarean section. Neonates born from commissioned embryos and carried by gestational surrogates have increased adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, hypertension, maternal gestational diabetes, and placenta previa, compared with singletons conceived spontaneously and carried by the same woman. Our data suggest that assisted reproductive procedures may potentially affect embryo quality and that its negative impact can not be overcome even with a proven healthy uterine environment. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Narrative Interest Standard: A Novel Approach to Surrogate Decision-Making for People With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, James M

    2017-06-17

    Dementia is a common neurodegenerative process that can significantly impair decision-making capacity as the disease progresses. When a person is found to lack capacity to make a decision, a surrogate decision-maker is generally sought to aid in decision-making. Typical bases for surrogate decision-making include the substituted judgment standard and the best interest standard. Given the heterogeneous and progressive course of dementia, however, these standards for surrogate decision-making are often insufficient in providing guidance for the decision-making for a person with dementia, escalating the likelihood of conflict in these decisions. In this article, the narrative interest standard is presented as a novel and more appropriate approach to surrogate decision-making for people with dementia. Through case presentation and ethical analysis, the standard mechanisms for surrogate decision-making for people with dementia are reviewed and critiqued. The narrative interest standard is then introduced and discussed as a dementia-specific model for surrogate decision-making. Through incorporation of elements of a best interest standard in focusing on the current benefit-burden ratio and elements of narrative to provide context, history, and flexibility for values and preferences that may change over time, the narrative interest standard allows for elaboration of an enriched context for surrogate decision-making for people with dementia. More importantly, however, a narrative approach encourages the direct contribution from people with dementia in authoring the story of what matters to them in their lives.

  16. Experimental Validation of Surrogate Models for Predicting the Draping of Physical Interpolating Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Esben Toke; Lund, Erik; Lindgaard, Esben

    2018-01-01

    This paper concerns the experimental validation of two surrogate models through a benchmark study involving two different variable shape mould prototype systems. The surrogate models in question are different methods based on kriging and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which were developed...... to the performance of the studied surrogate models. By comparing surrogate model performance for the two variable shape mould systems, and through a numerical study involving simple finite element models, the underlying cause of this effect is explained. It is concluded that for a variable shape mould prototype...... hypercube approach. This sampling method allows for generating a space filling and high-quality sample plan that respects mechanical constraints of the variable shape mould systems. Through the benchmark study, it is found that mechanical freeplay in the modeled system is severely detrimental...

  17. An Efficient Constraint Boundary Sampling Method for Sequential RBDO Using Kriging Surrogate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Junyong; Kim, Shinyu; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sugil; Kim, Hyung Woo; Hong, Sup [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) requires a high computational cost owing to its reliability analysis. A surrogate model is introduced to reduce the computational cost in RBDO. The accuracy of the reliability depends on the accuracy of the surrogate model of constraint boundaries in the surrogated-model-based RBDO. In earlier researches, constraint boundary sampling (CBS) was proposed to approximate accurately the boundaries of constraints by locating sample points on the boundaries of constraints. However, because CBS uses sample points on all constraint boundaries, it creates superfluous sample points. In this paper, efficient constraint boundary sampling (ECBS) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of CBS. ECBS uses the statistical information of a kriging surrogate model to locate sample points on or near the RBDO solution. The efficiency of ECBS is verified by mathematical examples.

  18. Surrogate Models for Online Monitoring and Process Troubleshooting of NBR Emulsion Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mouli R. Madhuranthakam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical processes with complex reaction mechanisms generally lead to dynamic models which, while beneficial for predicting and capturing the detailed process behavior, are not readily amenable for direct use in online applications related to process operation, optimisation, control, and troubleshooting. Surrogate models can help overcome this problem. In this research article, the first part focuses on obtaining surrogate models for emulsion copolymerization of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, which is usually produced in a train of continuous stirred tank reactors. The predictions and/or profiles for several performance characteristics such as conversion, number of polymer particles, copolymer composition, and weight-average molecular weight, obtained using surrogate models are compared with those obtained using the detailed mechanistic model. In the second part of this article, optimal flow profiles based on dynamic optimisation using the surrogate models are obtained for the production of NBR emulsions with the objective of minimising the off-specification product generated during grade transitions.

  19. Volumetric Arterial Wall Shear Stress Calculation Based on Cine Phase Contrast MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Wouter V.; van Ooij, Pim; Marquering, Henk; VanBavel, Ed; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the accuracy and precision of a volumetric wall shear stress (WSS) calculation method applied to cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) data. Materials and MethodsVolumetric WSS vectors were calculated in software phantoms. WSS algorithm parameters were optimized

  20. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  1. Tandem Gravimetric and Volumetric Apparatus for Methane Sorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald

    Concerns about global climate change have driven the search for alternative fuels. Natural gas (NG, methane) is a cleaner fuel than gasoline and abundantly available due to hydraulic fracturing. One hurdle to the adoption of NG vehicles is the bulky cylindrical storage vessels needed to store the NG at high pressures (3600 psi, 250 bar). The adsorption of methane in microporous materials can store large amounts of methane at low enough pressures for the allowance of conformable, ``flat'' pressure vessels. The measurement of the amount of gas stored in sorbent materials is typically done by measuring pressure differences (volumetric, manometric) or masses (gravimetric). Volumetric instruments of the Sievert type have uncertainties that compound with each additional measurement. Therefore, the highest-pressure measurement has the largest uncertainty. Gravimetric instruments don't have that drawback, but can have issues with buoyancy corrections. An instrument will be presented with which methane adsorption measurements can be performed using both volumetric and gravimetric methods in tandem. The gravimetric method presented has no buoyancy corrections and low uncertainty. Therefore, the gravimetric measurements can be performed throughout an entire isotherm or just at the extrema to verify the results from the volumetric measurements. Results from methane sorption measurements on an activated carbon (MSC-30) and a metal-organic framework (Cu-BTC, HKUST-1, MOF-199) will be shown. New recommendations for calculations of gas uptake and uncertainty measurements will be discussed.

  2. Surrogate fuel formulation for light naphtha combustion in advanced combustion engines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2015-03-30

    Crude oil once recovered is further separated in to several distinct fractions to produce a range of energy and chemical products. One of the less processed fractions is light naphtha (LN), hence they are more economical to produce than their gasoline and diesel counterparts. Recent efforts have demonstrated usage of LN as transportation fuel for internal combustion engines with slight modifications. In this study, a multicomponent surrogate fuel has been developed for light naphtha fuel using a multi-variable nonlinear constrained optimization scheme. The surrogate, consisting of palette species n-pentane, 2-methylhexane, 2-methylbutane, n-heptane and toluene, was validated against the LN using ignition quality tester following ASTM D6890 methodology. Comparison of LN and the surrogate fuel demonstrated satisfactory agreement.

  3. Neutron-induced cross sections of actinides via the surrogate-reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tveten G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique may enable neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for short-lived nuclei that otherwise cannot be measured. However, the validity of the surrogate method for extracting capture cross sections has to be investigated. In this work we study the reactions 238U(d,p239U, 238U(3He,t238Np, 238U(3He,4He237U as surrogates for neutroninduced reactions on 238U, 237Np and 236U, respectively, for which good quality data exist. The experimental set-up enabled the measurement of fission and gamma-decay probabilities. First results are presented and discussed.

  4. Regression calibration with more surrogates than mismeasured variables

    KAUST Repository

    Kipnis, Victor

    2012-06-29

    In a recent paper (Weller EA, Milton DK, Eisen EA, Spiegelman D. Regression calibration for logistic regression with multiple surrogates for one exposure. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 2007; 137: 449-461), the authors discussed fitting logistic regression models when a scalar main explanatory variable is measured with error by several surrogates, that is, a situation with more surrogates than variables measured with error. They compared two methods of adjusting for measurement error using a regression calibration approximate model as if it were exact. One is the standard regression calibration approach consisting of substituting an estimated conditional expectation of the true covariate given observed data in the logistic regression. The other is a novel two-stage approach when the logistic regression is fitted to multiple surrogates, and then a linear combination of estimated slopes is formed as the estimate of interest. Applying estimated asymptotic variances for both methods in a single data set with some sensitivity analysis, the authors asserted superiority of their two-stage approach. We investigate this claim in some detail. A troubling aspect of the proposed two-stage method is that, unlike standard regression calibration and a natural form of maximum likelihood, the resulting estimates are not invariant to reparameterization of nuisance parameters in the model. We show, however, that, under the regression calibration approximation, the two-stage method is asymptotically equivalent to a maximum likelihood formulation, and is therefore in theory superior to standard regression calibration. However, our extensive finite-sample simulations in the practically important parameter space where the regression calibration model provides a good approximation failed to uncover such superiority of the two-stage method. We also discuss extensions to different data structures.

  5. Regression calibration with more surrogates than mismeasured variables

    KAUST Repository

    Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Freedman, Laurence S.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper (Weller EA, Milton DK, Eisen EA, Spiegelman D. Regression calibration for logistic regression with multiple surrogates for one exposure. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 2007; 137: 449-461), the authors discussed fitting logistic regression models when a scalar main explanatory variable is measured with error by several surrogates, that is, a situation with more surrogates than variables measured with error. They compared two methods of adjusting for measurement error using a regression calibration approximate model as if it were exact. One is the standard regression calibration approach consisting of substituting an estimated conditional expectation of the true covariate given observed data in the logistic regression. The other is a novel two-stage approach when the logistic regression is fitted to multiple surrogates, and then a linear combination of estimated slopes is formed as the estimate of interest. Applying estimated asymptotic variances for both methods in a single data set with some sensitivity analysis, the authors asserted superiority of their two-stage approach. We investigate this claim in some detail. A troubling aspect of the proposed two-stage method is that, unlike standard regression calibration and a natural form of maximum likelihood, the resulting estimates are not invariant to reparameterization of nuisance parameters in the model. We show, however, that, under the regression calibration approximation, the two-stage method is asymptotically equivalent to a maximum likelihood formulation, and is therefore in theory superior to standard regression calibration. However, our extensive finite-sample simulations in the practically important parameter space where the regression calibration model provides a good approximation failed to uncover such superiority of the two-stage method. We also discuss extensions to different data structures.

  6. Love as a regulative ideal in surrogate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestreet, Erica Lucast

    2014-10-01

    This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a "best judgment" model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the "substituted judgment" model and the "best interests" model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two models is more appropriate for a given patient, and both approaches may seem inadequate for a surrogate who loves the patient. The proposed "best judgment" model effectively draws on the values incorporated in each of the traditional standards, but does so because these values are important to someone who loves a patient, since love responds to the patient as the specific person she is. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mapping people's views regarding the acceptability of surrogate motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitfils, Charlotte; Munoz Sastre, Maria Teresa; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to map French laypersons' views regarding the acceptability of maternal surrogacy and to delineate the circumstances under which surrogacy is considered, by different groups of people, as especially problematic. Participants (N = 236) were presented with a number of scenarios depicting the circumstances in which a couple has contracted with a surrogate mother and were asked to indicate the extent to which such a contract may present a moral problem. The scenarios were created by varying four factors: the type of surrogacy (traditional or gestational), the surrogate mother's level of autonomy, the family context in which the surrogate mother lives, and whether surrogacy was commercial or altruistic. Three qualitatively different personal positions were found: (a) a majority group for which surrogacy always (30%) or often (34%) presents a moral problem, (b) a minority group (14%) for which maternal surrogacy does not systematically present a moral problem, and (c) another minority group (22%) for which circumstances - mainly the mother's level of autonomy and the family context in which she lives - were completely determining.

  8. The Influence of Water and Mineral Oil On Volumetric Losses in a Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwiński Pawel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper volumetric losses in hydraulic motor supplied with water and mineral oil (two liquids having significantly different viscosity and lubricating properties are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using an innovative hydraulic satellite motor, that is dedicated to work with different liquids, including water. The sources of leaks in this motor are also characterized and described. On this basis, a mathematical model of volumetric losses and model of effective rotational speed have been developed and presented. The results of calculation of volumetric losses according to the model are compared with the results of experiment. It was found that the difference is not more than 20%. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this model well describes in both the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water and oil. Experimental studies have shown that the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water are even three times greater than the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with oil. It has been shown, that in a small constant stream of water the speed of the motor is reduced even by half in comparison of speed of motor supplied with the same stream of oil.

  9. Neutron-induced capture cross sections via the surrogate reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Capellan, N.; Companis, I.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Meot, V.; Bail, A.; Bauge, E.; Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Gaudefroy, L.; Morel, P.; Pillet, N.; Roig, O.; Romain, P.; Taieb, J.; Theroine, C.; Burke, J.T.; Companis, I.; Derkx, X.; Gunsing, F.; Matea, I.; Tassan-Got, L.; Porquet, M.G.; Serot, O.

    2011-01-01

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique enables neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for nuclear reactions on short-lived unstable nuclei that otherwise can not be measured. This technique has been successfully applied to determine the neutron-induced fission cross sections of several short-lived nuclei. In this work, we investigate whether this powerful technique can also be used to determine of neutron-induced capture cross sections. For this purpose we use the surrogate reaction 174 Yb( 3 He, pγ) 176 Lu to infer the well known 175 Lu(n, γ) cross section and compare the results with the directly measured neutron-induced data. This surrogate experiment has been performed in March 2010. The experimental technique used and the first preliminary results will be presented. (authors)

  10. Validating (d,pγ) as a surrogate for neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratkiewicz, A.; Cizewski, J. A.; Pain, S. D.; Adekola, A. S.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; McCleskey, M.; Burcher, S.; Shand, C. M; Austin, R. A. E.; Baugher, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Devlin, Matthew James; Escher, J. E.; Hardy, S.; Hatarik, R.; Howard, M. E.; Hughes, R. O.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Lister, C. J.; Manning, B.; O'Donnell, John M.; Peters, W. A.; Ross, T. J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    The r-process is responsible for creating roughly half of the elements heavier than iron. It has recently become understood that the rates at which neutron capture reactions proceed at late times in the r-process may dramatically affect the final abundance pattern. However, direct measurements of neutron capture reaction rates on exotic nuclei are exceptionally difficult, necessitating the development of indirect approaches such as the surrogate technique. The (d,pγ) reaction at low energies was identified as a promising surrogate for the (n,γ) reaction, as both reactions share many characteristics. We report on a program to validate (d,pγ) as a surrogate for (n,γ) using 95Mo as a target. The experimental campaign includes direct measurements of the γ-ray intensities from the decay of excited states populated in the 95Mo(n,γ) and 95Mo(d,pγ) reactions.

  11. A new method for calculating volumetric sweeps efficiency using streamline simulation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrobo, E A

    2000-01-01

    One of the purposes of reservoir engineering is to quantify the volumetric sweep efficiency for optimizing reservoir management decisions. The estimation of this parameter has always been a difficult task. Until now, sweep efficiency correlations and calculations have been limited to mostly homogeneous 2-D cases. Calculating volumetric sweep efficiency in a 3-D heterogeneous reservoir becomes difficult due to inherent complexity of multiple layers and arbitrary well configurations. In this paper, a new method for computing volumetric sweep efficiency for any arbitrary heterogeneity and well configuration is presented. The proposed method is based on Datta-Gupta and King's formulation of streamline time-of-flight (1995). Given the fact that the time-of-flight reflects the fluid front propagation at various times, then the connectivity in the time-of-flight represents a direct measure of the volumetric sweep efficiency. The proposed approach has been applied to synthetic as well as field examples. Synthetic examples are used to validate the volumetric sweep efficiency calculations using the streamline time-of-flight connectivity criterion by comparison with analytic solutions and published correlations. The field example, which illustrates the feasibility of the approach for large-scale field applications, is from the north Robertson unit, a low permeability carbonate reservoir in west Texas

  12. A surrogate fuel formulation to characterize heating and evaporation of light naphtha droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Kabil, I.

    2018-03-08

    Light naphtha (LN) is gaining interest in internal combustion (IC) engine applications due to its low refining cost and higher heating values compared to commercial gasoline. To properly describe the chemical and physical behavior of the LN fuel under IC engine conditions, a systematic procedure to develop unified physical and chemical surrogates is described. The reduced component models to describe the chemical characteristics of LN are combined with the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model to represent the accurate evaporation behavior. Three surrogate fuels consisting of three to five components are presented and their performance in heating and evaporation of a single LN droplet is compared against the conventional primary reference fuel (PRF65) surrogate which is based on chemical aspects only. Unlike the previous approaches, the new surrogates also target matching the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and research octane number in order to accurately describe the chemical behavior of the fuel. Subsequently, the performance of the surrogates in describing spray characteristics is tested by computational simulations compared with experimental measurements. The simulations were carried out using CONVERGE CFD package. The ETC/ED model was implemented into CONVERGE using user-defined functions. The predicted spray penetration length for the developed surrogates shows good agreement with the experimental data. At engine-like conditions, the ETC/ED model predicts higher vapor mass than the infinite thermal conductivity/infinite diffusivity model, hence showing the expected trend by incorporating the realistic droplet heating process.

  13. Modeling of Heating and Evaporation of FACE I Gasoline Fuel and its Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2016-04-05

    The US Department of Energy has formulated different gasoline fuels called \\'\\'Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)\\'\\' to standardize their compositions. FACE I is a low octane number gasoline fuel with research octane number (RON) of approximately 70. The detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of FACE I shows that it contains 33 components. This large number of components cannot be handled in fuel spray simulation where thousands of droplets are directly injected in combustion chamber. These droplets are to be heated, broken-up, collided and evaporated simultaneously. Heating and evaporation of single droplet FACE I fuel was investigated. The heating and evaporation model accounts for the effects of finite thermal conductivity, finite liquid diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplet, referred to as the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model. The temporal variations of the liquid mass fractions of the droplet components were used to characterize the evaporation process. Components with similar evaporation characteristics were merged together. A representative component was initially chosen based on the highest initial mass fraction. Three 6 components surrogates, Surrogate 1-3, that match evaporation characteristics of FACE I have been formulated without keeping same mass fractions of different hydrocarbon types. Another two surrogates (Surrogate 4 and 5) were considered keeping same hydrocarbon type concentrations. A distillation based surrogate that matches measured distillation profile was proposed. The calculated molar mass, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio and RON of Surrogate 4 and distillation based one are close to those of FACE I.

  14. A surrogate fuel formulation to characterize heating and evaporation of light naphtha droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Kabil, I.; Sim, J.; Badra, J.A.; Eldrainy, Y.; Abdelghaffar, W.; Mubarak Ali, M. Jaasim; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Sarathy, Mani; Im, Hong G.; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2018-01-01

    Light naphtha (LN) is gaining interest in internal combustion (IC) engine applications due to its low refining cost and higher heating values compared to commercial gasoline. To properly describe the chemical and physical behavior of the LN fuel under IC engine conditions, a systematic procedure to develop unified physical and chemical surrogates is described. The reduced component models to describe the chemical characteristics of LN are combined with the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model to represent the accurate evaporation behavior. Three surrogate fuels consisting of three to five components are presented and their performance in heating and evaporation of a single LN droplet is compared against the conventional primary reference fuel (PRF65) surrogate which is based on chemical aspects only. Unlike the previous approaches, the new surrogates also target matching the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and research octane number in order to accurately describe the chemical behavior of the fuel. Subsequently, the performance of the surrogates in describing spray characteristics is tested by computational simulations compared with experimental measurements. The simulations were carried out using CONVERGE CFD package. The ETC/ED model was implemented into CONVERGE using user-defined functions. The predicted spray penetration length for the developed surrogates shows good agreement with the experimental data. At engine-like conditions, the ETC/ED model predicts higher vapor mass than the infinite thermal conductivity/infinite diffusivity model, hence showing the expected trend by incorporating the realistic droplet heating process.

  15. Results from Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-04

    High Explosives and Technology (M-7) completed the second round of formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on March 17, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required under test plan PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-16-6042, "Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing."

  16. Minimum pricing of alcohol versus volumetric taxation: which policy will reduce heavy consumption without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010-22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20-1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10-2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86-16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64-2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10-10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46-0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19-413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76-121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55-574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79-175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers.

  17. Progress in Chemical Kinetic Modeling for Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Silke, E J

    2008-06-06

    Gasoline, diesel, and other alternative transportation fuels contain hundreds to thousands of compounds. It is currently not possible to represent all these compounds in detailed chemical kinetic models. Instead, these fuels are represented by surrogate fuel models which contain a limited number of representative compounds. We have been extending the list of compounds for detailed chemical models that are available for use in fuel surrogate models. Detailed models for components with larger and more complicated fuel molecular structures are now available. These advancements are allowing a more accurate representation of practical and alternative fuels. We have developed detailed chemical kinetic models for fuels with higher molecular weight fuel molecules such as n-hexadecane (C16). Also, we can consider more complicated fuel molecular structures like cyclic alkanes and aromatics that are found in practical fuels. For alternative fuels, the capability to model large biodiesel fuels that have ester structures is becoming available. These newly addressed cyclic and ester structures in fuels profoundly affect the reaction rate of the fuel predicted by the model. Finally, these surrogate fuel models contain large numbers of species and reactions and must be reduced for use in multi-dimensional models for spark-ignition, HCCI and diesel engines.

  18. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel; Kuester, Falko

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual

  19. Quantifying spatial and temporal trends in beach-dune volumetric changes using spatial statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Walker, Ian J.

    2013-06-01

    Spatial statistics are generally underutilized in coastal geomorphology, despite offering great potential for identifying and quantifying spatial-temporal trends in landscape morphodynamics. In particular, local Moran's Ii provides a statistical framework for detecting clusters of significant change in an attribute (e.g., surface erosion or deposition) and quantifying how this changes over space and time. This study analyzes and interprets spatial-temporal patterns in sediment volume changes in a beach-foredune-transgressive dune complex following removal of invasive marram grass (Ammophila spp.). Results are derived by detecting significant changes in post-removal repeat DEMs derived from topographic surveys and airborne LiDAR. The study site was separated into discrete, linked geomorphic units (beach, foredune, transgressive dune complex) to facilitate sub-landscape scale analysis of volumetric change and sediment budget responses. Difference surfaces derived from a pixel-subtraction algorithm between interval DEMs and the LiDAR baseline DEM were filtered using the local Moran's Ii method and two different spatial weights (1.5 and 5 m) to detect statistically significant change. Moran's Ii results were compared with those derived from a more spatially uniform statistical method that uses a simpler student's t distribution threshold for change detection. Morphodynamic patterns and volumetric estimates were similar between the uniform geostatistical method and Moran's Ii at a spatial weight of 5 m while the smaller spatial weight (1.5 m) consistently indicated volumetric changes of less magnitude. The larger 5 m spatial weight was most representative of broader site morphodynamics and spatial patterns while the smaller spatial weight provided volumetric changes consistent with field observations. All methods showed foredune deflation immediately following removal with increased sediment volumes into the spring via deposition at the crest and on lobes in the lee

  20. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon

  1. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Bürgi, Alfred; Röösli, Martin

    2015-05-22

    Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people's mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources.

  2. Attachment and Detachment Behavior of Human Adenovirus and Surrogates in Fine Granular Limestone Aquifer Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Margaret E; Sommer, Regina; Lindner, Gerhard; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Toze, Simon; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Blaschke, Alfred P; Sidhu, Jatinder P S

    2015-09-01

    The transport of human adenovirus, nanoparticles, and PRD1 and MS2 bacteriophages was tested in fine granular limestone aquifer material taken from a borehole at a managed aquifer recharge site in Adelaide, South Australia. Comparison of transport and removal of virus surrogates with the pathogenic virus is necessary to understand the differences between the virus and surrogate. Because experiments using pathogenic viruses cannot be done in the field, laboratory tests using flow-through soil columns were used. Results show that PRD1 is the most appropriate surrogate for adenovirus in an aquifer dominated by calcite material but not under high ionic strength or high pH conditions. It was also found that straining due to size and the charge of the colloid were not dominant removal mechanisms in this system. Implications of this study indicate that a certain surrogate may not represent a specific pathogen solely based on similar size, morphology, and/or surface charge. Moreover, if a particular surrogate is representative of a pathogen in one aquifer system, it may not be the most appropriate surrogate in another porous media system. This was apparent in the inferior performance of MS2 as a surrogate, which is commonly used in virus transport studies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist & surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  4. FENOMENA SURROGATE MOTHER (IBU PENGGANTI DALAM PERSPEKTIF ISLAM DITINJAU DARI HADIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alifah Rahmawati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this modern era, there is a finding in technology in the field of genetically changes which try to help the married couple with no children for a long time of marriage. This change can be seen in the existence of an infant with infitro fertilization, sperm banks, or magic box that can save sperm and ovum as they are in the real womb. As the time is gone, the practice of infant with  infitro fertilization and artificial insemination have developed in some forms of activity which are forbidden in Islam. One of the forbidden forms is infitro insemination or artificial insemination which uses the sperm and ovum from a marriage couple and put it in another woman’s womb. This practice is called as Surrogate Mother. Actually there is no verses in the al-Qur’an which strictly stated about the prohibition on the practice of infitro infant using another woman’s womb (Surrogate mother. But it does not mean that al-Qur’an does not give any solution and also guidance in solving the law of this problem. There are some syar’i theorems that can be used as references in the issue of surrogate mother, for example Q.S Maryam verse 3-5 which give us command to keep praying and trying to get descendents, Q.S al-Baqarah verse 223 which states that a wife is the best place for farming and also hadith of the prophet Muhammad SAW which forbid a man to give his sperm to another woman who is not their wife. Moreover, the practice of this surrogate mother is also contradictory with with al-maqasid al-shariah because it can cause a mixed Nasab. Based on those reasons, the writer is interested in analyzing how is the surrogate mother phenomenon in the view of hadith and its contextualization dealing with the children’s position in the law of Waris (inheritance. Based on the literature analysis done by the writer, it can be concluded that the practice of surrogate mother is forbidden according to Ulama because it gives more mudharat (negative effects than

  5. Comparative Study of the Volumetric Methods Calculation Using GNSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şmuleac, Adrian; Nemeş, Iacob; Alina Creţan, Ioana; Sorina Nemeş, Nicoleta; Şmuleac, Laura

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to achieve volumetric calculations for different mineral aggregates using different methods of analysis and also comparison of results. To achieve these comparative studies and presentation were chosen two software licensed, namely TopoLT 11.2 and Surfer 13. TopoLT program is a program dedicated to the development of topographic and cadastral plans. 3D terrain model, level courves and calculation of cut and fill volumes, including georeferencing of images. The program Surfer 13 is produced by Golden Software, in 1983 and is active mainly used in various fields such as agriculture, construction, geophysical, geotechnical engineering, GIS, water resources and others. It is also able to achieve GRID terrain model, to achieve the density maps using the method of isolines, volumetric calculations, 3D maps. Also, it can read different file types, including SHP, DXF and XLSX. In these paper it is presented a comparison in terms of achieving volumetric calculations using TopoLT program by two methods: a method where we choose a 3D model both for surface as well as below the top surface and a 3D model in which we choose a 3D terrain model for the bottom surface and another 3D model for the top surface. The comparison of the two variants will be made with data obtained from the realization of volumetric calculations with the program Surfer 13 generating GRID terrain model. The topographical measurements were performed with equipment from Leica GPS 1200 Series. Measurements were made using Romanian position determination system - ROMPOS which ensures accurate positioning of reference and coordinates ETRS through the National Network of GNSS Permanent Stations. GPS data processing was performed with the program Leica Geo Combined Office. For the volumetric calculating the GPS used point are in 1970 stereographic projection system and for the altitude the reference is 1975 the Black Sea projection system.

  6. The Decomposition of Surrogate Fuel Molecules During Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsang, Wing; Manion, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    This project is aimed at developing a chemical kinetic database consisting of the rate constants of fundamental single step reactions that describe the pyrolytic decomposition of surrogate fuels molecules...

  7. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  8. Plant fibre composites - porosity and volumetric interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Thygesen, Anders; Lilholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    the combination of a high fibre volume fraction, a low porosity and a high composite density is optimal. Experimental data from the literature on volumetric composition and density of four types of plant fibre composites are used to validate the model. It is demonstrated that the model provides a concept......Plant fibre composites contain typically a relative large amount of porosity, which considerably influences properties and performance of the composites. The large porosity must be integrated in the conversion of weight fractions into volume fractions of the fibre and matrix parts. A model...... is presented to predict the porosity as a function of the fibre weight fractions, and to calculate the related fibre and matrix volume fractions, as well as the density of the composite. The model predicts two cases of composite volumetric interaction separated by a transition fibre weight fraction, at which...

  9. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  10. Calibration of an agricultural-hydrological model (RZWQM2) using surrogate global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Maolong; Lu, Dan; Gui, Dongwei; Qi, Zhiming; Zhang, Guannan

    2017-01-01

    Robust calibration of an agricultural-hydrological model is critical for simulating crop yield and water quality and making reasonable agricultural management. However, calibration of the agricultural-hydrological system models is challenging because of model complexity, the existence of strong parameter correlation, and significant computational requirements. Therefore, only a limited number of simulations can be allowed in any attempt to find a near-optimal solution within an affordable time, which greatly restricts the successful application of the model. The goal of this study is to locate the optimal solution of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) given a limited simulation time, so as to improve the model simulation and help make rational and effective agricultural-hydrological decisions. To this end, we propose a computationally efficient global optimization procedure using sparse-grid based surrogates. We first used advanced sparse grid (SG) interpolation to construct a surrogate system of the actual RZWQM2, and then we calibrate the surrogate model using the global optimization algorithm, Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). As the surrogate model is a polynomial with fast evaluation, it can be efficiently evaluated with a sufficiently large number of times during the optimization, which facilitates the global search. We calibrate seven model parameters against five years of yield, drain flow, and NO3-N loss data from a subsurface-drained corn-soybean field in Iowa. Results indicate that an accurate surrogate model can be created for the RZWQM2 with a relatively small number of SG points (i.e., RZWQM2 runs). Compared to the conventional QPSO algorithm, our surrogate-based optimization method can achieve a smaller objective function value and better calibration performance using a fewer number of expensive RZWQM2 executions, which greatly improves computational efficiency.

  11. MRI-guided single fraction ablative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer : a brachytherapy versus volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charaghvandi, Ramona K; den Hartogh, Mariska D; van Ommen, Anne-Mar L N; de Vries, Wilfred J H; Scholten, Vincent; Moerland, Rien; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Schokker, Rogier I; van Vulpen, Marco; van Asselen, B; van den Bongard, Desirée H J G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A radiosurgical treatment approach for early-stage breast cancer has the potential to minimize the patient's treatment burden. The dosimetric feasibility for single fraction ablative radiotherapy was evaluated by comparing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with an

  12. First Trimester Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets Syndrome in a Surrogate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Emily; Hill, James

    2015-10-01

    Background The occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome before 20 weeks of gestation is rare. HELLP is a possible but rare syndrome in gestational surrogate pregnancies for surrogates with risk factors for development of preeclampsia. Case A 32-year-old patient with chronic hypertension and positive antinuclear antibody presented for prenatal care at 13 weeks and 1 day. She was a surrogate for the embryo of a 43-year-old couple. By 15 weeks she developed uncontrolled hypertension requiring hospitalization. She was expectantly managed until her condition deteriorated. At 16 weeks and 1 day she developed hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, and fetal demise. Conclusions HELLP syndrome is rare and carries a significant morbidity and mortality for the mother and fetus. Clinicians should encourage the surrogate to share her medical history with the embryo donor for appropriate counseling on pregnancy risks.

  13. Breast Density Estimation with Fully Automated Volumetric Method: Comparison to Radiologists' Assessment by BI-RADS Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tulika; Sharma, Madhurima; Singla, Veenu; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to calculate mammographic breast density with a fully automated volumetric breast density measurement method and to compare it to breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) breast density categories assigned by two radiologists. A total of 476 full-field digital mammography examinations with standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views were evaluated by two blinded radiologists and BI-RADS density categories were assigned. Using a fully automated software, mean fibroglandular tissue volume, mean breast volume, and mean volumetric breast density were calculated. Based on percentage volumetric breast density, a volumetric density grade was assigned from 1 to 4. The weighted overall kappa was 0.895 (almost perfect agreement) for the two radiologists' BI-RADS density estimates. A statistically significant difference was seen in mean volumetric breast density among the BI-RADS density categories. With increased BI-RADS density category, increase in mean volumetric breast density was also seen (P BI-RADS categories and volumetric density grading by fully automated software (ρ = 0.728, P BI-RADS density category by two observers showed fair agreement (κ = 0.398 and 0.388, respectively). In our study, a good correlation was seen between density grading using fully automated volumetric method and density grading using BI-RADS density categories assigned by the two radiologists. Thus, the fully automated volumetric method may be used to quantify breast density on routine mammography. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Erosion of water-based cements evaluated by volumetric and gravimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Rie; Uchida, Keiko; Momoi, Yasuko; McCabe, John F

    2003-05-01

    To compare the erosion of glass ionomer, zinc phosphate and polycarboxylate cements using volumetric and gravimetric methods. For the volumetric method, the eroded depth of cement placed in a cylindrical cavity in PMMA was measured using a dial gauge after immersion in an eroding solution. For the gravimetric method, the weight of the residue of a solution in which a cylindrical specimen had been immersed was measured. 0.02 M lactic acid solution (0.02 M acid) and 0.1 M lactic acid/sodium lactate buffer solution (0.1 M buffer) were used as eroding solutions. The pH of both solutions was 2.74 and the test period was 24 h. Ranking of eroded depth and weight of residue was polycarboxylate>zinc phosphate>glass ionomers. Differences in erosion were more clearly defined by differences in eroded depth than differences in weight of residue. In 0.02 M acid, the erosion of glass ionomer using the volumetric method was effected by the hygroscopic expansion. In 0.1 M buffer, the erosion for polycarboxylate and zinc phosphate using the volumetric method was much greater than that using the gravimetric method. This is explained by cryo-SEM images which show many holes in the surface of specimens after erosion. It appears that zinc oxide is dissolved leaving a spongy matrix which easily collapses under the force applied to the dial gauge during measurement. The volumetric method that employs eroded depth of cement using a 0.1 M buffer solution is able to quantify erosion and to make material comparisons.

  15. Committee-Based Active Learning for Surrogate-Assisted Particle Swarm Optimization of Expensive Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Handing; Jin, Yaochu; Doherty, John

    2017-09-01

    Function evaluations (FEs) of many real-world optimization problems are time or resource consuming, posing a serious challenge to the application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to solve these problems. To address this challenge, the research on surrogate-assisted EAs has attracted increasing attention from both academia and industry over the past decades. However, most existing surrogate-assisted EAs (SAEAs) either still require thousands of expensive FEs to obtain acceptable solutions, or are only applied to very low-dimensional problems. In this paper, a novel surrogate-assisted particle swarm optimization (PSO) inspired from committee-based active learning (CAL) is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, a global model management strategy inspired from CAL is developed, which searches for the best and most uncertain solutions according to a surrogate ensemble using a PSO algorithm and evaluates these solutions using the expensive objective function. In addition, a local surrogate model is built around the best solution obtained so far. Then, a PSO algorithm searches on the local surrogate to find its optimum and evaluates it. The evolutionary search using the global model management strategy switches to the local search once no further improvement can be observed, and vice versa. This iterative search process continues until the computational budget is exhausted. Experimental results comparing the proposed algorithm with a few state-of-the-art SAEAs on both benchmark problems up to 30 decision variables as well as an airfoil design problem demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to achieve better or competitive solutions with a limited budget of hundreds of exact FEs.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLUMETRIC STRAINS IN POROUS MATERIALS IN TERMS OF WATER FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differential analysis of volumetric strain (DAVS. The method allows measurements of volumetric deformations of capillary-porous materials caused by water-ice phase change. The VSE indicator (volumetric strain effect, which under certain conditions can be interpreted as the minimum degree of phase change of water contained in the material pores, is proposed. The test results (DAVS for three materials with diversified microstructure: clinker brick, calcium-silicate brick and Portland cement mortar were compared with the test results for pore characteristics obtained with the mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  17. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-01-01

    . These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate

  18. Correlation of volumetric mismatch and mismatch of Alberta Stroke program Early CT scores on CT perfusion maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ke; Rapalino, Otto; Lee, Benjamin; Do, Kinh G.; Sussmann, Amado R.; Pramanik, Bidyut K.; Law, Meng

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine if volumetric mismatch between tissue at risk and tissue destined to infarct on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) can be described by the mismatch of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Forty patients with nonlacunar middle cerebral artery infarct 6 s and <2.0 mL per 100 g, respectively. Two other raters assigned ASPECTS to the same MTT and CBV maps while blinded to the volumetric data. Volumetric mismatch was deemed present if ≥20%. ASPECTS mismatch (=CBV ASPECTS - MTT ASPECTS) was deemed present if ≥1. Correlation between the two types of mismatches was assessed by Spearman's coefficient (ρ). ROC curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal ASPECTS mismatch cut point for volumetric mismatch ≥20%, ≥50%, ≥100%, and ≥150%. Median volumetric mismatch was 130% (range 10.9-2,031%) with 31 (77.5%) being ≥20%. Median ASPECTS mismatch was 2 (range 0-6) with 26 (65%) being ≥1. ASPECTS mismatch correlated strongly with volumetric mismatch with ρ = 0.763 [95% CI 0.585-0.870], p < 0.0001. Sensitivity and specificity for volumetric mismatch ≥20% was 83.9% [95% CI 65.5-93.5] and 100% [95% CI 65.9-100], respectively, using ASPECTS mismatch ≥1. Volumetric mismatch ≥50%, ≥100%, and ≥150% were optimally identified using ASPECTS mismatch ≥1, ≥2, and ≥2, respectively. On CTP, ASPECTS mismatch showed strong correlation to volumetric mismatch. ASPECTS mismatch ≥1 was the optimal cut point for volumetric mismatch ≥20%. (orig.)

  19. Decision conflict and regret among surrogate decision makers in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse J; Morris, Peter; Files, D Clark; Gower, Emily; Young, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Family members of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit face significant morbidity. It may be the decision-making process that plays a significant role in the psychological morbidity associated with being a surrogate in the ICU. We hypothesize that family members facing end-of-life decisions will have more decisional conflict and decisional regret than those facing non-end-of-life decisions. We enrolled a sample of adult patients and their surrogates in a tertiary care, academic medical intensive care unit. We queried the surrogates regarding decisions they had made on behalf of the patient and assessed decision conflict. We then contacted the family member again to assess decision regret. Forty (95%) of 42 surrogates were able to identify at least 1 decision they had made on behalf of the patient. End-of-life decisions (defined as do not resuscitate [DNR]/do not intubate [DNI] or continuation of life support) accounted for 19 of 40 decisions (47.5%). Overall, the average Decision Conflict Scale (DCS) score was 21.9 of 100 (range 0-100, with 0 being little decisional conflict and 100 being great decisional conflict). The average DCS score for families facing end-of-life decisions was 25.5 compared with 18.7 for all other decisions. Those facing end-of-life decisions scored higher on the uncertainty subscale (subset of DCS questions that indicates level of certainty regarding decision) with a mean score of 43.4 compared with all other decisions with a mean score of 27.0. Overall, very few surrogates experienced decisional regret with an average DRS score of 13.4 of 100. Nearly all surrogates enrolled were faced with decision-making responsibilities on behalf of his or her critically ill family member. In our small pilot study, we found more decisional conflict in those surrogates facing end-of-life decisions, specifically on the subset of questions dealing with uncertainty. Surrogates report low levels of decisional regret. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  20. Mitigating Errors in External Respiratory Surrogate-Based Models of Tumor Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Kathleen T.; McAvoy, Thomas J.; George, Rohini; Dieterich, Sonja; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tumor site, measurement precision, tumor–surrogate correlation, training data selection, model design, and interpatient and interfraction variations on the accuracy of external marker-based models of tumor position. Methods and Materials: Cyberknife Synchrony system log files comprising synchronously acquired positions of external markers and the tumor from 167 treatment fractions were analyzed. The accuracy of Synchrony, ordinary-least-squares regression, and partial-least-squares regression models for predicting the tumor position from the external markers was evaluated. The quantity and timing of the data used to build the predictive model were varied. The effects of tumor–surrogate correlation and the precision in both the tumor and the external surrogate position measurements were explored by adding noise to the data. Results: The tumor position prediction errors increased during the duration of a fraction. Increasing the training data quantities did not always lead to more accurate models. Adding uncorrelated noise to the external marker-based inputs degraded the tumor–surrogate correlation models by 16% for partial-least-squares and 57% for ordinary-least-squares. External marker and tumor position measurement errors led to tumor position prediction changes 0.3–3.6 times the magnitude of the measurement errors, varying widely with model algorithm. The tumor position prediction errors were significantly associated with the patient index but not with the fraction index or tumor site. Partial-least-squares was as accurate as Synchrony and more accurate than ordinary-least-squares. Conclusions: The accuracy of surrogate-based inferential models of tumor position was affected by all the investigated factors, except for the tumor site and fraction index.

  1. Mitigating Errors in External Respiratory Surrogate-Based Models of Tumor Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Kathleen T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); McAvoy, Thomas J. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Institute of Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dieterich, Sonja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); D' Souza, Warren D., E-mail: wdsou001@umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tumor site, measurement precision, tumor-surrogate correlation, training data selection, model design, and interpatient and interfraction variations on the accuracy of external marker-based models of tumor position. Methods and Materials: Cyberknife Synchrony system log files comprising synchronously acquired positions of external markers and the tumor from 167 treatment fractions were analyzed. The accuracy of Synchrony, ordinary-least-squares regression, and partial-least-squares regression models for predicting the tumor position from the external markers was evaluated. The quantity and timing of the data used to build the predictive model were varied. The effects of tumor-surrogate correlation and the precision in both the tumor and the external surrogate position measurements were explored by adding noise to the data. Results: The tumor position prediction errors increased during the duration of a fraction. Increasing the training data quantities did not always lead to more accurate models. Adding uncorrelated noise to the external marker-based inputs degraded the tumor-surrogate correlation models by 16% for partial-least-squares and 57% for ordinary-least-squares. External marker and tumor position measurement errors led to tumor position prediction changes 0.3-3.6 times the magnitude of the measurement errors, varying widely with model algorithm. The tumor position prediction errors were significantly associated with the patient index but not with the fraction index or tumor site. Partial-least-squares was as accurate as Synchrony and more accurate than ordinary-least-squares. Conclusions: The accuracy of surrogate-based inferential models of tumor position was affected by all the investigated factors, except for the tumor site and fraction index.

  2. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  3. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreman, S.; Mostafavi, H.; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating

  4. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korreman, S. [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Mostafavi, H. [Varian Medical Systems, Mountain View, CA (United States). Gintzon Technology Center; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating.

  5. Biomedically assisted reproduction and child birth: Surrogate motherhood in comparative European law and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry and deliver a child for another couple who ordered the pregnancy. This procedure is applied today in Great Britain, Holland (although without legal regulations, Israel, Greece, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, the USA and Australia, and it is forbidden in France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Slovenia. There are two types of surrogacy, one when the woman gives birth to a child who is genetically her own ("partial", genetic surrogacy, and the other where the surrogate mother only carries and gives birth to a child, whereby the child is genetically from the couple that wanted the child, or the fertilized egg is from a third woman (donor, or the embryo was donated ("full", "total", gestational surrogacy. In these cases two women take part in conception and birth of the child while in the last case there is a third woman who will raise the child. Biologically observed, the woman whose egg has been fertilized may be called the genetic mother, while the woman who carried the pregnancy and gave birth to the child - the gestational carrier. Taking into consideration that the Preliminary Draft of the Serbian Civil Law anticipates the introduction of surrogate motherhood into domestic law, we believe restrictive solutions should first be taken into consideration. This would mean that only full surrogating should be allowed, namely the egg should be from the woman who wants the child and not the surrogate mother. In domestic conditions, genetic surrogation should not be allowed as it leads to confusion in family relations, and kinships still have an important social and legal significance in our country. The surrogate mother should be a woman who has already given birth, because in that way any possible shocks which might arise after birth when the woman who has to handover the child to the intended couple would be avoided. The next condition would be that persons involved in this

  6. Neutron-induced cross sections of actinides via the surrogate-reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducasse Q.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique may enable neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for short-lived nuclei that otherwise cannot be measured. However, the validity of the surrogate method has to be investigated. In particular, the absence of a compound nucleus formation and the Jπ dependence of the decay probabilities may question the method. In this work we study the reactions 238U(d,p239U, 238U(3He,t238Np, 238U(3He,4He237U as surrogates for neutron-induced reactions on 238U, 237Np and 236U, respectively, for which good quality data exist. The experimental set-up enabled the measurement of fission and gamma-decay probabilities. The first results are hereby presented.

  7. SURROGATE MOTHER DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Muntaha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of science and technology, in particular in the field of health, has already recently brought a huge advantage and problem in human life. An example of technological marvel that not only requires deep legal thoughts but also at the same time solution is the bio-medical technology advancement of surrogacy. Surrogacy deals with human’s inclination towards reproductive activity. However, it opens up legal complication, in particular with regards to the potential commission of a criminal action as well as to the notion of doctor’s liability. Perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi di bidang kesehatan yang semakin maju dan pesat telah membawa berbagai manfaat dan masalah dalam kehidupan manusia dewasa ini. Salah satu perkembangan yang tidak hanya membutuhkan pemikiran di bidang hukum, tetapi juga sekaligus solusinya adalah mengenai kecanggihan teknologi bio-medis surrogate mother. Surrogacy menyentuh sisi kemanusiaan seorang insan terhadap reproduksi. Akan tetapi, lembaga surrogacy juga membawa komplikasi hukum terutama terkait dengan potensi tindak pidana dan dengan persoalan tanggung jawab dokter.

  8. Predicting positional error of MLC using volumetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareram, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    IMRT normally using multiple beamlets (small width of the beam) for a particular field to deliver so that it is imperative to maintain the positional accuracy of the MLC in order to deliver integrated computed dose accurately. Different manufacturers have reported high precession on MLC devices with leaf positional accuracy nearing 0.1 mm but measuring and rectifying the error in this accuracy is very difficult. Various methods are used to check MLC position and among this volumetric analysis is one of the technique. Volumetric approach was adapted in our method using primus machine and 0.6cc chamber at 5 cm depth In perspex. MLC of 1 mm error introduces an error of 20%, more sensitive to other methods

  9. Optimization approaches to volumetric modulated arc therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C DK-8000 (Denmark); Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Bokrantz, Rasmus [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm SE-111 34 (Sweden); Chen, Danny [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Men, Chunhua [Department of Research, Elekta, Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043 (United States); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Papp, Dávid [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Romeijn, Edwin [H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Salari, Ehsan [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has found widespread clinical application in recent years. A large number of treatment planning studies have evaluated the potential for VMAT for different disease sites based on the currently available commercial implementations of VMAT planning. In contrast, literature on the underlying mathematical optimization methods used in treatment planning is scarce. VMAT planning represents a challenging large scale optimization problem. In contrast to fluence map optimization in intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for static beams, VMAT planning represents a nonconvex optimization problem. In this paper, the authors review the state-of-the-art in VMAT planning from an algorithmic perspective. Different approaches to VMAT optimization, including arc sequencing methods, extensions of direct aperture optimization, and direct optimization of leaf trajectories are reviewed. Their advantages and limitations are outlined and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  10. A Legal and Ethical Analysis of the Effects of Triggering Conditions on Surrogate Decision-Making in End-of-Life Care in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Parker, J; Goldberg, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    The central claim of this paper is that American states' use of so-called "triggering conditions" to regulate surrogate decision-making authority in end-of-life care leaves unresolved a number of important ethical and legal considerations regarding the scope of that authority. The paper frames the issue with a case set in a jurisdiction in which surrogate authority to withdraw life-sustaining treatment is triggered by two specific clinical conditions. The case presents a quandary insofar as the clinical facts do not satisfy the triggering conditions, and yet both the appropriate surrogates and the care team agree that withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment is in the best interest of the patient. The paper surveys applicable law across the 50 states and weighs the arguments for and against the inclusion of such triggering conditions in relevant legal regimes. The paper concludes by assessing the various legal and policy options states have for regulating surrogate decision-making authority in light of the moral considerations (including epistemic difficulties), and notes the possibility for conflict within ethics teams arising from the potential tension between prudence, risk-aversion, and moral obligation.

  11. The long-term experiences of surrogates: relationships and contact with surrogacy families in genetic and gestational surrogacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrie, Susan; Jadva, Vasanti

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the contact arrangements and relationships between surrogates and surrogacy families and whether these outcomes differed according to the type of surrogacy undertaken. Surrogates' motivations for carrying out multiple surrogacy arrangements were also examined, and surrogates' psychological health was assessed. Semi-structured interviews were administered to 34 women who had given birth to a child conceived through surrogacy approximately 7 years prior to interview. Some surrogates had carried out multiple surrogacy arrangements, and data were collected on the frequency, type of contact, and surrogate's feelings about the level of contact in each surrogacy arrangement, the surrogate's relationship with each child and parent, and her experience of, and motivation for, each surrogacy. Questionnaire measures of psychological health were administered. Surrogates had completed a total of 102 surrogacy arrangements and remained in contact with the majority of families, and reported positive relationships in most cases. Surrogates were happy with their level of contact in the majority of arrangements and most were viewed as positive experiences. Few differences were found according to surrogacy type. The primary motivation given for multiple surrogacy arrangements was to help couples have a sibling for an existing child. Most surrogates showed no psychological health problems at the time of data collection. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A conceptual model of the role of communication in surrogate decision making for hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torke, Alexia M; Petronio, Sandra; Sachs, Greg A; Helft, Paul R; Purnell, Christianna

    2012-04-01

    To build a conceptual model of the role of communication in decision making, based on literature from medicine, communication studies and medical ethics. We proposed a model and described each construct in detail. We review what is known about interpersonal and patient-physician communication, described literature about surrogate-clinician communication, and discussed implications for our developing model. The communication literature proposes two major elements of interpersonal communication: information processing and relationship building. These elements are composed of constructs such as information disclosure and emotional support that are likely to be relevant to decision making. We propose these elements of communication impact decision making, which in turn affects outcomes for both patients and surrogates. Decision making quality may also mediate the relationship between communication and outcomes. Although many elements of the model have been studied in relation to patient-clinician communication, there is limited data about surrogate decision making. There is evidence of high surrogate distress associated with decision making that may be alleviated by communication-focused interventions. More research is needed to test the relationships proposed in the model. Good communication with surrogates may improve both the quality of medical decisions and outcomes for the patient and surrogate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial and volumetric changes of retroperitoneal sarcomas during pre-operative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Philip; Dickie, Colleen; Lee, David; Chung, Peter; O’Sullivan, Brian; Letourneau, Daniel; Xu, Wei; Swallow, Carol; Gladdy, Rebecca; Catton, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the positional and volumetric changes of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) during pre-operative external beam radiotherapy (PreRT). Material and methods: After excluding 2 patients who received chemotherapy prior to PreRT and 15 RPS that were larger than the field-of-view of cone-beam CT (CBCT), the positional and volumetric changes of RPS throughout PreRT were characterized in 19 patients treated with IMRT using CBCT image guidance. Analysis was performed on 118 CBCT images representing one image per week of those acquired daily during treatment. Intra-fraction breathing motions of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and kidneys were measured in 22 RPS patients simulated using 4D-CT. Fifteen other patients were excluded whose tumors were incompletely imaged on CBCT or who received pre-RT chemotherapy. Results: A GTV volumetric increase (mean: 6.6%, p = 0.035) during the first 2 weeks (CBCT1 vs. CBCT2) of treatment was followed by GTV volumetric decrease (mean: 4%, p = 0.009) by completion of radiotherapy (CBCT1 vs. CBCT6). Internal margins of 8.6, 15 and 15 mm in the lateral, anterior/posterior and superior/inferior directions would be required to account for inter-fraction displacements. The extent of GTV respiratory motion was significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with more superiorly positioned tumors. Conclusion: Inter-fraction CBCT provides important volumetric and positional information of RPS which may improve PreRT quality and prompt re-planning. Planning target volume may be reduced using online soft-tissue matching to account for interfractional displacements of GTVs. Important breathing motion occurred in superiorly placed RPS supporting the utility of 4D-CT planning

  14. Comparison of surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.B.; Ullrich, C.G.; Moore, T.

    1988-01-01

    Both surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional image processing from CT data can provide accurate demonstration of skeletal anatomy. While realistic, surface contour images may obscure fine detail such as nondisplaced fractures, and thin bone may disappear. Volumetric processing can provide high detail, but the transparency effect is unnatural and may yield a confusing image. Comparison of both three-dimensional modes is presented to demonstrate those findings best shown with each and to illustrate helpful techniques to improve volumetric display, such as disarticulation of unnecessary anatomy, short-angle repeating rotation (dithering), and image combination into overlay displays

  15. Rapid volumetric imaging with Bessel-Beam three-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingying; Huang, Xiaoshuai; Gou, Dongzhou; Zeng, Jianzhi; Chen, Guoqing; Pang, Meijun; Hu, Yanhui; Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Zhuan; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Heping; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chris; Li, Yulong; Chen, Liangyi; Wang, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    Owing to its tissue-penetration ability, multi-photon fluorescence microscopy allows for the high-resolution, non-invasive imaging of deep tissue in vivo; the recently developed three-photon microscopy (3PM) has extended the depth of high-resolution, non-invasive functional imaging of mouse brains to beyond 1.0 mm. However, the low repetition rate of femtosecond lasers that are normally used in 3PM limits the temporal resolution of point-scanning three-photon microscopy. To increase the volumetric imaging speed of 3PM, we propose a combination of an axially elongated needle-like Bessel-beam with three-photon excitation (3PE) to image biological samples with an extended depth of focus. We demonstrate the higher signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the Bessel-beam 3PM compared to the two-photon version both theoretically and experimentally. Finally, we perform simultaneous calcium imaging of brain regions at different axial locations in live fruit flies and rapid volumetric imaging of neuronal structures in live mouse brains. These results highlight the unique advantage of conducting rapid volumetric imaging with a high SBR in the deep brain in vivo using scanning Bessel-3PM.

  16. An empirical assessment and comparison of species-based and habitat-based surrogates: a case study of forest vertebrates and large old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Barton, Philip S; Lane, Peter W; Westgate, Martin J; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Gibbons, Philip; Likens, Gene E

    2014-01-01

    A holy grail of conservation is to find simple but reliable measures of environmental change to guide management. For example, particular species or particular habitat attributes are often used as proxies for the abundance or diversity of a subset of other taxa. However, the efficacy of such kinds of species-based surrogates and habitat-based surrogates is rarely assessed, nor are different kinds of surrogates compared in terms of their relative effectiveness. We use 30-year datasets on arboreal marsupials and vegetation structure to quantify the effectiveness of: (1) the abundance of a particular species of arboreal marsupial as a species-based surrogate for other arboreal marsupial taxa, (2) hollow-bearing tree abundance as a habitat-based surrogate for arboreal marsupial abundance, and (3) a combination of species- and habitat-based surrogates. We also quantify the robustness of species-based and habitat-based surrogates over time. We then use the same approach to model overall species richness of arboreal marsupials. We show that a species-based surrogate can appear to be a valid surrogate until a habitat-based surrogate is co-examined, after which the effectiveness of the former is lost. The addition of a species-based surrogate to a habitat-based surrogate made little difference in explaining arboreal marsupial abundance, but altered the co-occurrence relationship between species. Hence, there was limited value in simultaneously using a combination of kinds of surrogates. The habitat-based surrogate also generally performed significantly better and was easier and less costly to gather than the species-based surrogate. We found that over 30 years of study, the relationships which underpinned the habitat-based surrogate generally remained positive but variable over time. Our work highlights why it is important to compare the effectiveness of different broad classes of surrogates and identify situations when either species- or habitat-based surrogates are likely

  17. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V.; Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Golombok, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. RESULTS Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P surrogate mother's egg was used to conceive the child). Most families reported harmonious relationships with their surrogate mother. At age 10 years, 19 (90%) children who had been informed of the nature of their conception had a good understanding of this and 13 of the 14 children who were in contact with their surrogate reported that they liked her. CONCLUSIONS Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22814484

  18. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  19. Robust best linear estimation for regression analysis using surrogate and instrumental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y

    2012-04-01

    We investigate methods for regression analysis when covariates are measured with errors. In a subset of the whole cohort, a surrogate variable is available for the true unobserved exposure variable. The surrogate variable satisfies the classical measurement error model, but it may not have repeated measurements. In addition to the surrogate variables that are available among the subjects in the calibration sample, we assume that there is an instrumental variable (IV) that is available for all study subjects. An IV is correlated with the unobserved true exposure variable and hence can be useful in the estimation of the regression coefficients. We propose a robust best linear estimator that uses all the available data, which is the most efficient among a class of consistent estimators. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal under very weak distributional assumptions. For Poisson or linear regression, the proposed estimator is consistent even if the measurement error from the surrogate or IV is heteroscedastic. Finite-sample performance of the proposed estimator is examined and compared with other estimators via intensive simulation studies. The proposed method and other methods are applied to a bladder cancer case-control study.

  20. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  2. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  3. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volumetric additive reconciliation... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and...) For a facility which uses a gauge to measure the inventory of the detergent storage tank, the total...

  4. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  5. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Roser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1% and from DECT phone calls (4.8%. Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%, use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2% and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%. The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people’s mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Surrogate Glasses Aimed to Validate Nuclear Forensic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the glass formed during a nuclear event, trinitite [14]. The SiO2 composition is generally greater than 50% for trinitite and can vary appreciably...CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO VALIDATE NUCLEAR FORENSIC TECHNIQUES by Ken G. Foos December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Claudia...December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO

  7. Ideal femoral head size in total hip arthroplasty balances stability and volumetric wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael B; Nam, Denis; Mayman, David J

    2012-10-01

    Over the last several years, a trend towards increasing femoral head size in total hip arthroplasty to improve stability and impingement free range of motion has been observed. The specific questions we sought to answer in our review were: (1) What are the potential advantages and disadvantages of metal-on-metal, ceramic-on-ceramic, and metal-on-polyethylene bearings? (2) What is effect that femoral head size has on joint kinematics? (3) What is the effect that large femoral heads have on bearing surface wear? A PubMed search and a review of 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society abstracts was performed and articles were chosen that directly answered components of the specific aims and that reported outcomes with contemporary implant designs or materials. A review of the literature suggests that increasing femoral head size decreases the risk of postoperative dislocation and improves impingement free range of motion; however, volumetric wear increases with large femoral heads on polyethylene and increases corrosion of the stem in large metal-on-metal modular total hip arthroplasty (THA); however, the risk of potentially developing osteolysis or adverse reactions to metal debris respectively is still unknown. Further, the effect of large femoral heads with ceramic-on-ceramic THA is unclear, due to limited availability and published data. Surgeons must balance the benefits of larger head size with the increased risk of volumetric wear when determining the appropriate head size for a given patient.

  8. Volumetric segmentation of ADC maps and utility of standard deviation as measure of tumor heterogeneity in soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam D; Pattany, Pradip M; Fayad, Laura M; Tresley, Jonathan; Subhawong, Ty K

    2016-01-01

    Determine interobserver concordance of semiautomated three-dimensional volumetric and two-dimensional manual measurements of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in soft tissue masses (STMs) and explore standard deviation (SD) as a measure of tumor ADC heterogeneity. Concordance correlation coefficients for mean ADC increased with more extensive sampling. Agreement on the SD of tumor ADC values was better for large regions of interest and multislice methods. Correlation between mean and SD ADC was low, suggesting that these parameters are relatively independent. Mean ADC of STMs can be determined by volumetric quantification with high interobserver agreement. STM heterogeneity merits further investigation as a potential imaging biomarker that complements other functional magnetic resonance imaging parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Revisiting photodynamic therapy dosimetry: reductionist and surrogate approaches to facilitate clinical success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogue, Brian W; Elliott, Jonathan T; Kanick, Stephen C; Davis, Scott C; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Maytin, Edward V; Pereira, Stephen P; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly complex treatment, with many parameters influencing treatment efficacy. The extent to which dosimetry is used to monitor and standardize treatment delivery varies widely, ranging from measurement of a single surrogate marker to comprehensive approaches that aim to measure or estimate as many relevant parameters as possible. Today, most clinical PDT treatments are still administered with little more than application of a prescribed drug dose and timed light delivery, and thus the role of patient-specific dosimetry has not reached widespread clinical adoption. This disconnect is at least partly due to the inherent conflict between the need to measure and understand multiple parameters in vivo in order to optimize treatment, and the need for expedience in the clinic and in the regulatory and commercialization process. Thus, a methodical approach to selecting primary dosimetry metrics is required at each stage of translation of a treatment procedure, moving from complex measurements to understand PDT mechanisms in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards the identification and application of essential dose-limiting and/or surrogate measurements in phase II/III trials. If successful, identifying the essential and/or reliable surrogate dosimetry measurements should help facilitate increased adoption of clinical PDT. In this paper, examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools that may be implemented in phase II/III trials are discussed. For example, the treatment efficacy as limited by light penetration in interstitial PDT may be predicted by the amount of contrast uptake in CT, and so this could be utilized as a surrogate dosimetry measurement to prescribe light doses based upon pre-treatment contrast. Success of clinical ALA-based skin lesion treatment is predicted almost uniquely by the explicit or implicit measurements of photosensitizer and photobleaching, yet the individualization of treatment

  10. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  11. Minimum pricing of alcohol versus volumetric taxation: which policy will reduce heavy consumption without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Sharma

    Full Text Available We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP compared with a uniform volumetric tax.We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885 collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010-22 Jan 2011 in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing.The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs, are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20-1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10-2.31]. Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86-16.69] and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64-2.05] compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10-10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46-0.41], respectively. A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19-413.00] and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76-121.75], compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55-574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79-175.03], respectively. Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing.While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers.

  12. Overview of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Wagner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous factors that recommend the use of biomarkers in drug development including the ability to provide a rational basis for selection of lead compounds, as an aid in determining or refining mechanism of action or pathophysiology, and the ability to work towards qualification and use of a biomarker as a surrogate endpoint. Examples of biomarkers come from many different means of clinical and laboratory measurement. Total cholesterol is an example of a clinically useful biomarker that was successfully qualified for use as a surrogate endpoint. Biomarkers require validation in most circumstances. Validation of biomarker assays is a necessary component to delivery of high-quality research data necessary for effective use of biomarkers. Qualification is necessary for use of a biomarker as a surrogate endpoint. Putative biomarkers are typically identified because of a relationship to known or hypothetical steps in a pathophysiologic cascade. Biomarker discovery can also be effected by expression profiling experiment using a variety of array technologies and related methods. For example, expression profiling experiments enabled the discovery of adipocyte related complement protein of 30 kD (Acrp30 or adiponectin as a biomarker for in vivo activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR γ activity.

  13. Simultaneous tumor and surrogate motion tracking with dynamic MRI for radiation therapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyoun; Farah, Rana; Shea, Steven M.; Tryggestad, Erik; Hales, Russell; Lee, Junghoon

    2018-01-01

    Respiration-induced tumor motion is a major obstacle for achieving high-precision radiotherapy of cancers in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Surrogate-based estimation and tracking methods are commonly used in radiotherapy, but with limited understanding of quantified correlation to tumor motion. In this study, we propose a method to simultaneously track the lung tumor and external surrogates to evaluate their spatial correlation in a quantitative way using dynamic MRI, which allows real-time acquisition without ionizing radiation exposure. To capture the lung and whole tumor, four MRI-compatible fiducials are placed on the patient’s chest and upper abdomen. Two different types of acquisitions are performed in the sagittal orientation including multi-slice 2D cine MRIs to reconstruct 4D-MRI and two-slice 2D cine MRIs to simultaneously track the tumor and fiducials. A phase-binned 4D-MRI is first reconstructed from multi-slice MR images using body area as a respiratory surrogate and groupwise registration. The 4D-MRI provides 3D template volumes for different breathing phases. 3D tumor position is calculated by 3D-2D template matching in which 3D tumor templates in the 4D-MRI reconstruction and the 2D cine MRIs from the two-slice tracking dataset are registered. 3D trajectories of the external surrogates are derived via matching a 3D geometrical model of the fiducials to their segmentations on the 2D cine MRIs. We tested our method on ten lung cancer patients. Using a correlation analysis, the 3D tumor trajectory demonstrates a noticeable phase mismatch and significant cycle-to-cycle motion variation, while the external surrogate was not sensitive enough to capture such variations. Additionally, there was significant phase mismatch between surrogate signals obtained from the fiducials at different locations.

  14. Critical review of norovirus surrogates in food safety research: rationale for considering volunteer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P

    2012-03-01

    The inability to propagate human norovirus (NoV) or to clearly differentiate infectious from noninfectious virus particles has led to the use of surrogate viruses, like feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV), which are propagatable in cell culture. The use of surrogates is predicated on the assumption that they generally mimic the viruses they represent; however, studies are proving this concept invalid. In direct comparisons between FCV and MNV, their susceptibility to temperatures, environmental and food processing conditions, and disinfectants are dramatically different. Differences have also been noted between the inactivation of NoV and its surrogates, thus questioning the validity of surrogates. Considerable research funding is provided globally each year to conduct surrogate studies on NoVs; however, there is little demonstrated benefit derived from these studies in regard to the development of virus inactivation techniques or food processing strategies. Human challenge studies are needed to determine which processing techniques are effective in reducing NoVs in foods. A major obstacle to clinical trials on NoVs is the perception that such trials are too costly and risky, but in reality, there is far more cost and risk in allowing millions of unsuspecting consumers to contract NoV illness each year, when practical interventions are only a few volunteer studies away. A number of clinical trials have been conducted, providing important insights into NoV inactivation. A shift in research priorities from surrogate research to volunteer studies is essential if we are to identify realistic, practical, and scientifically valid processing approaches to improve food safety.

  15. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  16. Surrogate consent to non-beneficial research: erring on the right side when substituted judgments may be inaccurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats; Broström, Linus

    2016-04-01

    Part of the standard protection of decisionally incapacitated research subjects is a prohibition against enrolling them unless surrogate decision makers authorize it. A common view is that surrogates primarily ought to make their decisions based on what the decisionally incapacitated subject would have wanted regarding research participation. However, empirical studies indicate that surrogate predictions about such preferences are not very accurate. The focus of this article is the significance of surrogate accuracy in the context of research that is not expected to benefit the research subject. We identify three morally relevant asymmetries between being enrolled and not being enrolled in such non-beneficial research, and conclude that when there is a non-negligible probability that surrogates' predictions are wrong, it will generally be better to err on the side of not authorizing enrollment.

  17. The ethics of commercial surrogate mothering: a response to Casey Humbyrd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonzejele, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the argument advanced by Casey Humbyrd in support of international commercial surrogate mothering. It finds her arguments unconvincing especially at the point of implementation. This is because the author was unable to demonstrate how regulation and her notion offair compensation would not lead to undue inducement and exploitation in resource-poor settings where urgent needs often exist. In fact, the argument advanced in this article is that commercial surrogate mothering cannot but be exploitative in so far as urgent and compelling needs exist. To logically drive home this point, the elements of exploitation were discussed in order to show that regulation and fair compensation cannot prevent exploitative transaction in commercial surrogate mothering arrangements. This may happen in the same way as regulation and compensation framework have not been successful in preventing the allegations of exploitation in the research context especially where studies are conducted in resource-poor countries.

  18. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Blake, L; Casey, P; Golombok, S

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  19. Someone to Lean on: Assessment and Implications of Social Surrogate Use in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Coplan, Robert J.; Matheson, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    A social surrogate is a person who helps a shy individual deal with the stresses of a social situation. Previous research has only investigated social surrogate use in adults. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new self-report measure of social surrogacy in middle childhood and to explore the implications of this…

  20. Gay father surrogacy families: relationships with surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Lucy; Carone, Nicola; Slutsky, Jenna; Raffanello, Elizabeth; Ehrhardt, Anke A; Golombok, Susan

    2016-11-01

    To study the nature and quality of relationships between gay father families and their surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins. Cross-sectional study. Family homes. Parents in 40 gay father families with 3-9-year-old children born through surrogacy. Administration of a semistructured interview. Relationships between parents, children, surrogates, and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins were examined using a semistructured interview. The majority of fathers were content with the level of contact they had with the surrogate, with those who were discontent wanting more contact. Fathers were more likely to maintain relationships with surrogates than egg donors, and almost all families had started the process of talking to their children about their origins, with the level of detail and children's understanding increasing with the age of the child. In gay father surrogacy families with young children, relationships between parents, children, surrogates, and egg donors are generally positive. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Process optimization of a non-circular drawing sequence based on multi-surrogate assisted meta-heuristic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pholdee, Nantiwat; Bureerat, Su Jin [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Baek, Hyun Moo [DTaQ, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Im, Yong Taek [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Process optimization of a Non-circular drawing (NCD) sequence of a pearlitic steel wire was performed to improve the mechanical properties of a drawn wire based on surrogate assisted meta-heuristic algorithms. The objective function was introduced to minimize inhomogeneity of effective strain distribution at the cross-section of the drawn wire, which could deteriorate delamination characteristics of the drawn wires. The design variables introduced were die geometry and reduction of area of the NCD sequence. Several surrogate models and their combinations with the weighted sum technique were utilized. In the process optimization of the NCD sequence, the surrogate models were used to predict effective strain distributions at the cross-section of the drawn wire. Optimization using Differential evolution (DE) algorithm was performed, while the objective function was calculated from the predicted effective strains. The accuracy of all surrogate models was investigated, while optimum results were compared with the previous study available in the literature. It was found that hybrid surrogate models can improve prediction accuracy compared to a single surrogate model. The best result was obtained from the combination of Kriging (KG) and Support vector regression (SVR) models, while the second best was obtained from the combination of four surrogate models: Polynomial response surface (PRS), Radial basic function (RBF), KG, and SVR. The optimum results found in this study showed better effective strain homogeneity at the cross-section of the drawn wire with the same total reduction of area of the previous work available in the literature for fewer number of passes. The multi-surrogate models with the weighted sum technique were found to be powerful in improving the delamination characteristics of the drawn wire and reducing the production cost.

  2. Effective use of integrated hydrological models in basin-scale water resources management: surrogate modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated hydrological models (IHMs) consider surface water and subsurface water as a unified system, and have been widely adopted in basin-scale water resources studies. However, due to IHMs' mathematical complexity and high computational cost, it is difficult to implement them in an iterative model evaluation process (e.g., Monte Carlo Simulation, simulation-optimization analysis, etc.), which diminishes their applicability for supporting decision-making in real-world situations. Our studies investigated how to effectively use complex IHMs to address real-world water issues via surrogate modeling. Three surrogate modeling approaches were considered, including 1) DYCORS (DYnamic COordinate search using Response Surface models), a well-established response surface-based optimization algorithm; 2) SOIM (Surrogate-based Optimization for Integrated surface water-groundwater Modeling), a response surface-based optimization algorithm that we developed specifically for IHMs; and 3) Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), a stochastic response surface approach. Our investigation was based on a modeling case study in the Heihe River Basin (HRB), China's second largest endorheic river basin. The GSFLOW (Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model) model was employed. Two decision problems were discussed. One is to optimize, both in time and in space, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for agricultural irrigation in the middle HRB region; and the other is to cost-effectively collect hydrological data based on a data-worth evaluation. Overall, our study results highlight the value of incorporating an IHM in making decisions of water resources management and hydrological data collection. An IHM like GSFLOW can provide great flexibility to formulating proper objective functions and constraints for various optimization problems. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that surrogate modeling approaches can pave the path for such incorporation in real

  3. Videotrees: Improving video surrogate presentation using hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Michel; Heeren, W.F.L.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.

    As the amount of available video content increases, so does the need for better ways of browsing all this material. Because the nature of video makes it hard to process, the need arises for adequate surrogates for video that can readily be skimmed and browsed. In this paper, the effects of the use

  4. Nitrate formation during ozonation as a surrogate parameter for abatement of micropollutants and the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Breider, Florian; Ma, Jun; von Gunten, Urs

    2017-10-01

    In this study, nitrate formation from ammonium and/or dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was investigated as a novel surrogate parameter to evaluate the abatement of micropollutants during ozonation of synthetic waters containing natural organic matter (NOM) isolates, a natural water and secondary wastewater effluents. Nitrate formation during ozonation was compared to the changes in UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA 254 ) including the effect of pH. For low specific ozone doses UVA 254 was abated more efficiently than nitrate was formed. This is due to a relatively slow rate-limiting step for nitrate formation from the reaction between ozone and a proposed nitrogen-containing intermediate. This reaction cannot compete with the fast reactions between ozone and UV-absorbing moieties (e.g., activated aromatic compounds). To further test the kinetics of nitrate formation, two possible intermediates formed during ozonation of DON were tested. At pH 7, nitrate was formed during ozonation of acetone oxime and methyl nitroacetate with second-order rate constants of 256.7 ± 4.7 M -1  s -1 and 149.5 ± 5.8 M -1  s -1 , respectively. The abatement of the selected micropollutants (i.e., 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), carbamazepine (CBZ), bezafibrate (BZF), ibuprofen (IBU), and p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) was investigated for specific ozone doses ≤1.53 mgO 3 /mgDOC and its efficiency depended strongly on the reactivity of the selected compounds with ozone. The relative abatement of micropollutants (i.e., EE2 and CBZ) with high ozone reactivity showed linear relationships with nitrate formation. The abatement of micropollutants with intermediate-low ozone reactivity (BZF, IBU, and pCBA) followed one- and two-phase behaviors relative to nitrate formation during ozonation of water samples containing high and low concentrations of nitrate-forming DON, respectively. During ozonation of a wastewater sample, the N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA-FP) during

  5. Black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats as ecological surrogates and ecological equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Hanebury, L.R.; Miller, B.J.; Powell, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ecologically equivalent species serve similar functions in different communities, and an ecological surrogate species can be used as a substitute for an equivalent species in a community. Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanii) and black-footed ferrets (M. nigripes) have long been considered ecological equivalents. Polecats also have been used as investigational surrogates for black-footed ferrets, yet the similarities and differences between the 2 species are poorly understood. We contrasted activity patterns of radiotagged polecats and ferrets released onto ferret habitat. Ferrets tended to be nocturnal and most active after midnight. Polecats were not highly selective for any period of the day or night. Ferrets and polecats moved most during brightly moonlit nights. The diel activity pattern of ferrets was consistent with avoidance of coyotes (Canis latrans) and diurnal birds of prey. Similarly, polecat activity was consistent with avoidance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in their natural range. Intraguild predation (including interference competition) is inferred as a selective force influencing behaviors of these mustelines. Examination of our data suggests that black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats might be ecological equivalents but are not perfect surrogates. Nonetheless, polecats as surrogates for black-footed ferrets have provided critical insight needed, especially related to predation, to improve the success of ferret reintroductions. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Ovulation Statuses of Surrogate Gilts Are Associated with the Efficiency of Excellent Pig Cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Huan

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is an assisted reproductive technique that can produce multiple copies of excellent livestock. However, low cloning efficiency limits the application of SCNT. In this study, we systematically investigated the major influencing factors related to the overall cloning efficiency in pigs. Here, 13620 cloned embryos derived from excellent pigs were transferred into 79 surrogate gilts, and 119 live cloned piglets were eventually generated. During cloning, group of cloned embryos derived from excellent Landrace or Large white pigs presented no significant differences of cleavage and blastocyst rates, blastocyst cell numbers, surrogate pregnancy and delivery rates, average numbers of piglets born and alive and cloning efficiencies, and group of 101-150, 151-200 or 201-250 cloned embryos transferred per surrogate also displayed a similar developmental efficiency. When estrus stage of surrogate gilts was compared, group of embryo transfer on Day 2 of estrus showed significantly higher pregnancy rate, delivery rate, average number of piglets born, average alive piglet number or cloning efficiency than group on Day 1, Day 3, Day 4 or Day 5, respectively (P<0.05. And, in comparison with the preovulation and postovulation groups, group of surrogate gilts during periovulation displayed a significantly higher overall cloning efficiency (P<0.05. Further investigation of surrogate estrus stage and ovulation status displayed that ovulation status was the real factor underlying estrus stage to determine the overall cloning efficiency. And more, follicle puncture for preovulation, not transfer position shallowed for preovulation or deepened for postovulation, significantly improved the average number of piglets alive and cloning efficiency (P<0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ovulation status of surrogate gilts was the fundamental factor determining the overall cloning efficiency of excellent pigs, and follicle

  7. Surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatnieks, Janis; De Lucia, Marco; Sips, Mike; Dransch, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Reactive transport models can serve a large number of important geoscientific applications involving underground resources in industry and scientific research. It is common for simulation of reactive transport to consist of at least two coupled simulation models. First is a hydrodynamics simulator that is responsible for simulating the flow of groundwaters and transport of solutes. Hydrodynamics simulators are well established technology and can be very efficient. When hydrodynamics simulations are performed without coupled geochemistry, their spatial geometries can span millions of elements even when running on desktop workstations. Second is a geochemical simulation model that is coupled to the hydrodynamics simulator. Geochemical simulation models are much more computationally costly. This is a problem that makes reactive transport simulations spanning millions of spatial elements very difficult to achieve. To address this problem we propose to replace the coupled geochemical simulation model with a surrogate model. A surrogate is a statistical model created to include only the necessary subset of simulator complexity for a particular scenario. To demonstrate the viability of such an approach we tested it on a popular reactive transport benchmark problem that involves 1D Calcite transport. This is a published benchmark problem (Kolditz, 2012) for simulation models and for this reason we use it to test the surrogate model approach. To do this we tried a number of statistical models available through the caret and DiceEval packages for R, to be used as surrogate models. These were trained on randomly sampled subset of the input-output data from the geochemical simulation model used in the original reactive transport simulation. For validation we use the surrogate model to predict the simulator output using the part of sampled input data that was not used for training the statistical model. For this scenario we find that the multivariate adaptive regression splines

  8. Volumetric Two-photon Imaging of Neurons Using Stereoscopy (vTwINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alexander; Charles, Adam S.; Koay, Sue Ann; Gauthier, Jeff L.; Thiberge, Stephan Y.; Pillow, Jonathan W.; Tank, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of calcium dynamics using fluorescent indicators is a widely used imaging method for large scale recording of neural activity in vivo. Here we introduce volumetric Two-photon Imaging of Neurons using Stereoscopy (vTwINS), a volumetric calcium imaging method that employs an elongated, V-shaped point spread function to image a 3D brain volume. Single neurons project to spatially displaced “image pairs” in the resulting 2D image, and the separation distance between images is proportional to depth in the volume. To demix the fluorescence time series of individual neurons, we introduce a novel orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm that also infers source locations within the 3D volume. We illustrate vTwINS by imaging neural population activity in mouse primary visual cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that vTwINS provides an effective method for volumetric two-photon calcium imaging that increases the number of neurons recorded while maintaining a high frame-rate. PMID:28319111

  9. Failed surrogate conceptions: social and ethical aspects of preconception disruptions during commercial surrogacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sayani; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-19

    During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy. Drawing on a qualitative study conducted over a period of eight months between 2014 and 2015 at two fertility clinics in Delhi and two in Kolkata, India, this paper examines the experiences of the surrogates and the intended parents when faced with missed conceptions or failed conceptions during a surrogacy arrangement. We argue that while the surrogate grieves the non-arrival of a 'good news' as an uncertain loss, the intended parents experience yet another, failure in addition to the losses they might have incurred during their previous fertility treatments. The body of the surrogate becomes a site of 'a lost opportunity'. The surrogate embodies a loss in her quest to achieve social mobility and the intended parents experience a disembodied pregnancy loss. This very emotional experience stands in stark contrast to the conceptualisation of such failed attempts as non-events within the discourse of the surrogacy industry. The experience of loss of the intended parents is recognised but their grief is given no space. We argue that such ambiguity around the nature of losses resulting out of a missed or failed conception during surrogacy is an outcome of lack of interpersonal relationship between the surrogate and the intended parents. Since commercial surrogacy is a relational process, the only way in which the experiences of losses and failures of the actors at the preconception stage can be better addressed is through developing close

  10. Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Fu, Pengcheng; Carrigan, Charles R.; Lu, Zhiming; Tong, Charles H.; Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2013-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy in formations with low natural permeability. Numerical optimization of fracture stimulation often requires a large number of evaluations of objective functions and constraints from forward hydraulic fracturing models, which are computationally expensive and even prohibitive in some situations. Moreover, there are a variety of uncertainties associated with the pre-existing fracture distributions and rock mechanical properties, which affect the optimized decisions for hydraulic fracturing. In this study, a surrogate-based approach is developed for efficient optimization of hydraulic fracturing well design in the presence of natural-system uncertainties. The fractal dimension is derived from the simulated fracturing network as the objective for maximizing energy recovery sweep efficiency. The surrogate model, which is constructed using training data from high-fidelity fracturing models for mapping the relationship between uncertain input parameters and the fractal dimension, provides fast approximation of the objective functions and constraints. A suite of surrogate models constructed using different fitting methods is evaluated and validated for fast predictions. Global sensitivity analysis is conducted to gain insights into the impact of the input variables on the output of interest, and further used for parameter screening. The high efficiency of the surrogate-based approach is demonstrated for three optimization scenarios with different and uncertain ambient conditions. Our results suggest the critical importance of considering uncertain pre-existing fracture networks in optimization studies of hydraulic fracturing.

  11. Incorporating surrogate species and seascape connectivity to improve marine conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Aswani, Shankar; Albert, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Conservation focuses on maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but gaps in our knowledge of species biology and ecological processes often impede progress. For this reason, focal species and habitats are used as surrogates for multispecies conservation, but species-based approaches are not widely adopted in marine ecosystems. Reserves in the Solomon Islands were designed on the basis of local ecological knowledge to conserve bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) and to protect food security and ecosystem functioning. Bumphead parrotfish are an iconic threatened species and may be a useful surrogate for multispecies conservation. They move across tropical seascapes throughout their life history, in a pattern of habitat use that is shared with many other species. We examined their value as a conservation surrogate and assessed the importance of seascape connectivity (i.e., the physical connectedness of patches in the seascape) among reefs, mangroves, and seagrass to marine reserve performance. Reserves were designed for bumphead parrotfish, but also enhanced the abundance of other species. Integration of local ecological knowledge and seascape connectivity enhanced the abundance of 17 other harvested fish species in local reserves. This result has important implications for ecosystem functioning and local villagers because many of these species perform important ecological processes and provide the foundation for extensive subsistence fisheries. Our findings suggest greater success in maintaining and restoring marine ecosystems may be achieved when they are managed to conserve surrogate species and preserve functional seascape connections. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Non-uniform volumetric structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniç, M.; McFarland, J.; Stellingwerf, R.F.; Cassibry, J.T.; Ranjan, D.; Bonazza, R.; Greenough, J.A.; Abarzhi, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an integrated study of volumetric structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flows induced by moderate shocks. Experiments, theoretical analyses, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations, and ARES Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian simulations are employed to analyze RM evolution for fluids with

  13. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, pballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Volumetric response classification in metastatic solid tumors on MSCT: Initial results in a whole-body setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, A.M.; Fabel, M.; Freitag-Wolf, S.; Tepper, M.; Knabe, H.M.; Schäfer, J.P.; Jansen, O.; Bolte, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine technical parameters of measurement accuracy and differences in tumor response classification using RECIST 1.1 and volumetric assessment in three common metastasis types (lung nodules, liver lesions, lymph node metastasis) simultaneously. Materials and methods: 56 consecutive patients (32 female) aged 41–82 years with a wide range of metastatic solid tumors were examined with MSCT for baseline and follow up. Images were evaluated by three experienced radiologists using manual measurements and semi-automatic lesion segmentation. Institutional ethics review was obtained and all patients gave written informed consent. Data analysis comprised interobserver variability operationalized as coefficient of variation and categorical response classification according to RECIST 1.1 for both manual and volumetric measures. Continuous data were assessed for statistical significance with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and categorical data with Fleiss kappa. Results: Interobserver variability was 6.3% (IQR 4.6%) for manual and 4.1% (IQR 4.4%) for volumetrically obtained sum of relevant diameters (p < 0.05, corrected). 4–8 patients’ response to therapy was classified differently across observers by using volumetry compared to standard manual measurements. Fleiss kappa revealed no significant difference in categorical agreement of response classification between manual (0.7558) and volumetric (0.7623) measurements. Conclusion: Under standard RECIST thresholds there was no advantage of volumetric compared to manual response evaluation. However volumetric assessment yielded significantly lower interobserver variability. This may allow narrower thresholds for volumetric response classification in the future

  15. Volumetric response classification in metastatic solid tumors on MSCT: Initial results in a whole-body setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, A.M., E-mail: a.wulff@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Fabel, M. [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Freitag-Wolf, S., E-mail: freitag@medinfo.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Medizinische Informatik und Statistik, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Tepper, M., E-mail: m.tepper@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Knabe, H.M., E-mail: h.knabe@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Schäfer, J.P., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Jansen, O., E-mail: o.jansen@neurorad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Bolte, H., E-mail: hendrik.bolte@ukmuenster.de [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To examine technical parameters of measurement accuracy and differences in tumor response classification using RECIST 1.1 and volumetric assessment in three common metastasis types (lung nodules, liver lesions, lymph node metastasis) simultaneously. Materials and methods: 56 consecutive patients (32 female) aged 41–82 years with a wide range of metastatic solid tumors were examined with MSCT for baseline and follow up. Images were evaluated by three experienced radiologists using manual measurements and semi-automatic lesion segmentation. Institutional ethics review was obtained and all patients gave written informed consent. Data analysis comprised interobserver variability operationalized as coefficient of variation and categorical response classification according to RECIST 1.1 for both manual and volumetric measures. Continuous data were assessed for statistical significance with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and categorical data with Fleiss kappa. Results: Interobserver variability was 6.3% (IQR 4.6%) for manual and 4.1% (IQR 4.4%) for volumetrically obtained sum of relevant diameters (p < 0.05, corrected). 4–8 patients’ response to therapy was classified differently across observers by using volumetry compared to standard manual measurements. Fleiss kappa revealed no significant difference in categorical agreement of response classification between manual (0.7558) and volumetric (0.7623) measurements. Conclusion: Under standard RECIST thresholds there was no advantage of volumetric compared to manual response evaluation. However volumetric assessment yielded significantly lower interobserver variability. This may allow narrower thresholds for volumetric response classification in the future.

  16. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  17. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential

  18. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The actinide engineering and science group (MET-1) have completed simultaneous thermal analysis and offgas analysis by mass spectrometry (STA-MS) of remediated nitrate salt (RNS) surrogates formulated by the high explosives science and technology group (M-7). The 1.0 to 1.5g surrogate samples were first analyzed as received, then a new set was analyzed with 100-200mL 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF added, and a third set was analyzed after 200 mL of a concentrated Pu-AM spike (in 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF) was added. The acid and spike solutions were formulated by the actinide analytical chemistry group (C-AAC) using reagent-grade HNO3 and HF, which was also used to dissolve a small quantity of mixed, high-fired PuO2/ AmO2 oxide.

  19. Investigating the effect of clamping force on the fatigue life of bolted plates using volumetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, F.; Chakherlou, T. N.; Zehsaz, M.; Hasanifard, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of bolt clamping force on the fatigue life for bolted plates made from Al7075-T6 have been studied on the values of notch strength reduction factor obtained by volumetric approach. To attain stress distribution around the notch (hole) which is required for volumetric approach, nonlinear finite element simulations were carried out. To estimate the fatigue life, the available smooth S-N curve of Al7075-T6 and the notch strength reduction factor obtained from volumetric method were used. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the available experimental test results. The investigation shows that there is a good agreement between the life predicted by the volumetric approach and the experimental results for various specimens with different amount of clamping forces. Volumetric approach and experimental results showed that the fatigue life of bolted plates improves because of the compressive stresses created around the plate hole due to clamping force.

  20. Making fire and fire surrogate science available: a summary of regional workshops with clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Heidi Bigler-Cole; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl Fiedler; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    Operational-scale experiments that evaluate the consequences of fire and mechanical "surrogates" for natural disturbance events are essential to better understand strategies for reducing the incidence and severity of wildfire. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) study was initiated in 1999 to establish an integrated network of long-term studies...

  1. Five criteria for using a surrogate endpoint to predict treatment effect based on data from multiple previous trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2018-02-20

    A surrogate endpoint in a randomized clinical trial is an endpoint that occurs after randomization and before the true, clinically meaningful, endpoint that yields conclusions about the effect of treatment on true endpoint. A surrogate endpoint can accelerate the evaluation of new treatments but at the risk of misleading conclusions. Therefore, criteria are needed for deciding whether to use a surrogate endpoint in a new trial. For the meta-analytic setting of multiple previous trials, each with the same pair of surrogate and true endpoints, this article formulates 5 criteria for using a surrogate endpoint in a new trial to predict the effect of treatment on the true endpoint in the new trial. The first 2 criteria, which are easily computed from a zero-intercept linear random effects model, involve statistical considerations: an acceptable sample size multiplier and an acceptable prediction separation score. The remaining 3 criteria involve clinical and biological considerations: similarity of biological mechanisms of treatments between the new trial and previous trials, similarity of secondary treatments following the surrogate endpoint between the new trial and previous trials, and a negligible risk of harmful side effects arising after the observation of the surrogate endpoint in the new trial. These 5 criteria constitute an appropriately high bar for using a surrogate endpoint to make a definitive treatment recommendation. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Voices of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogates on the burdens of end-of-life decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ursula K; Beyth, Rebecca J; Ford, Marvella E; McCullough, Laurence B

    2008-03-01

    End-of-life decisions are frequently made by patients' surrogates. Race and ethnicity may affect such decision making. Few studies have described how different racial/ethnic groups experience end-of-life surrogate decision making. To describe the self-reported experience the self-reported experience of African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogate decision makers of seriously ill patients and to examine the relationship of race, ethnicity, and culture to that experience. Purposive sample to include racial/ethnic minorities in a qualitative study using focus group interviews. The participants of the study were 44 experienced, mostly female, surrogate decision makers for older veterans. Transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify major themes, with particular attention to themes that might be unique to each of the three groups. The experience of burden of end-of-life decision making was similar in all three groups. This burden in its medical, personal, and familial dimensions is compounded by uncertainty about prognosis and the patient's preferences. Racial/ethnic variations of responses to this burden concerned the physician-family relationship, religion and faith, and past experiences with race/ethnicity concordant versus non-concordant physicians. Regardless of race/ethnicity, surrogates for seriously ill patients appeared to experience increased significant, multidimensional burdens of decision making under conditions of uncertainty about a patient's preferences. This aspect of the burden of surrogate decision making may not be fully appreciated by physicians. Physicians should identify and be especially attentive to strategies used by surrogates, which may vary by race/ethnicity, to reduce the uncertainty about a patient's preferences and thus the burden of surrogate decision making to assist them in this difficult process.

  3. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A.; Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S.; Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F.; Thunnissen, E.; Hartemink, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R 2 = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)

  4. 40 CFR 80.157 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (“VAR”), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volumetric additive reconciliation (â... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.157 Volumetric additive reconciliation (“VAR”), equipment calibration, and... other comparable VAR supporting documentation. (ii) For a facility which uses a gauge to measure the...

  5. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  6. Determination of uranium by a gravimetric-volumetric titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.

    1998-01-01

    A volumetric-gravimetric modification of a method for the determination of uranium based on the reduction of uranium to U (IV) in a phosphoric acid medium and titration with a standard potassium dichromate solution is described. More than 99% of the stoichiometric amount of the titrating solution is weighed and the remainder is added volumetrically by using the Mettler DL 40 RC Memotitrator. Computer interconnected with analytical balances collects continually the data on the analyzed samples and evaluates the results of determination. The method allows to determine uranium in samples of uranium metal, alloys, oxides, and ammonium diuranate by using aliquot portions containing 30 - 100 mg of uranium with the error of determination, expressed as the relative standard deviation, of 0.02 - 0.05%. (author)

  7. Evaluating β Diversity as a Surrogate for Species Representation at Fine Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Beier

    Full Text Available Species turnover or β diversity is a conceptually attractive surrogate for conservation planning. However, there has been only 1 attempt to determine how well sites selected to maximize β diversity represent species, and that test was done at a scale too coarse (2,500 km2 sites to inform most conservation decisions. We used 8 plant datasets, 3 bird datasets, and 1 mammal dataset to evaluate whether sites selected to span β diversity will efficiently represent species at finer scale (sites sizes < 1 ha to 625 km2. We used ordinations to characterize dissimilarity in species assemblages (β diversity among plots (inventory data or among grid cells (atlas data. We then selected sites to maximize β diversity and used the Species Accumulation Index, SAI, to evaluate how efficiently the surrogate (selecting sites for maximum β diversity represented species in the same taxon. Across all 12 datasets, sites selected for maximum β diversity represented species with a median efficiency of 24% (i.e., the surrogate was 24% more effective than random selection of sites, and an interquartile range of 4% to 41% efficiency. β diversity was a better surrogate for bird datasets than for plant datasets, and for atlas datasets with 10-km to 14-km grid cells than for atlas datasets with 25-km grid cells. We conclude that β diversity is more than a mere descriptor of how species are distributed on the landscape; in particular β diversity might be useful to maximize the complementarity of a set of sites. Because we tested only within-taxon surrogacy, our results do not prove that β diversity is useful for conservation planning. But our results do justify further investigation to identify the circumstances in which β diversity performs well, and to evaluate it as a cross-taxon surrogate.

  8. Induction of lactation in the intended mother of a surrogate pregnancy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biervliet, F P; Maguiness, S D; Hay, D M; Killick, S R; Atkin, S L

    2001-03-01

    A case of a successful induction of lactation in a commissioning mother of a surrogate pregnancy is reported. Induction of lactation was achieved with oral metoclopramide which was well tolerated. Alternative methods to induce lactation are reviewed. The advantages of breast-feeding and the relative ease with which lactation can be induced after a surrogate pregnancy would suggest that this could be offered to all commissioning mothers.

  9. Effect of cup inclination on predicted contact stress-induced volumetric wear in total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijavec, B; Košak, R; Daniel, M; Kralj-Iglič, V; Dolinar, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the lifetime of the total hip endoprosthesis, it is necessary to understand mechanisms leading to its failure. In this work, we address volumetric wear of the artificial cup, in particular the effect of its inclination with respect to the vertical. Volumetric wear was calculated by using mathematical models for resultant hip force, contact stress and penetration of the prosthesis head into the cup. Relevance of the dependence of volumetric wear on inclination of the cup (its abduction angle ϑA) was assessed by the results of 95 hips with implanted endoprosthesis. Geometrical parameters obtained from standard antero-posterior radiographs were taken as input data. Volumetric wear decreases with increasing cup abduction angle ϑA. The correlation within the population of 95 hips was statistically significant (P = 0.006). Large cup abduction angle minimises predicted volumetric wear but may increase the risk for dislocation of the artificial head from the cup in the one-legged stance. Cup abduction angle and direction of the resultant hip force may compensate each other to achieve optimal position of the cup with respect to wear and dislocation in the one-legged stance for a particular patient.

  10. Repeated use of surrogate mothers for embryo transfer in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Thomas; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Rülicke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Embryo transfer in mice is a crucial technique for generation of transgenic animals, rederivation of contaminated lines, and revitalization of cryopreserved strains, and it is a key component of assisted reproduction techniques. It is common practice to use females only once as surrogate mothers. However, their reuse for a second embryo transfer could provide hygienic and economic advantages and conform to the concept of the 3Rs (replace, reduce, refine). This investigation evaluated the potential for a second embryo transfer in terms of feasibility, reproductive results, and experimental burden for the animal. Virgin female ICR mice (age 8-16 wk) were used as recipients for the first embryo transfer. Immediately after weaning of the first litter, a second surgical embryo transfer was performed into the same oviduct. Virgin females of comparable age to the reused mothers served as controls and underwent the same procedure. The first surgery did not affect the success of the second embryo transfer. Histological sections showed excellent wound healing without relevant impairment of involved tissues. We observed no differences in pregnancy rates or litter sizes between the transfer groups. Most importantly, we found no change in behavior indicating reduced well-being and no increase of corticosterone metabolites in the feces of surrogate mothers reused for a second embryo transfer. We conclude that a second embryo transfer in mice is feasible with regard to reproductive and animal welfare aspects.

  11. SU-C-BRF-07: A Pattern Fusion Algorithm for Multi-Step Ahead Prediction of Surrogate Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawisza, I; Yan, H; Yin, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assure that tumor motion is within the radiation field during high-dose and high-precision radiosurgery, real-time imaging and surrogate monitoring are employed. These methods are useful in providing real-time tumor/surrogate motion but no future information is available. In order to anticipate future tumor/surrogate motion and track target location precisely, an algorithm is developed and investigated for estimating surrogate motion multiple-steps ahead. Methods: The study utilized a one-dimensional surrogate motion signal divided into three components: (a) training component containing the primary data including the first frame to the beginning of the input subsequence; (b) input subsequence component of the surrogate signal used as input to the prediction algorithm: (c) output subsequence component is the remaining signal used as the known output of the prediction algorithm for validation. The prediction algorithm consists of three major steps: (1) extracting subsequences from training component which best-match the input subsequence according to given criterion; (2) calculating weighting factors from these best-matched subsequence; (3) collecting the proceeding parts of the subsequences and combining them together with assigned weighting factors to form output. The prediction algorithm was examined for several patients, and its performance is assessed based on the correlation between prediction and known output. Results: Respiratory motion data was collected for 20 patients using the RPM system. The output subsequence is the last 50 samples (∼2 seconds) of a surrogate signal, and the input subsequence was 100 (∼3 seconds) frames prior to the output subsequence. Based on the analysis of correlation coefficient between predicted and known output subsequence, the average correlation is 0.9644±0.0394 and 0.9789±0.0239 for equal-weighting and relative-weighting strategies, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicate that the prediction

  12. Integrating surrogate models into subsurface simulation framework allows computation of complex reactive transport scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Jatnieks, Janis; Kühn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Reactive transport simulations - where geochemical reactions are coupled with hydrodynamic transport of reactants - are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues. Given the high uncertainties inherently associated with the geochemical models, which also constitute the major computational bottleneck, such requirements may seem inappropriate and probably constitute the main limitation for their wide application. A promising way to ease and speed-up such coupled simulations is achievable employing statistical surrogates instead of "full-physics" geochemical models [1]. Data-driven surrogates are reduced models obtained on a set of pre-calculated "full physics" simulations, capturing their principal features while being extremely fast to compute. Model reduction of course comes at price of a precision loss; however, this appears justified in presence of large uncertainties regarding the parametrization of geochemical processes. This contribution illustrates the integration of surrogates into the flexible simulation framework currently being developed by the authors' research group [2]. The high level language of choice for obtaining and dealing with surrogate models is R, which profits from state-of-the-art methods for statistical analysis of large simulations ensembles. A stand-alone advective mass transport module was furthermore developed in order to add such capability to any multiphase finite volume hydrodynamic simulator within the simulation framework. We present 2D and 3D case studies benchmarking the performance of surrogates and "full physics" chemistry in scenarios pertaining the assessment of geological subsurface utilization. [1] Jatnieks, J., De Lucia, M., Dransch, D., Sips, M.: "Data-driven surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations.", Energy Procedia 97, 2016, p. 447-453. [2] Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., De Lucia, M., Nakaten, N., Otto, C., Pohl, M., Chabab [Tillner], E., Kühn, M

  13. Dynamic impact indentation of hydrated biological tissues and tissue surrogate gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilke Kalcioglu, Z.; Qu, Meng; Strawhecker, Kenneth E.; Shazly, Tarek; Edelman, Elazer; VanLandingham, Mark R.; Smith, James F.; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2011-03-01

    For both materials engineering research and applied biomedicine, a growing need exists to quantify mechanical behaviour of tissues under defined hydration and loading conditions. In particular, characterisation under dynamic contact-loading conditions can enable quantitative predictions of deformation due to high rate 'impact' events typical of industrial accidents and ballistic insults. The impact indentation responses were examined of both hydrated tissues and candidate tissue surrogate materials. The goals of this work were to determine the mechanical response of fully hydrated soft tissues under defined dynamic loading conditions, and to identify design principles by which synthetic, air-stable polymers could mimic those responses. Soft tissues from two organs (liver and heart), a commercially available tissue surrogate gel (Perma-Gel™) and three styrenic block copolymer gels were investigated. Impact indentation enabled quantification of resistance to penetration and energy dissipative constants under the rates and energy densities of interest for tissue surrogate applications. These analyses indicated that the energy dissipation capacity under dynamic impact increased with increasing diblock concentration in the styrenic gels. Under the impact rates employed (2 mm/s to 20 mm/s, corresponding to approximate strain energy densities from 0.4 kJ/m3 to 20 kJ/m3), the energy dissipation capacities of fully hydrated soft tissues were ultimately well matched by a 50/50 triblock/diblock composition that is stable in ambient environments. More generally, the methodologies detailed here facilitate further optimisation of impact energy dissipation capacity of polymer-based tissue surrogate materials, either in air or in fluids.

  14. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  15. Successful surrogate pregnancy after ovarian transposition, pelvic irradiation and hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, Michael; Liu, James H; Husseinzadeh, Nader; Thomas, Michael A

    2004-07-01

    Treatment of cervical cancer is often effective but at the cost of the woman's fertility. Ovarian transposition with subsequent oocyte retrieval and surrogate pregnancy can enable these patients to become genetic parents. We present the third reported such case. A 22-year-old woman was diagnosed with bulky, stage IB cervical cancer. Following transposition of both ovaries to the upper abdomen, she underwent pelvic irradiation followed by total abdominal hysterectomy. Eleven years later she presented for assisted reproduction. Two oocytes were retrieved following ovarian stimulation and transcutaneous, abdominal oocyte retrieval. One embryo was transferred to the gestational surrogate, resulting in a single intrauterine pregnancy and successful delivery at term. These procedures can preservefertility while successfully treating cervical cancer.

  16. Adaptive surrogate modeling for response surface approximations with application to bayesian inference

    KAUST Repository

    Prudhomme, Serge; Bryant, Corey M.

    2015-01-01

    Parameter estimation for complex models using Bayesian inference is usually a very costly process as it requires a large number of solves of the forward problem. We show here how the construction of adaptive surrogate models using a posteriori error estimates for quantities of interest can significantly reduce the computational cost in problems of statistical inference. As surrogate models provide only approximations of the true solutions of the forward problem, it is nevertheless necessary to control these errors in order to construct an accurate reduced model with respect to the observables utilized in the identification of the model parameters. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a numerical example dealing with the Spalart–Allmaras model for the simulation of turbulent channel flows. In particular, we illustrate how Bayesian model selection using the adapted surrogate model in place of solving the coupled nonlinear equations leads to the same quality of results while requiring fewer nonlinear PDE solves.

  17. Adaptive surrogate modeling for response surface approximations with application to bayesian inference

    KAUST Repository

    Prudhomme, Serge

    2015-09-17

    Parameter estimation for complex models using Bayesian inference is usually a very costly process as it requires a large number of solves of the forward problem. We show here how the construction of adaptive surrogate models using a posteriori error estimates for quantities of interest can significantly reduce the computational cost in problems of statistical inference. As surrogate models provide only approximations of the true solutions of the forward problem, it is nevertheless necessary to control these errors in order to construct an accurate reduced model with respect to the observables utilized in the identification of the model parameters. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a numerical example dealing with the Spalart–Allmaras model for the simulation of turbulent channel flows. In particular, we illustrate how Bayesian model selection using the adapted surrogate model in place of solving the coupled nonlinear equations leads to the same quality of results while requiring fewer nonlinear PDE solves.

  18. Efficient surrogate models for reliability analysis of systems with multiple failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichon, Barron J.; McFarland, John M.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2011-01-01

    Despite many advances in the field of computational reliability analysis, the efficient estimation of the reliability of a system with multiple failure modes remains a persistent challenge. Various sampling and analytical methods are available, but they typically require accepting a tradeoff between accuracy and computational efficiency. In this work, a surrogate-based approach is presented that simultaneously addresses the issues of accuracy, efficiency, and unimportant failure modes. The method is based on the creation of Gaussian process surrogate models that are required to be locally accurate only in the regions of the component limit states that contribute to system failure. This approach to constructing surrogate models is demonstrated to be both an efficient and accurate method for system-level reliability analysis. - Highlights: → Extends efficient global reliability analysis to systems with multiple failure modes. → Constructs locally accurate Gaussian process models of each response. → Highly efficient and accurate method for assessing system reliability. → Effectiveness is demonstrated on several test problems from the literature.

  19. Comparing Visually Assessed BI-RADS Breast Density and Automated Volumetric Breast Density Software: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Breast Cancer Screening Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Schuur, Klaas H.; Timmers, Johanna M. H.; Verbeek, André L. M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare different methods for measuring breast density, both visual assessments and automated volumetric density, in a breast cancer screening setting. These measures could potentially be implemented in future screening programmes, in the context of personalised

  20. Comparing Visually Assessed BI-RADS Breast Density and Automated Volumetric Breast Density Software: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Breast Cancer Screening Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D. van der; Heeten, GJ. den; Pijnappel, R.M.; Schuur, K.H.; Timmers, J.M.; Verbeek, A.L.; Broeders, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to compare different methods for measuring breast density, both visual assessments and automated volumetric density, in a breast cancer screening setting. These measures could potentially be implemented in future screening programmes, in the context of

  1. Comparing Visually Assessed BI-RADS Breast Density and Automated Volumetric Breast Density Software : A Cross-Sectional Study in a Breast Cancer Screening Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Danielle; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Schuur, Klaas H.; Timmers, Johanna M. H.; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study is to compare different methods for measuring breast density, both visual assessments and automated volumetric density, in a breast cancer screening setting. These measures could potentially be implemented in future screening programmes, in the context of

  2. Volumetric determination of tumor size abdominal masses. Problems -feasabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Bautz, W.; Sendler, A.; Fink, U.; Gerhardt, P.

    1995-01-01

    The most important indication for clinically reliable volumetric determination of tumor size in the abdominal region is monitoring liver metastases during chemotherapy. Determination of volume can be effectively realized using 3D reconstruction. Therefore, the primary data set must be complete and contiguous. The mass should be depicted strongly enhanced and free of artifacts. At present, this prerequisite can only be complied with using thin-slice spiral CT. Phantom studies have proven that a semiautomatic reconstruction algorithm is recommendable. The basic difficulties involved in volumetric determination of tumor size are the problems in differentiating active malignant mass and changes in the surrounding tissue, as well as the lack of histomorphological correlation. Possible indications for volumetry of gastrointestinal masses in the assessment of neoadjuvant therapeutic concepts are under scientific evaluation. (orig./MG) [de

  3. A new formulation of physical surrogates of FACE A gasoline fuel based on heating and evaporation characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Sazhin, S.S.; Im, Hong G.

    2016-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has formulated various sets of gasoline fuels, called fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE), which are consistent in composition and properties. The analysis of heating and evaporation of FACE A gasoline fuel (paraffin-rich) is studied by replacing the 66 components with 19 components to represent this fuel. The reduction in the number of components is based on merging components from the same chemical groups and having the same chemical formula, which have very close thermophysical properties; the components with the highest initial compositions are chosen to be the representative components. Modelling of heating and evaporation of FACE A gasoline fuel and various surrogates is carried out based on the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity model (ETC/ED). The model takes into account the effect of finite liquid thermal conductivity, finite liquid mass diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplets due to their non-zero velocities relative to the ambient air. Four surrogates of FACE A found in the literature are used in the analysis. These surrogates include the five component surrogate chosen for its ability to match the ignition delay time of the FACE A gasoline fuel (Surr1), the primary reference fuel surrogate (PRF84) that matches the research octane number (RON) of FACE A, the one that matches hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/C), RON, density and distillation curve with FACE A (Surr2), and the one that matches the RON based on mole fraction linear blending (Surr3). It is shown that these surrogates cannot predict adequately the time evolution of surface temperatures and radii of FACE A droplets. New 'physical' surrogates with 8, 7 and 6 components (Surr4, Surr5, and Surr6) are introduced to match the evaporation characteristics of FACE A. It is found that Surr5 (7 components surrogate) can predict droplet lifetime and time evolution of surface temperature of a FACE A droplet with errors of up to 5% and 0

  4. A new formulation of physical surrogates of FACE A gasoline fuel based on heating and evaporation characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2016-02-19

    The US Department of Energy has formulated various sets of gasoline fuels, called fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE), which are consistent in composition and properties. The analysis of heating and evaporation of FACE A gasoline fuel (paraffin-rich) is studied by replacing the 66 components with 19 components to represent this fuel. The reduction in the number of components is based on merging components from the same chemical groups and having the same chemical formula, which have very close thermophysical properties; the components with the highest initial compositions are chosen to be the representative components. Modelling of heating and evaporation of FACE A gasoline fuel and various surrogates is carried out based on the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity model (ETC/ED). The model takes into account the effect of finite liquid thermal conductivity, finite liquid mass diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplets due to their non-zero velocities relative to the ambient air. Four surrogates of FACE A found in the literature are used in the analysis. These surrogates include the five component surrogate chosen for its ability to match the ignition delay time of the FACE A gasoline fuel (Surr1), the primary reference fuel surrogate (PRF84) that matches the research octane number (RON) of FACE A, the one that matches hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/C), RON, density and distillation curve with FACE A (Surr2), and the one that matches the RON based on mole fraction linear blending (Surr3). It is shown that these surrogates cannot predict adequately the time evolution of surface temperatures and radii of FACE A droplets. New \\'physical\\' surrogates with 8, 7 and 6 components (Surr4, Surr5, and Surr6) are introduced to match the evaporation characteristics of FACE A. It is found that Surr5 (7 components surrogate) can predict droplet lifetime and time evolution of surface temperature of a FACE A droplet with errors of up to 5% and 0

  5. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping surrogate gasoline compositions into RON/MON space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, N.; Smallbone, A.; Bhave, A.; Kraft, M.; Cracknell, R.; Kalghatgi, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, new experimentally determined octane numbers (RON and MON) of blends of a tri-component surrogate consisting of toluene, n-heptane, i-octane (called toluene reference fuel TRF) arranged in an augmented simplex design are used to derive a simple response surface model for the octane

  7. Real-time tumor motion estimation using respiratory surrogate via memory-based learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruijiang; Xing Lei; Lewis, John H; Berbeco, Ross I

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory tumor motion is a major challenge in radiation therapy for thoracic and abdominal cancers. Effective motion management requires an accurate knowledge of the real-time tumor motion. External respiration monitoring devices (optical, etc) provide a noninvasive, non-ionizing, low-cost and practical approach to obtain the respiratory signal. Due to the highly complex and nonlinear relations between tumor and surrogate motion, its ultimate success hinges on the ability to accurately infer the tumor motion from respiratory surrogates. Given their widespread use in the clinic, such a method is critically needed. We propose to use a powerful memory-based learning method to find the complex relations between tumor motion and respiratory surrogates. The method first stores the training data in memory and then finds relevant data to answer a particular query. Nearby data points are assigned high relevance (or weights) and conversely distant data are assigned low relevance. By fitting relatively simple models to local patches instead of fitting one single global model, it is able to capture highly nonlinear and complex relations between the internal tumor motion and external surrogates accurately. Due to the local nature of weighting functions, the method is inherently robust to outliers in the training data. Moreover, both training and adapting to new data are performed almost instantaneously with memory-based learning, making it suitable for dynamically following variable internal/external relations. We evaluated the method using respiratory motion data from 11 patients. The data set consists of simultaneous measurement of 3D tumor motion and 1D abdominal surface (used as the surrogate signal in this study). There are a total of 171 respiratory traces, with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of ∼15 mm and average duration of ∼115 s per trace. Given only 5 s (roughly one breath) pretreatment training data, the method achieved an average 3D error of 1.5 mm and 95

  8. Real-time tumor motion estimation using respiratory surrogate via memory-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Berbeco, Ross I.; Xing, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory tumor motion is a major challenge in radiation therapy for thoracic and abdominal cancers. Effective motion management requires an accurate knowledge of the real-time tumor motion. External respiration monitoring devices (optical, etc) provide a noninvasive, non-ionizing, low-cost and practical approach to obtain the respiratory signal. Due to the highly complex and nonlinear relations between tumor and surrogate motion, its ultimate success hinges on the ability to accurately infer the tumor motion from respiratory surrogates. Given their widespread use in the clinic, such a method is critically needed. We propose to use a powerful memory-based learning method to find the complex relations between tumor motion and respiratory surrogates. The method first stores the training data in memory and then finds relevant data to answer a particular query. Nearby data points are assigned high relevance (or weights) and conversely distant data are assigned low relevance. By fitting relatively simple models to local patches instead of fitting one single global model, it is able to capture highly nonlinear and complex relations between the internal tumor motion and external surrogates accurately. Due to the local nature of weighting functions, the method is inherently robust to outliers in the training data. Moreover, both training and adapting to new data are performed almost instantaneously with memory-based learning, making it suitable for dynamically following variable internal/external relations. We evaluated the method using respiratory motion data from 11 patients. The data set consists of simultaneous measurement of 3D tumor motion and 1D abdominal surface (used as the surrogate signal in this study). There are a total of 171 respiratory traces, with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of ∼15 mm and average duration of ∼115 s per trace. Given only 5 s (roughly one breath) pretreatment training data, the method achieved an average 3D error of 1.5 mm and 95

  9. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  10. Drug release into hydrogel-based subcutaneous surrogates studied by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Fengbin; Larsen, Susan Weng; Yaghmur, Anan

    2012-01-01

    of the performance of drug delivery systems based on in vitro experiments. The objective of this study was to evaluate a UV imaging-based method for real-time characterization of the release and transport of piroxicam in hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue mimics/surrogates. Piroxicam partitioning from medium chain...... upon the injection of aqueous or MCT solutions into an agarose-based hydrogel were investigated by UV imaging. The spatial distribution of piroxicam around the injection site in the gel matrix was monitored in real-time. The disappearance profiles of piroxicam from the injected aqueous solution were...... obtained. This study shows that the UV imaging methodology has considerable potential for characterizing transport properties in hydrogels, including monitoring the real-time spatial concentration distribution in vitro after administration by injection....

  11. Volumetrics relate to the development of depression after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Pannek, Kerstin; Bailey, Neil; Lewis, Philip M; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-09-01

    Previous research suggests that many people who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), even of the mild form, will develop major depression (MD). We previously reported white matter integrity differences between those who did and did not develop MD after mild TBI. In this current paper, we aimed to investigate whether there were also volumetric differences between these groups, as suggested by previous volumetric studies in mild TBI populations. A sample of TBI-with-MD subjects (N=14), TBI-without-MD subjects (N=12), MD-without-TBI (N=26) and control subjects (no TBI or MD, N=23), received structural MRI brain scans. T1-weighted data were analysed using the Freesurfer software package which produces automated volumetric results. The findings of this study indicate that (1) TBI patients who develop MD have reduced volume in temporal, parietal and lingual regions compared to TBI patients who do not develop MD, and (2) MD patients with a history of TBI have decreased volume in the temporal region compared to those who had MD but without a history of TBI. We also found that more severe MD in those with TBI-with-MD significantly correlated with reduced volume in anterior cingulate, temporal lobe and insula. These findings suggest that volumetric reduction to specific regions, including parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, after a mild TBI may underlie the susceptibility of these patients developing major depression, in addition to altered white matter integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fog Density Estimation and Image Defogging Based on Surrogate Modeling for Optical Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yutong; Sun, Changming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Li

    2017-05-03

    In order to estimate fog density correctly and to remove fog from foggy images appropriately, a surrogate model for optical depth is presented in this paper. We comprehensively investigate various fog-relevant features and propose a novel feature based on the hue, saturation, and value color space which correlate well with the perception of fog density. We use a surrogate-based method to learn a refined polynomial regression model for optical depth with informative fog-relevant features such as dark-channel, saturation-value, and chroma which are selected on the basis of sensitivity analysis. Based on the obtained accurate surrogate model for optical depth, an effective method for fog density estimation and image defogging is proposed. The effectiveness of our proposed method is verified quantitatively and qualitatively by the experimental results on both synthetic and real-world foggy images.

  13. Developing the role of the social worker as coordinator of services at the surrogate parenting center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Roni; Cohen, Miri; Greenblatt, Lee; Solomon, Hanah; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A law permitting couples to conceive biological children through surrogacy was legislated in Israel in March 1996. The Rambam Medical Center has established the only nonprofit Surrogate Parenting Center at a public hospital in Israel. The multidisciplinary teamwork at the Center is case managed by a social worker. An important role of the social work intervention is consultation and support for the couple and the surrogate at all stages of the process. The case study presented in the article illustrates the need for sensitive and professional intervention due to the complexity of the surrogacy process and the crisis it involves for both the surrogate and the couple. In light of the growing parenting surrogacy cases in the United States, Europe, and Israel, a structured social work intervention model is described, which may be implemented at public or private surrogate parenting centers.

  14. Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, William; Mauroy, Axel; Farnir, Frederic; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction >3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs.

  15. Higher taxa as surrogates of species richness of spiders in insect-resistant transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Lin; Min-Sheng You; Liette Vasseur; Guang Yang; Feng-Jing Liu; Feng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity assessments can often be time- and resource-consuming.Several alternative approaches have been proposed to reduce sampling efforts,including indicator taxa and surrogates.In this study,we examine the reliability of higher taxon surrogates to predict species richness in two experimental rice fields of Fujian Province,southeastern China during 2005 and 2009.Spider samples in transgenic and nontransgenic plots were collected using a suction sampler.Both the genus and family surrogates had significant and positive linear relationships with species richness in the transgenic and nontransgenic rice fields.The rice varieties did not significantly influence the linear relationships.Our findings suggest that higher-taxon surrogacy could be a useful alternative to complete species inventory for risk assessments of transgenic rice.

  16. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  17. Triazole-linked DNA as a primer surrogate in the synthesis of first-strand cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Tomoko; Yasumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamazaki, Naomi; Hasome, Ai; Sogawa, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-04

    A phosphate-eliminated nonnatural oligonucleotide serves as a primer surrogate in reverse transcription reaction of mRNA. Despite of the nonnatural triazole linkages in the surrogate, the reverse transcriptase effectively elongated cDNA sequences on the 3'-downstream of the primer by transcription of the complementary sequence of mRNA. A structure-activity comparison with the reference natural oligonucleotides shows the superior priming activity of the surrogate containing triazole-linkages. The nonnatural linkages also protect the transcribed cDNA from digestion reactions with 5'-exonuclease and enable us to remove noise transcripts of unknown origins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Supercapacitors with High Gravimetric and Volumetric Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Xu, Yunling; Shen, Laifa; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2015-10-14

    Graphene is considered a promising electrochemical capacitors electrode material due to its high surface area and high electrical conductivity. However, restacking interactions between graphene nanosheets significantly decrease the ion-accessible surface area and impede electronic and ionic transfer. This would, in turn, severely hinder the realization of high energy density. Herein, we report a strategy for preparation of few-layer graphene material with abundant crumples and high-level nitrogen doping. The two-dimensional graphene nanosheets (CNG) feature high ion-available surface area, excellent electronic and ion transfer properties, and high packing density, permitting the CNG electrode to exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. In ionic liquid electrolyte, the CNG electrode exhibits gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 128 F g(-1) and 98 F cm(-3), respectively, achieving gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 56 Wh kg(-1) and 43 Wh L(-1). The preparation strategy described here provides a new approach for developing a graphene-based supercapacitor with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities.

  19. Coastal aquifer management based on surrogate models and multi-objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoglou, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2011-12-01

    The demand for fresh water in coastal areas and islands can be very high, especially in summer months, due to increased local needs and tourism. In order to satisfy demand, a combined management plan is proposed which involves: i) desalinization (if needed) of pumped water to a potable level using reverse osmosis and ii) injection of biologically treated waste water into the aquifer. The management plan is formulated into a multiobjective optimization framework, where simultaneous minimization of economic and environmental costs is desired; subject to a constraint to satisfy demand. The method requires modeling tools, which are able to predict the salinity levels of the aquifer in response to different alternative management scenarios. Variable density models can simulate the interaction between fresh and saltwater; however, they are computationally intractable when integrated in optimization algorithms. In order to alleviate this problem, a multi objective optimization algorithm is developed combining surrogate models based on Modular Neural Networks [MOSA(MNN)]. The surrogate models are trained adaptively during optimization based on a Genetic Algorithm. In the crossover step of the genetic algorithm, each pair of parents generates a pool of offspring. All offspring are evaluated based on the fast surrogate model. Then only the most promising offspring are evaluated based on the exact numerical model. This eliminates errors in Pareto solution due to imprecise predictions of the surrogate model. Three new criteria for selecting the most promising offspring were proposed, which improve the Pareto set and maintain the diversity of the optimum solutions. The method has important advancements compared to previous methods, e.g. alleviation of propagation of errors due to surrogate model approximations. The method is applied to a real coastal aquifer in the island of Santorini which is a very touristy island with high water demands. The results show that the algorithm

  20. Insulin resistance in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a comparison between euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and surrogate indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Flavia; Bonora, Enzo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Could surrogate indexes identify insulin resistant individuals among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Surrogate indexes may be able to rule in, but not rule out, insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Insulin resistance is a typical finding of women with PCOS and most clinical information on this issue is based upon surrogate indexes of insulin resistance. However, data on the performance of these indexes in PCOS women are very limited. A retrospective analysis of 406 women referred to our outpatient clinic for hyperandrogenism and/or menstrual dysfunction and submitted to hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp between 1998 and 2015. In total, 375 of these women had PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria and were included in the study. Six surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity were calculated from glucose and insulin levels, either at fasting (homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), glucose/insulin (G/I) ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)) or after oral glucose load (Gutt, Stumvoll0-120 and Matsuda). Overall, insulin resistance, as identified by the M-clamp value, was found in 74.9% of these women. The percentage was 59.3% in normal-weight vs 77.5% in overweight and 93.9% in obese subjects. All surrogate indexes were highly correlated with the M-clamp values. However, their ability to identify insulin resistant individuals was limited, in terms of sensitivity and especially in normal-weight subjects. ROC analysis showed similar performances of these indexes (AUC values 0.782-0.817). Potential referral bias of PCOS patients may have caused overestimation of the prevalence of insulin resistance in these women. By using surrogate indexes many subjects with PCOS may be erroneously diagnosed as insulin sensitive, especially among normal-weight women. These indexes can be used to rule in, but not rule out, insulin resistance in PCOS. Academic grants to P. Moghetti from the University of Verona. All authors declare no conflict of interest. N

  1. Quantitation of a PEGylated protein in monkey serum by UHPLC-HRMS using a surrogate disulfide-containing peptide: A new approach to bioanalysis and in vivo stability evaluation of disulfide-rich protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Zeng, Jianing; Manney, Amy; Williams, Lakenya; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Voronin, Kimberly; Buzescu, Adela; Zhang, Yan J; Allentoff, Alban; Xu, Carrie; Shen, Hongwu; Warner, William; Arnold, Mark E

    2016-04-15

    To quantify a therapeutic PEGylated protein in monkey serum as well as to monitor its potential in vivo instability and methionine oxidation, a novel ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometric (UHPLC-HRMS) assay was developed using a surrogate disulfide-containing peptide, DCP(SS), and a confirmatory peptide, CP, a disulfide-free peptide. DCP(SS) was obtained by eliminating the step of reduction/alkylation before trypsin digestion. It contains an intact disulfide linkage between two peptide sequences that are essential for drug function but susceptible to potential in vivo cleavages. HRMS-based single ion monitoring (SIM) on a Q Exactive™ mass spectrometer was employed to improve assay specificity and sensitivity for DCP(SS) due to its poor fragmentation and low sensitivity with SRM detection. The assay has been validated for the protein drug in monkey serum using both surrogate peptides with excellent accuracy (within ±4.4%Dev) and precision (within 7.5%CV) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) at 10 ng mL(-1). The protein concentrations in monkey serum obtained from the DCP(SS)-based assay not only provided important pharmacokinetic parameters, but also confirmed in vivo stability of the peptide regions of interest by comparing drug concentrations with those obtained from the CP-based assay or from a ligand-binding assay (LBA). Furthermore, UHPLC-HRMS allowed simultaneous monitoring of the oxidized forms of both surrogate peptides to evaluate potential ex vivo/in vivo oxidation of one methionine present in each of both surrogate peptides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a surrogate disulfide-containing peptide for LC-MS bioanalysis of a therapeutic protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten; Tugwell, Peter; Brooks, Peter; Simon, Lee; Strand, Vibeke; Conaghan, Philip G; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Maksymowych, Walter P; Landewe, Robert; Bresnihan, Barry; Tak, Paul-Peter; Wakefield, Richard; Mease, Philip; Bingham, Clifton O; Hughes, Michael; Altman, Doug; Buyse, Marc; Galbraith, Sally; Wells, George

    2007-03-01

    There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Our objective was to review the literature on biomarkers and surrogates to develop a hierarchical schema that systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogates; and to obtain feedback from stakeholders. After a systematic search of Medline and Embase on biomarkers, surrogate (outcomes, endpoints, markers, indicators), intermediate endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation level of evidence schema that evaluates biomarkers along 4 domains: Target, Study Design, Statistical Strength, and Penalties. Scores derived from 3 domains the Target that the marker is being substituted for, the Design of the (best) evidence, and the Statistical strength are additive. Penalties are then applied if there is serious counterevidence. A total score (0 to 15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. It was proposed that the term "surrogate" be restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Most stakeholders agreed that this operationalization of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery, development, and approval.

  3. Iran's experience with surrogate motherhood: an Islamic view and ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, K

    2009-05-01

    Gestational surrogacy as a treatment for infertility is being practised in some well-known medical institutions in Tehran and some other cities in Iran. While the majority of Muslims in the world are Sunni, the majority of Iranians are Shiite. Most Sunni scholars do not permit surrogate motherhood, since it involves introducing the sperm of a man into the uterus of a woman to whom he is not married. Most Shiite scholars, however, have issued jurisprudential decrees (fatwas) that allow surrogate motherhood as a treatment for infertility, albeit only for legal couples. They regard this practice as transferring an embryo or fetus from one womb to another, which is not forbidden in Shiite jurisprudence. Nevertheless, there are some controversies concerning some issues such as kinship and inheritance. The main ethical concern of Iran's experience with gestational surrogacy is the monetary relation between the intended couple and the surrogate mother. While monetary remuneration is practised in Iran and allowed by religious authorities, it seems to suffer from ethical problems. This article proposes that this kind of monetary relation should be modified and limited to reimbursement of normal costs. Such modification requires new legislation and religious decrees.

  4. Reducing uncertainties in volumetric image based deformable organ registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Yan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Applying volumetric image feedback in radiotherapy requires image based deformable organ registration. The foundation of this registration is the ability of tracking subvolume displacement in organs of interest. Subvolume displacement can be calculated by applying biomechanics model and the finite element method to human organs manifested on the multiple volumetric images. The calculation accuracy, however, is highly dependent on the determination of the corresponding organ boundary points. Lacking sufficient information for such determination, uncertainties are inevitable--thus diminishing the registration accuracy. In this paper, a method of consuming energy minimization was developed to reduce these uncertainties. Starting from an initial selection of organ boundary point correspondence on volumetric image sets, the subvolume displacement and stress distribution of the whole organ are calculated and the consumed energy due to the subvolume displacements is computed accordingly. The corresponding positions of the initially selected boundary points are then iteratively optimized to minimize the consuming energy under geometry and stress constraints. In this study, a rectal wall delineated from patient CT image was artificially deformed using a computer simulation and utilized to test the optimization. Subvolume displacements calculated based on the optimized boundary point correspondence were compared to the true displacements, and the calculation accuracy was thereby evaluated. Results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the accuracy of the deformable organ registration can be achieved by applying the consuming energy minimization in the organ deformation calculation

  5. A longitudinal pre-pregnancy to post-delivery comparison of genetic and gestational surrogate and intended mothers: confidence and genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Akker, Olga B A

    2005-12-01

    For women opting to use surrogacy to overcome subfertility, a choice can be made to have a genetically related or unrelated baby. Similarly, women opting to become surrogate mothers also have to choose to gestate and relinquish a genetically related or unrelated baby. This study explored the cognitions behind the initial choices made and determined the strength of those cognitions six months post-delivery of the surrogate baby. Surrogate and Intended mothers (N=81) undergoing Artificial Insemination (AI, genetic) or Embryo Transfer (ET, gestational) were studied separately (four groups) at the start of their surrogate arrangement and those with a positive outcome (n=34) were re-interviewed at six months post-relinquishment. There were significant differences between surrogate and intended mothers in their confidence about the arrangement. Beliefs about the importance of a genetic link were predictors of ET arrangements. Responses were consistent over a one and a half-year study period. The ethical and clinical implications of the results are discussed in relation to appropriate self-selection and confidence with the surrogate process and the importance of genetic offspring.

  6. Effects of a Mechanical Response-Contingent Surrogate on the Development of Behaviors in Nursery-Reared Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Rebecca L; Blake, Jennifer; Willits, Neil; Rommeck, Ina; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Nursery-reared infants have several behavioral and physiologic differences from their mother-reared counterparts. We investigated whether a response-contingent surrogate mitigated some of those differences by decreasing fearfulness and partner-clinging and increasing environmental exploration in nursery-reared infants continuously paired with a peer. Six nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (in pairs) were given a mechanical responsive surrogate (RS), and 6 (in pairs) were given an identical but nonresponsive surrogate (NRS). The 2 treatment groups were compared and then combined into a single group of all 12 of surrogate-exposed animals (CS) that was compared with a nonsurrogate control group (NS) of 10 nursery-reared infants. Results showed significant differences between CS and NS infants but no significant differences between the RS and NRS infants. As compared with NS infants, CS infants showed less partner-clinging, less affiliation directed toward only partner, and more foraging and tactile–oral exploration of the environment. These advantageous effects support additional research to develop improved surrogate and the implementation of surrogate programs for nursery-reared infants. PMID:25255068

  7. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  8. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  9. An initial study on the estimation of time-varying volumetric treatment images and 3D tumor localization from single MV cine EPID images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj.mishra@varian.com; Mak, Raymond H.; Rottmann, Joerg; Bryant, Jonathan H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Berbeco, Ross I.; Lewis, John H. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Li, Ruijiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    . This is the first method to estimate volumetric time-varying images from single MV cine EPID images, and has the potential to provide volumetric information with no additional imaging dose to the patient.

  10. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  11. COMPARISON OF VOLUMETRIC REGISTRATION ALGORITHMS FOR TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Julio; Joshi, Anand A; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear registration of brain MRI scans is often used to quantify morphological differences associated with disease or genetic factors. Recently, surface-guided fully 3D volumetric registrations have been developed that combine intensity-guided volume registrations with cortical surface constraints. In this paper, we compare one such algorithm to two popular high-dimensional volumetric registration methods: large-deformation viscous fluid registration, formulated in a Riemannian framework, and the diffeomorphic "Demons" algorithm. We performed an objective morphometric comparison, by using a large MRI dataset from 340 young adult twin subjects to examine 3D patterns of correlations in anatomical volumes. Surface-constrained volume registration gave greater effect sizes for detecting morphometric associations near the cortex, while the other two approaches gave greater effects sizes subcortically. These findings suggest novel ways to combine the advantages of multiple methods in the future.

  12. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  13. Volumetric properties of ammonium nitrate in N,N-dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranes, Milan; Dozic, Sanja; Djeric, Vesna; Gadzuric, Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observed interactions and changes in the solution using volumetric properties. ► The greatest influence on the solvent–solvent interactions has temperature. ► The smallest influence temperature has on the ion–ion interactions. ► Temperature has no influence on concentrated systems and partially solvated melts. - Abstract: The densities of the ammonium nitrate in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) mixtures were measured at T = (308.15 to 348.15) K for different ammonium nitrate molalities in the range from (0 to 6.8404) mol·kg −1 . From the obtained density data, volumetric properties (apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes) have been evaluated and discussed in the term of respective ionic and dipole interactions. From the apparent molar volume, determined at various temperatures, the apparent molar expansibility and the coefficients of thermal expansion were also calculated.

  14. Densely-packed graphene/conducting polymer nanoparticle papers for high-volumetric-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-08-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) are one of the most ideal candidates for high-performance flexible power sources. The achievement of high volumetric energy density is highly desired for practical application of this type of ASSSCs. Here, we present a facile method to boost volumetric performances of graphene-based flexible ASSSCs through incorporation of ultrafine polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) nanoparticles in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) papers. A compact structure is obtained via intimate contact and π-π interaction between PANI-PSS nanoparticles and rGO sheets. The hybrid paper electrode with the film thickness of 13.5 μm, shows an extremely high volumetric specific capacitance of 272 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a three-electrode cell). The assembled ASSSCs show a large volumetric specific capacitance of 217 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a two-electrode cell), high volumetric energy and power density, excellent capacitance stability, small leakage current as well as low self-discharge characteristics, revealing the usefulness of this robust hybrid paper for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  15. Long-term follow-up after cervical cancer treatment and subsequent successful surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorastos, T; Zafrakas, M; Mastrominas, M

    2009-08-01

    Preservation of fertility is a major concern for premenopausal women after diagnosis of cervical cancer. Successful surrogate pregnancy after treatment for cervical cancer has very rarely been reported. In the present report, a case of successful surrogate pregnancy after radical hysterectomy, lymphadenectomy and ovarian transposition for cervical cancer, followed by radiation therapy, is presented. After stimulation of the transposed ovaries using the short gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue protocol, four oocytes were retrieved transabdominally from the genetic mother. IVF followed and two embryos were transferred to the surrogate mother, leading to an uneventful singleton pregnancy, and ultimately normal vaginal delivery of a healthy female infant at term. The unique aspect in this case is the long-lasting favourable outcome for both genetic mother and child, observed during 8.5 years of follow-up, the longest follow-up period reported to date in such cases.

  16. Development of multi-component diesel surrogate fuel models – Part II:Validation of the integrated mechanisms in 0-D kinetic and 2-D CFD spray combustion simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Pang, Kar Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2016-01-01

    ), cyclohexane(CHX) and toluene developed in Part I are applied in this work. They are combined to produce two different versions of multi-component diesel surrogate models in the form of MCDS1 (HXN + HMN)and MCDS2 (HXN + HMN + toluene + CHX). The integrated mechanisms are then comprehensively validated in zero......-dimensional chemical kinetic simulations under a wide range of shock tube and jetstirred reactor conditions. Subsequently, the fidelity of the surrogate models is further evaluated in two-dimensional CFD spray combustion simulations. Simulation results show that ignition delay (ID) prediction corresponds well...... an increase of maximum local soot volume fraction by a factor of2.1 when the ambient temperature increases from 900 K to 1000 K, while the prediction by MCDS1 is lower at 1.6. This trend qualitatively agrees with the experimental observation. This work demonstrates that MCDS1 serves as a potential surrogate...

  17. Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot-Kormelink Paul J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60 are frequently used to model macrophage function. Methods The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates. Results The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates. Conclusions The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for

  18. How taxonomic diversity, community structure, and sample size determine the reliability of higher taxon surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Thomas M; Van Rijn, Itai; Mandelik, Yael

    2013-07-01

    Ecologists and paleontologists often rely on higher taxon surrogates instead of complete inventories of biological diversity. Despite their intrinsic appeal, the performance of these surrogates has been markedly inconsistent across empirical studies, to the extent that there is no consensus on appropriate taxonomic resolution (i.e., whether genus- or family-level categories are more appropriate) or their overall usefulness. A framework linking the reliability of higher taxon surrogates to biogeographic setting would allow for the interpretation of previously published work and provide some needed guidance regarding the actual application of these surrogates in biodiversity assessments, conservation planning, and the interpretation of the fossil record. We developed a mathematical model to show how taxonomic diversity, community structure, and sampling effort together affect three measures of higher taxon performance: the correlation between species and higher taxon richness, the relative shapes and asymptotes of species and higher taxon accumulation curves, and the efficiency of higher taxa in a complementarity-based reserve-selection algorithm. In our model, higher taxon surrogates performed well in communities in which a few common species were most abundant, and less well in communities with many equally abundant species. Furthermore, higher taxon surrogates performed well when there was a small mean and variance in the number of species per higher taxa. We also show that empirically measured species-higher-taxon correlations can be partly spurious (i.e., a mathematical artifact), except when the species accumulation curve has reached an asymptote. This particular result is of considerable practical interest given the widespread use of rapid survey methods in biodiversity assessment and the application of higher taxon methods to taxa in which species accumulation curves rarely reach an asymptote, e.g., insects.

  19. NDE Technology Development Program for Non-Visual Volumetric Inspection Technology; Sensor Effectiveness Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Traci L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Denslow, Kayte M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, hosted and administered Sensor Effectiveness Testing that allowed four different participants to demonstrate the NDE volumetric inspection technologies that were previously demonstrated during the Technology Screening session. This document provides a Sensor Effectiveness Testing report for the final part of Phase I of a three-phase NDE Technology Development Program designed to identify and mature a system or set of non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for Hanford DST primary liner bottom inspection. Phase I of the program will baseline the performance of current or emerging non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for their ability to detect and characterize primary liner bottom flaws, and identify candidate technologies for adaptation and maturation for Phase II of the program.

  20. An Evaluation of Two Internal Surrogates for Determining the Three-Dimensional Position of Peripheral Lung Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, F.O.B.; Sornsen de Koste, van J.R.; Vincent, A.D.; Cuijpers, J.P.; Slotman, B.J.; Senan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Both carina and diaphragm positions have been used as surrogates during respiratory-gated radiotherapy. We studied the correlation of both surrogates with three-dimensional (3D) tumor position. Methods and Materials: A total of 59 repeat artifact-free four-dimensional (4D) computed

  1. Differences in behaviour and physiology between adult surrogate-reared and mother-reared Cynomolgous monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, I.A.F. van; Timmermans, P.J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Willems, J.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rearing conditions on exploratory behaviour revealed that 80% of monkeys reared in peer groups with surrogate mothers developed neophobia, whereas only 15 % of mother-reared monkeys did. Young surrogate-reared and, especially, isolated rhesus monkeys are known to

  2. Psychological trait and state characteristics, social support and attitudes to the surrogate pregnancy and baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Olga B A

    2007-08-01

    Personality differences between surrogate mothers (SMs) who gestate and relinquish and intended mothers (IMs) who commission a genetically related or unrelated baby have been unexplored in the UK. Furthermore, the psychological effects of the arrangement have not been determined in a prospective longitudinal study, making this the first quantitative report of psychological functioning in SMs and IMs. SMs and IMs (n = 81: 61 surrogate, 20 intended) undergoing genetic or gestational surrogacy (4 groups) were assessed by postal questionnaire during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Those with a positive outcome were assessed again in the first week, at 6 weeks and 6 months post-delivery of the surrogate baby. There were no significant differences between or within SM and IM groups on personality characteristics. Social support, marital harmony and state anxiety differed significantly (to P pregnancy and the baby were also observed between groups during pregnancy (to P surrogate arrangement are notable and occur over an extended period of time. It also shows that psychological screening and support prior to, during and following surrogacy is indicated.

  3. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.; Martin, Tobias; Grosset, A. V Pascal; Brownlee, Carson; Hollt, Thomas; Brown, Benjamin P.; Smith, Sean T.; Hansen, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Oxidation of Alkane Rich Gasoline Fuels and their Surrogates in a Motored Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai S B

    2015-03-30

    The validation of surrogates formulated using a computational framework by Ahmed et al.[1]for two purely paraffinic gasoline fuels labelled FACE A and FACE C was undertaken in this study. The ability of these surrogate mixtures to be used in modelling LTC engines was accessed by comparison of their low temperature oxidation chemistry with that of the respective parent fuel as well as a PRF based on RON. This was done by testing the surrogate mixtures in a modified Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine running in Controlled Autoignition Mode (CAI) mode. The engine was run at a constant speed of 600 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the intake temperature at 150 °C and a pressure of 98 kPa. The low temperature reactivity of the fuels were studied by varying the compression ratio of the engine from the point were very only small low temperature heat release was observed to a point beyond which auto-ignition of the fuel/air mixture occurred. The apparent heat release rates of different fuels was calculated from the pressure histories using first law analysis and the CA 50 times of the low temperature heat release (LTHR) were compared. The surrogates reproduced the cool flame behavior of the parent fuels better than the PRF across all compression ratios.

  6. Oxidation of Alkane Rich Gasoline Fuels and their Surrogates in a Motored Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai S B; Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Atef, Nour; Chung, Suk-Ho; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    The validation of surrogates formulated using a computational framework by Ahmed et al.[1]for two purely paraffinic gasoline fuels labelled FACE A and FACE C was undertaken in this study. The ability of these surrogate mixtures to be used in modelling LTC engines was accessed by comparison of their low temperature oxidation chemistry with that of the respective parent fuel as well as a PRF based on RON. This was done by testing the surrogate mixtures in a modified Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine running in Controlled Autoignition Mode (CAI) mode. The engine was run at a constant speed of 600 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the intake temperature at 150 °C and a pressure of 98 kPa. The low temperature reactivity of the fuels were studied by varying the compression ratio of the engine from the point were very only small low temperature heat release was observed to a point beyond which auto-ignition of the fuel/air mixture occurred. The apparent heat release rates of different fuels was calculated from the pressure histories using first law analysis and the CA 50 times of the low temperature heat release (LTHR) were compared. The surrogates reproduced the cool flame behavior of the parent fuels better than the PRF across all compression ratios.

  7. Laminar Flame Speeds of Gasoline Surrogates Measured with the Flat Flame Method

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Y.-H.

    2016-01-27

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The adiabatic, laminar flame speeds of gasoline surrogates at atmospheric pressure over a range of equivalence ratios of = 0.8-1.3 and unburned gas temperatures of 298-400 K are measured with the flat flame method, which produces a one-dimensional flat flame free of stretch. Surrogates used in the current work are the primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures of n-heptane and isooctane), the toluene reference fuels (TRFs, mixtures of toluene and PRFs), and the ethanol reference fuels (ERFs, mixtures of ethanol and PRFs). In general, there is good agreement between the present work and the literature data for single-component fuel and PRF mixtures. Surrogates of TRF mixtures are found to exhibit comparable flame speeds to a real gasoline, while there is discrepancy observed between isooctane and gasoline. Moreover, the laminar flame speeds of TRF mixtures with similar fractions of n-heptane are found to be insensitive to the quantity of toluene in the mixture. Mixtures of ERFs exhibit comparable flame speeds to those of TRFs with similar mole fractions of n-heptane and isooctane.

  8. Surrogate mothers 10 years on: A longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing and relationships with the parents and child

    OpenAIRE

    Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Imrie, S; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2014-01-01

    Study Question: How do surrogates psychological health and experiences of surrogacy change from one year to ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child? Summary answer: Surrogates’ psychological well-being did not change ten years following the birth, with the majority continuing to report good mental health andall surrogates remained positive about the surrogacy arrangement. What is known already: Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficu...

  9. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-09-18

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).

  10. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture in Brittle Solids and the Volumetric Strain Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.; Yamachi, H.

    2017-12-01

    As pointed out by Uenishi (2016 AGU Fall Meeting), source dynamics of ordinary earthquakes is often studied in the framework of 3D rupture in brittle solids but our knowledge of mechanics of actual 3D rupture is limited. Typically, criteria derived from 1D frictional observations of sliding materials or post-failure behavior of solids are applied in seismic simulations, and although mode-I cracks are frequently encountered in earthquake-induced ground failures, rupture in tension is in most cases ignored. Even when it is included in analyses, the classical maximum principal tensile stress rupture criterion is repeatedly used. Our recent basic experiments of dynamic rupture of spherical or cylindrical monolithic brittle solids by applying high-voltage electric discharge impulses or impact loads have indicated generation of surprisingly simple and often flat rupture surfaces in 3D specimens even without the initial existence of planes of weakness. However, at the same time, the snapshots taken by a high-speed digital video camera have shown rather complicated histories of rupture development in these 3D solid materials, which seem to be difficult to be explained by, for example, the maximum principal stress criterion. Instead, a (tensile) volumetric strain criterion where the volumetric strain (dilatation or the first invariant of the strain tensor) is a decisive parameter for rupture seems more effective in computationally reproducing the multi-directionally propagating waves and rupture. In this study, we try to show the connection between this volumetric strain criterion and other classical rupture criteria or physical parameters employed in continuum mechanics, and indicate that the criterion has, to some degree, physical meanings. First, we mathematically illustrate that the criterion is equivalent to a criterion based on the mean normal stress, a crucial parameter in plasticity. Then, we mention the relation between the volumetric strain criterion and the

  11. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Hansen, Nils; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used

  12. An evaluation of culture results during treatment for tuberculosis as surrogate endpoints for treatment failure and relapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P J Phillips

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that new regimens are urgently needed for the treatment of tuberculosis. The primary endpoint in the Phase III trials is a composite outcome of failure at the end of treatment or relapse after stopping treatment. Such trials are usually both long and expensive. Valid surrogate endpoints measured during or at the end of treatment could dramatically reduce both the time and cost of assessing the effectiveness of new regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate sputum culture results on solid media during treatment as surrogate endpoints for poor outcome. Data were obtained from twelve randomised controlled trials conducted by the British Medical Research Council in the 1970s and 80s in East Africa and East Asia, consisting of 6974 participants and 49 different treatment regimens. The month two culture result was shown to be a poor surrogate in East Africa but a good surrogate in Hong Kong. In contrast, the month three culture was a good surrogate in trials conducted in East Africa but not in Hong Kong. As well as differences in location, ethnicity and probable strain of Mycobacteria tuberculosis, Hong Kong trials more often evaluated regimens with rifampicin throughout and intermittent regimens, and patients in East African trials more often presented with extensive cavitation and were slower to convert to culture negative during treatment. An endpoint that is a summary measure of the longitudinal profile of culture results over time or that is able to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis later in treatment is more likely to be a better endpoint for a phase II trial than a culture result at a single time point and may prove to be an acceptable surrogate. More data are needed before any endpoint can be used as a surrogate in a confirmatory phase III trial.

  13. Development of a post-intensive care unit storytelling intervention for surrogates involved in decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F; Arnold, Robert M; Tiver, Greer A; Barnato, Amber E

    2015-06-01

    Surrogates involved in decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment for a loved one in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at increased risk for adverse psychological outcomes that can last for months to years after the ICU experience. Post-ICU interventions to reduce surrogate distress have not yet been developed. We sought to (1) describe a conceptual framework underlying the beneficial mental health effects of storytelling, and (2) present formative work developing a storytelling intervention to reduce distress for recently bereaved surrogates. An interdisciplinary team conceived the idea for a storytelling intervention based on evidence from narrative theory that storytelling reduces distress from traumatic events through emotional disclosure, cognitive processing, and social connection. We developed an initial storytelling guide based on this theory and the clinical perspectives of team members. We then conducted a case series with recently bereaved surrogates to iteratively test and modify the guide. The storytelling guide covered three key domains of the surrogate's experience of the patient's illness and death: antecedents, ICU experience, and aftermath. The facilitator focused on the parts of a story that appeared to generate strong emotions and used nonjudgmental statements to attend to these emotions. Between September 2012 and May 2013, we identified 28 eligible surrogates from a medical ICU and consented 20 for medical record review and recontact; 10 became eligible, of whom 6 consented and completed the storytelling intervention. The single-session storytelling intervention lasted from 40 to 92 minutes. All storytelling participants endorsed the intervention as acceptable, and five of six reported it as helpful. Surrogate storytelling is an innovative and acceptable post-ICU intervention for recently bereaved surrogates and should be evaluated further.

  14. Accelerated Monte Carlo system reliability analysis through machine-learning-based surrogate models of network connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.E.; Song, J.; Work, D.B.

    2017-01-01

    The two-terminal reliability problem in system reliability analysis is known to be computationally intractable for large infrastructure graphs. Monte Carlo techniques can estimate the probability of a disconnection between two points in a network by selecting a representative sample of network component failure realizations and determining the source-terminal connectivity of each realization. To reduce the runtime required for the Monte Carlo approximation, this article proposes an approximate framework in which the connectivity check of each sample is estimated using a machine-learning-based classifier. The framework is implemented using both a support vector machine (SVM) and a logistic regression based surrogate model. Numerical experiments are performed on the California gas distribution network using the epicenter and magnitude of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake as well as randomly-generated earthquakes. It is shown that the SVM and logistic regression surrogate models are able to predict network connectivity with accuracies of 99% for both methods, and are 1–2 orders of magnitude faster than using a Monte Carlo method with an exact connectivity check. - Highlights: • Surrogate models of network connectivity are developed by machine-learning algorithms. • Developed surrogate models can reduce the runtime required for Monte Carlo simulations. • Support vector machine and logistic regressions are employed to develop surrogate models. • Numerical example of California gas distribution network demonstrate the proposed approach. • The developed models have accuracies 99%, and are 1–2 orders of magnitude faster than MCS.

  15. Cutthroat trout virus as a surrogate in vitro infection model for testing inhibitors of hepatitis E virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debing, Yannick; Winton, James; Neyts, Johan; Dallmeier, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most important causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. Although most infections are self-limiting, mortality is particularly high in pregnant women. Chronic infections can occur in transplant and other immune-compromised patients. Successful treatment of chronic hepatitis E has been reported with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, however severe side effects were observed. We employed the cutthroat trout virus (CTV), a non-pathogenic fish virus with remarkable similarities to HEV, as a potential surrogate for HEV and established an antiviral assay against this virus using the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line. Ribavirin and the respective trout interferon were found to efficiently inhibit CTV replication. Other known broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA virus replication such as the nucleoside analog 2′-C-methylcytidine resulted only in a moderate antiviral activity. In its natural fish host, CTV levels largely fluctuate during the reproductive cycle with the virus detected mainly during spawning. We wondered whether this aspect of CTV infection may serve as a surrogate model for the peculiar pathogenesis of HEV in pregnant women. To that end the effect of three sex steroids on in vitro CTV replication was evaluated. Whereas progesterone resulted in marked inhibition of virus replication, testosterone and 17β-estradiol stimulated viral growth. Our data thus indicate that CTV may serve as a surrogate model for HEV, both for antiviral experiments and studies on the replication biology of the Hepeviridae.

  16. Surrogacy: outcomes for surrogate mothers, children and the resulting families-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Loft, Anne; Pinborg, Anja; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Bergh, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Surrogacy is a highly debated method mainly used for treating women with infertility caused by uterine factors. This systematic review summarizes current levels of knowledge of the obstetric, medical and psychological outcomes for the surrogate mothers, the intended parents and children born as a result of surrogacy. PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases up to February 2015 were searched. Cohort studies and case series were included. Original studies published in English and the Scandinavian languages were included. In case of double publications, the latest study was included. Abstracts only and case reports were excluded. Studies with a control group and case series (more than three cases) were included. Cohort studies, but not case series, were assessed for methodological quality, in terms of risk of bias. We examined a variety of main outcomes for the surrogate mothers, children and intended mothers, including obstetric outcome, relationship between surrogate mother and intended couple, surrogate's experiences after relinquishing the child, preterm birth, low birthweight, birth defects, perinatal mortality, child psychological development, parent-child relationship, and disclosure to the child. The search returned 1795 articles of which 55 met the inclusion criteria. The medical outcome for the children was satisfactory and comparable to previous results for children conceived after fresh IVF and oocyte donation. The rate of multiple pregnancies was 2.6-75.0%. Preterm birth rate in singletons varied between 0 and 11.5% and low birthweight occurred in between 0 and 11.1% of cases. At the age of 10 years there were no major psychological differences between children born after surrogacy and children born after other types of assisted reproductive technology (ART) or after natural conception. The obstetric outcomes for the surrogate mothers were mainly reported from case series. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were reported in between 3.2 and 10% of cases and

  17. GPU-based Scalable Volumetric Reconstruction for Multi-view Stereo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H; Duchaineau, M; Max, N

    2011-09-21

    We present a new scalable volumetric reconstruction algorithm for multi-view stereo using a graphics processing unit (GPU). It is an effectively parallelized GPU algorithm that simultaneously uses a large number of GPU threads, each of which performs voxel carving, in order to integrate depth maps with images from multiple views. Each depth map, triangulated from pair-wise semi-dense correspondences, represents a view-dependent surface of the scene. This algorithm also provides scalability for large-scale scene reconstruction in a high resolution voxel grid by utilizing streaming and parallel computation. The output is a photo-realistic 3D scene model in a volumetric or point-based representation. We demonstrate the effectiveness and the speed of our algorithm with a synthetic scene and real urban/outdoor scenes. Our method can also be integrated with existing multi-view stereo algorithms such as PMVS2 to fill holes or gaps in textureless regions.

  18. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological....... This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° x 90° field-of-view was achieved. Data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 x 32 elements 2-D phased array...... transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak- temporal...

  19. CO2 Capacity Sorbent Analysis Using Volumetric Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger; Richardson, Tra-My Justine; Belancik, Grace; Jan, Darrell; Knox, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In support of air revitalization system sorbent selection for future space missions, Ames Research Center (ARC) has performed CO2 capacity tests on various solid sorbents to complement structural strength tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The materials of interest are: Grace Davison Grade 544 13X, Honeywell UOP APG III, LiLSX VSA-10, BASF 13X, and Grace Davison Grade 522 5A. CO2 capacity was for all sorbent materials using a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 Physisorption Volumetric Analysis machine to produce 0C, 10C, 25C, 50C, and 75C isotherms. These data are to be used for modeling data and to provide a basis for continued sorbent research. The volumetric analysis method proved to be effective in generating consistent and repeatable data for the 13X sorbents, but the method needs to be refined to tailor to different sorbents.

  20. The Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema: a review of the biomarker-surrogate literature and a proposal for a criterion-based, quantitative, multidimensional hierarchical levels of evidence schema for evaluating the status of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassere, Marissa N

    2008-06-01

    There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Section 2 is a systematic, historical review of the biomarker-surrogate endpoint literature with special reference to the nomenclature, the systems of classification and statistical methods developed for their evaluation. In Section 3 an explicit, criterion-based, quantitative, multidimensional hierarchical levels of evidence schema - Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema - is proposed to evaluate and co-ordinate the multiple dimensions (biological, epidemiological, statistical, clinical trial and risk-benefit evidence) of the biomarker clinical endpoint relationships. The schema systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogate endpoints using defined levels of evidence. The schema incorporates the three independent domains: Study Design, Target Outcome and Statistical Evaluation. Each domain has items ranked from zero to five. An additional category called Penalties incorporates additional considerations of biological plausibility, risk-benefit and generalizability. The total score (0-15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. The term ;surrogate' is restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Surrogacy status of markers can then be directly compared within and across different areas of medicine to guide individual, trial-based or drug-development decisions. This schema would facilitate communication between clinical, researcher, regulatory, industry and consumer participants necessary for evaluation of the biomarker-surrogate-clinical endpoint relationship in their different settings.

  1. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...... are then applied if there is serious counterevidence. A total score (0 to 15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. It was proposed that the term "surrogate" be restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Most stakeholders agreed that this operationalization...

  2. Development and pilot testing of a decision aid for surrogates of patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher E.; Lewis, Carmen L.; Hanson, Laura C.; Hough, Catherine L.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; White, Douglas B.; Song, Mi-Kyung; Tulsky, James A.; Carson, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Shared decision making is inadequate in intensive care units (ICUs). Decision aids can improve decision making quality, though their role in an ICU setting is unclear. We aimed to develop and pilot test a decision aid for shared decision makers of patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation. Setting ICUs at three medical centers. Subjects 53 surrogate decision makers and 58 physicians. Design and interventions We developed the decision aid using defined methodological guidelines. After an iterative revision process, formative cognitive testing was performed among surrogate-physician dyads. Next, we compared the decision aid to usual care control in a prospective, before/after design study. Measurements and main results Primary outcomes were physician-surrogate discordance for expected patient survival, comprehension of relevant medical information, and the quality of communication. Compared to control, the intervention group had lower surrogate-physician discordance (7 [10] vs 43 [21]), greater comprehension (11.4 [0.7] vs 6.1 [3.7]), and improved quality of communication (8.7 [1.3] vs 8.4 [1.3]) (all ppost-intervention. Hospital costs were lower in the intervention group ($110,609 vs $178,618; p=0.044); mortality did not differ by group (38% vs 50%, p=0.95). 94% of surrogates and 100% of physicians reported that the decision aid was useful in decision making. Conclusion We developed a prolonged mechanical ventilation decision aid that is feasible, acceptable, and associated with both improved decision making quality and less resource utilization. Further evaluation using a randomized controlled trial design is needed to evaluate the decision aid's effect on long-term patient and surrogate outcomes. PMID:22635048

  3. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  4. Airfoil Shape Optimization based on Surrogate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, R.; Lingadurai, K.; Selvakumar, U.

    2018-02-01

    Engineering design problems always require enormous amount of real-time experiments and computational simulations in order to assess and ensure the design objectives of the problems subject to various constraints. In most of the cases, the computational resources and time required per simulation are large. In certain cases like sensitivity analysis, design optimisation etc where thousands and millions of simulations have to be carried out, it leads to have a life time of difficulty for designers. Nowadays approximation models, otherwise called as surrogate models (SM), are more widely employed in order to reduce the requirement of computational resources and time in analysing various engineering systems. Various approaches such as Kriging, neural networks, polynomials, Gaussian processes etc are used to construct the approximation models. The primary intention of this work is to employ the k-fold cross validation approach to study and evaluate the influence of various theoretical variogram models on the accuracy of the surrogate model construction. Ordinary Kriging and design of experiments (DOE) approaches are used to construct the SMs by approximating panel and viscous solution algorithms which are primarily used to solve the flow around airfoils and aircraft wings. The method of coupling the SMs with a suitable optimisation scheme to carryout an aerodynamic design optimisation process for airfoil shapes is also discussed.

  5. Volumetric velocity measurements in restricted geometries using spiral sampling: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders; Revstedt, Johan; Heiberg, Einar; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Bloch, Karin Markenroth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of maximum velocity measurements using volumetric phase-contrast imaging with spiral readouts in a stenotic flow phantom. In a phantom model, maximum velocity, flow, pressure gradient, and streamline visualizations were evaluated using volumetric phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with velocity encoding in one (extending on current clinical practice) and three directions (for characterization of the flow field) using spiral readouts. Results of maximum velocity and pressure drop were compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, as well as corresponding low-echo-time (TE) Cartesian data. Flow was compared to 2D through-plane phase contrast (PC) upstream from the restriction. Results obtained with 3D through-plane PC as well as 4D PC at shortest TE using a spiral readout showed excellent agreements with the maximum velocity values obtained with CFD (spiral sequences were respectively 14 and 13 % overestimated compared to CFD. Identification of the maximum velocity location, as well as the accurate velocity quantification can be obtained in stenotic regions using short-TE spiral volumetric PC imaging.

  6. Surrogate receptivity to participation in critical illness genetic research: aligning research oversight and stakeholder concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Bradley D; Butler, Kevin; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Clarridge, Brian R; Kennedy, Carie R; LeBlanc, Jessica; Chandros Hull, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Collection of genetic biospecimens as part of critical illness investigations is increasingly commonplace. Oversight bodies vary in restrictions imposed on genetic research, introducing inconsistencies in study design, potential for sampling bias, and the possibility of being overly prohibitive of this type of research altogether. We undertook this study to better understand whether restrictions on genetic data collection beyond those governing research on cognitively intact subjects reflect the concerns of surrogates for critically ill patients. We analyzed survey data collected from 1,176 patients in nonurgent settings and 437 surrogates representing critically ill adults. Attitudes pertaining to genetic data (familiarity, perceptions, interest in participation, concerns) and demographic information were examined using univariate and multivariate techniques. We explored differences among respondents who were receptive (1,333) and nonreceptive (280) to genetic sample collection. Whereas factors positively associated with receptivity to research participation were "complete trust" in health-care providers (OR, 2.091; 95% CI, 1.544-2.833), upper income strata (OR, 2.319; 95% CI, 1.308-4.114), viewing genetic research "very positively" (OR, 3.524; 95% CI, 2.122-5.852), and expressing "no worry at all" regarding disclosure of results (OR, 2.505; 95% CI, 1.436-4.369), black race was negatively associated with research participation (OR, 0.410; 95% CI, 0.288-0.585). We could detect no difference in receptivity to genetic sample collection comparing ambulatory patients and surrogates (OR, 0.738; 95% CI, 0.511-1.066). Expressing trust in health-care providers and viewing genetic research favorably were associated with increased willingness for study enrollment, while concern regarding breach of confidentiality and black race had the opposite effect. Study setting had no bearing on willingness to participate.

  7. Nanofoaming to Boost the Electrochemical Performance of Ni@Ni(OH)2 Nanowires for Ultrahigh Volumetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shusheng; Li, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Wenkai; Yang, Chao; Wang, Shuai; Hu, Nantao; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional free-standing film electrodes have aroused great interest for energy storage devices. However, small volumetric capacity and low operating voltage limit their practical application for large energy storage applications. Herein, a facile and novel nanofoaming process was demonstrated to boost the volumetric electrochemical capacitance of the devices via activation of Ni nanowires to form ultrathin nanosheets and porous nanostructures. The as-designed free-standing Ni@Ni(OH) 2 film electrodes display a significantly enhanced volumetric capacity (462 C/cm 3 at 0.5 A/cm 3 ) and excellent cycle stability. Moreover, the as-developed hybrid supercapacitor employed Ni@Ni(OH) 2 film as positive electrode and graphene-carbon nanotube film as negative electrode exhibits a high volumetric capacitance of 95 F/cm 3 (at 0.25 A/cm 3 ) and excellent cycle performance (only 14% capacitance reduction for 4500 cycles). Furthermore, the volumetric energy density can reach 33.9 mWh/cm 3 , which is much higher than that of most thin film lithium batteries (1-10 mWh/cm 3 ). This work gives an insight for designing high-volume three-dimensional electrodes and paves a new way to construct binder-free film electrode for high-performance hybrid supercapacitor applications.

  8. Hierarchical anatomical brain networks for MCI prediction: revisiting volumetric measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zhou

    Full Text Available Owning to its clinical accessibility, T1-weighted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been extensively studied in the past decades for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The volumes of gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the most commonly used measurements, resulting in many successful applications. It has been widely observed that disease-induced structural changes may not occur at isolated spots, but in several inter-related regions. Therefore, for better characterization of brain pathology, we propose in this paper a means to extract inter-regional correlation based features from local volumetric measurements. Specifically, our approach involves constructing an anatomical brain network for each subject, with each node representing a Region of Interest (ROI and each edge representing Pearson correlation of tissue volumetric measurements between ROI pairs. As second order volumetric measurements, network features are more descriptive but also more sensitive to noise. To overcome this limitation, a hierarchy of ROIs is used to suppress noise at different scales. Pairwise interactions are considered not only for ROIs with the same scale in the same layer of the hierarchy, but also for ROIs across different scales in different layers. To address the high dimensionality problem resulting from the large number of network features, a supervised dimensionality reduction method is further employed to embed a selected subset of features into a low dimensional feature space, while at the same time preserving discriminative information. We demonstrate with experimental results the efficacy of this embedding strategy in comparison with some other commonly used approaches. In addition, although the proposed method can be easily generalized to incorporate other metrics of regional similarities, the benefits of using Pearson correlation in our application are reinforced by the experimental

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of degraded waste surrogate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    This paper discusses rock mechanics testing of surrogate materials to provide failure criteria for compacted, degraded nuclear waste. This daunting proposition was approached by first assembling all known parameters such as the initial waste inventory and rock mechanics response of the underground setting after the waste is stored. Conservative assumptions allowing for extensive degradation processes helped quantify the lowest possible strength conditions of the future state of the waste. In the larger conceptual setting, computations involve degraded waste behavior in transient pressure gradients as gas exits the waste horizon into a wellbore. Therefore, a defensible evaluation of tensile strength is paramount for successful analyses and intentionally provided maximal failed volumes. The very conservative approach assumes rampant degradation to define waste surrogate composition. Specimens prepared from derivative degradation product were consolidated into simple geometries for rock mechanics testing. Tensile strength thus derived helped convince a skeptical peer review panel that drilling into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would not likely expel appreciable solids via the drill string

  10. Surrogate reservoir models for CSI well probabilistic production forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Buitrago

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the construction and use of Surrogate Reservoir Models capable of accurately predicting cumulative oil production for every well stimulated with cyclic steam injection at any given time in a heavy oil reservoir in Mexico considering uncertain variables. The central composite experimental design technique was selected to capture the maximum amount of information from the model response with a minimum number of reservoir models simulations. Four input uncertain variables (the dead oil viscosity with temperature, the reservoir pressure, the reservoir permeability and oil sand thickness hydraulically connected to the well were selected as the ones with more impact on the initial hot oil production rate according to an analytical production prediction model. Twenty five runs were designed and performed with the STARS simulator for each well type on the reservoir model. The results show that the use of Surrogate Reservoir Models is a fast viable alternative to perform probabilistic production forecasting of the reservoir.

  11. Evaluation and Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existing chemical kinetic mechanism reduction techniques. From here, an appropriate reduction scheme was developed to create compact yet comprehensive surrogate models for both diesel and biodiesel fuels for diesel engine applications. The reduction...... techniques applied here were Directed Relation Graph (DRG), DRG with Error Propagation, DRG-aided Sensitivity Analysis, and DRG with Error Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis. Nonetheless, the reduced mechanisms generated via these techniques were not sufficiently small for application in multi......-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study. A new reduction scheme was therefore formulated. A 68-species mechanism for biodiesel surrogate and a 49-species mechanism for diesel surrogate were successfully derived from the respective detailed mechanisms. An overall 97% reduction in species number...

  12. Simplifying the exploration of volumetric images: development of a 3D user interface for the radiologist's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teistler, M; Breiman, R S; Lison, T; Bott, O J; Pretschner, D P; Aziz, A; Nowinski, W L

    2008-10-01

    Volumetric imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) provides increased diagnostic detail but is associated with the problem of navigation through large amounts of data. In an attempt to overcome this problem, a novel 3D navigation tool has been designed and developed that is based on an alternative input device. A 3D mouse allows for simultaneous definition of position and orientation of orthogonal or oblique multiplanar reformatted images or slabs, which are presented within a virtual 3D scene together with the volume-rendered data set and additionally as 2D images. Slabs are visualized with maximum intensity projection, average intensity projection, or standard volume rendering technique. A prototype has been implemented based on PC technology that has been tested by several radiologists. It has shown to be easily understandable and usable after a very short learning phase. Our solution may help to fully exploit the diagnostic potential of volumetric imaging by allowing for a more efficient reading process compared to currently deployed solutions based on conventional mouse and keyboard.

  13. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, in water and wastewater industry a lot of mechanical-volumetric flow meters are used for the navigation of the produced water and the data of these flow meters, due to use in a wide geographical range, is done physically and by in person presence. All this makes reading the data costly and, in some cases, due to ...

  14. Humidification mitigates acute mucosal toxicity during radiotherapy when factoring volumetric parameters. Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) RadioHUM 07.03 substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macann, A; Fauzi, F; Simpson, J; Sasso, G; Krawitz, H; Fraser-Browne, C; Manitz, J; Raith, A

    2017-12-01

    To model in a subset of patients from TROG 07.03 managed at a single site the association between domiciliary based humidification use and mucositis symptom burden during radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) when factoring in volumetric radiotherapy parameters derived from tumour and normal tissue regions of interest. From June 2008 through June 2011, 210 patients with HNC receiving RT were randomised to either a control arm or humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. This subset analysis involves patients recruited from Auckland City Hospital treated with a prescribed dose of ≥70 Gy. Regression models included control variables for Planning Target Volume 70 GY (PTV70Gy); Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD) MOIST and TSV (surrogates of total mucosal and total swallowing volumes respectively). The analysis included 39 patients (humidification 20, control 19). There was a significant odds reduction in CTCAE v3.0 functional mucositis score of 0.29 associated with the use of humidification (pfactor of 11.11 for humidification patients (p=.013). The results support the hypothesis that humidification can help mitigate mucositis symptom burden. Radiotherapy dosimetric parameters assist in the evaluation of toxicity interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Surrogate pregnancy with regard to marriage between persons of the same sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    After first defining surrogacy, distinguishing between cases in which the pregnancy results from the surrogate's own egg or a donor egg, and examining the different configurations of male homosexual families, the authors outline French and foreign legislation and provide a summary of the literature and of French working group hearings. Arguments for and against lifting the ban on surrogacy for gay couples are examined. The main arguments for lifting the ban are the following: 1) the same-sex couple's desire to start a family from their own gene pool, 2) current obstacles to adoption, 3) the notion of equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples, 4) frequent recourse to surrogacy abroad, which is not only very costly but also leaves the child in a state of legal limbo on its return to France, and 5) the lack of access to therapeutic alternatives. Some arguments against lifting the ban are of a medical nature: (1) physical and psychological risks for the surrogate, 2) the fact that exchanges between the mother and fetus during pregnancy are more complex than previously thought (microchimerism, epigenetics) and never negligible, and 3) the physical and psychological risks for the child. Other arguments are of an ethical nature: 1) surrogacy may undermine the status of motherhood, 2) surrogacy is becoming a societal rather than a medical issue, implying a profound bioethical upheaval, 3) the increasing commercialization of the human body, 4) subjugation of women to men's desires, 5) the risks for the surrogate's own couple and children, and for the host couple, 6) unavoidable financial aspects, and (7) the risk of abuse. The aim of this study is to bring together all the factors potentially influencing the health consequences of surrogacy, for both the mother and the child, especially if surrogacy were to be legalized for male homosexual couples. Surrogacy raises issues far beyond purely medical considerations and is primarily a societal issue that must be

  16. The Effect of Elevation on Volumetric Measurements of the Lower Extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordial M. Gillette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The empirical evidence for the use of RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation has been questioned regarding its   clinical effectiveness. The component of RICE that has the least literature regarding its effectiveness is elevation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if various positions of elevation result in volumetric changes of the lower extremity. Methodology: A randomized crossover design was used to determine the effects of the four following conditions on volumetric changes of the lower extremity: seated at the end of a table (seated, lying supine (flat, lying supine with the foot elevated 12 inches off the table (elevated, and lying prone with the knees bent to 90 degrees (prone. The conditions were randomized using a Latin Square. Each subject completed all conditions with at least 24 hours between each session. Pre and post volumetric measurements were taken using a volumetric tank. The subject was placed in one of the four described testing positions for 30 minutes. The change in weight of the displaced water was the main outcome measure. The data was analyzed using an ANOVA of the pre and post measurements with a Bonferroni post hoc analysis. The level of significance was set at P<.05 for all analyses. Results: The only statistically significant difference was between the gravity dependent position (seated and all other positions (p <.001. There was no significant difference between lying supine (flat, on a bolster (elevated, or prone with the knees flexed to 90 degrees (prone. Conclusions: From these results, the extent of elevation does not appear to have an effect on changes in low leg volume. Elevation above the heart did not significantly improve reduction in limb volume, but removing the limb from a gravity dependent position might be beneficial.

  17. EVALUATION OF MURINE NOROVIRUS, FELINE CALICIVIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, AND MS2 AS SURROGATES FOR HUMAN NOROVIRUS IN a Model of Viral Persistence in SURFACE Water AND GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are a significant cause of non bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. The absence of a cell culture infectivity model for NoV necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate mod...

  18. Comparing Visually Assessed BI-RADS Breast Density and Automated Volumetric Breast Density Software: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Breast Cancer Screening Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; den Heeten, Gerard J; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Schuur, Klaas H; Timmers, Johanna M H; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare different methods for measuring breast density, both visual assessments and automated volumetric density, in a breast cancer screening setting. These measures could potentially be implemented in future screening programmes, in the context of personalised screening or screening evaluation. Digital mammographic exams (N = 992) of women participating in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme (age 50-75y) in 2013 were included. Breast density was measured in three different ways: BI-RADS density (5th edition) and with two commercially available automated software programs (Quantra and Volpara volumetric density). BI-RADS density (ordinal scale) was assessed by three radiologists. Quantra (v1.3) and Volpara (v1.5.0) provide continuous estimates. Different comparison methods were used, including Bland-Altman plots and correlation coefficients (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]). Based on the BI-RADS classification, 40.8% of the women had 'heterogeneously or extremely dense' breasts. The median volumetric percent density was 12.1% (IQR: 9.6-16.5) for Quantra, which was higher than the Volpara estimate (median 6.6%, IQR: 4.4-10.9). The mean difference between Quantra and Volpara was 5.19% (95% CI: 5.04-5.34) (ICC: 0.64). There was a clear increase in volumetric percent dense volume as BI-RADS density increased. The highest accuracy for predicting the presence of BI-RADS c+d (heterogeneously or extremely dense) was observed with a cut-off value of 8.0% for Volpara and 13.8% for Quantra. Although there was no perfect agreement, there appeared to be a strong association between all three measures. Both volumetric density measures seem to be usable in breast cancer screening programmes, provided that the required data flow can be realized.

  19. Area and volumetric density estimation in processed full-field digital mammograms for risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Cheddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. METHODS: The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol. The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. RESULTS: All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of risk and genetic association.

  20. AISLE: an automatic volumetric segmentation method for the study of lung allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Kazanzides, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We developed a fully automatic segmentation method for volumetric CT (computer tomography) datasets to support construction of a statistical atlas for the study of allometric laws of the lung. The proposed segmentation method, AISLE (Automated ITK-Snap based on Level-set), is based on the level-set implementation from an existing semi-automatic segmentation program, ITK-Snap. AISLE can segment the lung field without human interaction and provide intermediate graphical results as desired. The preliminary experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve accurate segmentation, in terms of volumetric overlap metric, by comparing with the ground-truth segmentation performed by a radiologist.

  1. 100KE/KW fuel storage basin surface volumetric factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Supporting Document presents calculations of surface Volumetric factors for the 100KE and 100KW Fuel Storage Basins. These factors relate water level changes to basin loss or additions of water, or the equivalent water displacement volumes of objects added to or removed from the basin

  2. Applicability of UV resistant Bacillus pumilus endospores as a human adenovirus surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of virus inactivation in low-pressure UV treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential to use Bacillus pumilus endospores as a surrogate of human adenovirus (HAdV) in UV disinfection studies. The use of endospores has been limited by observations of batch-to-batch variation in UV sensitivity. This study reports on a pr...

  3. Efficient stochastic EMC/EMI analysis using HDMR-generated surrogate models

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2011-08-01

    Stochastic methods have been used extensively to quantify effects due to uncertainty in system parameters (e.g. material, geometrical, and electrical constants) and/or excitation on observables pertinent to electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) analysis (e.g. voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) [1]. In recent years, stochastic collocation (SC) methods, especially those leveraging generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions, have received significant attention [2, 3]. SC-gPC methods probe surrogate models (i.e. compact polynomial input-output representations) to statistically characterize observables. They are nonintrusive, that is they use existing deterministic simulators, and often cost only a fraction of direct Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Unfortunately, SC-gPC-generated surrogate models often lack accuracy (i) when the number of uncertain/random system variables is large and/or (ii) when the observables exhibit rapid variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  5. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an "oxygen depletion design" whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we have developed a novel single-layer fuel cell with good performance (2 μW cm⁻²) and stability that can be integrated directly as a coating layer on large implantable devices, or stacked to obtain a high volumetric power density (over 16 μW cm⁻³). This represents the first demonstration of a low volume non-enzymatic fuel cell stack with high power density, greatly increasing the range of applications for non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells.

  6. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel; Buse, Gerrit; Pfluger, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute

  7. Efficient stochastic EMC/EMI analysis using HDMR-generated surrogate models

    KAUST Repository

    Yü cel, Abdulkadir C.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2011-01-01

    of direct Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Unfortunately, SC-gPC-generated surrogate models often lack accuracy (i) when the number of uncertain/random system variables is large and/or (ii) when the observables exhibit rapid variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. TU-CD-BRA-05: Atlas Selection for Multi-Atlas-Based Image Segmentation Using Surrogate Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T; Ruan, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The growing size and heterogeneity in training atlas necessitates sophisticated schemes to identify only the most relevant atlases for the specific multi-atlas-based image segmentation problem. This study aims to develop a model to infer the inaccessible oracle geometric relevance metric from surrogate image similarity metrics, and based on such model, provide guidance to atlas selection in multi-atlas-based image segmentation. Methods: We relate the oracle geometric relevance metric in label space to the surrogate metric in image space, by a monotonically non-decreasing function with additive random perturbations. Subsequently, a surrogate’s ability to prognosticate the oracle order for atlas subset selection is quantified probabilistically. Finally, important insights and guidance are provided for the design of fusion set size, balancing the competing demands to include the most relevant atlases and to exclude the most irrelevant ones. A systematic solution is derived based on an optimization framework. Model verification and performance assessment is performed based on clinical prostate MR images. Results: The proposed surrogate model was exemplified by a linear map with normally distributed perturbation, and verified with several commonly-used surrogates, including MSD, NCC and (N)MI. The derived behaviors of different surrogates in atlas selection and their corresponding performance in ultimate label estimate were validated. The performance of NCC and (N)MI was similarly superior to MSD, with a 10% higher atlas selection probability and a segmentation performance increase in DSC by 0.10 with the first and third quartiles of (0.83, 0.89), compared to (0.81, 0.89). The derived optimal fusion set size, valued at 7/8/8/7 for MSD/NCC/MI/NMI, agreed well with the appropriate range [4, 9] from empirical observation. Conclusion: This work has developed an efficacious probabilistic model to characterize the image-based surrogate metric on atlas selection

  9. Influence of Cobb Angle and ISIS2 Surface Topography Volumetric Asymmetry on Scoliosis Research Society-22 Outcome Scores in Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul; Berryman, Fiona; Baker, De; Pynsent, Paul; Gardner, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Retrospective sequential patient series. To establish the relationship between the magnitude of the deformity in scoliosis and patients' perception of their condition, as measured with Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores. A total of 93 untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included retrospectively. The Cobb angle was measured from a plain radiograph, and volumetric asymmetry was measured by ISIS2 surface topography. The association between Scoliosis Research Society scores for function, pain, self-image, and mental health against Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry was investigated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Correlation of both Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry with function and pain was weak (all self-image, was higher, although still moderate (-.37 for Cobb angle and -.44 for volumetric asymmetry). Both were statistically significant (Cobb angle, p = .0002; volumetric asymmetry; p = .00001). Cobb angle contributed 13.8% to the linear relationship with self-image, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 19.3%. For mental health, correlation was statistically significant with Cobb angle (p = .011) and volumetric asymmetry (p = .0005), but the correlation was low to moderate (-.26 and -.35, respectively). Cobb angle contributed 6.9% to the linear relationship with mental health, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 12.4%. Volumetric asymmetry correlates better with both mental health and self-image compared with Cobb angle, but the correlation was only moderate. This study suggests that a patient's own perception of self-image and mental health is multifactorial and not completely explained through present objective measurements of the size of the deformity. This helps to explain the difficulties in any objective analysis of a problem with multifactorial perception issues. Further study is required to investigate other physical aspects of the deformity that may have a role in how patients view themselves. Copyright

  10. Volumetric error modeling, identification and compensation based on screw theory for a large multi-axis propeller-measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuemin; Liu, Hongqi; Mao, Xinyong; Li, Bin; He, Songping; Peng, Fangyu

    2018-05-01

    Large multi-axis propeller-measuring machines have two types of geometric error, position-independent geometric errors (PIGEs) and position-dependent geometric errors (PDGEs), which both have significant effects on the volumetric error of the measuring tool relative to the worktable. This paper focuses on modeling, identifying and compensating for the volumetric error of the measuring machine. A volumetric error model in the base coordinate system is established based on screw theory considering all the geometric errors. In order to fully identify all the geometric error parameters, a new method for systematic measurement and identification is proposed. All the PIGEs of adjacent axes and the six PDGEs of the linear axes are identified with a laser tracker using the proposed model. Finally, a volumetric error compensation strategy is presented and an inverse kinematic solution for compensation is proposed. The final measuring and compensation experiments have further verified the efficiency and effectiveness of the measuring and identification method, indicating that the method can be used in volumetric error compensation for large machine tools.

  11. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  12. Testing serial dependence by Random-shuffle surrogates and the Wayland method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yoshito [Department of Mathematical Informatics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, ERATO, JST (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)], E-mail: yoshito@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Horai, Shunsuke [Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, ERATO, JST (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Suzuki, Hideyuki [Department of Mathematical Informatics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Department of Mathematical Informatics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, ERATO, JST (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2007-10-22

    Given time series, a primary concern is existence of serial dependence and determinism. They are often tested with Random-shuffle surrogates, which totally break serial dependence, and the Wayland method. Since the statistic of the Wayland method fundamentally shows a smaller value for a more deterministic time series, for real-world data, we usually expect that the statistic for the original data is smaller than or equal to those of Random-shuffle surrogates. However, we show herewith an opposite result with wind data in high time resolution. We argue that this puzzling phenomenon can be produced by observational or dynamical noise, both of which may be produced by a low-dimensional deterministic system. Thus the one-sided test is dangerous.

  13. Testing serial dependence by Random-shuffle surrogates and the Wayland method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Horai, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Given time series, a primary concern is existence of serial dependence and determinism. They are often tested with Random-shuffle surrogates, which totally break serial dependence, and the Wayland method. Since the statistic of the Wayland method fundamentally shows a smaller value for a more deterministic time series, for real-world data, we usually expect that the statistic for the original data is smaller than or equal to those of Random-shuffle surrogates. However, we show herewith an opposite result with wind data in high time resolution. We argue that this puzzling phenomenon can be produced by observational or dynamical noise, both of which may be produced by a low-dimensional deterministic syst