WorldWideScience

Sample records for potential local regulator

  1. Potential involvement of kinesin-1 in the regulation of subcellular localization of Girdin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Aya [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Enomoto, Atsushi, E-mail: enomoto@iar.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kato, Takuya; Weng, Liang [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kuroda, Keisuke [Department of Cell Pharmacology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Asai, Naoya; Asai, Masato; Mii, Shinji [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Masahide, E-mail: mtakaha@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Girdin is an actin-binding protein that has multiple functions in postnatal neural development and cancer progression. We previously showed that Girdin is a regulator of migration for neuroblasts born from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the postnatal brain. Despite a growing list of Girdin-interacting proteins, the mechanism of Girdin-mediated migration has not been fully elucidated. Girdin interacts with Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 and partitioning-defective 3, both of which have been shown to interact with the kinesin microtubule motor proteins. Based on this, we have identified that Girdin also interacts with kinesin-1, a member of neuronal kinesin proteins. Although a direct interaction of Girdin and kinesin-1 has not been determined, it is of interest to find that Girdin loss-of-function mutant mice with the mutation of a basic amino acid residue-rich region (Basic mut mice) exhibit limited interaction with kinesin-1. Furthermore, expression of a kinesin-1 mutant with motor defects, leads to Girdin mislocalization. Finally, consistent with previous studies on the role of kinesin proteins in trafficking a cell–cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, Basic mut mice showed an aberrant expression pattern of N-cadherin in migrating SVZ neuroblasts. These findings suggest a potential role of Girdin/kinesin-1 interaction in the regulation of neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. - Highlights: • Girdin is a regulator of migration for neuroblasts in the postnatal brain. • Girdin interacts with kinesin-1, a member of neuronal kinesin proteins. • Girdin mutant mice showed an aberrant expression of N-cadherin in neuroblasts.

  2. Localizing potentially active post-transcriptional regulations in the Ewing's sarcoma gene regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyon Bernard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of techniques is now available for analyzing regulatory networks. Nonetheless, most of these techniques fail to interpret large-scale transcriptional data at the post-translational level. Results We address the question of using large-scale transcriptomic observation of a system perturbation to analyze a regulatory network which contained several types of interactions - transcriptional and post-translational. Our method consisted of post-processing the outputs of an open-source tool named BioQuali - an automatic constraint-based analysis mimicking biologist's local reasoning on a large scale. The post-processing relied on differences in the behavior of the transcriptional and post-translational levels in the network. As a case study, we analyzed a network representation of the genes and proteins controlled by an oncogene in the context of Ewing's sarcoma. The analysis allowed us to pinpoint active interactions specific to this cancer. We also identified the parts of the network which were incomplete and should be submitted for further investigation. Conclusions The proposed approach is effective for the qualitative analysis of cancer networks. It allows the integrative use of experimental data of various types in order to identify the specific information that should be considered a priority in the initial - and possibly very large - experimental dataset. Iteratively, new dataset can be introduced into the analysis to improve the network representation and make it more specific.

  3. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.86 Local regulations. Local regulations will be published from time... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local regulations. 216.86 Section 216.86 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION...

  4. Local and non-local potentials for deuteron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The nucleon--nucleus local potential (central and spin--orbit) and the deuteron--nucleus nonlocal potential (central, spin--orbit, spin--radial tensor) are calculated by the folding-model (FM). Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the nucleon--nucleus potential by the use of Gaussians to represent the nucleon--nucleus potential and the charge and mass densities of the target. The analytic expressions give qualitative descriptions of phenomenological nucleon--nucleus interactions. A systematic target--mass dependence of realistic local FM deueron potentials is also included. Local-equivalent, energy-dependent, deuteron potentials are obtained from the nonlocal FM deuteron potentials and the energy dependence of the local potential parameters are presented. The local FM deuteron potential is tested for 60 Ni(d,d) 60 Ni at E/sub α/ = 15 MeV by comparing the predictions of the FM potentials with data in which all five polarization moments were measured. A qualitative fit to the data is obtained, but it overestimates the volume integral of the central potential by 7%. Energy-dependence effects are estimated by evaluating the local-equivalent potentials at E/sub α/ = 30 MeV and comparing the predictions to the E/sub α/ = 15 MeV potentials. The energy dependence of the central potential dominates the angular dependence of all five observables while the energy dependence of the spin--orbit and tensor potentials produces only scale changes (approx. 3%) in the vector and tensor analyzing powers. The scattering formalism for a spin-1 on a spin-0 target nucleus, and a description of the coupled--channels computer code DDUNC1 which treats the spin--radial tensor potential exactly, are included

  5. Expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating protein OsARP in a submergence tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar FR13A. In the public databases, this protein was designated as putative Os02g0465900 protein. The cDNA containing the full-length sequence of OsARP gene was ...

  6. Tau regulates the subcellular localization of calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreda, Elena Gomez de [Centro de Biologia Molecular ' Severo Ochoa' , CSIC/UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Avila, Jesus, E-mail: javila@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular ' Severo Ochoa' , CSIC/UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} In this work we have tried to explain how a cytoplasmic protein could regulate a cell nuclear function. We have tested the role of a cytoplasmic protein (tau) in regulating the expression of calbindin gene. We found that calmodulin, a tau-binding protein with nuclear and cytoplasmic localization, increases its nuclear localization in the absence of tau. Since nuclear calmodulin regulates calbindin expression, a decrease in nuclear calmodulin, due to the presence of tau that retains it at the cytoplasm, results in a change in calbindin expression. -- Abstract: Lack of tau expression in neuronal cells results in a change in the expression of few genes. However, little is known about how tau regulates gene expression. Here we show that the presence of tau could alter the subcellular localization of calmodulin, a protein that could be located at the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Nuclear calmodulin binds to co-transcription factors, regulating the expression of genes like calbindin. In this work, we have found that in neurons containing tau, a higher proportion of calmodulin is present in the cytoplasm compared with neurons lacking tau and that an increase in cytoplasmic calmodulin correlates with a higher expression of calbindin.

  7. Tau regulates the subcellular localization of calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreda, Elena Gomez de; Avila, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work we have tried to explain how a cytoplasmic protein could regulate a cell nuclear function. We have tested the role of a cytoplasmic protein (tau) in regulating the expression of calbindin gene. We found that calmodulin, a tau-binding protein with nuclear and cytoplasmic localization, increases its nuclear localization in the absence of tau. Since nuclear calmodulin regulates calbindin expression, a decrease in nuclear calmodulin, due to the presence of tau that retains it at the cytoplasm, results in a change in calbindin expression. -- Abstract: Lack of tau expression in neuronal cells results in a change in the expression of few genes. However, little is known about how tau regulates gene expression. Here we show that the presence of tau could alter the subcellular localization of calmodulin, a protein that could be located at the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Nuclear calmodulin binds to co-transcription factors, regulating the expression of genes like calbindin. In this work, we have found that in neurons containing tau, a higher proportion of calmodulin is present in the cytoplasm compared with neurons lacking tau and that an increase in cytoplasmic calmodulin correlates with a higher expression of calbindin.

  8. Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

  9. Decoupling Action Potential Bias from Cortical Local Field Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiologists have recently become interested in studying neuronal population activity through local field potential (LFP recordings during experiments that also record the activity of single neurons. This experimental approach differs from early LFP studies because it uses high impendence electrodes that can also isolate single neuron activity. A possible complication for such studies is that the synaptic potentials and action potentials of the small subset of isolated neurons may contribute disproportionately to the LFP signal, biasing activity in the larger nearby neuronal population to appear synchronous and cotuned with these neurons. To address this problem, we used linear filtering techniques to remove features correlated with spike events from LFP recordings. This filtering procedure can be applied for well-isolated single units or multiunit activity. We illustrate the effects of this correction in simulation and on spike data recorded from primary auditory cortex. We find that local spiking activity can explain a significant portion of LFP power at most recording sites and demonstrate that removing the spike-correlated component can affect measurements of auditory tuning of the LFP.

  10. Local Field Potentials: Myths and Misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Herreras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intracerebral local field potential (LFP is a measure of brain activity that reflects the highly dynamic flow of information across neural networks. This is a composite signal that receives contributions from multiple neural sources, yet interpreting its nature and significance may be hindered by several confounding factors and technical limitations. By and large, the main factor defining the amplitude of LFPs is the geometry of the current sources, over and above the degree of synchronization or the properties of the media. As such, similar levels of activity may result in potentials that differ in several orders of magnitude in different populations. The geometry of these sources has been experimentally inaccessible until intracerebral high density recordings enabled the co-activating sources to be revealed. Without this information, it has proven difficult to interpret a century’s worth of recordings that used temporal cues alone, such as event or spike related potentials and frequency bands. As such, a collection of biophysically ill-founded concepts have been considered legitimate, which can now be corrected in the light of recent advances. The relationship of LFPs to their sources is often counterintuitive. For instance, most LFP activity is not local but remote, it may be larger further from rather than close to the source, the polarity does not define its excitatory or inhibitory nature, and the amplitude may increase when source’s activity is reduced. As technological developments foster the use of LFPs, the time is now ripe to raise awareness of the need to take into account spatial aspects of these signals and of the errors derived from neglecting to do so.

  11. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  12. Quark model and equivalent local potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Sachiko; Shimizu, Kiyotaka

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the short-range repulsion given by the quark cluster model employing an inverse scattering problem. We find that the local potential which reproduces the same phase shifts as those given by the quark cluster model has a strong repulsion at short distances in the NN 1 S 0 channel. There, however, appears an attractive pocket at very short distances due to a rather weak repulsive behavior at very high energy. This repulsion-attractive-pocket structure becomes more manifest in the channel which has an almost forbidden state, ΣN(T=3/2) 3 S 1 . In order to see what kinds of effects are important to reproduce the short-range repulsion in the quark cluster model, we investigate the contribution coming from the one-gluon-exchange potential and the normalization separately. It is clarified that the gluon exchange constructs the short-range repulsion in the NN 1 S 0 while the quark Pauli-blocking effect governs the feature of the repulsive behavior in the ΣN(T=3/2) 3 S 1 channel

  13. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is... River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119). We received no comments on the proposed rule...

  14. Economic impact of potential NORM regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.E.; Fitzgibbon, T.; Karp, S.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and gas field wastes and sites contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have quickly become a focus of substantial attention by regulators both at the state and federal level. Although currently regulated in a number of states, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated a desire to develop federal regulations to address management and disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes. This paper provides a brief overview of current state NORM regulations, currently available technologies for managing and disposing NORM wastes, and the cost of employing these techniques. Based on these characterizations and alternative assumptions about the volume of NORM wastes, four alternative scenarios have been developed to bracket potential future NORM requirements. These scenarios have been used is the basis for an analysis of the potential economic and supply impacts of NORM requirements on the U.S. oil and gas industry. The results illustrate that a reasonable approach to regulation that focuses only on those NORM wastes that pose a risk and allows producers to use safe, low cost disposal methods (downhole or other) would have minimal economic impacts on the oil and gas industry. A very stringent regulatory approach that covered large volumes of wastes, required the use of higher cost disposal techniques, and required extensive site clean-up activities could have a substantial economic impact, resulting in a loss of up to 20 percent of U.S. oil production and 8 percent of U.S. gas production by 2000. The costs of compliance with these alternative approaches could range from $71 million to over $14 billion annually. Between these two cases lies the opportunity for regulators to develop requirements for management and disposal of NORM wastes that will address any environmental and human health risks posed at industry sites without imposing unnecessarily costly regulations on the U.S. oil and gas E ampersand P industry

  15. Constitutionality Degree of Indonesia Local Regulation in Political Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Politics of Law holds responsibility to give the surety of all regulations, including Local Regulation, for capable of reflecting the collective will of the public as the owner of the highest sovereignty. Politics of law is always working to bring together the ius constituendum and ius constitutum  at the encounter between realism and idealism. Local Regulation as subsystems of national law, is expected to serve as a guiding instrument and guard direction for development and continuous improvement of Local Government. Therefore the existence of local regulations holds a strategic role for legal certainty, which is a necessary to create a conducive business climate and stability of the country. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Constitutionality Degree of Indonesia Local Regulation in Political Law Perspective. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 41-52. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.131

  16. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We received no comments on the... Regulations for Marine Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section...

  17. SOCIAL ANALYSES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT POTENTIAL OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Анатольевич Ткачев

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks over the system of territorial public self-government as one of the most effective figures of existing local communities in the Russian municipalities. Problems of territorial self-government are analyzed from theoretical point of view and on this basis there are four groups of problems distinguished. The authors primarily focus their attention on the social group problems. Verification conducted sociological problems of the social unit, which currently prevent the formation of an effective system of territorial self-government at the municipal level. A sociologic analysis selector management social issue allows us to make conclusion about the current lack of efficient data support system for local public selector. Diagnostics confirmed existence of barriers of a social field of the organization of territorial public self-government.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-66

  18. Regulations of local choices for installation of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-09-01

    The present regulations specify the criteria under which the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear will approve the local proposed for the installation of power reactors, according to his attributions established in the Law 4118, dated of August 27, 1962

  19. Local Commune Administration as a Regulator of the Local Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Services Market

    OpenAIRE

    Małysko, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses problems related to the regulation of water and sewage disposal services market. In the beginning he describes the processes of water supply and sewage disposal taken by the local commune administration as a natural monopoly. Next he characterizes the structure of this market in Poland. Then he presents the role of local commune administration as a regulator. The author concludes by evaluating the existing Polish system of regulating wate...

  20. Local and non-local equivalent potentials for p-12C scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, A.; Amos, K.

    2000-01-01

    A Newton-Sabatier fixed energy inversion scheme has been used to equate inherently non-local p- 12 C potentials at a variety of energies to pion threshold, with exactly phase equivalent local ones. Those energy dependent local potentials then have been recast in the form of non-local Frahn-Lemmer interactions

  1. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local... Orange, TX, Thunder on the Sabine boat races. The powerboat race and associated testing will occur...

  2. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011... race in conjunction with the Orange, TX S.P.O.R.T. boat races. The powerboat race and associated...

  3. The imaginary part of the local potential equivalent to the non-local α-nucleus optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassaut, M.; Vinh Mau, N.

    1982-01-01

    A simple expression of the α-nucleus optical potential has been derived from the Feshbach formula by using a closure approximation for summing over the excited states of the target nucleus. It has been shown that the correction to the real folding model potential is small. The imaginary local potential equivalent to the non-local Feshbach potential has been studied in detail for Ca nuclei and shown to reproduce quite well the gross properties of empirical potentials above 100 MeV with, however, a lack of absorption in the surface region. The A-dependence of the imaginary potential volume integral has also been investigated. (orig.)

  4. Local and global responses in complex gene regulation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    An exacerbated sensitivity to apparently minor stimuli and a general resilience of the entire system stay together side-by-side in biological systems. This apparent paradox can be explained by the consideration of biological systems as very strongly interconnected network systems. Some nodes of these networks, thanks to their peculiar location in the network architecture, are responsible for the sensitivity aspects, while the large degree of interconnection is at the basis of the resilience properties of the system. One relevant feature of the high degree of connectivity of gene regulation networks is the emergence of collective ordered phenomena influencing the entire genome and not only a specific portion of transcripts. The great majority of existing gene regulation models give the impression of purely local ‘hard-wired’ mechanisms disregarding the emergence of global ordered behavior encompassing thousands of genes while the general, genome wide, aspects are less known. Here we address, on a data analysis perspective, the discrimination between local and global scale regulations, this goal was achieved by means of the examination of two biological systems: innate immune response in macrophages and oscillating growth dynamics in yeast. Our aim was to reconcile the ‘hard-wired’ local view of gene regulation with a global continuous and scalable one borrowed from statistical physics. This reconciliation is based on the network paradigm in which the local ‘hard-wired’ activities correspond to the activation of specific crucial nodes in the regulation network, while the scalable continuous responses can be equated to the collective oscillations of the network after a perturbation.

  5. Analytical local electron-electron interaction model potentials for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, Johannes; Reiher, Markus; Hinze, Juergen

    2002-01-01

    Analytical local potentials for modeling the electron-electron interaction in an atom reduce significantly the computational effort in electronic structure calculations. The development of such potentials has a long history, but some promising ideas have not yet been taken into account for further improvements. We determine a local electron-electron interaction potential akin to those suggested by Green et al. [Phys. Rev. 184, 1 (1969)], which are widely used in atom-ion scattering calculations, electron-capture processes, and electronic structure calculations. Generalized Yukawa-type model potentials are introduced. This leads, however, to shell-dependent local potentials, because the origin behavior of such potentials is different for different shells as has been explicated analytically [J. Neugebauer, M. Reiher, and J. Hinze, Phys. Rev. A 65, 032518 (2002)]. It is found that the parameters that characterize these local potentials can be interpolated and extrapolated reliably for different nuclear charges and different numbers of electrons. The analytical behavior of the corresponding localized Hartree-Fock potentials at the origin and at long distances is utilized in order to reduce the number of fit parameters. It turns out that the shell-dependent form of Green's potential, which we also derive, yields results of comparable accuracy using only one shell-dependent parameter

  6. Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local authority health services. ... both the quality and the cost-effectiveness of health care would be improved. ... LAs offer an appropriate structure for effective community control over the ...

  7. Potentials of Local Economic Development in Aspect of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon; Edina Sáriné Csajka; Tamás Molnár

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to introduce the potentials of local economic development in one of the least favoured micro regions, Tamási. The paper examines operating and planned activities at settlements of the micro region. The authors introduce local economic development activities that support tourism. The economic development planning in Tamási micro region has typically two directions. One of them is the utilisation of thermal water and the use of further potentials of the thermal bat...

  8. Localization in a one-dimensional spatially correlated random potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasner, M.; Weller, W.

    1986-01-01

    The motion of an electron in a random one-dimensional spatially correlated potential is investigated. The spatial correlation is generated by a Markov chain. It is shown that the influence of the spatial correlation can be described by means of oscillating vertices usually neglected in the Berezinskii diagram technique. Correlation mainly leads to an increase of the localization length in comparison with an uncorrelated potential. However, there is a region of the parameter, where the localization decreases. (author)

  9. An Unusual Prohibitin Regulates Malaria Parasite Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Michael Matz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Proteins of the stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HfIK/C (SPFH family are membrane-anchored and perform diverse cellular functions in different organelles. Here, we investigate the SPFH proteins of the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei, the conserved prohibitin 1, prohibitin 2, and stomatin-like protein and an unusual prohibitin-like protein (PHBL. The SPFH proteins localize to the parasite mitochondrion. While the conserved family members could not be deleted from the Plasmodium genome, PHBL was successfully ablated, resulting in impaired parasite fitness and attenuated virulence in the mammalian host. Strikingly, PHBL-deficient parasites fail to colonize the Anopheles vector because of complete arrest during ookinete development in vivo. We show that this arrest correlates with depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨmt. Our results underline the importance of SPFH proteins in the regulation of core mitochondrial functions and suggest that fine-tuning of ΔΨmt in malarial parasites is critical for colonization of the definitive host. : Matz et al. present an experimental genetics study of an unusual prohibitin-like protein in the malaria parasite and find that it regulates mitochondrial membrane polarity. Ablation of this protein causes almost complete mitochondrial depolarization in the mosquito vector, which, in turn, leads to a block in malaria parasite transmission. Keywords: Plasmodium berghei, malaria, SPFH, prohibitin, stomatin-like protein, mitochondrion, membrane potential, ookinete, transmission

  10. Four-parameter analytical local model potential for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Yu; Jiu-Xun, Sun; Rong-Gang, Tian; Wei, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Analytical local model potential for modeling the interaction in an atom reduces the computational effort in electronic structure calculations significantly. A new four-parameter analytical local model potential is proposed for atoms Li through Lr, and the values of four parameters are shell-independent and obtained by fitting the results of X a method. At the same time, the energy eigenvalues, the radial wave functions and the total energies of electrons are obtained by solving the radial Schrödinger equation with a new form of potential function by Numerov's numerical method. The results show that our new form of potential function is suitable for high, medium and low Z atoms. A comparison among the new potential function and other analytical potential functions shows the greater flexibility and greater accuracy of the present new potential function. (atomic and molecular physics)

  11. Localization of weakly interacting Bose gas in quasiperiodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sayak; Pandey, Mohit; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Sinha, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    We study the localization properties of weakly interacting Bose gas in a quasiperiodic potential. The Hamiltonian of the non-interacting system reduces to the well known ‘Aubry–André model’, which shows the localization transition at a critical strength of the potential. In the presence of repulsive interaction we observe multi-site localization and obtain a phase diagram of the dilute Bose gas by computing the superfluid fraction and the inverse participation ratio. We construct a low-dimensional classical Hamiltonian map and show that the onset of localization is manifested by the chaotic phase space dynamics. The level spacing statistics also identify the transition to localized states resembling a Poisson distribution that are ubiquitous for both non-interacting and interacting systems. We also study the quantum fluctuations within the Bogoliubov approximation and compute the quasiparticle energy spectrum. Enhanced quantum fluctuation and multi-site localization phenomenon of non-condensate density are observed above the critical coupling of the potential. We briefly discuss the effect of the trapping potential on the localization of matter wave. (paper)

  12. Potentials of Local Economic Development in Aspect of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to introduce the potentials of local economic development in one of the least favoured micro regions, Tamási. The paper examines operating and planned activities at settlements of the micro region. The authors introduce local economic development activities that support tourism. The economic development planning in Tamási micro region has typically two directions. One of them is the utilisation of thermal water and the use of further potentials of the thermal bath (Ability, such as to achieve tourism destination function in Hungary. Secondly, the local government aims to sell its fruits and vegetables produced in the frame of public employment programme for local market and institutions. The supply of local population has got in focus because of current external opportunities (or force? in the settlements being traditionally agricultural area. The objective is to join the local tourism attractions and destinations with other existing local developments, which is hold back by the owners of developments. The authors – by keeping in mind local conditions and endogenous resources – define recommendations for settlements to be able to create a well-organised framework of local economic development.

  13. A Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for non-local potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meron, E.; Katriel, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that within any class of commuting one-body potentials a Hohenberg-Kohn type theorem is satisfied with respect to an appropriately defined density. The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for local potentials follows as a special case. (Auth.)

  14. Localization for random Schroedinger operators with correlated potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Dreifus, H [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics; Klein, A [California Univ., Irvine (USA). Dept. of Mathematics

    1991-08-01

    We prove localization at high disorder or low energy for lattice Schroedinger operators with random potentials whose values at different lattice sites are correlated over large distances. The class of admissible random potentials for our multiscale analysis includes potentials with a stationary Gaussian distribution whose covariance function C(x,y) decays as vertical strokex-yvertical stroke{sup -{theta}}, where {theta}>0 can be arbitrarily small, and potentials whose probability distribution is a completely analytical Gibbs measure. The result for Gaussian potentials depends on a multivariable form of Nelson's best possible hypercontractive estimate. (orig.).

  15. Bang-bang Model for Regulation of Local Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Aleksander S.; Pittman, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    The classical model of metabolic regulation of blood flow in muscle tissue implies the maintenance of basal tone in arterioles of resting muscle and their dilation in response to exercise and/or tissue hypoxia via the evoked production of vasodilator metabolites by myocytes. A century-long effort to identify specific metabolites responsible for explaining active and reactive hyperemia has not been successful. Furthermore, the metabolic theory is not compatible with new knowledge on the role of physiological radicals (e.g., nitric oxide, NO, and superoxide anion, O2−) in the regulation of microvascular tone. We propose a model of regulation in which muscle contraction and active hyperemia are considered the physiologically normal state. We employ the “bang-bang” or “on/off” regulatory model which makes use of a threshold and hysteresis; a float valve to control the water level in a tank is a common example of this type of regulation. Active bang-bang regulation comes into effect when the supply of oxygen and glucose exceeds the demand, leading to activation of membrane NADPH oxidase, release of O2− into the interstitial space and subsequent neutralization of the interstitial NO. Switching arterioles on/off when local blood flow crosses the threshold is realized by a local cell circuit with the properties of a bang-bang controller, determined by its threshold, hysteresis and dead-band. This model provides a clear and unambiguous interpretation of the mechanism to balance tissue demand with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. PMID:23441827

  16. Local health rules and building regulations: a survey on local hygiene and building regulations in Italian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marco; Signorelli, Carlo; Buffoli, Maddalena; Rebecchi, Andrea; Capolongo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    WHO has highlighted the need to strengthen the relationship between health and built environment factors, such as inappropriate housing conditions. Local Health Rules (LHRs) and Building Regulations (BRs) are tools which provide safety and building hygiene in construction practices. Currently the Italian Government is considering to establish a National Building Regulation and, related to the following purpose, this paper presents a survey on the status of adoption and updating of LHRs and BRs in Italian municipalities. The current Italian state of LHRs, BRs and Municipal Development Plans (MDPs) have been examined by a survey considering a sample of about 550 cities, with different demo graphic and geographic features, starting from the previous research work by Signorelli et al. (1999). The analysis underlines a serious shortage of updated LHRs, especially in small and medium-sized municipalities whereas BRs and MDPs are widespread. Only 30% of them are previously approved and validated by Local Health Authorities. Starting from a survey, the present scenario of Building Regulations requires the introduction of further performance guidelines instead of normative ones and, therefore, the current actions to give rise to a National Building Regulation could be integrated by building hygiene contents of LHRs.

  17. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  18. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 76 FR 27284 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH... establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio. This regulation is... place during the third or fourth weekend in July each year. This special local regulated area is...

  20. 77 FR 55436 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH.... Add Sec. 100.921 to read as follows: Sec. 100.921 Special Local Regulations, Partnership in Education... establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio. This regulation is...

  1. Local vs. Non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.

    1996-02-01

    We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system/ the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (authors). 16 refs., 4 figs

  2. Local versus non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.

    1996-01-01

    We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms. For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system, the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (Author)

  3. Localized electronic states: the small radius potential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steslicka, M.; Jurczyszyn, L.

    1984-09-01

    Using a quasi three-dimensional crystal model we investigate the localized electronic states, generated by the crystal surface covered by foreign atoms. Two such states are found in the first forbidden energy gap and, because of their localization properties, called the Tamm-like and adsorption-like states. Using the small radius potential approximation, the properties of both types of states were discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Separable expansions for local potentials with Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    If two particles are interacting via a short range potential and a repulsive Coulomb potential the t matrix can be written as a sum of the Coulomb and the ''nuclear'' t matrices. In order to solve the three-nucleon problem with Coulomb interactions usually we need a separable representation of this ''nuclear'' t matrix. A recently proposed method for finding a separable expansion for local potentials is here extended to find a rapidly convergent separable expansion, with analytic form factors, for the ''nuclear'' part of the t matrix of a local potential, in the presence of Coulomb interactions. The method is illustrated for a two-term Malfliet-Tjon potential. In each rank the ''nuclear'' phase shift is close to the corresponding phase shift when the Coulomb interaction is switched off

  5. Potential local productive districts in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amézquita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the siting of industry in Bogotá (Colombia. It describes the state of the debate on industrial districts, their potential, and the status of the issue in the city. It applies the methodology proposed by Crocco et al. (2003 to identify Potential Local Productive Districts (LPDs through a Normalized Concentration Index, using data from the Bogota Chamber of Commerce for 2012, and it performs an exercise in specialization, showing siting at the level of the Zonal Planning Unit (UPZ and the locality. As a result, 11 sectors are established as potential LPDs, eight of which are illustrated in maps showing the potential LPDs. Some areas have several potential LPDs.

  6. Regulation of AMPA receptor localization in lipid rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingming; Huang, Yunfei; Amato, Stephen; Snyder, Solomon H.; Huganir, Richard L.; Man, Heng-Ye

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are special microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and certain proteins, and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including signal transduction and protein trafficking. We report that in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons the distribution of lipid rafts is development-dependent. Lipid rafts in mature neurons exist on the entire cell-surface and display a high degree of mobility. AMPA receptors co-localize and associate with lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. The association of AMPARs with rafts is under regulation; through the NOS–NO pathway, NMDA receptor activity increases AMPAR localization in rafts. During membrane targeting, AMPARs insert into or at close proximity of the surface raft domains. Perturbation of lipid rafts dramatically suppresses AMPA receptor exocytosis, resulting in significant reduction in AMPAR cell-surface expression. PMID:18411055

  7. The PTEN protein: cellular localization and post-translational regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Nick R; Kriplani, Nisha; Hermida, Miguel A; Alvarez-Garcia, Virginia; Wise, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) phosphatase dephosphorylates PIP3, the lipid product of the class I PI 3-kinases, and suppresses the growth and proliferation of many cell types. It has been heavily studied, in large part due to its status as a tumour suppressor, the loss of function of which is observed through diverse mechanisms in many tumour types. Here we present a concise review of our understanding of the PTEN protein and highlight recent advances, particularly in our understanding of its localization and regulation by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Local translation in primary afferent fibers regulates nociception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Jiménez-Díaz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of local protein synthesis for neuronal plasticity. In particular, local mRNA translation through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to play a key role in regulating dendrite excitability and modulating long-term synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. There is also increased evidence to suggest that intact adult mammalian axons have a functional requirement for local protein synthesis in vivo. Here we show that the translational machinery is present in some myelinated sensory fibers and that active mTOR-dependent pathways participate in maintaining the sensitivity of a subpopulation of fast-conducting nociceptors in vivo. Phosphorylated mTOR together with other downstream components of the translational machinery were localized to a subset of myelinated sensory fibers in rat cutaneous tissue. We then showed with electromyographic studies that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced the sensitivity of a population of myelinated nociceptors known to be important for the increased mechanical sensitivity that follows injury. Behavioural studies confirmed that local treatment with rapamycin significantly attenuated persistent pain that follows tissue injury, but not acute pain. Specifically, we found that rapamycin blunted the heightened response to mechanical stimulation that develops around a site of injury and reduced the long-term mechanical hypersensitivity that follows partial peripheral nerve damage--a widely used model of chronic pain. Our results show that the sensitivity of a subset of sensory fibers is maintained by ongoing mTOR-mediated local protein synthesis and uncover a novel target for the control of long-term pain states.

  9. Derivative discontinuity with localized Hartree-Fock potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarov, V. U. [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Vignale, G. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The localized Hartree-Fock potential has proven to be a computationally efficient alternative to the optimized effective potential, preserving the numerical accuracy of the latter and respecting the exact properties of being self-interaction free and having the correct −1/r asymptotics. In this paper we extend the localized Hartree-Fock potential to fractional particle numbers and observe that it yields derivative discontinuities in the energy as required by the exact theory. The discontinuities are numerically close to those of the computationally more demanding Hartree-Fock method. Our potential enjoys a “direct-energy” property, whereby the energy of the system is given by the sum of the single-particle eigenvalues multiplied by the corresponding occupation numbers. The discontinuities c{sub ↑} and c{sub ↓} of the spin-components of the potential at integer particle numbers N{sub ↑} and N{sub ↓} satisfy the condition c{sub ↑}N{sub ↑} + c{sub ↓}N{sub ↓} = 0. Thus, joining the family of effective potentials which support a derivative discontinuity, but being considerably easier to implement, the localized Hartree-Fock potential becomes a powerful tool in the broad area of applications in which the fundamental gap is an issue.

  10. Dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins as gene expression regulators in plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eGiegé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria heavily depend on the coordinated expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes because some of their most significant activities are held by multi-subunit complexes composed of both mitochondrial and nuclear encoded proteins. Thus, precise communication and signaling pathways are believed to exist between the two compartments. Proteins dual localized to both mitochondria and the nucleus make excellent candidates for a potential involvement in the envisaged communication. Here, we review the identified instances of dual localized nucleo-mitochondrial proteins with an emphasis on plant proteins and discuss their functions, which are seemingly mostly related to gene expression regulation. We discuss whether dual localization could be achieved by dual targeting and / or by re-localization and try to apprehend the signals required for the respective processes. Finally, we propose that in some instances, dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins might act as retrograde signaling molecules for mitochondrial biogenesis.

  11. Coupling constants (Tdn) and (Td*n) for local potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.B.; Irgaziev, B.F.; Orlov, Yu.V.

    1976-01-01

    The coupling constants (Tdn) and (Td*n) are found solving the Faddeev equations with local potentials. It is shown that the polinomial extrapolation of the wave function to the nonphysical region of the variable Q 2 turns not to be sure for determination of the coupling constants

  12. 75 FR 50700 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge Operation... notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, and drawbridge operation... responsive to the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and...

  13. Regulation of NKT Cell Localization in Homeostasis and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slauenwhite, Drew; Johnston, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a specialized subset of T lymphocytes that regulate immune responses in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, and microbial infection. Lipid antigens derived from bacteria, parasites, and fungi can be presented by CD1d molecules and recognized by the canonical T cell receptors on NKT cells. Alternatively, NKT cells can be activated through recognition of self-lipids and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines generated during infection. Unlike conventional T cells, only a small subset of NKT cells traffic through the lymph nodes under homeostatic conditions, with the largest NKT cell populations localizing to the liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow. This is thought to be mediated by differences in chemokine receptor expression profiles. However, the impact of infection on the tissue localization and function of NKT remains largely unstudied. This review focuses on the mechanisms mediating the establishment of peripheral NKT cell populations during homeostasis and how tissue localization of NKT cells is affected during infection. PMID:26074921

  14. Regulation of NKT Cell Localization in Homeostasis and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slauenwhite, Drew; Johnston, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a specialized subset of T lymphocytes that regulate immune responses in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, and microbial infection. Lipid antigens derived from bacteria, parasites, and fungi can be presented by CD1d molecules and recognized by the canonical T cell receptors on NKT cells. Alternatively, NKT cells can be activated through recognition of self-lipids and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines generated during infection. Unlike conventional T cells, only a small subset of NKT cells traffic through the lymph nodes under homeostatic conditions, with the largest NKT cell populations localizing to the liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow. This is thought to be mediated by differences in chemokine receptor expression profiles. However, the impact of infection on the tissue localization and function of NKT remains largely unstudied. This review focuses on the mechanisms mediating the establishment of peripheral NKT cell populations during homeostasis and how tissue localization of NKT cells is affected during infection.

  15. A Requirement for Mena, an Actin Regulator, in Local mRNA Translation in Developing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Marina; Drees, Frauke; Saxena, Tanvi; Lanslots, Erwin; Taliaferro, Matthew J; Tatarakis, Antonios; Burge, Christopher B; Wang, Eric T; Gertler, Frank B

    2017-08-02

    During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...

  17. Local chemical potential, local hardness, and dual descriptors in temperature dependent chemical reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2017-05-31

    In this work we establish a new temperature dependent procedure within the grand canonical ensemble, to avoid the Dirac delta function exhibited by some of the second order chemical reactivity descriptors based on density functional theory, at a temperature of 0 K. Through the definition of a local chemical potential designed to integrate to the global temperature dependent electronic chemical potential, the local chemical hardness is expressed in terms of the derivative of this local chemical potential with respect to the average number of electrons. For the three-ground-states ensemble model, this local hardness contains a term that is equal to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba, which integrates to the global hardness given by the difference in the first ionization potential, I, and the electron affinity, A, at any temperature. However, in the present approach one finds an additional temperature-dependent term that introduces changes at the local level and integrates to zero. Additionally, a τ-hard dual descriptor and a τ-soft dual descriptor given in terms of the product of the global hardness and the global softness multiplied by the dual descriptor, respectively, are derived. Since all these reactivity indices are given by expressions composed of terms that correspond to products of the global properties multiplied by the electrophilic or nucleophilic Fukui functions, they may be useful for studying and comparing equivalent sites in different chemical environments.

  18. 77 FR 6708 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... River, Charles County, MD. (a) Regulated area. The following location is a regulated area: All waters of... local regulations during the ``Potomac River Sharkfest Swim'' amateur swim, a marine event to be held on...

  19. 76 FR 1381 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD. (a) Regulated area. The following location... local regulations during the ``Potomac River Sharkfest Swim'' amateur swim, a marine event to be held on...

  20. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Huber

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning.To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep.These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  1. Predicting local field potentials with recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Louis; Harer, Jacob; Rangamani, Akshay; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Widge, Alik; Eskandar, Emad; Dougherty, Darin; Chin, Sang Peter

    2016-08-01

    We present a Recurrent Neural Network using LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) that is capable of modeling and predicting Local Field Potentials. We train and test the network on real data recorded from epilepsy patients. We construct networks that predict multi-channel LFPs for 1, 10, and 100 milliseconds forward in time. Our results show that prediction using LSTM outperforms regression when predicting 10 and 100 millisecond forward in time.

  2. Nonlinear theory of scattering by localized potentials in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, I A [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); March, N H [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Echenique, P M [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2003-11-14

    In early work, March and Murray gave a perturbation theory of the Dirac density matrix {gamma}(r, r') generated by a localized potential V(r) embedded in an initially uniform Fermi gas to all orders in V(r). For potentials sufficiently slowly varying in space, they summed the resulting series for r' = r to regain the Thomas-Fermi density {rho}(r) {proportional_to} [{mu} - V(r)]{sup 3/2}, with {mu} the chemical potential of the Fermi gas. For an admittedly simplistic repulsive central potential V(r) = vertical bar A vertical bar exp(-cr), it is first shown here that what amounts to the sum of the March-Murray series for the s-wave (only) contribution to the density, namely {rho}{sub s}(r, {mu}), can be obtained in closed form. Furthermore, for specific numerical values of A and c in this exponential potential, the long-range behaviour of {rho}{sub s}(r, {mu}) is related to the zero-potential form of March and Murray, which merely suffers a {mu}-dependent phase shift. This result is interpreted in relation to the recent high density screening theorem of Zaremba, Nagy and Echenique. A brief discussion of excess electrical resistivity caused by nonlinear scattering in a Fermi gas is added; this now involves an off-diagonal local density of states. Finally, for periodic lattices, contact is made with the quantum-mechanical defect centre models of Koster and Slater (1954 Phys. Rev. 96 1208) and of Beeby (1967 Proc. R. Soc. A 302 113), and also with the semiclassical approximation of Friedel (1954 Adv. Phys. 3 446). In appendices, solvable low-dimensional models are briefly summarized.

  3. Potential of mutation breeding in improving Indonesian local rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cereal crops for human nutrition, this species can be divided into sub-species i.e. Indica and Japonica. Japonica sub-species consists of Temprate and Tropical Japonica (it is called as Javanica) groups. Mostly Javanica group originated from Indonesia, the people mentioned as Indonesian local varieties, it was covering more than 8000 varieties. This paper aims is to discuss the potential of mutation breeding, success stories and on going activities improved genetically the local rice varieties. Indonesian local varieties have been tested naturally for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses so that they become useful collections of genetic resources. They usually adapted well toa specific environment where they grow largely, having good aroma and eating quality, but they have some weakness such very long growth duration, susceptible to lodging, unresponsive to fertilizer, and low yield. Seed multiplication is usually conducted by collecting seeds from farmer's fields so that the seed quality, especially for seeds purity level is very low. Improvements of seed quality is usually conducted through purification of exciting varieties, then, the result is released as a new variety. Other ways, some new varieties were improved through mutation breeding, for example, an early maturing mutant variety of Pandan Putri derived from irradiated Pandan Wangi variety from Cianjur area. The success story to reduce harvest age of Pandan Wangi variety through mutation breeding, it was triggers other local governments to use nuclear technology in improving agronomic traits of their local rice varieties, without altered another good characters. (author)

  4. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area. All...

  5. 76 FR 39289 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard... immediately after the Detroit APBA Gold Cup boat race. This special local regulation will establish... entry found in 33 CFR 100.918, Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. Currently, the regulations located at...

  6. 75 FR 38710 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual Fran Schnarr Open Water... ``Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' in the Federal...

  7. Identification of local myocardial repolarization time by bipolar electrode potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Tsunetoyo; Todo, Takahiro; Yao, Takenori; Ashihara, Takashi; Haraguchi, Ryo; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Takanori; Ohe, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar electrode potentials (BEPs) reflect local myocardial repolarization dynamics, using computer simulation. Simulated action potential and BEP mapping of myocardial tissue during fibrillation was performed. The BEP was modified to make all the fluctuations have the same polarity. Then, the modified BEP (mBEP) was transformed to "dynamic relative amplitude" (DRA) designed to make all the fluctuations have the similar amplitude. The repolarization end point corresponded to the end of the repolarization-related small fluctuation that clearly appeared in the DRA of mBEP. Using the DRA of mBEP, we could reproduce the repolarization dynamics in the myocardial tissue during fibrillation. The BEP may facilitate identifying the repolarization time. Furthermore, BEP mapping has the possibility that it would be available for evaluating repolarization behavior in myocardial tissue even during fibrillation. The accuracy of activation-recovery interval was also reconfirmed.

  8. 75 FR 32661 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Exhibition, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ...; Detroit River; Detroit, MI. (a) Location. The following is a temporary special local regulation area: All...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Exhibition, Detroit River, Detroit, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a temporary special local...

  9. Potential of biofertilisers to improve performance of local genotype tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Puia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex microbial communities in the plant rhizosphere are responsible for their success in ecosystems. Supplementary inoculation of soil with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizospheric bacteria may act as a plant growth-promoting factor. The present study aims to assess the potential use of biofertilisers on tomato as a way of increasing yield and stability of root exploration area. The experiment was set up in greenhouse, regarding the evaluation of growing dynamics of plants, mycorrhization level and obtained yield. The identification of effective inoculation variants can lead to a standardisation of technologies of growing for local plant genotypes. Data analysis was performed based on the ANOVA test, followed by Tukey HSD, principal component analysis and cluster analysis in order to identify the potential of bioproducts to stimulate the development of tomato plants. Application of bacterial biofertilisers does not stimulate enough the aboveground development of plants. An antagonistic reaction is visible between exogenous mycorrhizas and those specific in soil, acting slightly different for each genotype. Mycorrhizal level in root systems is more dependent on applied biofertilisers than on analyzed genotypes. For the variants without additional fertilisers, a high level of mycorrhization is visible only after 75 days from the transplantation. Based on results we can conclude that microbial active fertilisers may represent viable solutions to increase yield capacity and root exploration area for local tomato genotypes.

  10. From neurons to circuits: linear estimation of local field potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Malte; Logthetis, Nikos K.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular physiological recordings are typically separated into two frequency bands: local field potentials (LFPs, a circuit property) and spiking multi-unit activity (MUA). There has been increased interest in LFPs due to their correlation with fMRI measurements and the possibility of studying local processing and neuronal synchrony. To further understand the biophysical origin of LFPs, we asked whether it is possible to estimate their time course based on the spiking activity from the same or nearby electrodes. We used Signal Estimation Theory to show that a linear filter operation on the activity of one/few neurons can explain a significant fraction of the LFP time course in the macaque primary visual cortex. The linear filter used to estimate the LFPs had a stereotypical shape characterized by a sharp downstroke at negative time lags and a slower positive upstroke for positve time lags. The filter was similar across neocortical regions and behavioral conditions including spontaneous activity and visual stimulation. The estimations had a spatial resolution of ~1 mm and a temporal resolution of ~200 ms. By considering a causal filter, we observed a temporal asymmetry such that the positive time lags in the filter contributed more to the LFP estimation than negative time lags. Additionally, we showed that spikes occurring within ~10 ms of spikes from nearby neurons yielded better estimation accuracies than nonsynchronous spikes. In sum, our results suggest that at least some circuit-level local properties of the field potentials can be predicted from the activity of one or a few neurons. PMID:19889990

  11. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  12. Development regulation changes local elected leaders can make to promote energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Jr, N F

    1980-07-01

    This report lists actions that local officials can make to change their community's development regulations and thereby lessen the effects of local energy problems. The term development regulations, as used here, is a general reference to local or state controls over land use and development that affect design, orientation, placement, location, and related characteristics of buildings and infrastructure. The regulations include items such as zoning, subdivision controls, setbacks, yard and height requirements, and solar-access ordinances.

  13. Normative Regulation of Anti-Corruption in the System of Local Self-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya F. Kupcha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors attempt to analyze normative acts aimed at regulating relations in the sphere of counteracting corruption at the level of local self-government. In the conclusion authors summarize that despite criticism, in the Russian Federation, a system of regulatory regulation to counteract corruption (including at the local level is formed. Further improvements of this system should be made in the legal regulation at the local level.

  14. Bound and scattering states with non-local potentials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, M; Girlanda, L; Kievsky, A; Marcucci, L E; Rosati, S; Schiavilla, R

    2007-06-01

    The application of the hyperspherical harmonics method to the case of non-local potentials is described. Given the properties of the hyperspherical harmonic functions, there are no difficulties in considering the approach in both coordinate and momentum space. The results for the 3H and 4He binding energies and n - 3H scattering lengths are found to be in good agreement with those obtained with other different techniques. A study of the 4He form factor is also reported, with a careful investigation of the contribution from isospin symmetry violation. Its effect on parity violating elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 4He is investigated. In particular, a simple analysis of the recently measured left-right asymmetry at low Q2 shows that the contribution of these isospin admixture are found of comparable magnitude to that associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor.

  15. The local field potential reflects surplus spike synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denker, Michael; Roux, Sébastien; Lindén, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions...... of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes....... This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations...

  16. 77 FR 28538 - Special Local Regulations; Annual Bayview Mackinac Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., suitable for copying and electronic filing. If you submit comments by mail and would like to know that they... within the regulated area will be operated at a no wake speed and in a manner that will not endanger... regulated area must operate at a no wake speed and in a manner that will not endanger race participants or...

  17. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  18. Leptin as a Potential Regulator of FGF21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Asrih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, a potent metabolic regulator, has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal models of insulin resistance. Several studies have focused on identifying mediators of FGF21 effects. However, the identification of factors involved in FGF21 regulation is far from complete. As leptin is a potent metabolic modulator as well, we aimed at characterizing whether leptin may regulate FGF21. Methods: We investigated a potential regulation of FGF21 by leptin in vivo in Wistar rats and in vitro using human derived hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. This model was chosen as the liver is considered the main FGF21 expression site. Results: We found that leptin injections increased plasma FGF21 levels in adult Wistar rats. This was confirmed in vitro, as leptin increased FGF21 expression in HepG2 cells. We also showed that the leptin effect on FGF21 expression was mediated by STAT3 activation in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: New findings regarding a leptin-STAT3-FGF21 axis were provided in this study, although investigating the exact mechanisms linking leptin and FGF21 are still needed. These results are of great interest in the context of identifying potential new clinical approaches to treat metabolic diseases associated with insulin resistance, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Monitoring substrate enables real-time regulation of a protein localization pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koreaki; Mori, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Shinobu

    2018-06-01

    Protein localization machinery supports cell survival and physiology, suggesting the potential importance of its expression regulation. Here, we summarize a remarkable scheme of regulation, which allows real-time feedback regulation of the machinery expression. A class of regulatory nascent polypeptides, called monitoring substrates, undergoes force-sensitive translation arrest. The resulting ribosome stalling on the mRNA then affects mRNA folding to expose the ribosome-binding site of the downstream target gene and upregulate its translation. The target gene encodes a component of the localization machinery, whose physical action against the monitoring substrate leads to arrest cancellation. Thus, this scheme of feedback loop allows the cell to adjust the amount of the machinery to correlate inversely with the effectiveness of the process at a given moment. The system appears to have emerged late in evolution, in which a narrow range of organisms selected a distinct monitoring substrate-machinery combination. Currently, regulatory systems of SecM-SecA, VemP-SecDF2 and MifM-YidC2 are known to occur in different bacterial species.

  20. 77 FR 16974 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY... Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. This action is necessary to provide for the safety..., during the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival on July 6-9, 2012. These temporary special local regulations...

  1. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY... Tall Ships Festival 2012. DATES: This rule is effective from July 6, 2012 until July 10, 2012... ``Special Local Regulations: Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal...

  2. 75 FR 13454 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships. The..., ``Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' (Docket number USCG...

  3. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY... temporary special local regulation on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will feature...

  4. 76 FR 15214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 1381). We... follows: Sec. 100.35-T05-1113 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County...

  5. 78 FR 19632 - Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St... proposes to establish a special local regulation on the waters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor in St Thomas, USVI during the St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, a high speed boat race. The event is...

  6. 78 FR 18277 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... proposes to issue a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston... Country Splash is scheduled to take place on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston...

  7. 76 FR 9646 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 [USCG-2010-0399] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation Regulations and Regulated Navigation Areas AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of expired temporary rules...

  8. Pyruvate kinase M2: a potential target for regulating inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos eAlves-Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PK is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the last step of glycolysis. Of the four PK isoforms expressed in mammalian cells, PKM2 has generated the most interest due to its impact on changes in cellular metabolism observed in cancer as well as in activated immune cells. As our understanding of dysregulated metabolism in cancer develops, and in light of the growing field of immunometabolism, intense efforts are in place to define the mechanism by which PKM2 regulates the metabolic profile of cancer as well as of immune cells. The enzymatic activity of PKM2 is heavily regulated by endogenous allosteric effectors as well as by intracellular signalling pathways, affecting both the enzymatic activity of PKM2 as a pyruvate kinase and the regulation of the recently described non-canonical nuclear functions of PKM2. We here review the current literature on PKM2 and its regulation, and discuss the potential for PKM2 as a therapeutic target in inflammatory and metabolic disorders.

  9. 75 FR 39448 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... yacht clubs will be provided with information by Coast Guard Station Belle Isle on what to expect during... practices of local sailing and yacht clubs. In the event that this temporary special local regulation..., from July 7, 2010 through July 11, 2010. Prior to the event, local sailing and yacht clubs will be...

  10. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Liang; Li, Mingyang; Feng, Fan; Yang, Yutao; Hang, Xingyi; Cui, Jiajun; Gao, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells

  11. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Liang [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Department of Urology, Civil Aviation General Hospital/Civil Aviation Medical College of Peking University, Beijing 100123 (China); Li, Mingyang [Department of Gastroenterology, Nan Lou Division, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Feng, Fan [Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Yutao [Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Hang, Xingyi [National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health, Beijing 100730 (China); Cui, Jiajun, E-mail: cuijn@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Cancer and Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Gao, Jiangping, E-mail: jpgao@163.com [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells.

  12. Local hierarchical control for industrial microgrids with improved frequency regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, Juan M.; Vergara, Pedro P.; Castilla, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Local control strategies that operate without relying on communication systems enhance flexibility and reliability of AC industrial microgrids. Based on a previous work in which a secondary switched control was proposed, this paper presents a complementary strategy to improve the frequency......-use of communications. Experimental results obtained on a laboratory microgrid are presented to validate the performance of the proposed complementary control strategy....

  13. TRH regulates action potential shape in cerebral cortex pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Patiño, Javier; Vargas, Yamili; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-07

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with a wide neural distribution and a variety of functions. It modulates neuronal electrophysiological properties, including resting membrane potential, as well as excitatory postsynaptic potential and spike frequencies. We explored, with whole-cell patch clamp, TRH effect on action potential shape in pyramidal neurons of the sensorimotor cortex. TRH reduced spike and after hyperpolarization amplitudes, and increased spike half-width. The effect varied with dose, time and cortical layer. In layer V, 0.5µM of TRH induced a small increase in spike half-width, while 1 and 5µM induced a strong but transient change in spike half-width, and amplitude; after hyperpolarization amplitude was modified at 5µM of TRH. Cortical layers III and VI neurons responded intensely to 0.5µM TRH; layer II neurons response was small. The effect of 1µM TRH on action potential shape in layer V neurons was blocked by G-protein inhibition. Inhibition of the activity of the TRH-degrading enzyme pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII) reproduced the effect of TRH, with enhanced spike half-width. Many cortical PPII mRNA+ cells were VGLUT1 mRNA+, and some GAD mRNA+. These data show that TRH regulates action potential shape in pyramidal cortical neurons, and are consistent with the hypothesis that PPII controls its action in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of AMPA receptor localization in lipid rafts

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Qingming; Huang, Yunfei; Amato, Stephen; Snyder, Solomon H.; Huganir, Richard L.; Man, Heng-Ye

    2008-01-01

    Lipid rafts are special microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and certain proteins, and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including signal transduction and protein trafficking. We report that in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons the distribution of lipid rafts is development-dependent. Lipid rafts in mature neurons exist on the entire cell-surface and display a high degree of mobility. AMPA receptors co-localize and associate with lipid rafts in the...

  15. Temporal changes in potential regulating ecosystem services driven by urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Amorim, Inês; Pires, Evanilton; Kalantari, Zahra; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood to be the capacity of the landscape of a particular area to provide goods and services to society. In terms of human benefits, four categories of ES are usually considered: provisioning (e.g. seafood), regulating (e.g. climate regulation, air quality, water purification and natural hazard protection), supporting (e.g. maintenance of biodiversity), and cultural (e.g. recreation). The potential supply of ecosystem services has receive increasing interest as a tool for natural resource management. Nevertheless, the capacity to supply ES depends on biophysical conditions, as well as climate and land-use changes, induced by human activities. This study aims to investigate the potential for regulating ecosystem service supply of a Portuguese peri-urban catchment, and attempts to understand the temporal changes in ES over the last decades driven by urbanization. The study was developed in Ribeira dos Covões catchment (6.2 km2), in Portugal. Due to its proximity to Coimbra, a major city in the central region of Portugal, the catchment has undergone major land-use changes over the last half-century. Since 1958, the agricultural area, comprising mainly olives and arable land, has declined from 48% to 4%, due to increases in urban land (from 8% to 40%) and forest (from 44% to 53%), as well as a temporary creation of open spaces (from 0% to 3%). The nature of forest cover also changed, from native species, such as oaks (Quercus sp.), to commercial timber plantations, mostly of Pinus pinaster L. and Eucaliptus globulus L.. Urbanization became more pronounced after 1973, exhibiting a discontinuous pattern until 1995, and then later more continuous urban areas through the infilling of areas between the earlier urban cores. Quantification of regulating ES in the study catchment was achieved using GIS techniques, in order to gain a spatial dimension of ES distribution (Burkhard et al., 2009). Mapping ecosystem service capacities at a 5×5m

  16. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B; Swanson, Sarah J; Sussman, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H + -ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plant expressing H + -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H + secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B.; Swanson, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H+-ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant expressing H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H+ secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. PMID:29042459

  18. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  19. 77 FR 42465 - Special Local Regulations, Cruce a Nado Internacional, Ponce Harbor; Ponce, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... effect on the human environment. This proposed rule involves special local regulations issued in.... Dated: June 7, 2012. D.W. Pearson, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Captain of the Port San Juan. [FR Doc...

  20. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security... the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and COTPs have...

  1. 77 FR 37808 - Special Local Regulation; East Tawas Offshore Gran Prix, Tawas Bay; East Tawas, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... race. This special local regulation will establish restrictions upon, and control movement of, vessels... result in serious injuries or fatalities. C. Discussion of Rule With the aforementioned hazards in mind...

  2. Wind power planning in France (Aveyron), from State regulation to local planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadai, Alain [CIRED - Centre Int. de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (France); Labussiere, Olivier [Univ. de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Laboratoire Societe Environnement Territoire (France)

    2007-07-01

    Since a few years, French wind power has undertaken an unprecedented development. Few turbines are in place (756 MW), but the overall granted capacity amounts to about 2.7 GW. The administrative territory of Aveyron, one of the best wind power potential in the Country, is an interesting case for understanding the ways in which industrial wind power is being developed and regulated in France. The paper presents Aveyron wind power development by dividing it into three periods. For each period, we also sketch national developments in wind power policy.Between 1996 and 2000, Aveyron was one of the few places selected for developing wind parks under the French 'Eole 2005' call for tender. Between 2000 and 2005, French regulation shifted to fixed tariffs for small wind parks (less than 12 MW). The lack of planning approach provided developers with a window for profits. Numerous projects of small parks were submitted for development authorisation, overflowing the local administration. During the year of 2003, a new law on urbanism provided some rules for individual project developments without answering the key issue of territorial planning. In Aveyron, a local scheme devised by the decentralized branches of the State had a limited reach due to the lack of mandatory status and concentration.In July 2005, a new Energy Law imposed the design of Wind Power Development Zones (WPDZ) as a condition for tariff benefit (starting July 2007). WPDZ appeared to local actors as a promising tool but it came late. Many projects were already granted with construction permits.

  3. Irrigation potential of Inuakpa in Odukpani local government of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen infiltration runs were carried out in a composite grid (30m x 30m) in Inuakpa, Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State to test the efficiency of Kostiakov's model, measure infiltration rate and relate same to some soil physical properties. Mean infiltration rate of 9.01 cmhr-1 was obtained at the end of the ...

  4. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... provided to the public via broadcast notice to mariners, as well as through advertising on local media... regulate navigation for a limited time. Finally, the Public Broadcast Notice to Mariners will notify the... (iv) the maritime public will be advised in advance of this regulated area via Broadcast Notice to...

  5. 75 FR 41373 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race AGENCY: Coast... regulation for the annual Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race. This action is necessary to safely control... the Port Sector Detroit has determined that the start of the Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race...

  6. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, Frank J.P.M.; van der Helm, F. C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  7. 76 FR 52263 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Mattaponi Madness Drag Boat Race, Mattaponi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... hour, make special local regulations necessary. However, the Coast Guard will provide advance... dangers posed by drag boat racing, operating in speeds excess of 150 miles per hour, make special local... side activities in the event area. The category of water activities includes but is not limited to sail...

  8. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... Commanders and Captains of the Port (COTP) must be immediately responsive to the safety and security needs...

  9. 78 FR 25572 - Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI..., during, and immediately after the Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta. This special local regulation will establish... to read as follows: Sec. 100.T09-0287 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Wyandotte, MI...

  10. 20007: Quantum particle displacement by a moving localized potential trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, E.; Marchewka, A.

    2009-04-01

    We describe the dynamics of a bound state of an attractive δ-well under displacement of the potential. Exact analytical results are presented for the suddenly moved potential. Since this is a quantum system, only a fraction of the initially confined wave function remains confined to the moving potential. However, it is shown that besides the probability to remain confined to the moving barrier and the probability to remain in the initial position, there is also a certain probability for the particle to move at double speed. A quasi-classical interpretation for this effect is suggested. The temporal and spectral dynamics of each one of the scenarios is investigated.

  11. Biosurfactant gene clusters in eukaryotes: regulation and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are a class of secondary metabolites representing a wide variety of structures that can be produced from renewable feedstock by a wide variety of micro-organisms. They have (potential) applications in the medical world, personal care sector, mining processes, food industry, cosmetics, crop protection, pharmaceuticals, bio-remediation, household detergents, paper and pulp industry, textiles, paint industries, etc. Especially glycolipid BSs like sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs), mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) and cellobioselipids (CBLs) have been described to provide significant opportunities to (partially) replace chemical surfactants. The major two factors currently limiting the penetration of BSs into the market are firstly the limited structural variety and secondly the rather high production price linked with the productivity. One of the keys to resolve the above mentioned bottlenecks can be found in the genetic engineering of natural producers. This could not only result in more efficient (economical) recombinant producers, but also in a diversification of the spectrum of available BSs as such resolving both limiting factors at once. Unraveling the genetics behind the biosynthesis of these interesting biological compounds is indispensable for the tinkering, fine tuning and rearrangement of these biological pathways with the aim of obtaining higher yields and a more extensive structural variety. Therefore, this review focuses on recent developments in the investigation of the biosynthesis, genetics and regulation of some important members of the family of the eukaryotic glycolipid BSs (MELs, CBLs and SLs). Moreover, recent biotechnological achievements and the industrial potential of engineered strains are discussed.

  12. Tensions between Scottish National Policies for onshore wind energy and local dissatisfaction - insights from regulation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhill, Karen [School of Psychology, Tower Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff, (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Although best described as a meta theory addressing the endurance of capitalism, regulation theory can successfully be used to explore not only the economic dimensions, but also the political, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions of particular developmental strategies. Thus, it offers a framework for embedding abstract debates about social attitudes to new technologies within debates about real regulation - the economic, social and cultural relationships operating through particular places. This paper uses regulation theory and qualitative, interview-based data to analyse Scotland's drive for onshore wind energy. This approach teases out how responses to wind farms are bound up with wider debates about how rural spaces are, and should be, regulated; the tensions within and between national political objectives, local political objectives and local communities' dissatisfaction; and the connections between local actors and more formal dimensions of renewable energy policy. (Author)

  13. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  14. TRX-1 Regulates SKN-1 Nuclear Localization Cell Non-autonomously in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Katie C; Liu, Bin; Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; Swoboda, Peter; Arur, Swathi; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Garsin, Danielle A

    2016-05-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans oxidative stress response transcription factor, SKN-1, is essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis and is a functional ortholog of the Nrf family of transcription factors. The numerous levels of regulation that govern these transcription factors underscore their importance. Here, we add a thioredoxin, encoded by trx-1, to the expansive list of SKN-1 regulators. We report that loss of trx-1 promotes nuclear localization of intestinal SKN-1 in a redox-independent, cell non-autonomous fashion from the ASJ neurons. Furthermore, this regulation is not general to the thioredoxin family, as two other C. elegans thioredoxins, TRX-2 and TRX-3, do not play a role in this process. Moreover, TRX-1-dependent regulation requires signaling from the p38 MAPK-signaling pathway. However, while TRX-1 regulates SKN-1 nuclear localization, classical SKN-1 transcriptional activity associated with stress response remains largely unaffected. Interestingly, RNA-Seq analysis revealed that loss of trx-1 elicits a general, organism-wide down-regulation of several classes of genes; those encoding for collagens and lipid transport being most prevalent. Together, these results uncover a novel role for a thioredoxin in regulating intestinal SKN-1 nuclear localization in a cell non-autonomous manner, thereby contributing to the understanding of the processes involved in maintaining redox homeostasis throughout an organism. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Identification of potential local isolated for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Zahra; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Moazami, Nasrin; Hamzah, Ainon; Fooladi, Taybeh

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactant are amphiphilic molecule that have received increasing attention in recent years because of their role in the growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble hydrophobic materials such as hydrocarbons as well as their commercial potential in the cosmetics, food, oil recovery and agricultural industries. In this study a potential biosurfactant producing strain was isolated from several soil samples of Terengganu oil refinery, Malaysia and selected during preliminary screening using hemolytic activity, oil spreading and drop collapsed technique. Isolates with at least more than one positive response to these three methods were subjected to complementary screening by measuring surface tension reduction as well as emulsification capacity. The biosurfactant produced by isolated 5M was able to reduced surface tension of culture medium from 60 mN/m to30mN/m. The biochemical and morphological characterization, 16SrRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated 5M belongs to bacillus groups. The maximum production of biosurfactant by Bacillus 5M was observed after 48 h of incubation.

  16. Off-shell t-matrix for an exponential potential with non-local core interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.B.; Talukdar, B.; Chattarji, D.

    1975-01-01

    The wave function approach of Van Leeuwen and Reiner to the t-matrix is generalized to the case of a non-local potential. The transition matrix element for this potential is obtained. The results are used to compute the s-wave part of the t-matrix for a non-local square well potential combined with an outside exponential potential. (Auth.)

  17. Expression, Localization of SUMO-1, and Analyses of Potential SUMOylated Proteins in Bubalus bubalis Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohi, Rahim Dad; Wang, Li; Hassine, Najla Ben; Cao, Jing; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Wu, Di; Huang, Chun-Jie; Rehman, Zia-Ur; Bhattarai, Dinesh; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, post translational modifications are very important for regulating sperm motility, morphology, and for male fertility in general. Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. We examined the expression and localization of small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) in the sperm of water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) using immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome. We further found that SUMO-1 was lost if the acrosome reaction was induced by calcium ionophore A23187. Proteins modified or conjugated by SUMO-1 in water buffalo sperm were pulled down and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixty proteins were identified, including proteins important for sperm morphology and motility, such as relaxin receptors and cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin chains, actins, and dyneins. Forty-six proteins were predicted as potential sumoylation targets. The expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome region of water buffalo sperm and the identification of potentially SUMOylated proteins important for sperm function implicates sumoylation as a crucial PTM related to sperm function.

  18. Expression, Localization of SUMO-1, and Analyses of Potential SUMOylated Proteins in Bubalus bubalis Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Dad Brohi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, post translational modifications are very important for regulating sperm motility, morphology, and for male fertility in general. Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. We examined the expression and localization of small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1 in the sperm of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis using immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome. We further found that SUMO-1 was lost if the acrosome reaction was induced by calcium ionophore A23187. Proteins modified or conjugated by SUMO-1 in water buffalo sperm were pulled down and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixty proteins were identified, including proteins important for sperm morphology and motility, such as relaxin receptors and cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin chains, actins, and dyneins. Forty-six proteins were predicted as potential sumoylation targets. The expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome region of water buffalo sperm and the identification of potentially SUMOylated proteins important for sperm function implicates sumoylation as a crucial PTM related to sperm function.

  19. Storage Potential of Local Brazilian Pine Seed Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pine seeds (Araucaria angustifolia are recalcitrant, and there are no studies evaluating the longevity of their different varieties. Our objective was to evaluate the capacity of different varieties of Brazilian pine seeds to maintain their physiological quality during storage. Seeds of the varieties: sancti josephi (I, angustifolia (II, caiova (III and indehiscens (IV were collected from two populations located in Santa Catarina, and stored under laboratory conditions and in a cold room for 90 days. On average, freshly harvested seeds showed 88% viability, and varieties II and III maintained the greatest viability (with the greatest vigor for variety II after 90 days in storage. Varieties I and II maintained their pre-germinative metabolism for a longer period than the other varieties during storage. Therefore, seeds from the angustifolia variety (II have higher storage potential than the other varieties, maintaining approximately 61% viability at 90 days of storage.

  20. Source localization in electromyography using the inverse potential problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M.; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2011-02-01

    We describe an efficient method for reconstructing the activity in human muscles from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. MRI is used to obtain morphometric data which are segmented into muscle tissue, fat, bone and skin, from which a finite element model for volume conduction is constructed. The inverse problem of finding the current sources in the muscles is solved using a careful regularization technique which adds a priori information, yielding physically reasonable solutions from among those that satisfy the basic potential problem. Several regularization functionals are considered and numerical experiments on a 2D test model are performed to determine which performs best. The resulting scheme leads to numerical difficulties when applied to large-scale 3D problems. We clarify the nature of these difficulties and provide a method to overcome them, which is shown to perform well in the large-scale problem setting.

  1. Source localization in electromyography using the inverse potential problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M; Pai, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    We describe an efficient method for reconstructing the activity in human muscles from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. MRI is used to obtain morphometric data which are segmented into muscle tissue, fat, bone and skin, from which a finite element model for volume conduction is constructed. The inverse problem of finding the current sources in the muscles is solved using a careful regularization technique which adds a priori information, yielding physically reasonable solutions from among those that satisfy the basic potential problem. Several regularization functionals are considered and numerical experiments on a 2D test model are performed to determine which performs best. The resulting scheme leads to numerical difficulties when applied to large-scale 3D problems. We clarify the nature of these difficulties and provide a method to overcome them, which is shown to perform well in the large-scale problem setting

  2. Gastric ulcer localization: Potential use of in vivo labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pera, A.; Rose, H.; Seavers, R.; Bekerman, C.; Pinsky, S.

    1984-01-01

    A previous work suggests that sucralfate labeled by binding to Tc-99m HSA permits the visualization of gastric ulcers. Potential problems with this technique are: 1) decreased binding of sucralfate to ulcer sites due to the labeling method of binding to exogenous protein (HSA); 2) overlying activity that may obscure identification of the ulcer. Because of these problems we have examined the possibility of direct in vivo Tc-99m labeling of sucralfate after it has already bound to the ulcer. In vitro studies were done to determine the binding of Tc-99m pertechnetate to sucralfate in the presence of tin in HCl solution at pHs comparable to those found in the stomach. Rapid and efficient labeling was achieved with 75-95% of the label bound to sucralfate at 30 minutes. In vivo studies were performed in rabbits with aspirin induced ulcers and in ulcer free human volunteers. The animal studies confirm that orally administered Tc-99m pertechnetate will bind to previously ingested sucralfate and that the labeled material will bind to the ulcers. Tc-99m pertechnetate was also shown to bind well to previously ingested sucralfate in humans. The results suggest that it is possible to label sucralfate in vivo. This method would offer the following advantages: 1) a simpler labeling procedure; 2) the potential of increased sensitivity by delaying the labeling until much of the sucralfate not bound to ulcer has passed, and thus decreasing the activity that remains in the stomach; and also by leaving the protein binding sites of the sucralfate free to interact with the ulcer since no exogenous protein is involved in labeling

  3. Analysis of the Yeast Kinome Reveals a Network of Regulated Protein Localization during Filamentous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bharucha, Nikë; Ma, Jun; Dobry, Craig J.; Lawson, Sarah K.; Yang, Zhifen; Kumar, Anuj

    2008-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of kinases and other signaling proteins is regulated in response to cellular cues; however, the extent of this regulation has not been investigated for any gene set in any organism. Here, we present a systematic analysis of protein kinases in the budding yeast, screening for differential localization during filamentous growth. Filamentous growth is an important stress response involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling m...

  4. Radio frequency selective addressing of localized atoms in a periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, H.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlaino, F.; Roati, G.; Tuerck, V.; Modugno, G.; Inguscio, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the localization and addressability of ultracold atoms in a combined parabolic and periodic potential. Such a potential supports the existence of localized stationary states and we show that applying a radio frequency field allows us to selectively address atoms in these states. This method is used to measure the energy and momentum distribution of the atoms in the localized states. We also discuss possible extensions of this scheme to address and manipulate atoms in single lattice sites

  5. Synovial DKK1 expression is regulated by local glucocorticoid metabolism in inflammatory arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Rowan; Juarez, Maria; Naylor, Amy; Tu, Jinwen; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Filer, Andrew; Stewart, Paul M; Buckley, Christopher D; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory arthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. The Wnt antagonist dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is secreted by synovial fibroblasts in response to inflammation and this protein has been proposed to be a master regulator of bone remodelling in inflammatory arthritis. Local glucocorticoid production is also significantly increased during joint inflammation. Therefore, we investigated how locally derived glucocorticoids and inflammatory cytok...

  6. Federal legal constraints on state and local regulation of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Morris, F.A.; Welles, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Within the last five years, the transportation of nuclear materials has experienced a rapid growth of state/local regulations. The federal government is responding to develop a legal basis for declaring these state/local regulations inconsistent and has proceeded to declare certain state regulations invalid. This paper summarizes the relevant legal doctrines, places these doctrines in the context of the federal regulatory framework and reaches conclusions about what forms of state and local regulation may be subject to possible preemptive initiatives and what regulations are unlikely candidates for federal actions. This paper also discusses an example of a preemptive initiative and a federal action. The initiative is contained in DOT's proposed rule on Highway Routing of Radioactive Materials. DOT's first general preemptive action under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act is described with respect to decisions on Rhode Island's regulations regarding transportation of liquified natural and petroleum gases. There are still some issues that have not been clarified - the role of the federal government in the development and support of emergency response capabilities for nuclear and other hazardous materials, detailed shipment information, and state requirements for prenotifications

  7. 78 FR 54168 - Special Local Regulation, Cumberland River, Mile 157.0 to 159.0; Ashland City, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Local Regulation, Cumberland River, Mile 157.0 to 159.0; Ashland City, TN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Special local regulation; Cumberland River, Miles 157.0 to 159.0, Ashland City, TN. (a) Location. The... regulation for the waters of the Cumberland River beginning at mile marker 157.0 and ending at mile marker...

  8. 77 FR 39393 - Special Local Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 842.0 to 840.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... is establishing a temporary special local regulation for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River... 1625-AA00 Special Local Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 842.0 to 840.0 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary special local...

  9. Identification of the nuclear export signals that regulate the intracellular localization of the mouse CMP-sialic acid synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Akiko; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken.

    2007-01-01

    The CMP-sialic acid synthetase (CSS) catalyzes the activation of sialic acid (Sia) to CMP-Sia which is a donor substrate of sialyltransferases. The vertebrate CSSs are usually localized in nucleus due to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) on the molecule. In this study, we first point out that a small, but significant population of the mouse CMP-sialic acid synthetase (mCSS) is also present in cytoplasm, though mostly in nucleus. As a mechanism for the localization in cytoplasm, we first identified two nuclear export signals (NESs) in mCSS, based on the localization studies of the potential NES-deleted mCSS mutants as well as the potential NES-tagged eGFP proteins. These two NESs are conserved among mammalian and fish CSSs, but not present in the bacterial or insect CSS. These results suggest that the intracellular localization of vertebrate CSSs is regulated by not only the NLS, but also the NES sequences

  10. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  11. Calculational-theoretical studies of the system of local automated regulators and lateral ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksakov, A.N.; Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Nikolaev, E.V.; Panin, V.M.; Podlazov, L.N.; Rogova, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of engineering synthesis of the systems for nuclear reactor local automated power regulation and radial-azimuthal energy distribution stabilization operating according to lateral ionization chamber signals are described. Results of calculational-theoretical investigations into the system efficiency and peculiarities of its reaction to some perturbations typical of the RBMK type reactors are considered

  12. 77 FR 19963 - Special Local Regulation and Security Zone: War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Port of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note) directs agencies to use...] RIN 1625-AA00; 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation and Security Zone: War of 1812 Bicentennial..., and after the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration events in the Port of Boston, Massachusetts, to...

  13. 77 FR 15323 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note) directs agencies to use...] RIN 1625-AA08, AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations... Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, Maryland for War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations activities. This...

  14. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY... offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The... Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high speed power boat race event will include...

  15. 77 FR 38236 - Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island, WA AGENCY: Coast... ensure the safety of the maritime public during the Underwater Music Festival and would do so by... Music Festival is an event which includes musical performances from a barge. Spectators approach the...

  16. 77 FR 42467 - Special Local Regulations; Fajardo Offshore Festival II, Fajardo, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Fajardo Offshore Festival II, Fajardo, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Festival II, a series of high-speed boat races. The event is scheduled to take place on Sunday, September... the Fajardo Offshore Festival II. C. Discussion of Proposed Rule On September 16, 2012, Puerto Rico...

  17. 77 FR 23125 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... commercially transited river system poses significant safety hazards to both the Dragon Boat racers and the...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL AGENCY... crews, vessels, and persons on navigable waters during the Jr. League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races...

  18. 78 FR 57063 - Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival; St. Johns River; Jacksonville, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival; St. Johns River; Jacksonville... Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival, a series of paddle boat races. The event is scheduled to take place on... States during the Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival. C. Discussion of the Final Rule On Saturday...

  19. 76 FR 78151 - Special Local Regulations; Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Boca Raton, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Boca Raton, FL... Raton Holiday Boat Parade on Saturday, December 17, 2011. The marine parade will consist of... through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this...

  20. 76 FR 77119 - Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano Beach... Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade on Sunday, December 11, 2011. The marine parade will consist of... Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this temporary...

  1. 75 FR 29889 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; 2010 International Cup Regatta, Pasquotank River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; 2010 International Cup Regatta, Pasquotank River... traffic in a portion of the Pasquotank River, near Elizabeth City, NC, during the 2010 International Cup... event in 33 CFR 100.501 and 33 CFR Table to Sec. 100.501, No. 54. On June 5 and 6, 2010, Carolina Cup...

  2. 78 FR 26246 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule involves a special local regulation... be enforced from 9 a.m. until 4 p.m. on May 5, 2013. Dated: April 19, 2013. D.W. Pearson, Captain, U...

  3. 78 FR 19155 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Special Local Regulation is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the...:45 a.m., Without Limits Coaching will sponsor ``Swim the Loop'' and the ``Motts Channel Sprint'' on... around Harbor Island returning to the Dockside Marina. To provide for the safety of participants...

  4. 78 FR 17087 - Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard... on the New River in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft... States during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race. On March 23, 2013, Fort Lauderdale...

  5. 76 FR 43893 - Special Local Regulations; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Local Regulations; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race. This action is necessary to safely control vessel movements in... Mackinac boat race (officially titled the ``Bell's Beer Bayview Mackinac Race'') will set sail on Saturday...

  6. Presynaptic DLG regulates synaptic function through the localization of voltage-activated Ca2+ Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, César; Jorquera, Ramón A.; Ramírez, Mauricio; Kohler, Andrés; López, Estefanía; Delgado, Ricardo; Córdova, Alex; Olguín, Patricio; Sierralta, Jimena

    2016-01-01

    The DLG-MAGUK subfamily of proteins plays a role on the recycling and clustering of glutamate receptors (GLUR) at the postsynaptic density. discs-large1 (dlg) is the only DLG-MAGUK gene in Drosophila and originates two main products, DLGA and DLGS97 which differ by the presence of an L27 domain. Combining electrophysiology, immunostaining and genetic manipulation at the pre and postsynaptic compartments we study the DLG contribution to the basal synaptic-function at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. Our results reveal a specific function of DLGS97 in the regulation of the size of GLUR fields and their subunit composition. Strikingly the absence of any of DLG proteins at the presynaptic terminal disrupts the clustering and localization of the calcium channel DmCa1A subunit (Cacophony), decreases the action potential-evoked release probability and alters short-term plasticity. Our results show for the first time a crucial role of DLG proteins in the presynaptic function in vivo. PMID:27573697

  7. Presynaptic DLG regulates synaptic function through the localization of voltage-activated Ca(2+) Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, César; Jorquera, Ramón A; Ramírez, Mauricio; Kohler, Andrés; López, Estefanía; Delgado, Ricardo; Córdova, Alex; Olguín, Patricio; Sierralta, Jimena

    2016-08-30

    The DLG-MAGUK subfamily of proteins plays a role on the recycling and clustering of glutamate receptors (GLUR) at the postsynaptic density. discs-large1 (dlg) is the only DLG-MAGUK gene in Drosophila and originates two main products, DLGA and DLGS97 which differ by the presence of an L27 domain. Combining electrophysiology, immunostaining and genetic manipulation at the pre and postsynaptic compartments we study the DLG contribution to the basal synaptic-function at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. Our results reveal a specific function of DLGS97 in the regulation of the size of GLUR fields and their subunit composition. Strikingly the absence of any of DLG proteins at the presynaptic terminal disrupts the clustering and localization of the calcium channel DmCa1A subunit (Cacophony), decreases the action potential-evoked release probability and alters short-term plasticity. Our results show for the first time a crucial role of DLG proteins in the presynaptic function in vivo.

  8. Debate over Islamic Symbolism and Substantialism in the Formulation of Local Regulation in Tasikmalaya Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyani Yuliawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal debate over the formulation of local regulation. Particularly, it seeks to know political dynamics at the grassroot level in policy-making. Theoretical assumption mentions that policy-making is not only a process of government technocracy, but it can also a debate over current discourse among citizens. The qualitative study discloses that the political debate over this discourse occurs due to contradictory perspectives on the aspirations of Shari’a law as a part of formal institutions in the state. The first camp argued that Islam should exist in the public as an effort to build an ideal society. Islam must be included as part of the state, at least in local regulation. In contrast, the second camp argued that in building the ideal society, state does not need to include Islam as part of the state in the regulation.

  9. Localization of Matter Waves in Two-Dimensional Disordered Optical Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, R.C.; Miniatura, C.; Delande, D.; Sigwarth, O.; Mueller, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider ultracold atoms in 2D disordered optical potentials and calculate microscopic quantities characterizing matter wave quantum transport in the noninteracting regime. We derive the diffusion constant as a function of all relevant microscopic parameters and show that coherent multiple scattering induces significant weak localization effects. In particular, we find that even the strong localization regime is accessible with current experimental techniques and calculate the corresponding localization length

  10. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  11. Membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase ATL15 functions in sugar-responsive growth regulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shoki; Terada, Saki; Sanagi, Miho; Hasegawa, Yoko; Lu, Yu; Morita, Yoshie; Chiba, Yukako; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2017-09-09

    Ubiquitin ligases play important roles in regulating various cellular processes by modulating the protein function of specific ubiquitination targets. The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family is a group of plant-specific RING-type ubiquitin ligases that localize to membranes via their N-terminal transmembrane-like domains. To date, 91 ATL isoforms have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, with several ATLs reported to be involved in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses. However, the functions of most ATLs remain unknown. This study, involving transcriptome database analysis, identifies ATL15 as a sugar responsive ATL gene in Arabidopsis. ATL15 expression was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of sugar. The ATL15 protein showed ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and localized to plasma membrane and endomembrane compartments. Further genetic analyses demonstrated that the atl15 knockout mutants are insensitive to high glucose concentrations, whereas ATL15 overexpression depresses plant growth. In addition, endogenous glucose and starch amounts were reciprocally affected in the atl15 knockout mutants and the ATL15 overexpressors. These results suggest that ATL15 protein plays a significant role as a membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase that regulates sugar-responsive plant growth in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synovial DKK1 expression is regulated by local glucocorticoid metabolism in inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Juarez, Maria; Naylor, Amy; Tu, Jinwen; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Filer, Andrew; Stewart, Paul M; Buckley, Christopher D; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Mark S

    2012-10-18

    Inflammatory arthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. The Wnt antagonist dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is secreted by synovial fibroblasts in response to inflammation and this protein has been proposed to be a master regulator of bone remodelling in inflammatory arthritis. Local glucocorticoid production is also significantly increased during joint inflammation. Therefore, we investigated how locally derived glucocorticoids and inflammatory cytokines regulate DKK1 synthesis in synovial fibroblasts during inflammatory arthritis. We examined expression and regulation of DKK1 in primary cultures of human synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with inflammatory arthritis. The effect of TNFα, IL-1β and glucocorticoids on DKK1 mRNA and protein expression was examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. The ability of inflammatory cytokine-induced expression of the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to sensitise fibroblasts to endogenous glucocorticoids was explored. Global expression of Wnt signalling and target genes in response to TNFα and glucocorticoids was assessed using a custom array. DKK1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts was directly regulated by glucocorticoids but not proinflammatory cytokines. Glucocorticoids, but not TNFα, regulated expression of multiple Wnt agonists and antagonists in favour of inhibition of Wnt signalling. However, TNFα and IL-1β indirectly stimulated DKK1 production through increased expression of 11β-HSD1. These results demonstrate that in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts, DKK1 expression is directly regulated by glucocorticoids rather than TNFα. Consequently, the links between synovial inflammation, altered Wnt signalling and bone remodelling are not direct but are dependent on local activation of endogenous glucocorticoids.

  14. Antioxidant response elements: Discovery, classes, regulation and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhwar Raghunath

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs, which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes. ARE-mediated reporter constructs have been widely used, including xenobiotics profiling and Nrf2 activator screening. The complexity of AREs is brought by the presence of other regulatory elements within the AREs. The diversity in the ARE sequences not only bring regulatory selectivity of diverse transcription factors, but also confer functional complexity in the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. The different transcription factors either homodimerize or heterodimerize to bind the AREs. Depending on the nature of partners, they may activate or suppress the transcription. Attention is required for deeper mechanistic understanding of ARE-mediated gene regulation. The computational methods of identification and analysis of AREs are still in their infancy. Investigations are required to know whether epigenetics mechanism plays a role in the regulation of genes mediated through AREs. The polymorphisms in the AREs leading to oxidative stress related diseases are warranted. A thorough understanding of AREs will pave the way for the development of therapeutic agents against cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases with oxidative stress. Keywords: Antioxidant response elements, Antioxidant genes, ARE-reporter constructs, ARE SNPs, Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, Oxidative stress

  15. Antioxidant response elements: Discovery, classes, regulation and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Nagarajan, Raju; Arfuso, Frank; Bian, Jinsong; Kumar, Alan P; Sethi, Gautam; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs), which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes. ARE-mediated reporter constructs have been widely used, including xenobiotics profiling and Nrf2 activator screening. The complexity of AREs is brought by the presence of other regulatory elements within the AREs. The diversity in the ARE sequences not only bring regulatory selectivity of diverse transcription factors, but also confer functional complexity in the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. The different transcription factors either homodimerize or heterodimerize to bind the AREs. Depending on the nature of partners, they may activate or suppress the transcription. Attention is required for deeper mechanistic understanding of ARE-mediated gene regulation. The computational methods of identification and analysis of AREs are still in their infancy. Investigations are required to know whether epigenetics mechanism plays a role in the regulation of genes mediated through AREs. The polymorphisms in the AREs leading to oxidative stress related diseases are warranted. A thorough understanding of AREs will pave the way for the development of therapeutic agents against cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues-Faus, Ana M.; Ortiz-Miranda, Dionisio

    2010-01-01

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

  17. Energy dependence of a local equivalent potential for RGM phase shifts for 16O + 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Tahar, S.; Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.; Wada, T.

    1993-01-01

    We have found, using the IP inversion method, the local representation of a potential that in S(l) equivalent to the RGM nonlocal potential of Wada and Horiuchi. Phase shifts corresponding to RGM calculations at laboratory energies 30, 41, 49, 59, 150, 350 and 500 MeV were inverted and the resulting local potentials compared with the local (but l-dependent) potentials obtained previously in the WKB-RGM scheme. The present l-independent potentials exhibit a smooth radial variation and show marked differences from previous results. The energy dependence arises from that of the exchange term and from the conversion of the l-dependence into an additional energy dependence. In particular, we show that the energy dependence of the volume integrals in this energy region is different from earlier WKB-RGM predictions. (orig.)

  18. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-04

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... proposes to establish special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach... waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high- speed power boats are...

  20. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during... event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30...

  1. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...-AA00 Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake... temporarily modifying the dates for the special local regulation in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River. This modification is necessary to reflect the actual dates...

  2. 75 FR 47215 - Special Local Regulation; Marine Events Within the Captain of the Port Sector Boston Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... special local regulations on: (1) The Charles River between the Longfellow Bridge and the Harvard Bridge... local regulations are established for the following marine events: (1) Charles River One Mile Swim, Charles River, Boston, MA. (i) Location. All waters of the Charles River, from surface to bottom, between...

  3. 77 FR 18984 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Yorktown Parade of Sail, York River; Yorktown, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Yorktown Parade of Sail, York River; Yorktown, VA... proposes to establish special local regulation during the Yorktown Parade of Sail, a parade of five tall... sponsor the ``Yorktown Parade of Sail'' on the waters of York River. The event will consist of...

  4. 77 FR 23120 - Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount... establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Wando River and Cooper River in Mount Pleasant... River and Cooper River along the shoreline of Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. The Lowcountry Splash...

  5. Sex Differences and Emotion Regulation: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gardener, Elyse K. T.; Carr, Andrea R.; MacGregor, Amy; Felmingham, Kim L.

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event...

  6. Role of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in regulating EHD2 plasma membrane localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Simone

    Full Text Available The four mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHD1-EHD4 play pivotal roles in endocytic membrane trafficking. While EHD1, EHD3 and EHD4 associate with intracellular tubular/vesicular membranes, EHD2 localizes to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Currently, little is known about the regulation of EHD2. Thus, we sought to define the factors responsible for EHD2's association with the plasma membrane. The subcellular localization of endogenous EHD2 was examined in HeLa cells using confocal microscopy. Although EHD partner proteins typically mediate EHD membrane recruitment, EHD2 was targeted to the plasma membrane independent of two well-characterized binding proteins, syndapin2 and EHBP1. Additionally, the EH domain of EHD2, which facilitates canonical EHD protein interactions, was not required to direct overexpressed EHD2 to the cell surface. On the other hand, several lines of evidence indicate that the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 plays a crucial role in regulating EHD2 subcellular localization. Pharmacologic perturbation of PIP2 metabolism altered PIP2 plasma membrane distribution (as assessed by confocal microscopy, and caused EHD2 to redistribute away from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressed EHD2 localized to PIP2-enriched vacuoles generated by active Arf6. Finally, we show that although cytochalasin D caused actin microfilaments to collapse, EHD2 was nevertheless maintained at the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, cytochalasin D induced relocalization of both PIP2 and EHD2 to actin aggregates, supporting a role of PIP2 in controlling EHD2 subcellular localization. Altogether, these studies emphasize the significance of membrane lipid composition for EHD2 subcellular distribution and offer new insights into the regulation of this important endocytic protein.

  7. Self-regulated magnetic fluid hyperthermia: A potential cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaria, Hitesh Ghanshyam

    An emerging cancer therapy, self-regulated magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), is the motivation for this work. In this therapy, cancer is annihilated by heating the tumor to desired therapeutic temperatures (˜45°C) by using magnetic nanoparticles of controlled Curie temperatures (Tc). This work was aimed at preparing and characterizing FePt, NiPd and NiPt nanoparticles for self-regulated MFH because their Tc could be tuned by changing their composition. Based on the excellent colloidal stability, size tunability and toxicity considerations, FePt was an obvious choice for self-regulated MFH. The 3.2 nm Fe61Pt39 particles displayed a Tc of 151°C, which is well below the Tc of bulk Fe61Pt39 (˜327°C). To reach the desired Tc of 45°C the composition of iron needs to be increased. However, a major obstacle was the formation of iron oxide shells with increase in iron composition of the particles. A recent finding that the composition of individual FePt particles deviated significantly from the average value encouraged us to study the mechanism of formation of FePt particles. Our analysis showed that early in the reaction the particles were Pt-rich and as the reaction proceeded the Fe content increased. It was found that the wide distribution in the composition of individual particles started early in the synthesis, suggesting that the compositional variability may be attributed to the Pt nuclei. The synthesized FePt particles are unsuitable for biological applications because of their hydrophobic surface. Hence, their surface was modified by ligand exchange with mercapto alkanoic acids. After ligand exchange, stable FePt dispersions could be formed in alkaline water. The study revealed that both the carboxylate and thiol groups were required to form stable FePt dispersions. In addition, 15 nm gold particles were successfully conjugated to genetically modified adenoviruses that selectively bind to cancer tumors. We also modeled the thermal transport in tissues during

  8. CDKL5 regulates flagellar length and localizes to the base of the flagella in Chlamydomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Lai-Wa; Ranum, Paul T.; Lefebvre, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The length of Chlamydomonas flagella is tightly regulated. Mutations in four genes—LF1, LF2, LF3, and LF4—cause cells to assemble flagella up to three times wild-type length. LF2 and LF4 encode protein kinases. Here we describe a new gene, LF5, in which null mutations cause cells to assemble flagella of excess length. The LF5 gene encodes a protein kinase very similar in sequence to the protein kinase CDKL5. In humans, mutations in this kinase cause a severe form of juvenile epilepsy. The LF5 protein localizes to a unique location: the proximal 1 μm of the flagella. The proximal localization of the LF5 protein is lost when genes that make up the proteins in the cytoplasmic length regulatory complex (LRC)—LF1, LF2, and LF3—are mutated. In these mutants LF5p becomes localized either at the distal tip of the flagella or along the flagellar length, indicating that length regulation involves, at least in part, control of LF5p localization by the LRC. PMID:23283985

  9. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.

  10. Stability of stationary states of non-local equations with singular interaction potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Fellner, Klemens

    2011-04-01

    We study the large-time behaviour of a non-local evolution equation for the density of particles or individuals subject to an external and an interaction potential. In particular, we consider interaction potentials which are singular in the sense that their first derivative is discontinuous at the origin.For locally attractive singular interaction potentials we prove under a linear stability condition local non-linear stability of stationary states consisting of a finite sum of Dirac masses. For singular repulsive interaction potentials we show the stability of stationary states of uniformly bounded solutions under a convexity condition.Finally, we present numerical simulations to illustrate our results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Strong contribution of immigration to local population regulation: evidence from a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Jakober, Hans; Stauber, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations requires knowledge about the variation of the underlying demographic rates and about the reasons for their variability. In geographically open populations, immigration is often necessary to prevent declines, but little is known about whether immigration can contribute to its regulation. We studied the dynamics of a Red-backed Shrike population (Lanius collurio) over 36 years in Germany with a Bayesian integrated population model. We estimated mean and temporal variability of population sizes, productivity, apparent survival, and immigration. We assessed how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population growth to understand the demographic reasons of population change and how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population size to identify possible density-dependent mechanisms. The shrike population varied between 35 and 74 breeding pairs but did not show a significant trend in population size over time (growth rate 1.002 +/- 0.001 [mean +/- SD]). Apparent survival of females (juveniles 0.06 +/- 0.01; adults 0.37 +/- 0.03) was lower than that of males (juveniles 0.10 +/- 0.01; adults 0.44 +/- 0.02). Immigration rates were substantial and higher in females (0.56 +/- 0.02) than in males (0.43 +/- 0.02), and average productivity was 2.76 +/- 0.14. Without immigration, the Red-backed Shrike population would have declined strongly. Immigration was the strongest driver for the number of females while local recruitment was the most important driver for the number of males. Immigration of both sexes and productivity, but not local recruitment and survival, were subject to density dependence. Density-dependent productivity was not effectively regulating the local population but may have contributed to regulate shrike populations at larger spatial scales. These findings suggest that immigration is not only an important component to prevent a geographically open population from decline

  12. The Porta Palazzo farmers’ market: local food, regulations and changing traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Eden Black

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’impact des réglementations sur les marchés de producteurs en Italie, ainsi qu’à l’approvisionnement local et les choix du consommateur. En regardant la vie quotidienne du marché, on réalise que les réglementations ne sont pas seulement imposées, mais aussi négociées et interprétées en fonction des besoins locaux. Des changements dans les attitudes concernant l’hygiène des aliments dévoilent un discours sur la modernité et met en valeur la lutte de la nouvelle Italie pour s’adapter à une société de plus en plus « consumériste »tout en cherchant à garder les traditions et l’ alimentation locale. Malgré la compétition des hypermarchés et les réglementations de plus en plus restrictives, les marchés de producteurs ont une clientèle très fidèle et la plus jeune génération a commencé à s’intéresser à l’alimentation produite localement. Ce nouveau groupe a en plus un grand désir de participer à la vie sociale du marché, aspect qui rend ces institutions publiques uniques.This article looks at the impact of regulations on farmers’ markets in Italy, local food supply and provisioning choices. By exploring the everyday running of the market, it becomes clear that regulations are not just imposed, but rather negotiated and interpreted to fit local needs. Changing attitudes towards food hygiene also uncover discourses of modernity and struggles to adapt to the new Italian ‘consumer society’ while holding onto tradition and local food. Despite competition from supermarkets and increasingly restrictive regulations, farmers’ markets in Italy have a faithful core group of clients and interest is slowly growing on the part of a young generation who want to eat locally and share in the social life of the market.

  13. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  14. The Analysis of Local Potential in BUM Desa Empowering in Desa Lembengan, Kecamatan Ledokombo, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines to know empowerment effort by local government. It focuses on social capital in society and new local potentials. This study use descriptive qualitative research. This research uses some data collection techniques such as observation, in depth interview, and documentation. Data are conducted through stages such as (1 data reduction, (2 presentation of data, (3 conclusion. The results through these stages can be credible. Then data triangulation technique is used during validation. This research result shows that empowerment of BUM Desa still less successful. In progress and implementation, BUM Desa in Lembengan in 2010-2017 has not contributed to local governance income significantly. This research finds the weak role of social capital of society such as commitment, trust, norm, social network to support BUM Desa empowerment in Lembengan. There are some BUM Desa business partners as new local potential that can be developed such as brick industry, petulo cracker industry, and tobacco industry.

  15. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  16. On-farm investigation of local chicken biodiversity and performance potentials in rural areas of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelqader, A.; Wollny, C. B. A.; Gauly, M.

    2008-01-01

    On-farm surveys were conducted to investigate the biodiversity of local chickens and their performance potential. The study was carried out in rural areas of northern Jordan. A sample of 846 adult local chickens was phenotypically characterized based on morphology, feather colors, comb shape and performance. Body measurements for cluster analyses were recorded on 460 adult females. The most predominant chicken type was the Jordan Baladi (67.3%) followed by the Pakis...

  17. Local self-government potential in sustainable development of region providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Bobrovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing decentralization of power in Ukraine enhances abilities of each region to independently choose their development path and use their own resources. It requires reviewing and updating of mechanisms and instruments of local government and public administration projected to increase the sustainability of development. This necessitates further research of issues of this extremely complex phenomenon. The problem of sustainable development of the regions and their internal capacities over the past decades has attracted the attention of many Ukrainian scientists. They considered the question of the essence and characteristics of this phenomenon, categorical apparatus, and formed approaches to the assessment of the state etc. Existing scientific researchers provided an opportunity for better understanding and deepening of the issues of processes of development formation, becoming the basis for further research. The purpose of the article is the definition of the potential of local governments in the sustainable development of the region, finding approaches for improving management and rational use of resources to enhance the regional development. Development of regions is the scope of display of results and public nature of local self-government. However, the results which are achieved by regional development and its level of sustainability do not meet the needs of society. The results of ongoing reforms, their economic, environmental and social significance do not correspond to spent resources and efforts of society. Strategies of regions for the transition to sustainable development are not systematic. To search for answers and ways to address the issues of the article attempts to identify common root causes in the organization of local government, the underlying increase its impact in the direction of creating conditions and ensure the flow of sustainable regional development through research and their potential influential factors. It is

  18. Short range part of the NN interaction: Equivalent local potentials from quark exchange kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuk, Y.; Hecht, K.T.

    1983-01-01

    To focus on the nature of the short range part of the NN interaction, the intrinsically nonlocal interaction among the quark constituents of colorless nucleons is converted to an equivalent local potential using resonating group kernels which can be evaluated in analytic form. The WKB approximation based on the Wigner transform of the nonlocal kernels has been used to construct the equivalent potentials without recourse to the long range part of the NN interaction. The relative importance of the various components of the exchange kernels can be examined: The results indicate the importance of the color magnetic part of the exchange kernel for the repulsive part in the (ST) = (10), (01) channels, in particular since the energy dependence of the effective local potentials seems to be set by this term. Large cancellations of color Coulombic and quark confining contributions, together with the kinetic energy and norm exchange terms, indicate that the exact nature of the equivalent local potential may be sensitive to the details of the parametrization of the underlying quark-quark interaction. The equivalent local potentials show some of the characteristics of the phenomenological short range terms of the Paris potential

  19. Localization and recurrence of a quantum walk in a periodic potential on a line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chung-I; Ho Choon-Lin

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical study of a model of quantum walk in a periodic potential on a line. We take the simple view that different potentials have different affects on the way in which the coin state of the walker is changed. For simplicity and definiteness, we assume that the walker's coin state is unaffected at sites without the potential, and rotated in an unbiased way according to the Hadamard matrix at sites with the potential. This is the simplest and most natural model of a quantum walk in a periodic potential with two coins. Six generic cases of such quantum walks are studied numerically. It is found that, of the six cases, four cases display significant localization effect where the walker is confined in the neighborhood of the origin for a sufficiently long time. Associated with such a localization effect is the recurrence of the probability of the walker returning to the neighborhood of the origin. (general)

  20. Therapeutic potential of carbohydrates as regulators of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Mimmi L E; Scanlan, Eoin M; Lavelle, Ed C

    2017-12-15

    It is well established for a broad range of disease states, including cancer and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, that pathogenesis is bolstered by polarisation of macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, known as M2. As these innate immune cells are relatively long-lived, their re-polarisation to pro-inflammatory, phagocytic and bactericidal "classically activated" M1 macrophages is an attractive therapeutic approach. On the other hand, there are scenarios where the resolving inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodelling properties of M2 macrophages are beneficial - for example the successful introduction of biomedical implants. Although there are numerous endogenous and exogenous factors that have an impact on the macrophage polarisation spectrum, this review will focus specifically on prominent macrophage-modulating carbohydrate motifs with a view towards highlighting structure-function relationships and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The local temperature and chemical potential inside a mesoscopic device driven out of equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a method for calculating the local temperature and chemical potential inside a mesoscopic device out of equilibrium. We show how to check the conditions of local thermal equilibrium when the whole system is out of equilibrium. In particular, we study the on-site chemical potentials inside a chain coupled to two reservoirs at a finite voltage bias. We observe in the presence of disorder a large fluctuation in on-site chemical potentials, which can be suppressed by the electron–electron interaction. By taking the average with respect to the configurations of the disorder, we recover the classical picture where the voltage drops monotonically through the resistance wire. We prove the existence of local intensive variables in a mesoscopic device which is in equilibrium or not far from equilibrium

  2. Distribution of Endogenous NO Regulates Early Gravitropic Response and PIN2 Localization in Arabidopsis Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro París

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution and automated image analysis of individual roots demonstrated that endogenous nitric oxide (NO contribute significantly to gravitropism of Arabidopsis roots. Lowering of endogenous NO concentrations strongly reduced and even reversed gravitropism, resulting in upward bending, without affecting root growth rate. Notably, the asymmetric accumulation of NO along the upper and lower sides of roots correlated with a positive gravitropic response. Detection of NO by the specific DAF-FM DA fluorescent probe revealed that NO was higher at the lower side of horizontally-oriented roots returning to initial values 2 h after the onset of gravistimulation. We demonstrate that NO promotes plasma membrane re-localization of PIN2 in epidermal cells, which is required during the early root gravitropic response. The dynamic and asymmetric localization of both auxin and NO is critical to regulate auxin polar transport during gravitropism. Our results collectively suggest that, although auxin and NO crosstalk occurs at different levels of regulation, they converge in the regulation of PIN2 membrane trafficking in gravistimulated roots, supporting the notion that a temporally and spatially coordinated network of signal molecules could participate in the early phases of auxin polar transport during gravitropism.

  3. Protein Kinases C-Mediated Regulations of Drug Transporter Activity, Localization and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mayati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug transporters are now recognized as major actors in pharmacokinetics, involved notably in drug–drug interactions and drug adverse effects. Factors that govern their activity, localization and expression are therefore important to consider. In the present review, the implications of protein kinases C (PKCs in transporter regulations are summarized and discussed. Both solute carrier (SLC and ATP-binding cassette (ABC drug transporters can be regulated by PKCs-related signaling pathways. PKCs thus target activity, membrane localization and/or expression level of major influx and efflux drug transporters, in various normal and pathological types of cells and tissues, often in a PKC isoform-specific manner. PKCs are notably implicated in membrane insertion of bile acid transporters in liver and, in this way, are thought to contribute to cholestatic or choleretic effects of endogenous compounds or drugs. The exact clinical relevance of PKCs-related regulation of drug transporters in terms of drug resistance, pharmacokinetics, drug–drug interactions and drug toxicity remains however to be precisely determined. This issue is likely important to consider in the context of the development of new drugs targeting PKCs-mediated signaling pathways, for treating notably cancers, diabetes or psychiatric disorders.

  4. Subcellular localization and regulation of type-1C and type-5 phosphodiesterases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolci, Susanna; Belmonte, Alessia; Santone, Rocco; Giorgi, Mauro; Pellegrini, Manuela; Carosa, Eleonora; Piccione, Emilio; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the subcellular localization of PDE5 in in vitro human myometrial cells. We demonstrated for First time that PDE5 is localized in discrete cytoplasmic foci and vesicular compartments corresponding to centrosomes. We also found that PDE5 intracellular localization is not cell- or species-specific, as it is conserved in different animal and human cells. PDE5 protein levels are strongly regulated by the mitotic activity of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as they were increased in quiescent, contractile myometrial cultures, and conditions in which proliferation was inhibited. In contrast, PDE1C levels decreased in all conditions that inhibited proliferation. This mirrored the enzymatic activity of both PDE5 and PDE1C. Increasing cGMP intracellular levels by dbcGMP or sildenafil treatments did not block proliferation, while dbcAMP inhibited myometrial cell proliferation. Together, these results suggest that PDE5 regulation of cGMP intracellular levels is not involved in the control of SMC cycle progression, but may represent one of the markers of the contractile phenotype

  5. BK channels regulate spontaneous action potential rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian ( approximately 24 hr rhythms are generated by the central pacemaker localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Although the basis for intrinsic rhythmicity is generally understood to rely on transcription factors encoded by "clock genes", less is known about the daily regulation of SCN neuronal activity patterns that communicate a circadian time signal to downstream behaviors and physiological systems. Action potentials in the SCN are necessary for the circadian timing of behavior, and individual SCN neurons modulate their spontaneous firing rate (SFR over the daily cycle, suggesting that the circadian patterning of neuronal activity is necessary for normal behavioral rhythm expression. The BK K(+ channel plays an important role in suppressing spontaneous firing at night in SCN neurons. Deletion of the Kcnma1 gene, encoding the BK channel, causes degradation of circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that loss of robust behavioral rhythmicity in Kcnma1(-/- mice is due to the disruption of SFR rhythms in the SCN, we used multi-electrode arrays to record extracellular action potentials from acute wild-type (WT and Kcnma1(-/- slices. Patterns of activity in the SCN were tracked simultaneously for up to 3 days, and the phase, period, and synchronization of SFR rhythms were examined. Loss of BK channels increased arrhythmicity but also altered the amplitude and period of rhythmic activity. Unexpectedly, Kcnma1(-/- SCNs showed increased variability in the timing of the daily SFR peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BK channels regulate multiple aspects of the circadian patterning of neuronal activity in the SCN. In addition, these data illustrate the characteristics of a disrupted SCN rhythm downstream of clock gene-mediated timekeeping and its relationship to behavioral rhythms.

  6. Regulation and regulatory role of WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during bovine dominant follicle selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S P Gupta

    Full Text Available Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest and F2 (second largest follicles isolated at predeviation (PD and onset of diameter deviation (OD stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM, PD, OD and early dominance (ED stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/- maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/- IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection.

  7. Federal, state, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation: Progress toward a definition of regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The supremacy clause, the commerce clause, and the equal-protection guarantees of the U.S. Constitution establish the basic framework for defining the authority of Federal, State, and local governments to regulate the transportation of radioactive waste. Court decisions and advisory rulings of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) suggest that State and local regulation of the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is precluded under supremacy-clause principles to the extent that such regulation addresses nuclear safety or aspects of transportation that are already specifically regulated by the Federal government. Even where State and local requirements are found to be valid under the supremacy clause, they must still satisfy constitutional requirements under the commerce and equal-protection clauses. Despite stringent standards of review, State and local transportation requirements have been upheld where directly related to the traditional exercise of police powers in the area of transportation. Legitimate State and local police-power activities identified to date by the DOT and the courts include inspection and enforcement, immediate accident reporting, local regulation of traffic, and certain time-of-day curfews. The extent to which State and local permitting requirements and license fees may be determined valid by the DOT and the courts remains unclear. Continued clarification by the DOT and the courts as to the validity of permits and fees will serve to further define the appropriate balance for Federal, State, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation

  8. pH, redox potential and local biofilm potential microenvironments within Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms and their roles in electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babauta, Jerome T; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Harrington, Timothy D; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-10-01

    The limitation of pH inside electrode-respiring biofilms is a well-known concept. However, little is known about how pH and redox potential are affected by increasing current inside biofilms respiring on electrodes. Quantifying the variations in pH and redox potential with increasing current is needed to determine how electron transfer is tied to proton transfer within the biofilm. In this research, we quantified pH and redox potential variations in electrode-respiring Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms as a function of respiration rates, measured as current. We also characterized pH and redox potential at the counter electrode. We concluded that (1) pH continued to decrease in the biofilm through different growth phases, showing that the pH is not always a limiting factor in a biofilm and (2) decreasing pH and increasing redox potential at the biofilm electrode were associated only with the biofilm, demonstrating that G. sulfurreducens biofilms respire in a unique internal environment. Redox potential inside the biofilm was also compared to the local biofilm potential measured by a graphite microelectrode, where the tip of the microelectrode was allowed to acclimatize inside the biofilm. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Kolb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. : A hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its strong dependence on physiological stimuli and environmental signals. Schulte and colleagues show that the nuclear localization and activity of a transcriptional regulator of adult neurogenesis is controlled by posttranslational modification. Their results link intrinsic control over neuron production to external signals and help to explain how adult neurogenesis can occur “on demand.” Keywords: subventricular zone, stem cell niche, posttranslational modification, controlled nuclear import, TALE-homdomain protein, MEIS2, PBX1, CRM1, neurogenesis, stem cell niche

  10. Indirect control of DSRs for regulating power provision and solving local congestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Inducing a shift in the electricity consumption using a broadcasted dynamic price for the energy is often proposed as a resource for providing regulating power and it is becoming an increasing research focus for enabling higher penetration of renewable energy in the current power system. This paper...... with the CIGRE’ MV reference network with 346 electrically heated buildings as Demand Side Resources, DSRs. The dynamic hourly price of the regulating power provided by Nord Pool Spot market has been used as indirect control signal for the flexible demand....... shows how using indirect control (or control by price) without any precautions, might easily lead to congestions in nearly saturated distribution grids. An auto tuning local controller which acts on the price signal at distribution level is proposed for solving the congestion. Simulations are performed...

  11. Local indigenous fruit-derived juices as alternate source of acidity regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Cassandra; Fernandes, Rosaline; Kudale, Subhash; Naik, Azza Silotry

    2018-03-01

    Acidity regulators are additives that alter and control food acidity. The objective of this study was to explore local indigenous fruits as sources of natural acidity regulators. Juices extracted from Garcinia indica (kokum), Embilica officinalis (amla) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were used as acidulants for media such as coconut milk and bottle gourd juice. The buffering capacity β, acid composition, antioxidant activity and shelf-life study of the acidified media were estimated. Potentiometric titration showed G. indica to possess the highest buffering capacity in both ranges. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed T. indica contained a high level of tartaric acid (4.84 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ), while G. indica had citric acid (22.37 ± 0.84 mg g -1 ) and E. officinalis had citric acid (2.75 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) along with ascorbic acid (2.68 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ). 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was high for E. officinalis (91.24 ± 0.66%) and T. indica (90.93 ± 0.817%) and relatively lower for G. indica (34.61 ± 3.66%). The shelf-life study showed total plate count to be within the prescribed limits up to a week, in accordance with safety regulations. This investigation confirmed the suitability of indigenous fruit juices as alternatives to existing acidity regulators. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Pharmacogenetics in drug regulation: promise, potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic factors operate at pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic levels—the two components of the dose–response curve of a drug. Polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and/or pharmacological targets of drugs may profoundly influence the dose–response relationship between individuals. For some drugs, although retrospective data from case studies suggests that these polymorphisms are frequently associated with adverse drug reactions or failure of efficacy, the clinical utility of such data remains unproven. There is, therefore, an urgent need for prospective data to determine whether pre-treatment genotyping can improve therapy. Various regulatory guidelines already recommend exploration of the role of genetic factors when investigating a drug for its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, dose–response relationship and drug interaction potential. Arising from the global heterogeneity in the frequency of variant alleles, regulatory guidelines also require the sponsors to provide additional information, usually pharmacogenetic bridging data, to determine whether data from one ethnic population can be extrapolated to another. At present, sponsors explore pharmacogenetic influences in early clinical pharmacokinetic studies but rarely do they carry the findings forward when designing dose–response studies or pivotal studies. When appropriate, regulatory authorities include genotype-specific recommendations in the prescribing information. Sometimes, this may include the need to adjust a dose in some genotypes under specific circumstances. Detailed references to pharmacogenetics in prescribing information and pharmacogenetically based prescribing in routine therapeutics will require robust prospective data from well-designed studies. With greater integration of pharmacogenetics in drug development, regulatory authorities expect to receive more detailed genetic data. This is likely to complicate the drug evaluation process as well as

  13. Seismic micro-zoning in the alpine valleys and local application in urban planning regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  14. Extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis: immune regulation and aspects on local organ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talabér, Gergely; Jondal, Mikael; Okret, Sam

    2013-11-05

    Systemic glucocorticoids (GCs) mainly originate from de novo synthesis in the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. However, research during the last 1-2 decades has revealed that additional organs express the necessary enzymes and have the capacity for de novo synthesis of biologically active GCs. This includes the thymus, intestine, skin and the brain. Recent research has also revealed that locally synthesized GCs most likely act in a paracrine or autocrine manner and have significant physiological roles in local homeostasis, cell development and immune cell activation. In this review, we summarize the nature, regulation and known physiological roles of extra-adrenal GC synthesis. We specifically focus on the thymus in which GC production (by both developing thymocytes and epithelial cells) has a role in the maintenance of proper immunological function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Localized second-order optical potential for electron scattering in terms of imaginary-frequency susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valone, S.M.; Truhlar, D.G.; Thirumialai, D.

    1982-01-01

    A local approximation to the second-order optical potential for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from ground-state atoms is expressed in terms of the imaginary-frequency susceptibilities of the atom due to a point charge and to modified perturbing potentials. This provides a basis for the physically appealing concept of regarding the perturbation due to the projectile as having a position-dependent effective frequency associated with it. The result is extended to higher energies with the use of the concept of a local kinetic energy. With a semiclassical approximation the result reduces to a simple general form that should be useful for model potential studies of electron-atom and electron-molecule scattering. Alternatively, variational functionals for the susceptibilities can be used to calculate the approximate optical potential most rigorously without making effective-frequency, average-kinetic-energy, or semiclassical approximations. Intermediate levels of rigor are also possible

  16. Microscopic local optical potentials and the nucleon–nucleus scattering at 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, W.; Sharma, Manjari

    2010-01-01

    Microscopic local optical potentials from two sources were calculated by folding the numerical g-matrices over point proton and neutron RMF densities of target nuclei. The hard-core Hamada–Johnston and the soft-core Urbana v-14 local inter-nucleon potentials have been used to generate numerical g-matrices by solving Bethe–Goldstone integral equation. The calculated potentials have been used to analyze successfully both the proton and neutron differential elastic scattering and polarization data at 65 MeV over a wide mass region of targets: 12 C– 208 Pb. Comparison of the present results with a phenomenological optical model analyzes is also presented. Mass number dependence of the mean square radii of the two microscopic potentials are in close agreement with each other as well as with empirical results. (author)

  17. Can local environmental regulation of companies deal with a broader environmental view?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper; Smink, Carla

    Environmental concern of companies has gradually expanded from a focus on local environmental problems to a broader inclusion of inputs as well as lifecycle perspectives. At the same time, the regulatory approach has changed from a “pure” command-and-control regime, towards a governance regime......, where strict regulations increasingly are supplemented with other regulatory instruments such as economic incentives, information and facilitation. In Denmark, municipalities are the competent authority for companies. Throughout the last decade, several attempts to expand competences of municipalities...

  18. Local durian (Durio zibethinus murr.) exploration for potentially superior tree as parents in Ngrambe District, Ngawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniastuti, E.; Anggita, A.; Nandariyah; Sukaya

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics durian based on specific area gives a wide diversity of phenotype. This research objective was to build an inventory of the local durian of Ngrambe as well as to obtain potentially superior local durian as prospective parent trees. The research was conducted in Ngrambe sub-district, on October 2015 until April 2016 using the explorative descriptive method. The determination of sample point used the non-probability method of snowball sampling type. Primary data include the morphology of plant characters, trunks, leaves, flower, fruits and seeds and their superiority. The data of the research were analyzed using SIMQUAL (Similarity for Qualitative) function based on the DICE coefficient on NTSYS v.2.02. The data cluster and dendrogram analyses were determined by Unweighted Pair-Group Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) method. The result of DICE coefficient analyses of 58 local durian accession based on the phenotypic character of vegetative organs ranged from 0.84-1.0. The phenotypic character of the vegetative and generative organ from 3 local durian accession superior potential ranged from 0.7 to 0.8. In conclusion, the accession of local durian which were Miyem and Rusmiyati have advantage and potential as prospective parent trees.

  19. Phosphatidylcholines as regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis: Promises and potential risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohenester, Simon; Beuers, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (also known as NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an

  20. Study role of different dimensions of emotional self-regulation on addiction potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate relationship between addiction potentiality and different dimensions of emotional self-regulation.This descriptive and correlational study included students of Sistan and Baluchistan University, Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran. Participants were selected by random sampling method. We applied Addiction Potential Scale (APS and Difficult in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS for this study. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation and regression analysis methods were used.The results show that there is a positive and significant relationship between the addiction potential and all dimensions of emotional self-regulation (excepting lack of awareness. The enter regression analysis for prediction of the APS by the DERS shows that the DERS predicts 16% of the APS variances.Regard to the results, it is necessary to introduce an especial program in emotional self-regulation for the youth with addiction potential.

  1. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  2. a comparative study of a local plant extract as a possible potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    www.globaljournalseries.com, Email: info@globaljournalseries.com. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF A LOCAL PLANT EXTRACT AS A. POSSIBLE POTENTIAL MEDICATED AGENT IN THE SOAP. INDUSTRY. INNOCENT O. OBOH AND EMMANUEL O. ALUYOR. (Received 23 July 2010; Revision Accepted 30 August 2010).

  3. Antioxidant potentials of local fruits and foreign wines sold in Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some locally consumed fruits, sugarcane and wines sold in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were investigated for their phenol content and antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts with a view of exploring the healthpromoting effect of the fruits and wines. The total phenolic content in each fruit and wines was determined ...

  4. Unmasking of an early laser evoked potential by a point localization task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeriani, M.; Restuccia, D.; Le Pera, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The investigation of the CO2 laser evoked potential (LEP) modifications following a point localization task. Methods: LEPs were recorded from 10 healthy subjects in two different conditions. (1) Task condition: laser stimuli were shifted among 3 different locations on the right hand d...

  5. Maximising the local development potential of Nature Tourism accommodation establishments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M Rogerson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within extant scholarship on tourism and local development one knowledge gap concerns the role of the accommodation sector as a base for tourism-led local development in rural areas and small towns. The focus is upon nature tourism accommodation establishments which cluster mainly in geographically marginal areas in South Africa where poverty levels are high and the imperative exists for new drivers of economic and social development. A national audit of nature tourism accommodation establishments confirms their potential critical relevance for local development planning in many parts of the country. Nevertheless, existing evidence points to limitations in local linkages through the food supply chain. A critical review is given of several constraints which impact upon tourism-agriculture linkages with policy conclusions for strengthening such linkages.

  6. Quantum Solitons and Localized Modes in a One-Dimensional Lattice Chain with Nonlinear Substrate Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dejun; Mi Xianwu; Deng Ke; Tang Yi

    2006-01-01

    In the classical lattice theory, solitons and localized modes can exist in many one-dimensional nonlinear lattice chains, however, in the quantum lattice theory, whether quantum solitons and localized modes can exist or not in the one-dimensional lattice chains is an interesting problem. By using the number state method and the Hartree approximation combined with the method of multiple scales, we investigate quantum solitons and localized modes in a one-dimensional lattice chain with the nonlinear substrate potential. It is shown that quantum solitons do exist in this nonlinear lattice chain, and at the boundary of the phonon Brillouin zone, quantum solitons become quantum localized modes, phonons are pinned to the lattice of the vicinity at the central position j = j 0 .

  7. Csk Homologous Kinase, a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-mediated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    SH2 ) and SH3 domains and lacks the consensus tyrosine phosphorylation and myristylation sites found in Src family kinases . CHK has been shown to...0350 TITLE: Csk Homologous Kinase , a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-mediated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Byeong-Chel...1 AUG 2009 - 31 JUL 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0350 Csk Homologous Kinase , a Potential Regulator

  8. Field-aligned plasma-potential structure formed by local electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro; Sato, Noriyoshi

    2001-01-01

    The significance of basic experiments on field-aligned plasma-potential structure formed by local electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) is claimed based on the historical development of the investigation on electric double layer and electrostatic potential confinement of open-ended fusion-oriented plasmas. In the presence of a single ECR point in simple mirror-type configurations of magnetic field, a potential dip (thermal barrier) appears around this point, being followed by a subsequent potential hump (plug potential) along a collisionless plasma flow. The observed phenomenon gives a clear-cut physics to the formation of field-aligned plug potential with thermal barrier, which is closely related to the double layer formation triggered by a negative dip. (author)

  9. Disorder-induced trapping versus Anderson localization in Bose-Einstein condensates expanding in disordered potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L; Clement, D; Lugan, P; Bouyer, P; Aspect, A

    2008-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the localization of an expanding Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with repulsive atom-atom interactions in a disordered potential. We focus on the regime where the initial inter-atomic interactions dominate over the kinetic energy and the disorder. At equilibrium in a trapping potential and for the considered small disorder, the condensate shows a Thomas-Fermi shape modified by the disorder. When the condensate is released from the trap, a strong suppression of the expansion is obtained in contrast to the situation in a periodic potential with similar characteristics. This effect crucially depends on both the momentum distribution of the expanding BEC and the strength of the disorder. For strong disorder as in the experiments reported by Clement et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 170409 and Fort et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 170410, the suppression of the expansion results from the fragmentation of the core of the condensate and from classical reflections from large modulations of the disordered potential in the tails of the condensate. We identify the corresponding disorder-induced trapping scenario for which large atom-atom interactions and strong reflections from single modulations of the disordered potential play central roles. For weak disorder, the suppression of the expansion signals the onset of Anderson localization, which is due to multiple scattering from the modulations of the disordered potential. We compute analytically the localized density profile of the condensate and show that the localization crucially depends on the correlation function of the disorder. In particular, for speckle potentials the long-range correlations induce an effective mobility edge in 1D finite systems. Numerical calculations performed in the mean-field approximation support our analysis for both strong and weak disorder

  10. Intermolecular interaction potentials of the methane dimer from the local density approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangrong; Bai Yulin; Zhu Jun; Yang Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    The intermolecular interaction potentials of methane (CH 4 ) dimer are calculated within the density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that the calculated potentials have minima when the intermolecular distance of CH 4 dimer is about 7.0 a.u., which is in good agreement with the experiment. The depth of the potential is 0.017 eV. The results obtained by our LDA calculations seem to agree well with those obtained by MP2, MP3, and CCSD from the Moeller-Plesset and coupled cluster methods by Tsuzuki et al. and with the experimental data

  11. DESTINATION MARKETING STRATEGY IN BALI THROUGH OPTIMIZING THE POTENTIAL OF LOCAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Oka Suryawardani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study destination marketing strategy in Bali through optimizing the potential of local products. Seventy nine of hotel managers were interviewed based on cluster sampling method to gain their point of view. The results show that destination must build their images around unique attributes that provide them sustainable competitive advantage including its attraction which should be designed to meet the needs of the target market and should be served by local products. The results also show that hotel managers thought that foreign tourists always preferred imported products, meanwhile previous statistical results indicate that foreign tourists significantly look for local products. There is a need to encourage hotel managers to change their perception and attitude about local and imported products. In fact, hoteliers expressed willingness to use local products as long as these meet the quality standard. As tourism involves four types of activities, namely something to see, something to do, something to buy, something to learn, destination product development could be focused in the above activities through offering foreign tourist, such as to stay in hotels, homestays or villas owned by Balinese; to eat in restaurants owned by Balinese by choosing the authentic local foods that are using local meat, seafood and vegetables, exotic local fruits and beverages; and to buy products that are produced by the Balinese. By promoting vacation on the real Balinese atmosphere such as stay in accommodations owned by the Balinese supported by the authenticity of local Balinese foods, fruits and beverages, these will strengthen the local economy, so the benefit of tourism development can be more beneficial to the local Balinese. The results suggests that destination management related to improvement of service and hospitality are really important through improvement of human resource by giving training to their employees, educate

  12. Protein kinase C ϵ stabilizes β-catenin and regulates its subcellular localization in podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Michelle; Yu, Xuejiao; Teng, Beina; Schroder, Patricia; Haller, Hermann; Eschenburg, Susanne; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-07-21

    Kidney disease has been linked to dysregulated signaling via PKC in kidney cells such as podocytes. PKCα is a conventional isoform of PKC and a well-known binding partner of β-catenin, which promotes its degradation. β-Catenin is the main effector of the canonical Wnt pathway and is critical in cell adhesion. However, whether other PKC isoforms interact with β-catenin has not been studied systematically. Here we demonstrate that PKCϵ-deficient mice, which develop proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, display lower β-catenin expression compared with PKC wild-type mice, consistent with an altered phenotype of podocytes in culture. Remarkably, β-catenin showed a reversed subcellular localization pattern: Although β-catenin exhibited a perinuclear pattern in undifferentiated wild-type cells, it predominantly localized to the nucleus in PKCϵ knockout cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation of both cell types revealed that PKCϵ positively regulates β-catenin expression and stabilization in a glycogen synthase kinase 3β-independent manner. Further, β-catenin overexpression in PKCϵ-deficient podocytes could restore the wild-type phenotype, similar to rescue with a PKCϵ construct. This effect was mediated by up-regulation of P-cadherin and the β-catenin downstream target fascin1. Zebrafish studies indicated three PKCϵ-specific phosphorylation sites in β-catenin that are required for full β-catenin function. Co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays confirmed PKCϵ and β-catenin as binding partners and revealed that ablation of the three PKCϵ phosphorylation sites weakens their interaction. In summary, we identified a novel pathway for regulation of β-catenin levels and define PKCϵ as an important β-catenin interaction partner and signaling opponent of other PKC isoforms in podocytes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  14. Lake and wetland ecosystem services measuring water storage and local climate regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P.; Jiang, Bo; Bohn, Theodore J.; Lee, Kai N.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Ma, Dongchun; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-04-01

    Developing interdisciplinary methods to measure ecosystem services is a scientific priority, however, progress remains slow in part because we lack ecological production functions (EPFs) to quantitatively link ecohydrological processes to human benefits. In this study, we tested a new approach, combining a process-based model with regression models, to create EPFs to evaluate water storage and local climate regulation from a green infrastructure project on the Yongding River in Beijing, China. Seven artificial lakes and wetlands were established to improve local water storage and human comfort; evapotranspiration (ET) regulates both services. Managers want to minimize the trade-off between water losses and cooling to sustain water supplies while lowering the heat index (HI) to improve human comfort. We selected human benefit indicators using water storage targets and Beijing's HI, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model to determine the change in ET from the new ecosystems. We created EPFs to quantify the ecosystem services as marginal values [Δfinal ecosystem service/Δecohydrological process]: (1) Δwater loss (lake evaporation/volume)/Δdepth and (2) Δsummer HI/ΔET. We estimate the new ecosystems increased local ET by 0.7 mm/d (20.3 W/m2) on the Yongding River. However, ET rates are causing water storage shortfalls while producing no improvements in human comfort. The shallow lakes/wetlands are vulnerable to drying when inflow rates fluctuate, low depths lead to higher evaporative losses, causing water storage shortfalls with minimal cooling effects. We recommend managers make the lakes deeper to increase water storage, and plant shade trees to improve human comfort in the parks.

  15. Enhancing tube hydroformability by reducing the local strain gradient at potential necking sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S. G. R.; Joo, B. D.; Moon, Y. H.; Tyne, C. J. Van

    2014-01-01

    Bursting in tube hydroforming is preceded by localized deformation, which is often called necking. The retardation of the initiation of necking is a means to enhance hydroformability. Since high strain gradients occur at necking sites, a decrease in local strain gradients is an effective way to retard the initiation of necking. In the current study, the expansion at potential necking sites was intentionally restricted in order to reduce the strain gradient at potential necking sites. From the strain distribution obtained from FEM, it is possible to determine strain concentrated zones, which are the potential necking sites. Prior to the hydroforming of a trailing arm, lead patch is attached to the tube where the strain concentration would occur. Due to the incompressibility of lead, the tube expansion is locally restricted, and the resultant strain extends to adjacent regions of the tube during hydroforming. After the first stage of hydroforming, the lead is removed from the tube, and the hydroforming continues to obtain the targeted shape without the local restriction. This method was successfully used to fabricate a complex shaped automotive trailing arm that had previously failed during traditional hydroforming processing.

  16. Local density regulates migratory songbird reproductive success through effects on double-brooding and nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Newman, Amy E M; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the density-dependent processes that regulate animal populations is key to understanding, predicting, and conserving populations. In migratory birds, density-dependence is most often studied during the breeding season, yet we still lack a robust understanding of the reproductive traits through which density influences individual reproductive success. We used 27-yr of detailed, individual-level productivity data from an island-breeding population of Savannah sparrows Passerculus sandwichensis to evaluate effects of local and total annual population density on female reproductive success. Local density (number of neighbors within 50 m of a female's nest) had stronger effects on the number of young fledged than did total annual population density. Females nesting in areas of high local density were more likely to suffer nest predation and less likely to initiate and fledge a second clutch, which led to fewer young fledged in a season. Fledging fewer young subsequently decreased the likelihood of a female recruiting offspring into the breeding population in a subsequent year. Collectively, these results provide insight into the scale and reproductive mechanisms mediating density-dependent reproductive success and fitness in songbirds. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  18. Repassivation potential for localized corrosion of Alloys 625 and C22 in simulated repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragnolino, G.A.; Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N.

    1998-01-01

    Two corrosion resistant nickel-based alloys, 625 and C22, have been selected by the US Department of Energy as candidate materials for the inner container of high-level radioactive waste packages. The susceptibility of these materials to localized corrosion was evaluated by measuring the repassivation potential as a function of solution chloride concentration and temperature using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and lead-in-pencil potential step test methods. At intermediate Cl- concentrations, e.g., 0.028--0.4 M, the repassivation potential of alloy 625 is greater than that for alloy 825 and is dependent on the Cl- concentration. However, at higher concentrations, the repassivation potential is slightly less than that for alloy 825 and is weakly dependent on Cl- concentration. The repassivation potentials for alloy C-22 under all test conditions are considerably higher than those of either alloy 625 or 825 and are in the range where oxygen evolution is expected to occur

  19. POTENTIAL DEFICIENCIES IN EDUCATION, INSTRUMENTATION, AND WARNINGS FOR LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of historical data for Hawaii reveals that significant tsunamis have been reported for only four of twenty-six potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes from 1868 through 2009 with magnitudes of 6.0 or greater. During the same time period, three significant tsunamis have been reported for substantially smaller earthquakes. This historical perspective, the fact that the last significant local tsunami occurred in 1975, and an understandable preoccupation with tsunamis generated around the margins of the Pacific, all combine to suggest apparent deficiencies in: (1 personal awareness of what to do in the event of a possible local tsunami; (2 the distribution of instrumentation capable of providing rapid confirmation that a local tsunami has been generated; and (3 the subsequent issuance of timely warnings for local tsunamis. With these deficiencies, far more lives may be lost in Hawaii due to local tsunamis than will result from tsunamis that have originated along the margins of the Pacific. Similar deficiencies may exist in other areas of the world threatened by local tsunamis.

  20. 78 FR 54571 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event Hampton Bay Days Festival, Hampton River; Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event Hampton Bay Days Festival, Hampton River; Hampton, VA... Fifth Coast Guard District. This regulation applies only to the Hampton Bay Days Festival, which... Purpose Hampton Bay Days is sponsoring the three days Hampton Bay Days Festival, which includes a...

  1. The GMO-crop potential for more, and more nutritious food is blocked by unjustified regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Potrykus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the need for more and more nutritious food, the potential genetic engineering technology has to contribute to a solution, the fact that this potential is blocked by regulation, which to my understanding is totally unjustified.

  2. Surface association and the MreB cytoskeleton regulate pilus production, localization and function in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kimberly N; Gitai, Zemer

    2010-06-01

    Spatial organization of bacterial proteins influences many cellular processes, including division, chromosome segregation and motility. Virulence-associated proteins also localize to specific destinations within bacterial cells. However, the functions and mechanisms of virulence factor localization remain largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that polar assembly of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 type IV pilus is regulated by surface association in a manner that affects gene transcription, protein levels and protein localization. We also uncover one mechanism for this regulation that acts through the actin homologue MreB. Inactivation of MreB leads to mislocalization of the pilus retraction ATPase PilT, mislocalization of the pili themselves and a reduction in motility. Furthermore, the role of MreB in polar localization of PilT is modulated by surface association, corroborating our results that environmental factors influence the regulation of pilus production. Specifically, MreB mediates both the initiation and maintenance of PilT localization when cells are grown in suspension but only affects the initiation of localization when cells are grown on a surface. Together, these results suggest that the bacterial cytoskeleton provides a mechanism for the polar localization of P. aeruginosa pili and demonstrate that protein localization may represent an important aspect of virulence factor regulation in bacterial pathogens.

  3. SMYD3 interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and regulates subcellular localization of Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keiyu; Ishida, Takaomi; Nakano, Kazumi; Yamagishi, Makoto; Yamochi, Tadanori; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Furukawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    HTLV-1 Tax deregulates signal transduction pathways, transcription of genes, and cell cycle regulation of host cells, which is mainly mediated by its protein-protein interactions with host cellular factors. We previously reported an interaction of Tax with a histone methyltransferase (HMTase), SUV39H1. As the interaction was mediated by the SUV39H1 SET domain that is shared among HMTases, we examined the possibility of Tax interaction with another HMTase, SMYD3, which methylates histone H3 lysine 4 and activates transcription of genes, and studied the functional effects. Expression of endogenous SMYD3 in T cell lines and primary T cells was confirmed by immunoblotting analysis. Co-immuno-precipitaion assays and in vitro pull-down assay indicated interaction between Tax and SMYD3. The interaction was largely dependent on the C-terminal 180 amino acids of SMYD3, whereas the interacting domain of Tax was not clearly defined, although the N-terminal 108 amino acids were dispensable for the interaction. In the cotransfected cells, colocalization of Tax and SMYD3 was indicated in the cytoplasm or nuclei. Studies using mutants of Tax and SMYD3 suggested that SMYD3 dominates the subcellular localization of Tax. Reporter gene assays showed that nuclear factor-κB activation promoted by cytoplasmic Tax was enhanced by the presence of SMYD3, and attenuated by shRNA-mediated knockdown of SMYD3, suggesting an increased level of Tax localization in the cytoplasm by SMYD3. Our study revealed for the first time Tax-SMYD3 direct interaction, as well as apparent tethering of Tax by SMYD3, influencing the subcellular localization of Tax. Results suggested that SMYD3-mediated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Tax provides one base for the pleiotropic effects of Tax, which are mediated by the interaction of cellular proteins localized in the cytoplasm or nucleus. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Palmitoylation of Sindbis Virus TF Protein Regulates Its Plasma Membrane Localization and Subsequent Incorporation into Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jolene; Renzi, Emily C; Arnold, Randy J; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2017-02-01

    Palmitoylation is a reversible, posttranslational modification that helps target proteins to cellular membranes. The alphavirus small membrane proteins 6K and TF have been reported to be palmitoylated and to positively regulate budding. 6K and TF are isoforms that are identical in their N termini but unique in their C termini due to a -1 ribosomal frameshift during translation. In this study, we used cysteine (Cys) mutants to test differential palmitoylation of the Sindbis virus 6K and TF proteins. We modularly mutated the five Cys residues in the identical N termini of 6K and TF, the four additional Cys residues in TF's unique C terminus, or all nine Cys residues in TF. Using these mutants, we determined that TF palmitoylation occurs primarily in the N terminus. In contrast, 6K is not palmitoylated, even on these shared residues. In the C-terminal Cys mutant, TF protein levels increase both in the cell and in the released virion compared to the wild type. In viruses with the N-terminal Cys residues mutated, TF is much less efficiently localized to the plasma membrane, and it is not incorporated into the virion. The three Cys mutants have minor defects in cell culture growth but a high incidence of abnormal particle morphologies compared to the wild-type virus as determined by transmission electron microscopy. We propose a model where the C terminus of TF modulates the palmitoylation of TF at the N terminus, and palmitoylated TF is preferentially trafficked to the plasma membrane for virus budding. Alphaviruses are a reemerging viral cause of arthritogenic disease. Recently, the small 6K and TF proteins of alphaviruses were shown to contribute to virulence in vivo Nevertheless, a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which either protein acts to promote virus infection is missing. The TF protein is a component of budded virions, and optimal levels of TF correlate positively with wild-type-like particle morphology. In this study, we show that the

  5. Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Are Localized in Striated Muscle Mitochondria and Regulate Mitochondrial Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs where it regulates cellular functions and metabolism. In the brain, CB1 is mainly localized on presynaptic axon terminals but is also found on mitochondria (mtCB1, where it regulates cellular respiration and energy production. Likewise, CB1 is localized on muscle mitochondria, but very little is known about it. The aim of this study was to further investigate in detail the distribution and functional role of mtCB1 in three different striated muscles. Immunoelectron microscopy for CB1 was used in skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis and myocardium from wild-type and CB1-KO mice. Functional assessments were performed in mitochondria purified from the heart of the mice and the mitochondrial oxygen consumption upon application of different acute delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol (Δ9-THC concentrations (100 nM or 200 nM was monitored. About 26% of the mitochondrial profiles in gastrocnemius, 22% in the rectus abdominis and 17% in the myocardium expressed CB1. Furthermore, the proportion of mtCB1 versus total CB1 immunoparticles was about 60% in the gastrocnemius, 55% in the rectus abdominis and 78% in the myocardium. Importantly, the CB1 immunolabeling pattern disappeared in muscles of CB1-KO mice. Functionally, acute 100 nM or 200 nM THC treatment specifically decreased mitochondria coupled respiration between 12% and 15% in wild-type isolated mitochondria of myocardial muscles but no significant difference was noticed between THC treated and vehicle in mitochondria isolated from CB1-KO heart. Furthermore, gene expression of key enzymes involved in pyruvate synthesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and mitochondrial respiratory chain was evaluated in the striated muscle of CB1-WT and CB1-KO. CB1-KO showed an increase in the gene expression of Eno3, Pkm2, and Pdha1, suggesting an increased production of pyruvate. In contrast, no significant

  6. The potential of mobile phones for increasing public participation in local government in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Thinyane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical discussion on the current use of technology and participation in local government. It discusses the rise in popularity of mobile devices, and how they have been used in ICT for development. The paper describes the results of a baseline study undertaken in a city within Makana Municipality in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, to empirically investigate how residents are currently using mobile phones and participating with local government around the area of service delivery. The findings illustrate the current state of mobile phone usage and capabilities, and the potential for using the mobile platform to increase participation in local government in South Africa. The paper also can be used to inform and guide project stakeholders on how best to implement m-participation strategies.

  7. Effect of water on the local electric potential of simulated ionic micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodskaya, Elena N.; Vanin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexvanin@yandex.ru [Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskiy pr. 26, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-28

    Ionic micelles in an aqueous solution containing single-charged counter-ions have been simulated by molecular dynamics. For both cationic and anionic micelles, it has been demonstrated that explicit description of solvent has strong effect on the micelle’s electric field. The sign of the local charge alters in the immediate vicinity of the micellar crown and the electric potential varies nonmonotonically. Two micelle models have been examined: the hybrid model with a rigid hydrocarbon core and the atomistic model. For three molecular models of water (Simple Point Charge model (SPC), Transferable Intermolecular Potential 5- Points (TIP5P) and two-centered S2), the results have been compared with those for the continuum solvent model. The orientational ordering of solvent molecules has strong effect on the local electric field surprisingly far from the micelle surface.

  8. Science learning based on local potential: Overview of the nature of science (NoS) achieved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilujeng, Insih; Zuhdan Kun, P.; Suryadarma, IGP.

    2017-08-01

    The research concerned here examined the effectiveness of science learning conducted with local potential as basis from the point of a review of the NoS (nature of science) achieved. It used the non equivalent control group design and took place in the regions of Magelang and Pati, Province of Central Java, and the regions of Bantul and Sleman, Province of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The research population consisted of students of the first and second grades at each junior high school chosen with research subjects sampled by means of cluster sampling. The instruments used included: a) an observation sheet, b) a written test, and c) a questionnaire. The learning and research instruments had been declared valid and reliable according to previous developmental research. In conclusion, the science learning based on local potential was effective in terms of all the NoS aspects.

  9. Definition of current density in the presence of a non-local potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Wan, Langhui; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian

    2008-04-16

    In the presence of a non-local potential arising from electron-electron interaction, the conventional definition of current density J(c) = (e/2m)([(p-eA)ψ](*)ψ-ψ(*)[(p-eA)ψ]) cannot satisfy the condition of current conservation, i.e., [Formula: see text] in the steady state. In order to solve this problem, we give a new definition of current density including the contribution due to the non-local potential. We show that the current calculated based on the new definition of current density conserves the current and is the same as that obtained from the Landauer-Büttiker formula. Examples are given to demonstrate our results.

  10. Definition of current density in the presence of a non-local potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changsheng; Wan Langhui; Wei Yadong; Wang Jian

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of a non-local potential arising from electron-electron interaction, the conventional definition of current density J c = (e/2m)([(p-eA)ψ]*ψ-ψ*[(p-eA)ψ]) cannot satisfy the condition of current conservation, i.e., ∇ . J c ≠ 0 in the steady state. In order to solve this problem, we give a new definition of current density including the contribution due to the non-local potential. We show that the current calculated based on the new definition of current density conserves the current and is the same as that obtained from the Landauer-Buettiker formula. Examples are given to demonstrate our results

  11. Application of local singularity in prospecting potential oil/gas Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Bao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with generalized self-similarity and the fractal spectrum, local singularity analysis has been introduced as one part of the new 3S principle and technique for mineral resource assessment based on multifractal modeling, which has been demonstrated to be useful for anomaly delineation. Local singularity is used in this paper to characterize the property of multifractal distribution patterns of geochemical indexes to delineate potential areas for oil/gas exploration using the advanced GeoDAS GIS technology. Geochemical data of four oil/gas indexes, consisting of acid-extracted methane (SC1, ethane (SC2, propane (SC3, and secondary carbonate (ΔC, from 9637 soil samples amassed within a large area of 11.2×104 km2 in the Songpan-Aba district, Sichuan Province, southwestern China, were analyzed. By eliminating the interference of geochemical oil/gas data with the method of media-modification and Kriging, the prospecting area defined by the local singularity model is better identified and the results show that the subareas with higher singularity exponents for the four oil/gas indexes are potential targets for oil/gas exploration. These areas in the shape of rings or half-rings are spatially associated with the location of the known producing drilling well in this area. The spatial relationship between the anomalies delineated by oil/gas geochemical data and distribution patterns of local singularity exponents is confirmed by using the stable isotope of δ13C.

  12. Assessment of managed aquifer recharge potential using ensembles of local models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony J; Pollock, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    A simple quantitative approach for assessing the artificial recharge potential of large regions using spatial ensembles of local models is proposed. The method extends existing qualitative approaches and enables rapid assessments within a programmable environment. Spatial discretization of a water resource region into continuous local domains allows simple local models to be applied independently in each domain using lumped parameters. The ensemble results can be analyzed directly or combined with other quantitative and thematic information and visualized as regional suitability maps. A case study considers the hydraulic potential for surface infiltration across a large water resource region using a published analytic model for basin recharge. The model solution was implemented within a geographic information system and evaluated independently in >21,000 local domains using lumped parameters derived from existing regional datasets. Computer execution times to run the whole ensemble and process the results were in the order of a few minutes. Relevant aspects of the case study results and general conclusions concerning the utility and limitations of the method are discussed. © 2011, CSIRO. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  14. Comprehensive simulation study on local and global development of auroral arcs and field-aligned potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tomohiko; Oya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1992-10-01

    Extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling are performed to study self-excitation of auroral arcs with special emphasis on 1) nonlinear evolution of the feedback instability in the M-I coupling system, 2) controlling mechanisms of the auroral arc structure, 3) formation of a field-aligned electric potential structure in association with the development of the feedback instability, and 4) effects of the parallel potential generation on auroral arc development. It is reconfirmed that the feedback instability produces a longitudinally elongated, latitudinally striated structure where the upward field-aligned current and the ionospheric density are locally enhanced. The following important new features are revealed. 1) The global distribution of the striation structure is primarily governed by the magnetospheric convection pattern and the ionospheric density distribution. 2) There appears a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry in the auroral arc formation, even though the apparent geometrical relationship is symmetric. 3) The recombination effect plays a significant role in the global, as well as local, development of the auroral arc structure. The nonlinearity of recombination, in conjunction with the closure of an arc-associated local field-aligned current system, acts to destroy an old arc and creates a new arc in a different but adjacent position. 4) A V-shaped field aligned potential structure is created in association with an auroral arc. Rapid increase in the electron density and the local upward field-aligned current of an arc arises as a result of enhanced ionization by precipitating electrons accelerated by the parallel potential. 5) A drastic oscillatory behavior of appearance and disappearance of auroral arcs is obtained when the ionization effect is strong. The period is primarily given by the Alfven bounce time. (J.P.N.)

  15. Integral Hellmann--Feynman analysis of nonisoelectronic processes and the determination of local ionization potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, G.

    1975-01-01

    The integral Hellmann--Feynmann theorem is extended to apply to nonisoelectronic processes. A local ionization potential formula is proposed, and test calculations on three different approximate helium wavefunctions are reported which suggest that it may be numerically superior to the standard difference of expectation values. Arguments for the physical utility of the new concept are presented, and an integral Hellmann--Feynman analysis of transition energies is begun

  16. A Potential Reduction Method for Canonical Duality, with an Application to the Sensor Network Localization Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    We propose to solve large instances of the non-convex optimization problems reformulated with canonical duality theory. To this aim we propose an interior point potential reduction algorithm based on the solution of the primal-dual total complementarity (Lagrange) function. We establish the global convergence result for the algorithm under mild assumptions and demonstrate the method on instances of the Sensor Network Localization problem. Our numerical results are promising and show the possi...

  17. Particle localization in a double-well potential by pseudo-supersymmetric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Samsonov, B. F.; Shamshutdinova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study properties of a particle moving in a double-well potential in the two-level approximation placed in an additional external time-dependent field. Using previously established property (J. Phys. A 41, 244023 (2008)) that any two-level system possesses a pseudo-supersymmetry we introduce the notion of pseudo-supersymmetric field. It is shown that these fields, even if their time dependence is not periodical, may produce the effect of localization of the particle in one of the wells of the double-well potential.

  18. Distributed Power Allocation for Wireless Sensor Network Localization: A Potential Game Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mingxing; Li, Ding; Tian, Shiwei; Zhang, Yuli; Tong, Kaixiang; Xu, Yuhua

    2018-05-08

    The problem of distributed power allocation in wireless sensor network (WSN) localization systems is investigated in this paper, using the game theoretic approach. Existing research focuses on the minimization of the localization errors of individual agent nodes over all anchor nodes subject to power budgets. When the service area and the distribution of target nodes are considered, finding the optimal trade-off between localization accuracy and power consumption is a new critical task. To cope with this issue, we propose a power allocation game where each anchor node minimizes the square position error bound (SPEB) of the service area penalized by its individual power. Meanwhile, it is proven that the power allocation game is an exact potential game which has one pure Nash equilibrium (NE) at least. In addition, we also prove the existence of an ϵ -equilibrium point, which is a refinement of NE and the better response dynamic approach can reach the end solution. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that: (i) when prior distribution information is available, the proposed strategies have better localization accuracy than the uniform strategies; (ii) when prior distribution information is unknown, the performance of the proposed strategies outperforms power management strategies based on the second-order cone program (SOCP) for particular agent nodes after obtaining the estimated distribution of agent nodes. In addition, proposed strategies also provide an instructional trade-off between power consumption and localization accuracy.

  19. microRNA-7 down-regulation mediates excessive collagen expression in localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Mitsuhiko; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Makino, Katsunari; Yamane, Keitaro; Nakayama, Wakana; Aoi, Jun; Honda, Noritoshi; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LSc), a connective tissue disorder restricted to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, is characterized by skin fibrosis due to an excessive deposition of types I collagen. The mechanism of such fibrosis is still unknown, but epigenetics may play some roles in the excessive collagen expression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of fibrosis seen in LSc, focusing on microRNA (miRNA). miRNA expression was determined by PCR array, real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization. The function of miRNA was evaluated using specific inhibitor. Immunoblotting was performed to detect α2(I) collagen protein. PCR array analysis using tissue miRNA demonstrated miR-7 level was significantly decreased in LSc skin as well as keloid tissue compared to normal skin in vivo. In situ hybridization also showed miR-7 expression in dermal fibroblasts was decreased in LSc dermis. The transfection of specific inhibitor for miR-7 into cultured normal dermal fibroblasts resulted in the up-regulation of α2(I) collagen protein in vitro. Also, the serum levels of miR-7 were significantly decreased in LSc patients compared with healthy controls, but serum miR-29a levels not. Systemic or local down-regulation of miR-7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of LSc via the overexpression of α2(I) collagen, and serum miR-7 may be useful as a disease marker. Investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of LSc by miRNA may lead to new treatments by the transfection into the lesional skin of this disease.

  20. Energy regulation in China: Objective selection, potential assessment and responsibility sharing by partial frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X.H.; Chen, Y.B.; Li, J.S.; Tasawar, H.; Alsaedi, A.; Chen, G.Q.

    2014-01-01

    To cope with the excessive growth of energy consumption, the Chinese government has been trying to strengthen the energy regulation system by introducing new initiatives that aim at controlling the total amount of energy consumption. A partial frontier analysis is performed in this paper to make a comparative assessment of the combinations of possible energy conservation objectives, new constraints and regulation strategies. According to the characteristics of the coordination of existing regulation structure and the optimality of regulation strategy, four scenarios are constructed and regional responsibilities are reasonably divided by fully considering the production technology in the economy. The relative importance of output objectives and the total amount controlling is compared and the impacts on the regional economy caused by the changes of regulation strategy are also evaluated for updating regulation policy. - Highlights: • New initiatives to control the total amount of energy consumption are evaluated. • Twenty-four regulation strategies and four scenarios are designed and compared. • Crucial regions for each sector and regional potential are identified. • The national goals of energy abatement are decomposed into regional responsibilities. • The changes of regulation strategy are evaluated for updating regulation policy

  1. Phosphorylation near nuclear localization signal regulates nuclear import of adenomatous polyposis coli protein

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fang; White, Raymond L.; Neufeld, Kristi L.

    2000-01-01

    Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is an early step in the development of colorectal carcinomas. APC protein is located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The objective of this study was to define the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in APC protein. APC contains two potential NLSs comprising amino acids 1767–1772 (NLS1APC) and 2048–2053 (NLS2APC). Both APC NLSs are well conserved among human, mouse, rat, and fly. NLS1APC and NLS2APC each w...

  2. Bub1 autophosphorylation feeds back to regulate kinetochore docking and promote localized substrate phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Adeel; Lajeunesse, Audrey; Dulla, Kalyan; Combes, Guillaume; Thebault, Philippe; Nigg, Erich A; Elowe, Sabine

    2015-09-24

    During mitosis, Bub1 kinase phosphorylates histone H2A-T120 to promote centromere sister chromatid cohesion through recruitment of shugoshin (Sgo) proteins. The regulation and dynamics of H2A-T120 phosphorylation are poorly understood. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics we show that Bub1 is autophosphorylated at numerous sites. We confirm mitosis-specific autophosphorylation of a several residues and show that Bub1 activation is primed in interphase but fully achieved only in mitosis. Mutation of a single autophosphorylation site T589 alters kinetochore turnover of Bub1 and results in uniform H2A-T120 phosphorylation and Sgo recruitment along chromosome arms. Consequently, improper sister chromatid resolution and chromosome segregation errors are observed. Kinetochore tethering of Bub1-T589A refocuses H2A-T120 phosphorylation and Sgo1 to centromeres. Recruitment of the Bub1-Bub3-BubR1 axis to kinetochores has recently been extensively studied. Our data provide novel insight into the regulation and kinetochore residency of Bub1 and indicate that its localization is dynamic and tightly controlled through feedback autophosphorylation.

  3. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  5. The Fanconi anemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCJ interact and regulate each other's chromatin localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyong; Wilson, James B; McChesney, Patricia; Williams, Stacy A; Kwon, Youngho; Longerich, Simonne; Marriott, Andrew S; Sung, Patrick; Jones, Nigel J; Kupfer, Gary M

    2014-09-12

    Fanconi anemia is a genetic disease resulting in bone marrow failure, birth defects, and cancer that is thought to encompass a defect in maintenance of genomic stability. Mutations in 16 genes (FANCA, B, C, D1, D2, E, F, G, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, and Q) have been identified in patients, with the Fanconi anemia subtype J (FA-J) resulting from homozygous mutations in the FANCJ gene. Here, we describe the direct interaction of FANCD2 with FANCJ. We demonstrate the interaction of FANCD2 and FANCJ in vivo and in vitro by immunoprecipitation in crude cell lysates and from fractions after gel filtration and with baculovirally expressed proteins. Mutation of the monoubiquitination site of FANCD2 (K561R) preserves interaction with FANCJ constitutively in a manner that impedes proper chromatin localization of FANCJ. FANCJ is necessary for FANCD2 chromatin loading and focus formation in response to mitomycin C treatment. Our results suggest not only that FANCD2 regulates FANCJ chromatin localization but also that FANCJ is necessary for efficient loading of FANCD2 onto chromatin following DNA damage caused by mitomycin C treatment. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. A nutrient-regulated, dual localization phospholipase A2 in the symbiotic fungus Tuber borchii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Bolchi, Angelo; Balestrini, Raffaella; Gambaretto, Claudio; Percudani, Riccardo; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2001-01-01

    Important morphogenetic transitions in fungi are triggered by starvation-induced changes in the expression of structural surface proteins. Here, we report that nutrient deprivation causes a strong and reversible up-regulation of TbSP1, a surface-associated, Ca2+-dependent phospholipase from the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. TbSP1 is the first phospholipase A2 to be described in fungi and identifies a novel class of phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzymes. The TbSP1 phospholipase, which is synthesized initially as a pre-protein, is processed efficiently and secreted during the mycelial phase. The mature protein, however, also localizes to the inner cell wall layer, close to the plasma membrane, in both free-living and symbiosis-engaged hyphae. It thus appears that a dual localization phospholipase A2 is involved in the adaptation of a symbiotic fungus to conditions of persistent nutritional limitation. Moreover, the fact that TbSP1-related sequences are present in Streptomyces and Neurospora, and not in wholly sequenced non-filamentous microorganisms, points to a general role for TbSP1 phospholipases A2 in the organization of multicellular filamentous structures in bacteria and fungi. PMID:11566873

  7. SUMOylation regulates nuclear localization and stability of TRAIP/RNF206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I. Seul; Han, Ye gi; Chung, Hee Jin; Jung, Yong Woo; Kim, Yonghwan; Kim, Hongtae

    2016-01-01

    TRAIP/RNF206 plays diverse roles in cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and DNA repair pathways. Physiological importance of TRAIP is highlighted by the identification of pathogenic mutations of TRAIP gene in patients diagnosed with primordial dwarfism. Although the diverse functions of TRAIP in the nucleus have been well characterized, molecular mechanism of TRAIP retention in the nucleus has not been determined. Here, we discovered that TRAIP is post-translationally modified by the small ubiquitin-like protein (SUMO). In addition, we identified five SUMOylation sites in TRAIP, and successfully generated SUMOylation deficient mutant of TRAIP. In an attempt to define the functional roles of TRAIP SUMOylation, we discovered that SUMOylation deficient TRAIP is not retained in the nucleus. In addition, protein stability of SUMOylation deficient TRAIP is lower than wild type TRAIP, demonstrating that SUMOylation is critical for both proper subcellular localization and protein stability of TRAIP. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding clinical implication of TRAIP in various diseases including primordial dwarfism and cancers. - Highlights: • TRAIP is post-translationally modified by SUMO. • SUMOylation affects subcellular localization of TRAIP. • SUMOylation regulates protein stability of TRAIP.

  8. SUMOylation regulates nuclear localization and stability of TRAIP/RNF206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I. Seul; Han, Ye gi; Chung, Hee Jin [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Woo [College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong City 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yonghwan, E-mail: yhkim@sookmyung.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 04310 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hongtae, E-mail: khtcat@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-19

    TRAIP/RNF206 plays diverse roles in cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and DNA repair pathways. Physiological importance of TRAIP is highlighted by the identification of pathogenic mutations of TRAIP gene in patients diagnosed with primordial dwarfism. Although the diverse functions of TRAIP in the nucleus have been well characterized, molecular mechanism of TRAIP retention in the nucleus has not been determined. Here, we discovered that TRAIP is post-translationally modified by the small ubiquitin-like protein (SUMO). In addition, we identified five SUMOylation sites in TRAIP, and successfully generated SUMOylation deficient mutant of TRAIP. In an attempt to define the functional roles of TRAIP SUMOylation, we discovered that SUMOylation deficient TRAIP is not retained in the nucleus. In addition, protein stability of SUMOylation deficient TRAIP is lower than wild type TRAIP, demonstrating that SUMOylation is critical for both proper subcellular localization and protein stability of TRAIP. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding clinical implication of TRAIP in various diseases including primordial dwarfism and cancers. - Highlights: • TRAIP is post-translationally modified by SUMO. • SUMOylation affects subcellular localization of TRAIP. • SUMOylation regulates protein stability of TRAIP.

  9. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  10. Guidelines and incentives for conservation development in local land-use regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah E; Hilty, Jodi A; Theobald, David M

    2014-02-01

    Effective conservation of biological diversity on private lands will require changes in land-use policy and development practice. Conservation development (CD) is an alternative form of residential development in which homes are built on smaller lots and clustered together and the remainder of the property is permanently protected for conservation purposes. We assessed the degree to which CD is permitted and encouraged by local land-use regulations in 414 counties in the western United States. Thirty-two percent of local planning jurisdictions have adopted CD ordinances, mostly within the past 10 years. CD ordinances were adopted in counties with human population densities that were 3.0 times greater and in counties with 2.5 times more land use at urban, suburban, and exurban densities than counties without CD ordinances. Despite strong economic incentives for CD (e.g., density bonuses, which allow for a mean of 66% more homes to be built per subdivision area), several issues may limit the effectiveness of CD for biological diversity conservation. Although most CD ordinances required a greater proportion of the site area be protected than in a typical residential development, just 13% (n = 17) of the ordinances required an ecological site analysis to identify and map features that should be protected. Few CD ordinances provided guidelines regarding the design and configuration of the protected lands, including specifying a minimum size for protected land parcels or encouraging contiguity with other protected lands within or near to the site. Eight percent (n =11) of CD ordinances encouraged consultation with a biological expert or compliance with a conservation plan. We recommend that conservation scientists help to improve the effectiveness of CD by educating planning staff and government officials regarding biological diversity conservation, volunteering for their local planning boards, or consulting on development reviews. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  11. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, C.; Bollinger, L.A.; Koirala, B.P.; Scholten, D.J.; Facchinetti, E.; Lilliestam, J.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization

  12. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Cherrelle; Bollinger, L. Andrew; Koirala, Binod; Scholten, Daniel; Facchinetti, Emanuele; Lilliestam, Johan; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization concentrates competition at the wholesale level, local energy management at the distribution level is likely to impose new roles and responsibilities on existing and/or new actors. This paper prov...

  13. Mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio-frequency sheath potentials on edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio frequency (RF) sheath potentials on the peeling-ballooning modes is studied non-linearly by employing a two-fluid three-field simulation model based on the BOUT++ framework. Additional shear flow and the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect due to the thermal and rectified RF sheath potential are induced. It is found that the shear flow increases the growth rate while the K-H effect decreases the growth rate slightly when there is a density gradient, but the energy loss of these cases is suppressed in the nonlinear phase. The stronger external electrostatic field due to the sheaths has a more significant effect on the energy loss suppression. From this study, it is found the growth rate in the linear phase mainly determines the onset of edge-localized modes, while the mode spectrum width in the nonlinear phase has an important impact on the turbulent transport. The wider mode spectrum leads to weaker turbulent transport and results in a smaller energy loss. Due to the thermal sheath and rectified RF sheath potential in the scrape-off-layer, the modified shear flow tears apart the peeling-ballooning filament and makes the mode spectrum wider, resulting in less energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region is also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition.

  14. The Rho-family GTPase Rac1 regulates integrin localization in Drosophila immunosurveillance cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Xavier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi lays an egg in a Drosophila larva, phagocytic cells called plasmatocytes and specialized cells known as lamellocytes encapsulate the egg. The Drosophila β-integrin Myospheroid (Mys is necessary for lamellocytes to adhere to the cellular capsule surrounding L. boulardi eggs. Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of α and β subunits, and similar to other plasma membrane receptors undergo ligand-dependent endocytosis. In mammalian cells it is known that integrin binding to the extracellular matrix induces the activation of Rac GTPases, and we have previously shown that Rac1 and Rac2 are necessary for a proper encapsulation response in Drosophila larvae. We wanted to test the possibility that Myospheroid and Rac GTPases interact during the Drosophila anti-parasitoid immune response. RESULTS: In the current study we demonstrate that Rac1 is required for the proper localization of Myospheroid to the cell periphery of haemocytes after parasitization. Interestingly, the mislocalization of Myospheroid in Rac1 mutants is rescued by hyperthermia, involving the heat shock protein Hsp83. From these results we conclude that Rac1 and Hsp83 are required for the proper localization of Mys after parasitization. SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that the small GTPase Rac1 is required for Mysopheroid localization. Interestingly, the necessity of Rac1 in Mys localization was negated by hyperthermia. This presents a problem, in Drosophila we quite often raise larvae at 29°C when using the GAL4/UAS misexpression system. If hyperthermia rescues receptor endosomal recycling defects, raising larvae in hyperthermic conditions may mask potentially interesting phenotypes.

  15. Low-density, one-dimensional quantum gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goold, J; O'Donoghue, D; Busch, Th

    2008-01-01

    We investigate low-density, quantum-degenerate gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential in the centre of a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The attractive potential is modelled using a parameterized δ-function, allowing us to determine all single-particle eigenfunctions analytically. From these we calculate the ground-state many-body properties for a system of spin-polarized fermions and, using the Bose-Fermi mapping theorem, extend the results to strongly interacting bosonic systems. We discuss the single-particle densities, the pair-correlation functions, the reduced single-particle density matrices and the momentum distributions as a function of the particle number and strength of the attractive point potential. As an important experimental observable, we place special emphasis on spatial coherence properties of such samples.

  16. Constructing a Local Potential Participant Registry to Improve Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Research Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Joshua D; Hoang, Dan; Gillen, Daniel L; Cox, Chelsea G; Gombosev, Adrijana; Klein, Kirsten; O'Leary, Steve; Witbracht, Megan; Pierce, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Potential participant registries are tools to address the challenge of slow recruitment to clinical research. In particular, registries may aid recruitment to secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which enroll cognitively normal older individuals meeting specific genetic or biomarker criteria. Evidence of registry effectiveness is sparse, as is guidance on optimal designs or methods of conduct. We report our experiences of developing a novel local potential participant registry that implemented online enrollment and data collection. In the first year of operation, 957 individuals submitted email addresses to the registry, of whom 592 self-reported demographic, family history, and medical data. In addition, registrants provided information related to their interest and willingness to be contacted about studies. Local earned media and community education were the most effective methods of recruitment into the registry. Seventy-six (26%) of 298 registrants contacted about studies in the first year enrolled in those studies. One hundred twenty-nine registrants were invited to enroll in a preclinical AD trial, of whom 25 (18%) screened and 6 were randomized. These results indicate that registries can aid recruitment and provide needed guidance for investigators initiating new local registries.

  17. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällfors, Maria Helena; Liao, Jishan; Dzurisin, Jason D. K.; Grundel, Ralph; Hyvärinen, Marko; Towle, Kevin; Wu, Grace C.; Hellmann, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs to treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account, may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted, however. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate MaxEnt models, one considering the species as a single population and two of disjunct populations. PCA analyses and response curves indicate different climate characteristics in the current environments of the populations. Model projections into future climates indicate minimal overlap between areas predicted to be climatically suitable by the whole species versus population-based models. We present a workflow for addressing uncertainty surrounding local adaptation in SDM application and illustrate the value of conducting population-based models to compare with whole-species models. These comparisons might result in more cautious management actions when alternative range outcomes are considered.

  18. Stationary localized modes of the quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimov, G. L.; Konotop, V. V.; Pacciani, P.

    2007-01-01

    We consider localized modes (bright solitons) of the one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a periodic potential, describing several mean-field models of low-dimensional condensed gases. In the case of attractive nonlinearity we deduce sufficient conditions for collapse. We show that there exist spatially localized modes with arbitrarily large numbers of particles. We study such solutions in the semi-infinite gap (attractive case) and in the first gap (attractive and repulsive cases), and show that a nonzero minimum value of the number of particles is necessary for a localized mode to be created. In the limit of large negative frequencies (attractive case) we observe quantization of the number of particles of the stationary modes. Such solutions can be interpreted as coupled Townes solitons and appear to be stable. The modes in the first gap have numbers of particles infinitely growing with frequencies approaching one of the gap edges, which is explained by the power decay of the modes. Stability of the localized modes is discussed

  19. CMB anomalies and the effects of local features of the inflaton potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, Alexander Gallego [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Romano, Antonio Enea [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); University of Torino, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Gariazzo, Stefano [University of Torino, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Recent analysis of the WMAP and Planck data have shown the presence of a dip and a bump in the spectrum of primordial perturbations at the scales k = 0.002 Mpc{sup -1}, respectively. We analyze for the first time the effects of a local feature in the inflaton potential to explain the observed deviations from scale invariance in the primordial spectrum. We perform a best-fit analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature and polarization data. The effects of the features can improve the agreement with observational data respect to the featureless model. The best-fit local feature affects the primordial curvature spectrum mainly in the region of the bump, leaving the spectrum unaffected on other scales. (orig.)

  20. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH’s potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and suggests that TH is a good candidate to be a modulator of memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

  1. Sex differences and emotion regulation: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse K T Gardener

    Full Text Available Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs to examine sex differences in N1 and N2 components (reflecting early emotional reactivity and P3 and LPP components (reflecting emotion regulation. N1, N2, P3, and LPP were recorded from 20 men and 23 women who were instructed to "increase," "decrease," and "maintain" their emotional response during passive viewing of negative images. Results indicated that women had significantly greater N1 and N2 amplitudes (reflecting early emotional reactivity to negative stimuli than men, supporting a female negativity bias. LPP amplitudes increased to the "increase" instruction, and women displayed greater LPP amplitudes than men to the "increase" instruction. There were no differences to the "decrease" instruction in women or men. These findings confirm predictions of the female negativity bias hypothesis and suggest that women have greater up-regulation of emotional responses to negative stimuli. This finding is highly significant in light of the female vulnerability for developing anxiety disorders.

  2. Sex differences and emotion regulation: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Elyse K T; Carr, Andrea R; Macgregor, Amy; Felmingham, Kim L

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine sex differences in N1 and N2 components (reflecting early emotional reactivity) and P3 and LPP components (reflecting emotion regulation). N1, N2, P3, and LPP were recorded from 20 men and 23 women who were instructed to "increase," "decrease," and "maintain" their emotional response during passive viewing of negative images. Results indicated that women had significantly greater N1 and N2 amplitudes (reflecting early emotional reactivity) to negative stimuli than men, supporting a female negativity bias. LPP amplitudes increased to the "increase" instruction, and women displayed greater LPP amplitudes than men to the "increase" instruction. There were no differences to the "decrease" instruction in women or men. These findings confirm predictions of the female negativity bias hypothesis and suggest that women have greater up-regulation of emotional responses to negative stimuli. This finding is highly significant in light of the female vulnerability for developing anxiety disorders.

  3. The Potentials of Educational Data Mining for Researching Metacognition, Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winne, Philip H.; Baker, Ryan S. J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Our article introduces the "Journal of Educational Data Mining's" Special Issue on Educational Data Mining on Motivation, Metacognition, and Self-Regulated Learning. We outline general research challenges for data mining researchers who conduct investigations in these areas, the potential of EDM to advance research in this area, and…

  4. Bending localization of nitrous oxide under anharmonicity and Fermi coupling: the dynamical potential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Wu Guo-Zhen; Fang Chao

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the vibrational nonlinear dynamics of nitrous oxide with Fermi coupling between the symmetric stretching and bending coordinates by classical dynamical potential approach. This is a global approach in the sense that the overall dynamics is evidenced by the classical nonlinear variables such as the fixed points and the focus are on a set of levels instead of individual ones. The dynamics of nitrous oxide is demonstrated to be not so much dependent on the excitation energy. Moreover, the localized bending mode is shown to be ubiquitous in all the energy range studied

  5. Computational applications of the thermodynamic local potential: The case of pattern forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J.Z.

    1986-09-01

    Using the thermodynamic local potential Φ a single variational principle may be formulated for a broad class of pattern formation phenomena (this class contains patterns which are: macroscopic, possess steady states, are degenerate at least with respect to one parameter, approach the steady state via fluctuations in the coarsely grained (macroscopic) phase space and so have no memory of the initial conditions). When a steady state is reached Φ assumes its minimum value with respect to distribution function and a maximum with respect to the actually assumed values of free parameters. (author)

  6. Intrinsic dendritic filtering gives low-pass power spectra of local field potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindén, Henrik; Pettersen, Klas H; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2010-01-01

    of contributions to the LFP from a single layer-5 pyramidal neuron and a single layer-4 stellate neuron receiving synaptic input. An intrinsic dendritic low-pass filtering effect of the LFP signal, previously demonstrated for extracellular signatures of action potentials, is seen to strongly affect the LFP power...... spectra, even for frequencies as low as 10 Hz for the example pyramidal neuron. Further, the LFP signal is found to depend sensitively on both the recording position and the position of the synaptic input: the LFP power spectra recorded close to the active synapse are typically found to be less low......The local field potential (LFP) is among the most important experimental measures when probing neural population activity, but a proper understanding of the link between the underlying neural activity and the LFP signal is still missing. Here we investigate this link by mathematical modeling...

  7. The potential of continuous, local atomic clock measurements for earthquake prediction and volcanology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarescu Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern optical atomic clocks along with the optical fiber technology currently being developed can measure the geoid, which is the equipotential surface that extends the mean sea level on continents, to a precision that competes with existing technology. In this proceeding, we point out that atomic clocks have the potential to not only map the sea level surface on continents, but also look at variations of the geoid as a function of time with unprecedented timing resolution. The local time series of the geoid has a plethora of applications. These include potential improvement in the predictions of earthquakes and volcanoes, and closer monitoring of ground uplift in areas where hydraulic fracturing is performed.

  8. Asymptotic analysis of the local potential approximation to the Wetterich equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M.; Sarkar, Sarben

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports a study of the nonlinear partial differential equation that arises in the local potential approximation to the Wetterich formulation of the functional renormalization group equation. A cut-off-dependent shift of the potential in this partial differential equation is performed. This shift allows a perturbative asymptotic treatment of the differential equation for large values of the infrared cut-off. To leading order in perturbation theory the differential equation becomes a heat equation, where the sign of the diffusion constant changes as the space-time dimension D passes through 2. When D    2 one obtains a backward heat equation whose initial-value problem is ill-posed. For the special case D  =  1 the asymptotic series for cubic and quartic models is extrapolated to the small infrared-cut-off limit by using Padé techniques. The effective potential thus obtained from the partial differential equation is then used in a Schrödinger-equation setting to study the stability of the ground state. For cubic potentials it is found that this Padé procedure distinguishes between a -symmetric theory and a conventional Hermitian theory (g real). For an theory the effective potential is nonsingular and has a stable ground state but for a conventional theory the effective potential is singular. For a conventional Hermitian theory and a -symmetric theory (g  >  0) the results are similar; the effective potentials in both cases are nonsingular and possess stable ground states.

  9. Mechanical stress regulates insulin sensitivity through integrin-dependent control of insulin receptor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Bilder, David; Neufeld, Thomas P

    2018-01-15

    Insulin resistance, the failure to activate insulin signaling in the presence of ligand, leads to metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and mechanical stress have been shown to protect against insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we address this relationship in the Drosophila larval fat body, an insulin-sensitive organ analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and livers. We found that insulin signaling in Drosophila fat body cells is abolished in the absence of physical activity and mechanical stress even when excess insulin is present. Physical movement is required for insulin sensitivity in both intact larvae and fat bodies cultured ex vivo. Interestingly, the insulin receptor and other downstream components are recruited to the plasma membrane in response to mechanical stress, and this membrane localization is rapidly lost upon disruption of larval or tissue movement. Sensing of mechanical stimuli is mediated in part by integrins, whose activation is necessary and sufficient for mechanical stress-dependent insulin signaling. Insulin resistance develops naturally during the transition from the active larval stage to the immotile pupal stage, suggesting that regulation of insulin sensitivity by mechanical stress may help coordinate developmental programming with metabolism. © 2018 Kim et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Local regulation of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation in mice following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.; Riches, A.C.; Wright, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the kinetic state of pluripotent haemopoietic spleen colony forming cells (CFU-S) and of the CFU-S proliferation stimulator have been studied following whole-body X-irradiation. Rapid recruitment of CFU-S into cell cycle by 30 min after irradiation was observed following low doses (0.5 Gy) but a delay of 6 h occurred after higher doses (1.5 and 4.5 Gy). These changes in proliferative state correlated with the presence of the CFU-S proliferation stimulator. CFU-S irradiated in vitro in bone marrow plugs were also recruited into cycle illustrating directly the local nature of the feedback mechanism. CFU-S removed from 1.5 Gy irradiated recipients at a time when they were not in cycle were not responsive to the CFU-S proliferation stimulator. The CFU-S proliferation stimulator was produced by Ia positive cells in the irradiated bone marrow. The regulation changes occurring shortly after irradiation cannot simply be controlled by the size of the CFU-S compartment. (author)

  11. Local gene regulation details a recognition code within the LacI transcriptional factor family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Camas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The specific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA sequences exhibits no clear patterns of association between amino acids (AAs and nucleotides (NTs. This complexity of protein-DNA interactions raises the question of whether a simple set of wide-coverage recognition rules can ever be identified. Here, we analyzed this issue using the extensive LacI family of transcriptional factors (TFs. We searched for recognition patterns by introducing a new approach to phylogenetic footprinting, based on the pervasive presence of local regulation in prokaryotic transcriptional networks. We identified a set of specificity correlations--determined by two AAs of the TFs and two NTs in the binding sites--that is conserved throughout a dominant subgroup within the family regardless of the evolutionary distance, and that act as a relatively consistent recognition code. The proposed rules are confirmed with data of previous experimental studies and by events of convergent evolution in the phylogenetic tree. The presence of a code emphasizes the stable structural context of the LacI family, while defining a precise blueprint to reprogram TF specificity with many practical applications.

  12. The monophasic action potential upstroke: a means of characterizing local conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J H; Moore, E N; Kadish, A H; Guarnieri, T; Spear, J F

    1986-11-01

    The upstrokes of monophasic action potentials (MAPs) recorded with an extracellular pressure electrode were characterized in isolated canine tissue preparations in vitro. The characteristics of the MAP upstroke were compared with those of the local action potential foot as well as with the characteristics of approaching electrical activation during uniform and asynchronous conduction. The upstroke of the MAP was exponential during uniform conduction. The time constant of rise of the MAP upstroke (TMAP) correlated with that of the action potential foot (Tfoot): TMAP + 1.01 Tfoot + 0.50; r2 = .80. Furthermore, changes in Tfoot with alterations in cycle length were associated with similar changes in TMAP: Tfoot = 1.06 TMAP - 0.11; r2 = .78. In addition, TMAP and Tfoot both deviated from exponential during asynchronous activation; the inflections that developed in the MAP upstroke correlated in time with intracellular action potential upstrokes that were asynchronous in onset in these tissues. Finally, the field of view of the MAP was determined and was found to be dependent in part on tissue architecture and the space constant. Specifically, the field of view of the MAP was found to be greater parallel compared with transverse to fiber orientation (6.02 +/- 1.74 vs 3.03 +/- 1.10 mm; p less than .01). These data suggest that the MAP upstroke may be used to define and characterize local electrical activation. The relatively large field of view of the MAP suggests that this technique may be a sensitive means to record focal membrane phenomena in vivo.

  13. Potential health and economic benefits of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria: implications for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayomadewa Mercy Olatunya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and lack of economic sustainability are major problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the nutrients‘ contents of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria (local groundnut, Kampala groundnut and breadnut and highlight their health and economic potentials. Proximate analysis, chemical properties, minerals and fatty acids composition of the nuts were determined. The highest protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were found in Kampala groundnut, local groundnut and breadnut respectively. Their sodium-potassium ratios were all less than 1.0 and their oils have mainly unsaturated fatty acids. Their acid values ranged between (2.41–6.34 mgKOH/g while the iodine values were between 36.0 and 93.0 I2 g/100 g. Analysis of the nuts and their oils indicated that they could help in solving malnutrition problem and also boost nations’ economy. Encouraging their large scale production can enhance adequate nutrition and sustain industrial growth in developing countries. Keywords: Nutrition, Food analysis, Food science

  14. Potential threats on pottery as local wisdom in Sitiwinangun Cirebon district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    This study is aimed to find out the type of threats of pottery as a local wisdom of Sitiwinangun Village. The study used qualitative approach which included observation, interviews, direct involvement and literature study as technique to collect the data. The data was analyzed by descriptive exploratory analysis. The finding results showed that the production of Sitiwinangun pottery, in the technique and motifs, were still produced according to the ancestors. Pottery has a closed-relationship to agrarian culture of Sitiwinangun's society. In cultivating season, the soil was used not only used to cultivate rice and palawija (crops planted as second crop in dry season) but it was also used to dig a layer of soil as the raw material of pottery. There were some potential threats on Sitiwinangun Pottery such as a reduction in raw material because of the land-settlement, slow regeneration, and consumers' preferred on household appliance made of plastic. Nevertheless, it never decreases the spirit of Sitiwinangun society to maintain the pottery as their local wisdom. They keep on their principle that the nature gives the value on their life and the value is an ancestral heritage that must be maintained in modern era in order to preserve the environment. Furthermore, the most important is that pottery is not only made as the functional object for human activity but it is made as the local knowledge of Sitiwinagun that very allows to be learnt intact and sustainable.

  15. Potential local use of natural gas or LNG from Hammerfest LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeraas, Bengt Olav

    1999-01-01

    A base-load LNG plant is planned to be built in Norway, near by the northern most city in the world, Hammerfest. Natural gas from the Snoehvit-field will be transported by pipeline to Melkoeya, a few kilometres from Hammerfest, where the liquefaction plant is planned to be located. SINTEF Energy Research has performed a study in co-operation with the local authorities on potentials for the use of LNG and natural gas locally in the Hammerfest region. Combined power and heat production by lean-burn gas engine, low temperature freezing of high quality products by use of LNG cold and drying of fish products are some of the identified fields for the use of natural gas and LNG. The establishment of an industrial area, with fish processing industry and a central freezing storage near by Hammerfest has been suggested. The gas may be transported locally either as LNG, by tank lorry or container, or as gas in a small pipeline, depending on distance, amount and the actual use. (author)

  16. Exploring potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates of varying virulence through quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Daniele G; Chaves, Alison F A; Xander, Patricia; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Serrano, Solange M T; Tashima, Alexandre K; Batista, Wagner L

    2014-10-03

    Few virulence factors have been identified for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the protein composition of P. brasiliensis in the yeast phase using minimal and rich media to obtain a better understanding of its virulence and to gain new insights into pathogen adaptation strategies. This analysis was performed on two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles in B10.A mice. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified and quantified 316 proteins in minimal medium, 29 of which were overexpressed in virulent Pb18. In rich medium, 29 out of 295 proteins were overexpressed in the virulent fungus. Three proteins were found to be up-regulated in both media, suggesting the potential roles of these proteins in virulence regulation in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, genes up-regulated in virulent Pb18 showed an increase in its expression after the recovery of virulence of attenuated Pb18. Proteins up-regulated in both isolates were grouped according to their functional categories. Virulent Pb18 undergoes metabolic reorganization and increased expression of proteins involved in fermentative respiration. This approach allowed us to identify potential virulence regulators and provided a foundation for achieving a molecular understanding of how Paracoccidioides modulates the host-pathogen interaction to its advantage.

  17. The effect of science learning integrated with local potential to improve science process skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardini, Riris Riezqia Budy; Suryadarma, I. Gusti Putu; Wilujeng, Insih

    2017-08-01

    This research was aimed to know the effectiveness of science learning that integrated with local potential to improve student`s science process skill. The research was quasi experiment using non-equivalent control group design. The research involved all student of Muhammadiyah Imogiri Junior High School on grade VII as a population. The sample in this research was selected through cluster random sampling, namely VII B (experiment group) and VII C (control group). Instrument that used in this research is a nontest instrument (science process skill observation's form) adapted Desak Megawati's research (2016). The aspect of science process skills were making observation and communication. The data were using univariat (ANOVA) analyzed at 0,05 significance level and normalized gain score for science process skill increase's category. The result is science learning that integrated with local potential was effective to improve science process skills of student (Sig. 0,00). This learning can increase science process skill, shown by a normalized gain score value at 0,63 (medium category) in experiment group and 0,29 (low category) in control group.

  18. Integration of living values into physics learning based on local potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, S.; Prasetyo, Z. K.; Wilujeng, I.

    2018-05-01

    Living values are the principles and beliefs that influence the way of life and behavior of people in society. These values are defined to determine the individuals’ characteristics in the physical, intellectual, social-emotional, and spiritual dimensions. Such values could be acquired through physics learning. Therefore, the study concerned here was aimed at determining the difference in the living values acquired between students of the grade officially termed Grade X at a state senior high school referred to as SMAN 1 Selomerto, Central Java, Indonesia, who learned physics by using content based on local potentials and those who learned physics without using that content. A quasi-experiment with the control group pre-test post-test design was conducted to collect the data. The data were analyzed by using tests of normality, homogeneity, and different. The results indicate no difference in the living values acquired between students learning physics by using local-potential content and those learning physics without using that content.

  19. Measurements of strongly localized potential well profiles in an inertial electrostatic fusion neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Takiyama, K.; Koyama, T.

    2001-01-01

    Direct measurements of localized electric fields are made by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method by use of the Stark effects in the central cathode core region of an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) neutron (proton) source, which is expected for various applications, such as luggage security inspection, non-destructive testing, land mine detector, or positron emitter production for cancer detection, currently producing continuously about 10 7 n/sec D-D neutrons. Since 1967 when the first fusion reaction was successfully proved experimentally in a very compact IECF device, potential well formation due to space charge associated with spherically converging ion beams has been a central key issue to be clarified in the beam-beam colliding fusion, which is the major mechanism of the IECF neutron source. Many experiments, but indirect, were made so far to clarify the potential well, but none of them produced definitive evidence, however. Results by the present LIF method show a double well potential profile with a slight concave for ion beams with relatively larger angular momenta, whereas for ions with smaller angular momenta, potential but much steeper peak to develop. (author)

  20. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Er-Wen; Xue, Sheng-Jiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Suo-Wen; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong; Li, Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma

  1. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Er-Wen [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xue, Sheng-Jiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiao-Yan [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Suo-Wen [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jie, E-mail: mdlijie@sina.com [Department of Anaesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Chao, E-mail: liuchaogaj@21cn.com [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.

  2. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  3. Eco-Efficiency Assessments as a Tool for Revealing the Environmental Improvement Potential of New Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Michelsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public regulations can result in improved environmental performance of products. In this paper eco-efficiency is used to assess the most likely outcome of potential new regulations. The paper presents a case study of furniture production in Norway where different scenarios for improving the environmental performance of the products are presented. Four regulatory options for imposing environmental improvements are assessed; (1 an introduction of a tax on emissions, (2 an increase of the tax on landfills, (3 an introduction of a tax on raw material consumption, and (4 introduction of take-back legislation.

  4. 76 FR 36308 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... hour, make special local regulations necessary. However, the Coast Guard will provide advance... dangers posed by hydroplane speed boats, operating in speeds excess of 150 miles per hour, make special... includes but is not limited to sail boat regattas, boat parades, power boat racing, swimming events, crew...

  5. 75 FR 30296 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... safety of life on navigable waters during the event. DATES: This rule is effective from 5:30 a.m. to 2:30...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing...

  6. 78 FR 23843 - Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary... Festival high speed boat races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is prohibited to all... Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS. (a) Location. The...

  7. 77 FR 14963 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS..., and persons on navigable waters during the Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival high speed boat... and vessels from safety hazards associated with the Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival high...

  8. 78 FR 9866 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O... Riverfront Festival high speed boat races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is prohibited to... Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS. (a) Location. The...

  9. 78 FR 54569 - Special Local Regulation, Cumberland River, Mile 190.0 to 192.0; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... comment pursuant to authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b... APA, and immediate action is necessary to establish this special local regulation to protect... Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide the Coast Guard in...

  10. 77 FR 47522 - Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix, St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix, St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI AGENCY...

  11. 78 FR 33700 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water Swim... Waterway for the Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water Swim. The Captain of the Port, Sector..., Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water Swim, Intracoastal Waterway; Atlantic City, NJ. (a) Location...

  12. 76 FR 38077 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...: All Zone. waters of Long Island Sound in an area bound by the following points: 40[deg]51'43.5'' N 073... Zone. located in approximate position 40[deg]51'52'' N 073[deg]56'24'' W (NAD 1983), approximately 1750...] RIN 1625-AA00; 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of...

  13. 78 FR 20277 - Safety Zones & Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    .... Regulatory History and Information The Coast Guard promulgated safety zones and special local regulations for... first week of July. Location: Waters of the Connetquot River off Snapper Inn Restaurant, Oakdale, NY in...: Waters of Patchogue Bay off ``Lombardi's On the Bay'' restaurant, Patchogue, NY in approximate position...

  14. 76 FR 62298 - Special Local Regulations; Line of Sail Marine Parade, East River and Brunswick River, Brunswick, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Line of Sail Marine Parade, East River and Brunswick River, Brunswick... during the Line of Sail Marine Parade on Saturday, October 8, 2011. The marine parade will consist of... did not receive notice of the Line of Sail Marine Parade with sufficient time to publish an NPRM or to...

  15. 77 FR 15600 - Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL... navigable waters during the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high speed boat races. Entry into... needed to safeguard persons and vessels from safety hazards associated with the Emerald Coast Super Boat...

  16. Attitudes towards Potential New Tobacco Control Regulations among U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Favorable attitudes towards tobacco control policies can facilitate their implementation and success. We examined attitudes toward four potential U.S. Federal tobacco regulations (banning menthol from cigarettes, reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes, banning candy and fruit flavored electronic cigarettes, and banning candy and fruit flavored little cigars and cigarillos and associations with individual and state variables. A nationally representative phone survey of 4337 adults assessed attitudes toward potential policies. Weighted logistic regression was used to assess relationships between attitudes and demographic factors, smoking behavior, beliefs about the government (knowledge, trust, and credibility, exposure to tobacco control campaigns, and state variables from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE System. Most respondents supported three out of four policies. Respondents that were female, non-white, Latino, living below the poverty line, had less than high school education, were of older age, did not smoke, had higher trust in government, and were exposed to national tobacco control campaigns had higher odds of expressing favorable attitudes toward potential new tobacco regulations than did their counterparts. No state-level effects were found. While differences in attitudes were observed by individual demographic characteristics, behaviors, and beliefs, a majority of participants supported most of the potential new tobacco regulations surveyed.

  17. Screening and evaluation of local bacteria isolated from shellfish as potential probiotics against pathogenic Vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, M Y; Wagaman, Hazimah; Yin, Tan Ai; Ina-salwany, M Y; Daud, H M; Karim, Murni

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to isolate, screen and evaluate potential candidates of local bacteria isolated from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and slipper cupped oysters Crassostrea iredalei as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture. A total of 144 of bacteria were successfully isolated from the intestine and stomach of 20 tails of healthy adult tiger shrimp P. monodon, while 136 were successfully isolated from the digestive tract, gills and inner shells of 10 healthy adult C. iredalei. The number of potential isolates was narrowed down to two from tiger shrimp, and one from slipper cupped oyster after in vitro screening assays. The three isolates, labeled as G11, I24 and S66, were identified as Virgibacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and Exiquobacterium sp., respectively, using 16S rDNA gene analysis. The antagonistic ability of the isolates towards Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in stagnant and liquid modes via spot lawn and broth co-culture assay, respectively. In these assays, all the potential probionts were inhibitory to both pathogenic vibrios. In the in-vivo assay, Artemia was used as host and treated with different concentrations of potential probionts (10(4), 10(6) and 10(8) CFU ml(-1)), and challenged with V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi at 105 CFU ml(-1), respectively. Artemia treated with probiont G11 at all concentrations and challenged with V. alginolyticus had increased survival (70 ? 80 %), which was significantly higher as compared with group with only the pathogen (20 %). Meanwhile, probiont I24 increased the survival of Artemia by 70 % at a concentration of 10(8) CFU ml(-1) after being challenged with V. alginolyticus and Artemia treated with 10(6) CFU ml(-1) of probiont S66 had increased survival of 90% after being challenged with V. harveyi. Thus, the three isolates might have potential applications as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture against vibriosis. ?

  18. Molecular Regulation of Adipogenesis and Potential Anti-Adipogenic Bioactive Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Moseti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor stem cells differentiate into lipid laden adipocytes. Adipogenesis is regulated by a complex and highly orchestrated gene expression program. In mammalian cells, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs such as C/EBPα, β and δ are considered the key early regulators of adipogenesis, while fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, adiponectin, and fatty acid synthase (FAS are responsible for the formation of mature adipocytes. Excess accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue leads to obesity, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and other pathologies. Thus, investigating adipose tissue development and the underlying molecular mechanisms is vital to develop therapeutic agents capable of curbing the increasing incidence of obesity and related pathologies. In this review, we address the process of adipogenic differentiation, key transcription factors and proteins involved, adipogenic regulators and potential anti-adipogenic bioactive molecules.

  19. Professional Regulation: A Potentially Valuable Tool in Responding to “Stem Cell Tourism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Zarzeczny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing international market for unproven stem cell-based interventions advertised on a direct-to-consumer basis over the internet (“stem cell tourism” is a source of concern because of the risks it presents to patients as well as their supporters, domestic health care systems, and the stem cell research field. Emerging responses such as public and health provider-focused education and national regulatory efforts are encouraging, but the market continues to grow. Physicians play a number of roles in the stem cell tourism market and, in many jurisdictions, are members of a regulated profession. In this article, we consider the use of professional regulation to address physician involvement in stem cell tourism. Although it is not without its limitations, professional regulation is a potentially valuable tool that can be employed in response to problematic types of physician involvement in the stem cell tourism market.

  20. Professional regulation: a potentially valuable tool in responding to "stem cell tourism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Amy; Caulfield, Timothy; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Bell, Peter; Crooks, Valorie A; Kamenova, Kalina; Master, Zubin; Rachul, Christen; Snyder, Jeremy; Toews, Maeghan; Zoeller, Sonja

    2014-09-09

    The growing international market for unproven stem cell-based interventions advertised on a direct-to-consumer basis over the internet ("stem cell tourism") is a source of concern because of the risks it presents to patients as well as their supporters, domestic health care systems, and the stem cell research field. Emerging responses such as public and health provider-focused education and national regulatory efforts are encouraging, but the market continues to grow. Physicians play a number of roles in the stem cell tourism market and, in many jurisdictions, are members of a regulated profession. In this article, we consider the use of professional regulation to address physician involvement in stem cell tourism. Although it is not without its limitations, professional regulation is a potentially valuable tool that can be employed in response to problematic types of physician involvement in the stem cell tourism market. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Waste management regulations and approaches in the EU: potential areas for enhancement or harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, Peter; Butler, Gregg; McGlynn, Grace; Chapman, Neil; McCombie, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a survey and study performed for the European Commission on 'Regulations Governing Radioactive Waste Disposal in EU Countries'. Its main purposes were to provide a survey of the regulations governing the disposal of all forms of radioactive waste in all EU Members States and, based on this study, to consider the potential for harmonization in different regulatory areas. Three key parts of the study are presented and the results discussed: collection and assessment of national data, including its verification by national stakeholders, application of multi-attribute analysis methodology to identify optimal waste classification scheme and a workshop of national authorities regulating disposal of radioactive waste. For five determined regulatory issues, the workshop carried out a 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) analysis of the impacts of harmonization. (authors)

  2. Long-term detection of Parkinsonian tremor activity from subthalamic nucleus local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Brady; Blumenfeld, Zack; Quinn, Emma; Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Chizeck, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Current deep brain stimulation paradigms deliver continuous stimulation to deep brain structures to ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This continuous stimulation has undesirable side effects and decreases the lifespan of the unit's battery, necessitating earlier replacement. A closed-loop deep brain stimulator that uses brain signals to determine when to deliver stimulation based on the occurrence of symptoms could potentially address these drawbacks of current technology. Attempts to detect Parkinsonian tremor using brain signals recorded during the implantation procedure have been successful. However, the ability of these methods to accurately detect tremor over extended periods of time is unknown. Here we use local field potentials recorded during a deep brain stimulation clinical follow-up visit 1 month after initial programming to build a tremor detection algorithm and use this algorithm to detect tremor in subsequent visits up to 8 months later. Using this method, we detected the occurrence of tremor with accuracies between 68-93%. These results demonstrate the potential of tremor detection methods for efficacious closed-loop deep brain stimulation over extended periods of time.

  3. Steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 expression and localization in the endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Carmen J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, which mediates surface display of diverse proteins, is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation, and is uniquely correlated with poor survival from endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors. Because EMP2 is differentially expressed in the various stages of the murine and human estrous cycle, we tested the hypothesis that the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen influence EMP2 expression and localization. Methods Frozen human proliferative and secretory endometrium were collected and analyzed for EMP2 expression using SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. The response of EMP2 to progesterone and estradiol was determined using a combination of real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and confocal immunofluorescence in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. To confirm the in vitro results, ovariectomized mice were treated with progesterone or estradiol, and EMP2 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results Within normal human endometrium, EMP2 expression is upregulated in the secretory phase relative to the proliferative phase. To understand the role of steroid hormones on EMP2 expression, we utilized RL95-2 cells, which express both estrogen and progesterone receptors. In RL95-2 cells, both estradiol and progesterone induced EMP2 mRNA expression, but only progesterone induced EMP2 protein expression. To compare steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 between humans and mice, we analyzed EMP2 expression in ovarectomized mice. Similar to results observed in humans, progesterone upregulated endometrial EMP2 expression and induced EMP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Estradiol did not promote translocation to the cell surface, but moderately induced EMP2 expression in cytoplasmic compartments in vivo. Conclusion These findings suggest that targeting of EMP2 to specific locations under the influence of these steroid hormones may

  4. 78 FR 59230 - Special Local Regulations; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... period via the Local Notice to Mariners and local advertising by the event sponsor. If the Captain of the... enforced for the full duration stated on this notice, he or she may use a Broadcast Notice to Mariners or...

  5. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel protein expression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patie......The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed...... that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated homocysteine levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared to control subjects. We further observed that administration of homocysteine or acetylcysteine significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared...... to control conditions. We therefore hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans....

  6. Surface localization of glucosylceramide during Cryptococcus neoformans infection allows targeting as a potential antifungal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Rhome

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn is a significant human pathogen that, despite current treatments, continues to have a high morbidity rate especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The need for more tolerable and specific therapies has been clearly shown. In the search for novel drug targets, the gene for glucosylceramide synthase (GCS1 was deleted in Cn, resulting in a strain (Δgcs1 that does not produce glucosylceramide (GlcCer and is avirulent in mouse models of infection. To understand the biology behind the connection between virulence and GlcCer, the production and localization of GlcCer must be characterized in conditions that are prohibitive to the growth of Δgcs1 (neutral pH and high CO(2. These prohibitive conditions are physiologically similar to those found in the extracellular spaces of the lung during infection. Here, using immunofluorescence, we have shown that GlcCer localization to the cell surface is significantly increased during growth in these conditions and during infection. We further seek to exploit this localization by treatment with Cerezyme (Cz, a recombinant enzyme that metabolizes GlcCer, as a potential treatment for Cn. Cz treatment was found to reduce the amount of GlcCer in vitro, in cultures, and in Cn cells inhabiting the mouse lung. Treatment with Cz induced a membrane integrity defect in wild type Cn cells similar to Δgcs1. Cz treatment also reduced the in vitro growth of Cn in a dose and condition dependent manner. Finally, Cz treatment was shown to have a protective effect on survival in mice infected with Cn. Taken together, these studies have established the legitimacy of targeting the GlcCer and other related sphingolipid systems in the development of novel therapeutics.

  7. Study of local currents in low dimension materials using complex injecting potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenglai; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2018-04-01

    A complex potential is constructed to inject electrons into the conduction band, mimicking electron currents in nanoscale systems. The injected electrons are time propagated until a steady state is reached. The local current density can then be calculated to show the path of the conducting electrons on an atomistic level. The method allows for the calculation of the current density vectors within the medium as a function of energy of the conducting electron. Using this method, we investigate the electron pathway of graphene nanoribbons in various structures, molecular junctions, and black phosphorus nanoribbons. By analyzing the current flow through the structures, we find strong dependence on the structural geometry and the energy of the injected electrons. This method may be of general use in the study of nano-electronic materials and interfaces.

  8. Hybrid Scheme for Modeling Local Field Potentials from Point-Neuron Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Espen; Dahmen, David; Stavrinou, Maria L

    2016-01-01

    on populations of network-equivalent multicompartment neuron models with layer-specific synaptic connectivity, can be used with an arbitrary number of point-neuron network populations, and allows for a full separation of simulated network dynamics and LFPs. We apply the scheme to a full-scale cortical network......With rapidly advancing multi-electrode recording technology, the local field potential (LFP) has again become a popular measure of neuronal activity in both research and clinical applications. Proper understanding of the LFP requires detailed mathematical modeling incorporating the anatomical...... and electrophysiological features of neurons near the recording electrode, as well as synaptic inputs from the entire network. Here we propose a hybrid modeling scheme combining efficient point-neuron network models with biophysical principles underlying LFP generation by real neurons. The LFP predictions rely...

  9. First-principle optimal local pseudopotentials construction via optimized effective potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Wenhui; Zhang, Shoutao; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Miao, Maosheng

    2016-01-01

    The local pseudopotential (LPP) is an important component of orbital-free density functional theory, a promising large-scale simulation method that can maintain information on a material’s electron state. The LPP is usually extracted from solid-state density functional theory calculations, thereby it is difficult to assess its transferability to cases involving very different chemical environments. Here, we reveal a fundamental relation between the first-principles norm-conserving pseudopotential (NCPP) and the LPP. On the basis of this relationship, we demonstrate that the LPP can be constructed optimally from the NCPP for a large number of elements using the optimized effective potential method. Specially, our method provides a unified scheme for constructing and assessing the LPP within the framework of first-principles pseudopotentials. Our practice reveals that the existence of a valid LPP with high transferability may strongly depend on the element.

  10. Local agro-industrial by-products with potential use in Ghanaian aquaculture: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    plant by-products for use in fish grow-out facilities, particularly in tilapia production, which accounts for over 80 % of aquaculture production. This review thus identifies local agro-industrial byproducts with potential use in fish feeds based on their nutritional composition, total annual production......, competition for and seasonal availability and dynamics of these products as well as prices. The effects of dietary inclusions of these by-products on fish growth and feed utilisation are also reviewed. Based on the published works and other practical information reviewed, these by-products represent huge...... regions of the world where these crops and their resulting by-products are produced in commercial quantities...

  11. Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured.

  12. Chromatic and Achromatic Spatial Resolution of Local Field Potentials in Awake Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Lashgari, Reza; Kremkow, Jens; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A; Zaidi, Qasim; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) have become an important measure of neuronal population activity in the brain and could provide robust signals to guide the implant of visual cortical prosthesis in the future. However, it remains unclear whether LFPs can detect weak cortical responses (e.g., cortical responses to equiluminant color) and whether they have enough visual spatial resolution to distinguish different chromatic and achromatic stimulus patterns. By recording from awake behaving macaques in primary visual cortex, here we demonstrate that LFPs respond robustly to pure chromatic stimuli and exhibit ∼2.5 times lower spatial resolution for chromatic than achromatic stimulus patterns, a value that resembles the ratio of achromatic/chromatic resolution measured with psychophysical experiments in humans. We also show that, although the spatial resolution of LFP decays with visual eccentricity as is also the case for single neurons, LFPs have higher spatial resolution and show weaker response suppression to low spatial frequencies than spiking multiunit activity. These results indicate that LFP recordings are an excellent approach to measure spatial resolution from local populations of neurons in visual cortex including those responsive to color. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Multislice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography at a Local Hospital: Pitfalls and Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolnes, K.; Velle, Ose H.; Hareide, S.; Hegbom, K.; Wiseth, R. [Volda Hospital (Norway). Depts. of Radiology and Internal Medicine

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the favorable results achieved with multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of coronary arteries at larger centers could be paralleled at a local hospital. Material and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease scheduled for invasive investigation with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) at a university hospital underwent MSCT with a 16-slice scanner at a local hospital. Diagnostic accuracy of MSCT for coronary artery disease was assessed using a 16-segment coronary artery model with QCA as the gold standard. Results: Segments with diameter 50% stenosis for the 416 assessable segments were 92%, 82%, 53%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: Our beginners' experience demonstrated favorable results regarding sensitivity and negative predictive value. The positive predictive value, however, was unsatisfactory. Calcifications were identified as the most important factor for false-positive results with MSCT. With widespread use of MSCT coronary angiography, there is a risk of recruiting patients without significant coronary artery disease to unnecessary and potentially harmful invasive procedures.

  14. New correlation potential for the local-spin-density functional formalism. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.; Farkas, L.

    1982-01-01

    Using the new parameterization for the correlation potential which seems to be the best that is at present available within the local-spin-density (LSD) functional formalism, the Fermi contact term in light atoms (up to Ni) is calculated. Although the overall improvement of the previous LSD results is obtained, discrepancy between theory and experiment remains rather large. It seems that the local approximation for exchange and correlation fails to predict such quantities as magnetic-moment density near the nucleus. It is also shown that the self-interaction correction does not remedy this failure. Further, the effect of the nonzero nuclear radius is investigated and found to be most important in the lightest atoms (e.g. a factor of 0.664 appears in the case of Li). This fact was omitted in all previous calculations and throws doubt on the reported excellent agreement of the results of many-body perturbation theory with experiment. It was also verified that the contact approximation of the Fermi contact term is really good enough. (author)

  15. Attitudes towards Potential New Tobacco Control Regulations among U.S. Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Allison M.; Kowitt, Sarah D.; Myers, Allison E.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2018-01-01

    Favorable attitudes towards tobacco control policies can facilitate their implementation and success. We examined attitudes toward four potential U.S. Federal tobacco regulations (banning menthol from cigarettes, reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes, banning candy and fruit flavored electronic cigarettes, and banning candy and fruit flavored little cigars and cigarillos) and associations with individual and state variables. A nationally representative phone survey of 4337 adults assessed at...

  16. An N-terminal nuclear localization sequence but not the calmodulin-binding domain mediates nuclear localization of nucleomorphin, a protein that regulates nuclear number in Dictyostelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myre, Michael A.; O'Day, Danton H.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleomorphin is a novel nuclear calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein (CaMBP) containing an extensive DEED (glu/asp repeat) domain that regulates nuclear number. GFP-constructs of the 38 kDa NumA1 isoform localize as intranuclear patches adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. The translocation of CaMBPs into nuclei has previously been shown by others to be mediated by both classic nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) and CaM-binding domains (CaMBDs). Here we show that NumA1 possesses a CaMBD ( 171 EDVSRFIKGKLLQKQQKIYKDLERF 195 ) containing both calcium-dependent-binding motifs and an IQ-like motif for calcium-independent binding. GFP-constructs containing only NumA1 residues 1-129, lacking the DEED and CaMBDs, still localized as patches at the internal periphery of nuclei thus ruling out a direct role for the CaMBD in nuclear import. These constructs contained the amino acid residues 48 KKSYQDPEIIAHSRPRK 64 that include both a putative bipartite and classical NLS. GFP-bipartite NLS constructs localized uniformly within nuclei but not as patches. As with previous work, removal of the DEED domain resulted in highly multinucleate cells. However as shown here, multinuclearity only occurred when the NLS was present allowing the protein to enter nuclei. Site-directed mutation analysis in which the NLS was changed to 48 EF 49 abolished the stability of the GFP fusion at the protein but not RNA level preventing subcellular analyses. Cells transfected with the 48 EF 49 construct exhibited slowed growth when compared to parental AX3 cells and other GFP-NumA1 deletion mutants. In addition to identifying an NLS that is sufficient for nuclear translocation of nucleomorphin and ruling out CaM-binding in this event, this work shows that the nuclear localization of NumA1 is crucial to its ability to regulate nuclear number in Dictyostelium

  17. Local conditions for the Pauli potential in order to yield self-consistent electron densities exhibiting proper atomic shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finzel, Kati, E-mail: kati.finzel@liu.se [Linköpings University, IFM Department of Physics, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-01-21

    The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.

  18. CART peptide is a potential endogenous antioxidant and preferentially localized in mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhong Mao

    Full Text Available The multifunctional neuropeptide Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART is secreted from hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal gland and pancreas. It also can be found in circulatory system. This feature suggests a general role for CART in different cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that CART protects mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, cellular proteins and lipids against the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide, a widely used oxidant. Using cis-parinaric acid as a sensitive reporting probe for peroxidation in membranes, and a lipid-soluble azo initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile we found that CART is an antioxidant. Furthermore, we found that CART localized to mitochondria in cultured cells and mouse brain neuronal cells. More importantly, pretreatment with CART by systemic injection protects against a mouse oxidative stress model, which mimics the main features of Parkinson's disease. Given the unique molecular structure and biological features of CART, we conclude that CART is an antioxidant peptide (or antioxidant hormone. We further propose that it may have strong therapeutic properties for human diseases in which oxidative stress is strongly involved such as Parkinson's disease.

  19. PH Domain-Arf G Protein Interactions Localize the Arf-GEF Steppke for Cleavage Furrow Regulation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon M Lee

    Full Text Available The recruitment of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs to specific subcellular sites dictates where they activate small G proteins for the regulation of various cellular processes. Cytohesins are a conserved family of plasma membrane GEFs for Arf small G proteins that regulate endocytosis. Analyses of mammalian cytohesins have identified a number of recruitment mechanisms for these multi-domain proteins, but the conservation and developmental roles for these mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report how the pleckstrin homology (PH domain of the Drosophila cytohesin Steppke affects its localization and activity at cleavage furrows of the early embryo. We found that the PH domain is necessary for Steppke furrow localization, and for it to regulate furrow structure. However, the PH domain was not sufficient for the localization. Next, we examined the role of conserved PH domain amino acid residues that are required for mammalian cytohesins to bind PIP3 or GTP-bound Arf G proteins. We confirmed that the Steppke PH domain preferentially binds PIP3 in vitro through a conserved mechanism. However, disruption of residues for PIP3 binding had no apparent effect on GFP-Steppke localization and effects. Rather, residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins made major contributions to this Steppke localization and activity. By analyzing GFP-tagged Arf and Arf-like small G proteins, we found that Arf1-GFP, Arf6-GFP and Arl4-GFP, but not Arf4-GFP, localized to furrows. However, analyses of embryos depleted of Arf1, Arf6 or Arl4 revealed either earlier defects than occur in embryos depleted of Steppke, or no detectable furrow defects, possibly because of redundancies, and thus it was difficult to assess how individual Arf small G proteins affect Steppke. Nonetheless, our data show that the Steppke PH domain and its conserved residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins have substantial effects on Steppke localization and activity in early Drosophila embryos.

  20. PDE2A2 regulates mitochondria morphology and apoptotic cell death via local modulation of cAMP/PKA signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterisi, Stefania; Lobo, Miguel J; Livie, Craig; Castle, John C; Weinberger, Michael; Baillie, George; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Musheshe, Nshunge; Stangherlin, Alessandra; Gottlieb, Eyal; Maizels, Rory; Bortolozzi, Mario; Micaroni, Massimo; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2017-05-02

    cAMP/PKA signalling is compartmentalised with tight spatial and temporal control of signal propagation underpinning specificity of response. The cAMP-degrading enzymes, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), localise to specific subcellular domains within which they control local cAMP levels and are key regulators of signal compartmentalisation. Several components of the cAMP/PKA cascade are located to different mitochondrial sub-compartments, suggesting the presence of multiple cAMP/PKA signalling domains within the organelle. The function and regulation of these domains remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a novel cAMP/PKA signalling domain localised at mitochondrial membranes and regulated by PDE2A2. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches combined with real-time FRET imaging and high resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that in rat cardiac myocytes and other cell types mitochondrial PDE2A2 regulates local cAMP levels and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of Drp1. We further demonstrate that inhibition of PDE2A, by enhancing the hormone-dependent cAMP response locally, affects mitochondria dynamics and protects from apoptotic cell death.

  1. Sbg1 Is a Novel Regulator for the Localization of the β-Glucan Synthase Bgs1 in Fission Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Davidson

    Full Text Available Glucan synthases synthesize glucans, complex polysaccharides that are the major components in fungal cell walls and division septa. Studying regulation of glucan synthases is important as they are essential for fungal cell survival and thus popular targets for anti-fungal drugs. Linear 1,3-β-glucan is the main component of primary septum and is synthesized by the conserved β-glucan synthase Bgs1 in fission yeast cytokinesis. It is known that Rho1 GTPase regulates Bgs1 catalytic activity and the F-BAR protein Cdc15 plays a role in Bgs1 delivery to the plasma membrane. Here we characterize a novel protein Sbg1 that is present in a complex with Bgs1 and regulates its protein levels and localization. Sbg1 is essential for contractile-ring constriction and septum formation during cytokinesis. Sbg1 and Bgs1 physically interact and are interdependent for localization to the plasma membrane. Bgs1 is less stable and/or mis-targeted to vacuoles in sbg1 mutants. Moreover, Sbg1 plays an earlier and more important role in Bgs1 trafficking and localization than Cdc15. Together, our data reveal a new mode of regulation for the essential β-glucan synthase Bgs1 by the novel protein Sbg1.

  2. Manager Factor Associated to the Compliance of Local Smoke-Free Regulation among Star Hotels in Badung District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Devhy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Smoke-free area regulation has been issued recently in Bali Province and Badung District. This study aimed to identify factors associated to the compliance of local smoke-free regulation in star hotel. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytic study conducted in Badung District from March to May 2014. Samples of numbered 104 hotels and the managers that selected using systematic random sampling. Compliance data collected through observation using the observation form and the data of managers through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and poisson regression. Result: The results shows that the compliance of star hotel to local smoke-free regulation was low (15.4%. The concrete support of hotel managers was significantly associated with the compliance to smoke free regulation (PR=4.25; 95%CI: 1.03-17.58. The factors that not significantly associated to the compliance were the knowledge (PR=2.0; 95%CI: 0.8-4.9, attitude (PR=2.5; 95%CI: 0.8-8.2, and organization support (PR=1.8; 95%CI: 0.7-4.5. Furthermore the hotel compliance of managers who have smoking behavior was 0% while the managers without smoking behavior, the compliance was 19.5%. Conclusion: The compliance of star hotels in Badung District on the implementation of local smoke-free regulation was relatively low and the compliance was associated with the presence of concrete support of the hotel managers. Keywords: compliance, local smoke-free legislation, star hotel

  3. MHODE: a local-homogeneity theory for improved source-parameter estimation of potential fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni; Paoletti, Valeria

    2015-08-01

    We describe a multihomogeneity theory for source-parameter estimation of potential fields. Similar to what happens for random source models, where the monofractal scaling-law has been generalized into a multifractal law, we propose to generalize the homogeneity law into a multihomogeneity law. This allows a theoretically correct approach to study real-world potential fields, which are inhomogeneous and so do not show scale invariance, except in the asymptotic regions (very near to or very far from their sources). Since the scaling properties of inhomogeneous fields change with the scale of observation, we show that they may be better studied at a set of scales than at a single scale and that a multihomogeneous model is needed to explain its complex scaling behaviour. In order to perform this task, we first introduce fractional-degree homogeneous fields, to show that: (i) homogeneous potential fields may have fractional or integer degree; (ii) the source-distributions for a fractional-degree are not confined in a bounded region, similarly to some integer-degree models, such as the infinite line mass and (iii) differently from the integer-degree case, the fractional-degree source distributions are no longer uniform density functions. Using this enlarged set of homogeneous fields, real-world anomaly fields are studied at different scales, by a simple search, at any local window W, for the best homogeneous field of either integer or fractional-degree, this yielding a multiscale set of local homogeneity-degrees and depth estimations which we call multihomogeneous model. It is so defined a new technique of source parameter estimation (Multi-HOmogeneity Depth Estimation, MHODE), permitting retrieval of the source parameters of complex sources. We test the method with inhomogeneous fields of finite sources, such as faults or cylinders, and show its effectiveness also in a real-case example. These applications show the usefulness of the new concepts, multihomogeneity and

  4. Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nast

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, heating of houses and commercial areas is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. When considering the drastic impact of an increasing emission of greenhouse gases as well as the finiteness of fossil resources, the usage of efficient and renewable energy generation technologies has to be increased. In this context, small-scale heating networks are an important technical component, which enable the efficient and sustainable usage of various heat generation technologies. This paper investigates how the potential of district heating for different settlement structures can be assessed. In particular, we analyze in which way remote sensing and GIS data can assist the planning of optimized heat allocation systems. In order to identify the best suited locations, a spatial model is defined to assess the potential for small district heating networks. Within the spatial model, the local heat demand and the economic costs of the necessary heat allocation infrastructure are compared. Therefore, a first and major step is the detailed characterization of the settlement structure by means of remote sensing data. The method is developed on the basis of a test area in the town of Oberhaching in the South of Germany. The results are validated through detailed in situ data sets and demonstrate that the model facilitates both the calculation of the required input parameters and an accurate assessment of the district heating potential. The described method can be transferred to other investigation areas with a larger spatial extent. The study underlines the range of applications for remote sensing-based analyses with respect to energy-related planning issues.

  5. Computing wave functions in multichannel collisions with non-local potentials using the R-matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitati, Joey; Slimmer, Ben; Li, Weichuan; Potel, Gregory; Nunes, Filomena

    2017-09-01

    The calculable form of the R-matrix method has been previously shown to be a useful tool in approximately solving the Schrodinger equation in nuclear scattering problems. We use this technique combined with the Gauss quadrature for the Lagrange-mesh method to efficiently solve for the wave functions of projectile nuclei in low energy collisions (1-100 MeV) involving an arbitrary number of channels. We include the local Woods-Saxon potential, the non-local potential of Perey and Buck, a Coulomb potential, and a coupling potential to computationally solve for the wave function of two nuclei at short distances. Object oriented programming is used to increase modularity, and parallel programming techniques are introduced to reduce computation time. We conclude that the R-matrix method is an effective method to predict the wave functions of nuclei in scattering problems involving both multiple channels and non-local potentials. Michigan State University iCER ACRES REU.

  6. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... are available online by going to http://www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2011-0942 in the... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules... Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution...

  7. 77 FR 33130 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self... vessels transiting the swim route shall proceed at a no-wake speed and maintain extra vigilance for people... regulations of Sec. 100.901 apply. Vessels transiting within the regulated area shall travel at a no-wake...

  8. 78 FR 36424 - Special Local Regulations for Summer Events; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... mentioned in this preamble as being available in the docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov , type the... waters of Horseshoe Bay--a portion of Green Bay. As this event is currently listed within 33 CFR 100.905... regulations on small entities during rulemaking. The term ``small entities'' comprises small businesses, not...

  9. Could Regulator Materialize Potential Demand for Islamic Securities? Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Kariastanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this paper is to provide a discussion whether Islamic securities enjoy larger demands than conventional securities. This paper also investigate whether regulator could effectively take a role in materializing demands for Islamic securities and whether regulator declaration is more convincing than sharia compliance declaration by another institution.Methods - We employ differences in differences (DID regression to see the immediate, medium, and long term market response to this announcement. We also estimate cumulative abnormal returns by employing the standard market model for the robustness test.Results - We find that market reacts to sharia compliance declaration by regulator in the long-run, hence potential demands are realized and the Islamic securities will enjoy greater market power. We also provide evidence that Islamic investors are not too strict in screening Islamic securities and are willing to accept different opinions regarding sharia compliance.Conclusion - This finding could explain why Islamic finance is still growing rapidly even though there are critiques in the genuineness of sharia compliance of the current Islamic financial products/services.Keywords: Regulator, Islamic securities, sharia compliance, demand, investor confidence

  10. Vimentin is involved in regulation of mitochondrial motility and membrane potential by Rac1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Matveeva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that binding of mitochondria to vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF is regulated by GTPase Rac1. The activation of Rac1 leads to a redoubling of mitochondrial motility in murine fibroblasts. Using double-mutants Rac1(G12V, F37L and Rac1(G12V, Y40H that are capable to activate different effectors of Rac1, we show that mitochondrial movements are regulated through PAK1 kinase. The involvement of PAK1 kinase is also confirmed by the fact that expression of its auto inhibitory domain (PID blocks the effect of activated Rac1 on mitochondrial motility. The observed effect of Rac1 and PAK1 kinase on mitochondria depends on phosphorylation of the Ser-55 of vimentin. Besides the effect on motility Rac1 activation also decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP which is detected by ∼20% drop of the fluorescence intensity of mitochondria stained with the potential sensitive dye TMRM. One of important consequences of the discovered regulation of MMP by Rac1 and PAK1 is a spatial differentiation of mitochondria in polarized fibroblasts: at the front of the cell they are less energized (by ∼25% than at the rear part.

  11. Determining the true polarity and amplitude of synaptic currents underlying gamma oscillations of local field potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in successive waves of oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs reflect the ongoing processing of neuron populations. However, their amplitude, polarity and synaptic origin are uncertain due to the blending of electric fields produced by multiple converging inputs, and the lack of a baseline in standard AC-coupled recordings. Consequently, the estimation of underlying currents by laminar analysis yields spurious sequences of inward and outward currents. We devised a combined analytical/experimental approach that is suitable to study laminated structures. The approach was essayed on an experimental oscillatory LFP as the Schaffer-CA1 gamma input in anesthetized rats, and it was verified by parallel processing of model LFPs obtained through a realistic CA1 aggregate of compartmental units. This approach requires laminar LFP recordings and the isolation of the oscillatory input from other converging pathways, which was achieved through an independent component analysis. It also allows the spatial and temporal components of pathway-specific LFPs to be separated. While reconstructed Schaffer-specific LFPs still show spurious inward/outward current sequences, these were clearly stratified into distinct subcellular domains. These spatial bands guided the localized delivery of neurotransmitter blockers in experiments. As expected, only Glutamate but not GABA blockers abolished Schaffer LFPs when applied to the active but not passive subcellular domains of pyramidal cells. The known chemical nature of the oscillatory LFP allowed an empirical offset of the temporal component of Schaffer LFPs, such that following reconstruction they yield only sinks or sources at the appropriate sites. In terms of number and polarity, some waves increased and others decreased proportional to the concomitant inputs in native multisynaptic LFPs. Interestingly, the processing also retrieved the initiation time for each wave, which can be used to discriminate

  12. Localization of transient receptor potential ion channels in primary and motile cilia of the female murine reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C.; Byskov, Anne Grete; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the subcellular localization of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels and the potential sensory role of cilia in murine female reproductive organs using confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis on ovary and oviduct tissue sections as well as on primary cultures...... of follicular granulosa cells. We show that the Ca2+ permeable cation channel, polycystin-2, as well as polycystin-1, a receptor that forms a functional protein complex with polycystin 2, distinctively localize to primary cilia emerging from granulosa cells of antral follicles in vivo and in vitro. Both...... polycystins are localized to motile oviduct cilia and this localization is greatly increased upon ovulatory gonadotropic stimulation. Further, the Ca2+ permeable cation channel, TRP vaniloid 4 (TRPV4), localizes to a sub-population of motile cilia on the epithelial cells of the ampulla and isthmus with high...

  13. Local field potential correlates of auditory working memory in primate dorsal temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Ng, Chi-Wing; Poremba, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Dorsal temporal pole (dTP) is a cortical region at the rostral end of the superior temporal gyrus that forms part of the ventral auditory object processing pathway. Anatomical connections with frontal and medial temporal areas, as well as a recent single-unit recording study, suggest this area may be an important part of the network underlying auditory working memory (WM). To further elucidate the role of dTP in auditory WM, local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the left dTP region of two rhesus macaques during an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. Sample and test sounds were separated by a 5-s retention interval, and a behavioral response was required only if the sounds were identical (match trials). Sensitivity of auditory evoked responses in dTP to behavioral significance and context was further tested by passively presenting the sounds used as auditory WM memoranda both before and after the DMS task. Average evoked potentials (AEPs) for all cue types and phases of the experiment comprised two small-amplitude early onset components (N20, P40), followed by two broad, large-amplitude components occupying the remainder of the stimulus period (N120, P300), after which a final set of components were observed following stimulus offset (N80OFF, P170OFF). During the DMS task, the peak amplitude and/or latency of several of these components depended on whether the sound was presented as the sample or test, and whether the test matched the sample. Significant differences were also observed among the DMS task and passive exposure conditions. Comparing memory-related effects in the LFP signal with those obtained in the spiking data raises the possibility some memory-related activity in dTP may be locally produced and actively generated. The results highlight the involvement of dTP in auditory stimulus identification and recognition and its sensitivity to the behavioral significance of sounds in different contexts. This article is part of a Special

  14. AMPD2 regulates GTP synthesis and is mutated in a potentially treatable neurodegenerative brainstem disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K; Van Vleet, Jeremy; Fenstermaker, Ali G; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Scheliga, Judith S; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma M; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa A; Saleh, Mohammed A M; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2013-08-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acid synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  16. Nuclear protein phosphatase-1: an epigenetic regulator of fear memory and amygdala long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshibu, K; Gräff, J; Mansuy, I M

    2011-01-26

    Complex brain diseases and neurological disorders in human generally result from the disturbance of multiple genes and signaling pathways. These disturbances may derive from mutations, deletions, translocations or rearrangements of specific gene(s). However, over the past years, it has become clear that such disturbances may also derive from alterations in the epigenome affecting several genes simultaneously. Our work recently demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms in the adult brain are in part regulated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a protein Ser/Thr phosphatase that negatively regulates hippocampus-dependent long-term memory (LTM) and synaptic plasticity. PP1 is abundant in brain structures involved in emotional processing like the amygdala, it may therefore be involved in the regulation of fear memory, a form of memory related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in human. Here, we demonstrate that PP1 is a molecular suppressor of fear memory and synaptic plasticity in the amygdala that can control chromatin remodeling in neurons. We show that the selective inhibition of the nuclear pool of PP1 in amygdala neurons significantly alters posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones and the expression of several memory-associated genes. These alterations correlate with enhanced fear memory, and with an increase in long-term potentiation (LTP) that is transcription-dependent. Our results underscore the importance of nuclear PP1 in the amygdala as an epigenetic regulator of emotional memory, and the relevance of protein phosphatases as potential targets for therapeutic treatment of brain disorders like PTSD. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Realization of PLC to the Variable Frequency Speed Regulation System of Mine Local Ventilator based on RS-485 Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Li, Jian; Yun, Yichong

    2018-03-01

    The article first introduces the merits of serial communication in the PLC to the variable frequency speed regulation system of mine local ventilator, and then sets up a hardware application development platform of PLC and inverter based on RS-485 communication technology, next presents communication initialization of the PLC and Inverter. Finally according to the control requirements, PLC send run operation & monitoring instruction to Inverter, realizes the serial communication control between the PLC and Inverter.

  18. Rab5 regulates internalisation of P2X4 receptors and potentiation by ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leanne

    2013-03-01

    The P2X4 receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed in neurons, endothelia and immune cells. Plasma membrane expression of P2X4 is regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis, and this study identifies a Rab5-dependent pathway of receptor internalisation. Expression of Rab5 constructs altered the distribution of P2X4 in HEK-293 cells, and both constitutive internalisation and agonist-induced desensitisation of P2X4 were increased by co-expression of wild-type Rab5 or constitutively active Rab5 (Q79L). Expression of inactive dynamin K44A and Rab5 S34N constructs abolished agonist-induced desensitisation, suggesting internalisation as the underlying mechanism. Blocking P2X4 internalisation in this way also abolished potentiation of ATP-induced currents by the allosteric modulator ivermectin. This suggests that the dynamin-Rab5 internalisation pathway is essential for the ivermectin potentiation effect. In agreement with this hypothesis, the co-expression of wild-type dynamin, wild-type Rab5 or active Rab5 (Q79L) could increase the potentiation of the ATP-induced P2X4 response by ivermectin. These findings highlight Rab5 GTPase as a key regulator of P2X4 receptor cell surface expression and internalisation.

  19. Localisation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease with neural beta and gamma activity of local field potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, R.; Zwartjes - de Klerk, D.G.M; Heida, Tjitske; Contarino, M.F.; de Bie, R.M.A.; van den Munckhof, P; Schuurman, P.R.; Martens, H.C.F.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Bour, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the nature of oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) by means of intraoperative local field potential (LFP) recordings, its relationship with microelectrode recordings (MER) and its potential use to locate the STN and its sensorimotor sub-area in patients with Parkinson’s

  20. Linear distributed source modeling of local field potentials recorded with intra-cortical electrode arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikkert Hindriks

    Full Text Available Planar intra-cortical electrode (Utah arrays provide a unique window into the spatial organization of cortical activity. Reconstruction of the current source density (CSD underlying such recordings, however, requires "inverting" Poisson's equation. For inter-laminar recordings, this is commonly done by the CSD method, which consists in taking the second-order spatial derivative of the recorded local field potentials (LFPs. Although the CSD method has been tremendously successful in mapping the current generators underlying inter-laminar LFPs, its application to planar recordings is more challenging. While for inter-laminar recordings the CSD method seems reasonably robust against violations of its assumptions, is it unclear as to what extent this holds for planar recordings. One of the objectives of this study is to characterize the conditions under which the CSD method can be successfully applied to Utah array data. Using forward modeling, we find that for spatially coherent CSDs, the CSD method yields inaccurate reconstructions due to volume-conducted contamination from currents in deeper cortical layers. An alternative approach is to "invert" a constructed forward model. The advantage of this approach is that any a priori knowledge about the geometrical and electrical properties of the tissue can be taken into account. Although several inverse methods have been proposed for LFP data, the applicability of existing electroencephalographic (EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG inverse methods to LFP data is largely unexplored. Another objective of our study therefore, is to assess the applicability of the most commonly used EEG/MEG inverse methods to Utah array data. Our main conclusion is that these inverse methods provide more accurate CSD reconstructions than the CSD method. We illustrate the inverse methods using event-related potentials recorded from primary visual cortex of a macaque monkey during a motion discrimination task.

  1. Computing the Local Field Potential (LFP) from Integrate-and-Fire Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, Hermann; Lansner, Anders; Panzeri, Stefano; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2015-01-01

    Leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) network models are commonly used to study how the spiking dynamics of neural networks changes with stimuli, tasks or dynamic network states. However, neurophysiological studies in vivo often rather measure the mass activity of neuronal microcircuits with the local field potential (LFP). Given that LFPs are generated by spatially separated currents across the neuronal membrane, they cannot be computed directly from quantities defined in models of point-like LIF neurons. Here, we explore the best approximation for predicting the LFP based on standard output from point-neuron LIF networks. To search for this best “LFP proxy”, we compared LFP predictions from candidate proxies based on LIF network output (e.g, firing rates, membrane potentials, synaptic currents) with “ground-truth” LFP obtained when the LIF network synaptic input currents were injected into an analogous three-dimensional (3D) network model of multi-compartmental neurons with realistic morphology, spatial distributions of somata and synapses. We found that a specific fixed linear combination of the LIF synaptic currents provided an accurate LFP proxy, accounting for most of the variance of the LFP time course observed in the 3D network for all recording locations. This proxy performed well over a broad set of conditions, including substantial variations of the neuronal morphologies. Our results provide a simple formula for estimating the time course of the LFP from LIF network simulations in cases where a single pyramidal population dominates the LFP generation, and thereby facilitate quantitative comparison between computational models and experimental LFP recordings in vivo. PMID:26657024

  2. Computing the Local Field Potential (LFP from Integrate-and-Fire Network Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mazzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF network models are commonly used to study how the spiking dynamics of neural networks changes with stimuli, tasks or dynamic network states. However, neurophysiological studies in vivo often rather measure the mass activity of neuronal microcircuits with the local field potential (LFP. Given that LFPs are generated by spatially separated currents across the neuronal membrane, they cannot be computed directly from quantities defined in models of point-like LIF neurons. Here, we explore the best approximation for predicting the LFP based on standard output from point-neuron LIF networks. To search for this best "LFP proxy", we compared LFP predictions from candidate proxies based on LIF network output (e.g, firing rates, membrane potentials, synaptic currents with "ground-truth" LFP obtained when the LIF network synaptic input currents were injected into an analogous three-dimensional (3D network model of multi-compartmental neurons with realistic morphology, spatial distributions of somata and synapses. We found that a specific fixed linear combination of the LIF synaptic currents provided an accurate LFP proxy, accounting for most of the variance of the LFP time course observed in the 3D network for all recording locations. This proxy performed well over a broad set of conditions, including substantial variations of the neuronal morphologies. Our results provide a simple formula for estimating the time course of the LFP from LIF network simulations in cases where a single pyramidal population dominates the LFP generation, and thereby facilitate quantitative comparison between computational models and experimental LFP recordings in vivo.

  3. Local Biomass Baselines and the Recovery Potential for Hawaiian Coral Reef Fish Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin D. Gorospe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of multiple ecosystem drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, and how they vary across space is critical to the spatial management of coral reef fisheries. In Hawaii, as elsewhere, there is uncertainty with regards to how areas should be selected for protection, and management efforts prioritized. One strategy is to prioritize efforts based on an area's biomass baseline, or natural capacity to support reef fish populations. Another strategy is to prioritize areas based on their recovery potential, or in other words, the potential increase in fish biomass from present-day state, should management be effective at restoring assemblages to something more like their baseline state. We used data from 717 fisheries-independent reef fish monitoring surveys from 2012 to 2015 around the main Hawaiian Islands as well as site-level data on benthic habitat, oceanographic conditions, and human population density, to develop a hierarchical, linear Bayesian model that explains spatial variation in: (1 herbivorous and (2 total reef fish biomass. We found that while human population density negatively affected fish assemblages at all surveyed areas, there was considerable variation in the natural capacity of different areas to support reef fish biomass. For example, some areas were predicted to have the capacity to support ten times as much herbivorous fish biomass as other areas. Overall, the model found human population density to have negatively impacted fish biomass throughout Hawaii, however the magnitude and uncertainty of these impacts varied locally. Results provide part of the basis for marine spatial planning and/or MPA-network design within Hawaii.

  4. Regulation of gap junction conductance by calcineurin through Cx43 phosphorylation: implications for action potential conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Rita I; Hatch, Fiona S; Salvage, Samantha C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Lampe, Paul D; Fry, Christopher H

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with raised intracellular [Ca 2+ ] and slowed action potential conduction caused by reduced gap junction (GJ) electrical conductance (Gj). Ventricular GJs are composed of connexin proteins (Cx43), with Gj determined by Cx43 phosphorylation status. Connexin phosphorylation is an interplay between protein kinases and phosphatases but the precise pathways are unknown. We aimed to identify key Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylation sites on Cx43 that regulate cardiac gap junction conductance and action potential conduction velocity. We investigated the role of the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. Intracellular [Ca 2+ ] was raised in guinea-pig myocardium by a low-Na solution or increased stimulation. Conduction velocity and Gj were measured in multicellular strips. Phosphorylation of Cx43 serine residues (S365 and S368) and of the intermediary regulator I1 at threonine35 was measured by Western blot. Measurements were made in the presence and absence of inhibitors to calcineurin, I1 or protein phosphatase-1 and phosphatase-2.Raised [Ca 2 + ] i decreased Gj, reduced Cx43 phosphorylation at S365 and increased it at S368; these changes were reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Cx43-S368 phosphorylation was reversed by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine. Raised [Ca 2+ ] i also decreased I1 phosphorylation, also prevented by calcineurin inhibitors, to increase activity of the Ca 2+ -independent phosphatase, PPI. The PP1 inhibitor, tautomycin, prevented Cx43-365 dephosphorylation, Cx43-S368 phosphorylation and Gj reduction in raised [Ca 2+ ] i . PP2A had no role. Conduction velocity was reduced by raised [Ca 2+ ] i and reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Reduced action potential conduction and Gj in raised [Ca 2+ ] are regulated by calcineurin-dependent Cx43-S365 phosphorylation, leading to Cx43-S368 dephosphorylation. The calcineurin action is indirect, via I1 dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of PP1.

  5. 25 CFR 1.4 - State and local regulation of the use of Indian property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise governing, regulating, or controlling the use or development of any real or personal property... property. In determining whether, or to what extent, such laws, ordinances, codes, resolutions, rules or...

  6. 78 FR 35756 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Fireworks Display regulations on certain navigable waterways in Hilton Head Island, Mount Pleasant, and... Fireworks'' in Mount Pleasant, the ``Skull Creek Fireworks'' in Hilton Head, and the ``City of North...

  7. 76 FR 57645 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... information about the original regulation, contact BOSN3 Joseph M. Edge, Coast Guard Sector North Carolina... page 55563, in the third column, in the third amendatory instruction, remove the words ``line No. 63...

  8. Toward relating the subthalamic nucleus spiking activity to the local field potentials acquired intranuclearly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michmizos, K P; Nikita, K S; Sakas, D

    2011-01-01

    Studies on neurophysiological correlates of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reveal a strong relationship between the local field potential (LFP) acquired invasively and metabolic signal changes in fMRI experiments. Most of these studies failed to reveal an analogous relationship between metabolic signals and the spiking activity. That would allow for the prediction of the neural activity exclusively from the fMRI signals. However, the relationship between fMRI signals and spiking activity can be inferred indirectly provided that the LFPs can be used to predict the spiking activity of the area. Until now, only the LFP–spike relationship in cortical areas has been examined. Herein, we show that the spiking activity can be predicted by the LFPs acquired in a deep nucleus, namely the subthalamic nucleus (STN), using a nonlinear cascade model. The model can reproduce the spike patterns inside the motor area of the STN that represent information about the motor plans. Our findings expand the possibility of further recruiting non-invasive neuroimaging techniques to understand the activity of the STN and predict or even control movement

  9. Decoding of Human Movements Based on Deep Brain Local Field Potentials Using Ensemble Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs for robust movement decoding of Parkinson’s disease (PD and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Movement-related LFP signal features were extracted by computing instantaneous power related to motor response in different neural frequency bands. An innovative neural network ensemble classifier has been proposed and developed for accurate prediction of finger movement and its forthcoming laterality. The ensemble classifier contains three base neural network classifiers, namely, feedforward, radial basis, and probabilistic neural networks. The majority voting rule is used to fuse the decisions of the three base classifiers to generate the final decision of the ensemble classifier. The overall decoding performance reaches a level of agreement (kappa value at about 0.729±0.16 for decoding movement from the resting state and about 0.671±0.14 for decoding left and right visually cued movements.

  10. Hybrid Scheme for Modeling Local Field Potentials from Point-Neuron Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Espen; Dahmen, David; Stavrinou, Maria L; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; van Albada, Sacha J; Grün, Sonja; Diesmann, Markus; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2016-12-01

    With rapidly advancing multi-electrode recording technology, the local field potential (LFP) has again become a popular measure of neuronal activity in both research and clinical applications. Proper understanding of the LFP requires detailed mathematical modeling incorporating the anatomical and electrophysiological features of neurons near the recording electrode, as well as synaptic inputs from the entire network. Here we propose a hybrid modeling scheme combining efficient point-neuron network models with biophysical principles underlying LFP generation by real neurons. The LFP predictions rely on populations of network-equivalent multicompartment neuron models with layer-specific synaptic connectivity, can be used with an arbitrary number of point-neuron network populations, and allows for a full separation of simulated network dynamics and LFPs. We apply the scheme to a full-scale cortical network model for a ∼1 mm 2 patch of primary visual cortex, predict laminar LFPs for different network states, assess the relative LFP contribution from different laminar populations, and investigate effects of input correlations and neuron density on the LFP. The generic nature of the hybrid scheme and its public implementation in hybridLFPy form the basis for LFP predictions from other and larger point-neuron network models, as well as extensions of the current application with additional biological detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Potential Benefits of Monitoring and Evaluation as a Tool in the South African Local Government Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Mle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions exist for the public good and employ public officials to perform duties aimed at providing a better life for all. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 requires that the public service maintains a high standard of professional ethics, use resources efficiently and effectively, and provide services equitably.  When the new political dispensation came into being in 1994 in South Africa, the newly-elected government committed itself to ensuring a better life for all through the provision of services, for example water and electricity supply, sanitation, and houses, etc. To this end, policies and programmes were put in place. However, the challenge that faces the government is the implementation of these policies and programmes which largely remains unsatisfactory. Systems of reporting and performance are, in the main, weak. To address this short-coming, therefore, government came up with the concept of monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of policies and programmes to the extent of creating a new department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation in the Presidency.  Key to the effective implementation of government policies and programmes is the introduction of a tool to ensure that such policies and programmes do not gather dust. This paper therefore, posits how such a tool can have potential benefits in the local government sphere and be a panacea to the ills of this sphere which is characterized by violent service delivery protests through which communities express their dissatisfaction at the non-delivery of essential services.

  12. Gas-export potential will grow until domestic economies hike local demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.; Stram, B.

    1993-01-01

    Prospects appear good for near-term growth of exportable natural-gas supplies for some member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.). These conclusions are a result of Enron Corp.'s recent investigations in the C.I.S. and other former Soviet republics. They are based on data obtained in cooperation with Vinigaz, the research arm of the Russian state gas concern Gazprom, and from various other research and consulting groups. These studies indicate that gas-export potential will grow as local demand for gas shrinks in the C.I.S. (as the energy needs of the individual republics decline during the period of economic transition) and while the C.I.S.-area countries continue to require foreign currency to help fund redevelopment and reduce debt. This concluding of two articles reviews the economic outlook for outside investment in the oil, gas, and gas-liquids infrastructure and the role of natural-gas supply and price in the development of domestic and export markets

  13. Decoding Pigeon Behavior Outcomes Using Functional Connections among Local Field Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Shan; Wan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the local field potential (LFP) carries information about an animal's behavior, but issues regarding whether there are any relationships between the LFP functional networks and behavior tasks as well as whether it is possible to employ LFP network features to decode the behavioral outcome in a single trial remain unresolved. In this study, we developed a network-based method to decode the behavioral outcomes in pigeons by using the functional connectivity strength values among LFPs recorded from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). In our method, the functional connectivity strengths were first computed based on the synchronization likelihood. Second, the strength values were unwrapped into row vectors and their dimensions were then reduced by principal component analysis. Finally, the behavioral outcomes in single trials were decoded using leave-one-out combined with the k -nearest neighbor method. The results showed that the LFP functional network based on the gamma-band was related to the goal-directed behavior of pigeons. Moreover, the accuracy of the network features (74 ± 8%) was significantly higher than that of the power features (61 ± 12%). The proposed method provides a powerful tool for decoding animal behavior outcomes using a neural functional network.

  14. The potential and biological test on cloned cassava crop remains on local sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, R.; Umar, S.; Hanum, C.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims at knowing the potential of cloned cassava crop remains dry matter and the impact of the feeding of the cloned cassava crop remains based complete feed on the consumption, the body weight gain, and the feed conversion of the local male sheep with the average of initial body weight of 7.75±1.75 kg. The design applied in the first stage research was random sampling method with two frames of tile and the second stage research applied Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three (3) treatments and four (4) replicates. These treatments consisted of P1 (100% grass); P2 (50% grass, 50% complete feed pellet); P3 (100% complete feed from the raw material of cloned cassava crop remaining). Statistical tests showed that the feeding of complete feed whose raw material was from cloned cassava crop remains gave a highly significant impact on decreasing feed consumption, increasing body weight, lowering feed conversion, and increasing crude protein digestibility. The conclusion is that the cloned cassava crop remains can be used as complete sheep feed to replace green grass and can give the best result.

  15. SCREENING OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L. CULTIVARS FOR SEED PRODUCTION POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Aminul Islam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted aiming to find out the seed production potentiality of 19 local and exotic onion cultivars. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sprouting percentage, number of flowers per umbel and number of umbel per bulb. Maximum number of days to 50% bolting (52.67 was exhibited by the genotype G2 and minimum by G6 (27.00 days. The larger bulb size after harvest was obtained from G14 and G19 (18.11 g. Genotypes G4 and G11 required the maximum (16.66 and the minimum (9.00 days for 100% sprouting, respectively. The highest stalk length was found in the genotype G1 (67.23 cm and the lowest in G8 (38.47 cm. Maximum number (5.75 of stalk was produced by the genotype G7 and minimum number (2.09 of stalk by the genotype G11. The genotype G1 produced the highest number of seeds per umbel (1395.92 and seed yield per plant (4.29 g. The lowest (0.45 g seed yield per plant and maximum bulb weight was obtained by the genotype G8.

  16. New approach to predict photoallergic potentials of chemicals based on murine local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yamanaka, Hidenori; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    Photoallergic dermatitis, caused by pharmaceuticals and other consumer products, is a very important issue in human health. However, S10 guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization do not recommend the existing prediction methods for photoallergy because of their low predictability in human cases. We applied local lymph node assay (LLNA), a reliable, quantitative skin sensitization prediction test, to develop a new photoallergy prediction method. This method involves a three-step approach: (1) ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis; (2) determination of no observed adverse effect level for skin phototoxicity based on LLNA; and (3) photoallergy evaluation based on LLNA. Photoallergic potential of chemicals was evaluated by comparing lymph node cell proliferation among groups treated with chemicals with minimal effect levels of skin sensitization and skin phototoxicity under UV irradiation (UV+) or non-UV irradiation (UV-). A case showing significant difference (P < .05) in lymph node cell proliferation rates between UV- and UV+ groups was considered positive for photoallergic reaction. After testing 13 chemicals, seven human photoallergens tested positive and the other six, with no evidence of causing photoallergic dermatitis or UV absorption, tested negative. Among these chemicals, both doxycycline hydrochloride and minocycline hydrochloride were tetracycline antibiotics with different photoallergic properties, and the new method clearly distinguished between the photoallergic properties of these chemicals. These findings suggested high predictability of our method; therefore, it is promising and effective in predicting human photoallergens. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Continuous Force Decoding from Local Field Potentials of the Primary Motor Cortex in Freely Moving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Abed; Heydari Beni, Nargess; Shalchyan, Vahid; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-21

    Local field potential (LFP) signals recorded by intracortical microelectrodes implanted in primary motor cortex can be used as a high informative input for decoding of motor functions. Recent studies show that different kinematic parameters such as position and velocity can be inferred from multiple LFP signals as precisely as spiking activities, however, continuous decoding of the force magnitude from the LFP signals in freely moving animals has remained an open problem. Here, we trained three rats to press a force sensor for getting a drop of water as a reward. A 16-channel micro-wire array was implanted in the primary motor cortex of each trained rat, and obtained LFP signals were used for decoding of the continuous values recorded by the force sensor. Average coefficient of correlation and the coefficient of determination between decoded and actual force signals were r = 0.66 and R 2  = 0.42, respectively. We found that LFP signal on gamma frequency bands (30-120 Hz) had the most contribution in the trained decoding model. This study suggests the feasibility of using low number of LFP channels for the continuous force decoding in freely moving animals resembling BMI systems in real life applications.

  18. Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis by the global regulator CcpA and the local regulator FabT in Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Faustoferri, R.C.; Hubbard, C.J.; Santiago, B.; Buckley, A.A.; Seifert, T.B.; Quivey, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    SMU.1745c, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the MarR family, maps to a location proximal to the fab gene cluster in Streptococcus mutans. Deletion of the SMU.1745c (fabTSm) coding region resulted in a membrane fatty acid composition comprised of longer-chained, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), compared with the parent strain. Previous reports have indicated a role for FabT in regulation of genes in the fab gene cluster in other organisms, through binding to a palindromic DNA seq...

  19. Local ordinances as an instrument of social exclusion: the regulation affecting the homeless is administrative law of the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melero Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses local ordinances, especially the so-called coexistence ordinances, to the extent they affect the daily activities of the homeless. There are three areas of regulation: the prohibition of begging; a ban on sleeping, washing and perform physiological needs in public spaces; and the prohibition of sorting through garbage. This regulation is subjected to a critical analysis, focusing on the fact that has an impact on the fundamental rights of the homeless. The basic parameters of control are the reserve of law and, above all, the principle of proportionality. The conclusion reached is that, in many cases, this regulation is not only illegal, it can also be included within the category Administrative Law of the enemy.

  20. Xenognosin methylation is critical in defining the chemical potential gradient that regulates the potential distribution in Striga pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fate, G.D.; Lynn, D.G. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-20

    Striga asiatica (Scrophulariaceae) is a parasitic plant requiring a host-derived signal, xenognosin, to initiate a cascade of events necessary for the establishment of host contact. By attempting to model the distribution of the xenognosin around the host, the activity of the signal is shown to be strongly dependent on the presence of another component in the host exudate. Surprisingly this component, characterized as 4,6-dimethoxy-2-[(8`Z.11`Z)-8`,11`, -14`-pentadecatriene]resorcinol, is structurally related and shares the same biosynthetic pathway as the xenognosin. This compound is shown to function as an antioxidant and its ability to enhance the activity of the xenognosin is consistent with its ability to extend its lifetime in the exudate. This endogenous antioxidant activity is required to explain the spatial sensing in the establishment of the host-parasite interface and its characterization provides insight into how chemical potential may be regulated within and around plant tissues. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Csk Homologous Kinase, a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-Medicated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and a second member of the Csk family. Like Csk, CHK has Src homology 2 ( SH2 ) and SH3 domains and lacks the...MSCV-retroviral vectors encoding either wild-type CHK or kinase -dead CHK or wild type SH2 domain or SH2 -R147A or SH2 -G129A. All these constructs were... Kinase , a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-Medicated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis Byeong-Chel Lee The University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15213

  2. SOD1 Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation and Its Potential Implications in ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Milani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is a detoxifying enzyme localized in the cytosol, nucleus, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. The discovery that mutations in SOD1 gene cause a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS has attracted great attention, and studies to date have been mainly focused on discovering mutations in the coding region and investigation at protein level. Considering that changes in SOD1 mRNA levels have been associated with sporadic ALS (SALS, a molecular understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of SOD1 gene expression could not only unravel novel regulatory pathways that may govern cellular phenotypes and changes in diseases but also might reveal therapeutic targets and treatments. This review seeks to provide an overview of SOD1 gene structure and of the processes through which SOD1 transcription is controlled. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance to focus future researches on investigating posttranscriptional mechanisms and their relevance to ALS.

  3. The Effect of Local Smokefree Regulations on Birth Outcomes and Prenatal Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Karla S; Abouk, Rahi

    2016-07-01

    Objectives We assessed the impact of varying levels of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes and prenatal smoking. Methods We exploited variations in timing and regulation restrictiveness of West Virginia's county smokefree regulations to assess their impact on birthweight, gestational age, low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm birth, and prenatal smoking. We conducted regression analysis using state Vital Statistics individual-level data for singletons born to West Virginia residents between 1995-2010 (N = 293,715). Results Only more comprehensive smokefree regulations were associated with statistically significant favorable effects on birth outcomes in the full sample: Comprehensive (workplace/restaurant/bar ban) demonstrated increased birthweight (29 grams, p workplace/restaurant ban) demonstrated a small decrease in very low birthweight (-0.2 %, p workplace ban) was associated with a 23 g (p < 0.01) decrease in birthweight; Limited (partial ban) had no effect. Comprehensive's improvements extended to most maternal groups, and were broadest among mothers 21+ years, non-smokers, and unmarried mothers. Prenatal smoking declined slightly (-1.7 %, p < 0.01) only among married women with Comprehensive. Conclusions Regulation restrictiveness is a determining factor in the impact of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes, with comprehensive smokefree regulations showing promise in improving birth outcomes. Favorable effects on birth outcomes appear to stem from reduced secondhand smoke exposure rather than reduced prenatal smoking prevalence. This study is limited by an inability to measure secondhand smoke exposure and the paucity of data on policy implementation and enforcement.

  4. New pesticides regulation: potential economic impacts of the withdrawal of Pendimethalin in horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-German, S.; Bardaji, I.; Garrido, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides moves forward towards the sustainability of agriculture fostering the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices in the European Union (EU). EC Regulation 1107/2009 was adopted in this framework leading to the eventual drop in the Vademecum of authorized substances of some important pesticides which are presently used in EU agriculture. Herbicide Pendimethalin will have to renew its registration in 2016 under the new regulation and there is a high probability that it will be removed. In this study we analyze the potential impact of the prohibition of Pendimethalin in two export driven horticultural crops grown in Southeastern Spain lettuce and celery to provide an illustration of possible consequences of the loss of certain active substances due to the new regulation. To do so, gross margin stochastic models are developed and used to generate Monte-Carlo simulations to look at farms’ economic results and their production risks. Econometric models are used to examine consumers’ and producers’ surplus in export markets of lettuce and celery. The results show that the Pendimethalin ban might modify the economic risk profile that the farm faces, affecting the crops’ profitability in the short-term. These changes would pass on to markets through shifts in supply and price and finally to European consumers, who would be the major losers. (Author)

  5. Computational Prediction of MicroRNAs from Toxoplasma gondii Potentially Regulating the Hosts’ Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müşerref Duygu Saçar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs were discovered two decades ago, yet there is still a great need for further studies elucidating their genesis and targeting in different phyla. Since experimental discovery and validation of miRNAs is difficult, computational predictions are indispensable and today most computational approaches employ machine learning. Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite residing within the cells of its hosts like human, uses miRNAs for its post-transcriptional gene regulation. It may also regulate its hosts’ gene expression, which has been shown in brain cancer. Since previous studies have shown that overexpressed miRNAs within the host are causal for disease onset, we hypothesized that T. gondii could export miRNAs into its host cell. We computationally predicted all hairpins from the genome of T. gondii and used mouse and human models to filter possible candidates. These were then further compared to known miRNAs in human and rodents and their expression was examined for T. gondii grown in mouse and human hosts, respectively. We found that among the millions of potential hairpins in T. gondii, only a few thousand pass filtering using a human or mouse model and that even fewer of those are expressed. Since they are expressed and differentially expressed in rodents and human, we suggest that there is a chance that T. gondii may export miRNAs into its hosts for direct regulation.

  6. Podoplanin regulates mammary stem cell function and tumorigenesis by potentiating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, Laura; Faraldo, Marisa M; Di-Cicco, Amandine; Quintanilla, Miguel; Glukhova, Marina A; Deugnier, Marie-Ange

    2018-02-21

    Stem cells (SCs) drive mammary development, giving rise postnatally to an epithelial bilayer composed of luminal and basal myoepithelial cells. Dysregulation of SCs is thought to be at the origin of certain breast cancers; however, the molecular identity of SCs and the factors regulating their function remain poorly defined. We identified the transmembrane protein podoplanin (Pdpn) as a specific marker of the basal compartment, including multipotent SCs, and found Pdpn localized at the basal-luminal interface. Embryonic deletion of Pdpn targeted to basal cells diminished basal and luminal SC activity and affected the expression of several Wnt/β-catenin signaling components in basal cells. Moreover, Pdpn loss attenuated mammary tumor formation in a mouse model of β-catenin-induced breast cancer, limiting tumor-initiating cell expansion and promoting molecular features associated with mesenchymal-to-epithelial cell transition. In line with the loss-of-function data, we demonstrated that mechanistically Pdpn enhances Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mammary basal cells. Overall, this study uncovers a role for Pdpn in mammary SC function and, importantly, identifies Pdpn as a new regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key pathway in mammary development and tumorigenesis. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jasmine; Anders-Maurer, Marie; Müller, Tanja; Hau, Ann-Christin; Grebbin, Britta Moyo; Kallenborn-Gerhardt, Wiebke; Behrends, Christian; Schulte, Dorothea

    2018-04-10

    Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microtubule affinity-regulating kinases are potential druggable targets for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadurai, Narendran; Agrawal, Khushboo; Džubák, Petr; Hajdúch, Marián; Das, Viswanath

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects normal functions of the brain. Currently, AD is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and the only one of the top ten diseases without a means to prevent, cure, or significantly slow down its progression. Therefore, newer therapeutic concepts are urgently needed to improve survival and the quality of life of AD patients. Microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs) regulate tau-microtubule binding and play a crucial role in neurons. However, their role in hyperphosphorylation of tau makes them potential druggable target for AD therapy. Despite the relevance of MARKs in AD pathogenesis, only a few small molecules are known to have anti-MARK activity and not much has been done to progress these compounds into therapeutic candidates. But given the diverse role of MARKs, the specificity of novel inhibitors is imperative for their successful translation from bench to bedside. In this regard, a recent co-crystal structure of MARK4 in association with a pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitor offers a potential scaffold for the development of more specific MARK inhibitors. In this manuscript, we review the biological role of MARKs in health and disease, and draw attention to the largely unexplored area of MARK inhibitors for AD.

  9. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity regulates the proliferative potential of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwei; Ahrens, Molly J; Wu, Amy; Liu, Jennifer; Dudley, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    For tissues that develop throughout embryogenesis and into postnatal life, the generation of differentiated cells to promote tissue growth is at odds with the requirement to maintain the stem cell/progenitor cell population to preserve future growth potential. In the growth plate cartilage, this balance is achieved in part by establishing a proliferative phase that amplifies the number of progenitor cells prior to terminal differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we show that endogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamkII, also known as Camk2) activity is upregulated prior to hypertrophy and that loss of CamkII function substantially blocks the transition from proliferation to hypertrophy. Wnt signaling and Pthrp-induced phosphatase activity negatively regulate CamkII activity. Release of this repression results in activation of multiple effector pathways, including Runx2- and β-catenin-dependent pathways. We present an integrated model for the regulation of proliferation potential by CamkII activity that has important implications for studies of growth control and adult progenitor/stem cell populations.

  10. Exosome proteomics reveals transcriptional regulator proteins with potential to mediate downstream pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Timothy H; Madsen, Helen J; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Lencioni, Alex M; Graner, Michael W

    2014-11-01

    Exosomes are virus-sized, membrane-enclosed vesicles with origins in the cellular endosomal system, but are released extracellularly. As a population, these tiny vesicles carry relatively enormous amounts of information in their protein, lipid and nucleic acid content, and the vesicles can have profound impacts on recipient cells. This review employs publically-available data combined with gene ontology applications to propose a novel concept, that exosomes transport transcriptional and translational machinery that may have direct impacts on gene expression in recipient cells. Here, we examine the previously published proteomic contents of medulloblastoma-derived exosomes, focusing on transcriptional regulators; we found that there are numerous proteins that may have potential roles in transcriptional and translational regulation with putative influence on downstream, cancer-related pathways. We expanded this search to all of the proteins in the Vesiclepedia database; using gene ontology approaches, we see that these regulatory factors are implicated in many of the processes involved in cancer initiation and progression. This information suggests that some of the effects of exosomes on recipient cells may be due to the delivery of protein factors that can directly and fundamentally change the transcriptional landscape of the cells. Within a tumor environment, this has potential to tilt the advantage towards the cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Silicon Regulates Potential Genes Involved in Major Physiological Processes in Plants to Combat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si, the quasi-essential element occurs as the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Biological importance of Si in plant kingdom has become inevitable particularly under stressed environment. In general, plants are classified as high, medium, and low silicon accumulators based on the ability of roots to absorb Si. The uptake of Si directly influence the positive effects attributed to the plant but Si supplementation proves to mitigate stress and recover plant growth even in low accumulating plants like tomato. The application of Si in soil as well as soil-less cultivation systems have resulted in the enhancement of quantitative and qualitative traits of plants even under stressed environment. Silicon possesses several mechanisms to regulate the physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant metabolism in plants to combat abiotic and biotic stresses. Nevertheless, very few reports are available on the aspect of Si-mediated molecular regulation of genes with potential role in stress tolerance. The recent advancements in the era of genomics and transcriptomics have opened an avenue for the determination of molecular rationale associated with the Si amendment to the stress alleviation in plants. Therefore, the present endeavor has attempted to describe the recent discoveries related to the regulation of vital genes involved in photosynthesis, transcription regulation, defense, water transport, polyamine synthesis, and housekeeping genes during abiotic and biotic stress alleviation by Si. Furthermore, an overview of Si-mediated modulation of multiple genes involved in stress response pathways such as phenylpropanoid pathway, jasmonic acid pathway, ABA-dependent or independent regulatory pathway have been discussed in this review.

  12. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Lehmann

    Full Text Available The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013, and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP. To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively. Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  13. Theoretical analysis of the local field potential in deep brain stimulation applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Lempka

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a common therapy for treating movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, and provides a unique opportunity to study the neural activity of various subcortical structures in human patients. Local field potential (LFP recordings are often performed with either intraoperative microelectrodes or DBS leads and reflect oscillatory activity within nuclei of the basal ganglia. These LFP recordings have numerous clinical implications and might someday be used to optimize DBS outcomes in closed-loop systems. However, the origin of the recorded LFP is poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to theoretically analyze LFP recordings within the context of clinical DBS applications. This goal was achieved with a detailed recording model of beta oscillations (∼20 Hz in the subthalamic nucleus. The recording model consisted of finite element models of intraoperative microelectrodes and DBS macroelectrodes implanted in the brain along with multi-compartment cable models of STN projection neurons. Model analysis permitted systematic investigation into a number of variables that can affect the composition of the recorded LFP (e.g. electrode size, electrode impedance, recording configuration, and filtering effects of the brain, electrode-electrolyte interface, and recording electronics. The results of the study suggest that the spatial reach of the LFP can extend several millimeters. Model analysis also showed that variables such as electrode geometry and recording configuration can have a significant effect on LFP amplitude and spatial reach, while the effects of other variables, such as electrode impedance, are often negligible. The results of this study provide insight into the origin of the LFP and identify variables that need to be considered when analyzing LFP recordings in clinical DBS applications.

  14. Phase Locking of Multiple Single Neurons to the Local Field Potential in Cat V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kevan A C; Schröder, Sylvia

    2016-02-24

    The local field potential (LFP) is thought to reflect a temporal reference for neuronal spiking, which may facilitate information coding and orchestrate the communication between neural populations. To explore this proposed role, we recorded the LFP and simultaneously the spike activity of one to three nearby neurons in V1 of anesthetized cats during the presentation of drifting sinusoidal gratings, binary dense noise stimuli, and natural movies. In all stimulus conditions and during spontaneous activity, the average LFP power at frequencies >20 Hz was higher when neurons were spiking versus not spiking. The spikes were weakly but significantly phase locked to all frequencies of the LFP. The average spike phase of the LFP was stable across high and low levels of LFP power, but the strength of phase locking at low frequencies (≤10 Hz) increased with increasing LFP power. In a next step, we studied how strong stimulus responses of single neurons are reflected in the LFP and the LFP-spike relationship. We found that LFP power was slightly increased and phase locking was slightly stronger during strong compared with weak stimulus-locked responses. In summary, the coupling strength between high frequencies of the LFP and spikes was not strongly modulated by LFP power, which is thought to reflect spiking synchrony, nor was it strongly influenced by how strongly the neuron was driven by the stimulus. Furthermore, a comparison between neighboring neurons showed no clustering of preferred LFP phase. We argue that hypotheses on the relevance of phase locking in their current form are inconsistent with our findings. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362494-09$15.00/0.

  15. Dynamic Neural State Identification in Deep Brain Local Field Potentials of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huichun; Huang, Yongzhi; Du, Xueying; Zhang, Yunpeng; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Wang, Shouyan

    2018-01-01

    In neuropathic pain, the neurophysiological and neuropathological function of the ventro-posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VPL) and the periventricular gray/periaqueductal gray area (PVAG) involves multiple frequency oscillations. Moreover, oscillations related to pain perception and modulation change dynamically over time. Fluctuations in these neural oscillations reflect the dynamic neural states of the nucleus. In this study, an approach to classifying the synchronization level was developed to dynamically identify the neural states. An oscillation extraction model based on windowed wavelet packet transform was designed to characterize the activity level of oscillations. The wavelet packet coefficients sparsely represented the activity level of theta and alpha oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs). Then, a state discrimination model was designed to calculate an adaptive threshold to determine the activity level of oscillations. Finally, the neural state was represented by the activity levels of both theta and alpha oscillations. The relationship between neural states and pain relief was further evaluated. The performance of the state identification approach achieved sensitivity and specificity beyond 80% in simulation signals. Neural states of the PVAG and VPL were dynamically identified from LFPs of neuropathic pain patients. The occurrence of neural states based on theta and alpha oscillations were correlated to the degree of pain relief by deep brain stimulation. In the PVAG LFPs, the occurrence of the state with high activity levels of theta oscillations independent of alpha and the state with low-level alpha and high-level theta oscillations were significantly correlated with pain relief by deep brain stimulation. This study provides a reliable approach to identifying the dynamic neural states in LFPs with a low signal-to-noise ratio by using sparse representation based on wavelet packet transform. Furthermore, it may advance closed-loop deep

  16. Interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 as a potential biomarker in localized scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence and levels of interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in the plasma and skin of pediatric localized scleroderma (LS) patients compared to those of healthy pediatric controls and to determine if IP-10 levels correlate to clinical disease activity measures. Methods The presence of IP-10 in the plasma was analyzed using a Luminex panel in 69 pediatric patients with LS and compared to 71 healthy pediatric controls. Of these patients, five had available skin biopsy specimens with concurrent clinical and serological data during the active disease phase, which were used to analyze the presence and location of IP-10 in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results IP-10 levels were significantly elevated in the plasma of LS patients compared to that of healthy controls and correlated to clinical disease activity measures in LS. Immunohistochemistry staining of IP-10 was present in the dermal infiltrate of LS patients and was similar to that found in psoriasis skin specimens, the positive disease control. Conclusions Elevation of IP-10 levels in the plasma compared to those of healthy controls and the presence of IP-10 staining in the affected skin of LS patients indicates that IP-10 is a potential biomarker in LS. Furthermore, significant elevation of IP-10 in LS patients with active versus inactive disease and correlations between IP-10 levels and standardized disease outcome measures of activity in LS strongly suggest that IP-10 may be a biomarker for disease activity in LS. PMID:24499523

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid alters Gsα localization in lipid raft and potentiates adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuoran; Tan, Zhoubin; Li, Yan; Luo, Hongyan; Hu, Xinwu; Tang, Ming; Hescheler, Jürgen; Mu, Yangling; Zhang, Lanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), recently has become popular for the amelioration of depression; however the molecular mechanism of DHA action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant effect of DHA by evaluating Gsα localization in lipid raft and the activity of adenylate cyclase in an in vitro glioma cell model. Lipid raft fractions from C6 glioma cells treated chronically with DHA were isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The content of Gsα in lipid raft was analyzed by immunoblotting and colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was subjected to confocal microscopic analysis. The intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was determined by cAMP immunoassay kit. DHA decreased the amount of Gsα in lipid raft, whereas whole cell lysate Gsα was not changed. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was decreased, whereas DHA increased intracellular cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we found that DHA increased the lipid raft level, instead of disrupting it. The results of this study suggest that DHA may exert its antidepressant effect by translocating Gsα from lipid raft and potentiating the activity of adenylate cyclase. Importantly, the reduced Gsα in lipid raft by DHA is independent of disruption of lipid raft. Overall, the study provides partial preclinical evidence supporting a safe and effective therapy using DHA for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Life history, population viability, and the potential for local adaptation in isolated trout populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Carim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation have caused population decline across taxa through impacts on life history diversity, dispersal patterns, and gene flow. Yet, intentional isolation of native fish populations is a frequently used management strategy to protect against negative interactions with invasive fish species. We evaluated the population viability and genetic diversity of 12 isolated populations of Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi located on the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana, USA. Length-structured integral projection models (IPMs were used to project population growth rate (lambda and its sensitivity to underlying vital rates and parameters. We examined relationships between lambda, genetic diversity, and habitat size and quality. Lambda ranged from 0.68 to 1.1 with 10 of 12 populations projected to be in decline. A sensitivity analysis of lambda with respect to projection matrix elements indicated that lambda was generally sensitive to changes in early life history stages (survival/growth, but patterns differed among populations. Another sensitivity analysis with respect to underlying model parameters showed highly consistent pattern across populations, with lambda being most sensitive to the slope of probability of maturity (estimated from published literature, generally followed by adult survival, and the slope of somatic growth rate (directly measured from each population. Lambda was not correlated with genetic diversity. For populations residing in small isolated streams (≤5 km of occupied habitat, lambda significantly increased with base flow discharge (r2=0.50, p<0.02. Our results highlight the potential importance of local adaptation for persistence of small, isolated populations. Specifically we saw evidence for higher probability of maturity at smaller sizes in the smallest, coldest isolated systems, increasing probability of persistence for these populations. Climate change threatens to further fragment populations of

  19. Time and frequency-dependent modulation of local field potential synchronization by deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton B McCracken

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS, is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. We examined the time-dependent effects of DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EP, the rat homolog of the internal globus pallidus, a target used for treatment of both dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD. We performed simultaneous multi-site local field potential (LFP recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats to assess the effects of high-frequency (HF, 130 Hz; clinically effective, low-frequency (LF, 15 Hz; ineffective and sham DBS delivered to EP. LFP activity was recorded from dorsal striatum (STR, ventroanterior thalamus (VA, primary motor cortex (M1, and the stimulation site in EP. Spontaneous and acute stimulation-induced LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed at baseline, and after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of stimulation. HF EP DBS produced widespread alterations in spontaneous and stimulus-induced LFP oscillations, with some effects similar across regions and others occurring in a region- and frequency band-specific manner. Many of these changes evolved over time. HF EP DBS produced an initial transient reduction in power in the low beta band in M1 and STR; however, phase synchronization between these regions in the low beta band was markedly suppressed at all time points. DBS also enhanced low gamma synchronization throughout the circuit. With sustained stimulation, there were significant reductions in low beta synchronization between M1-VA and STR-VA, and increases in power within regions in the faster frequency bands. HF DBS also suppressed the ability of acute EP stimulation to induce beta oscillations in all regions along the circuit. This dynamic pattern of synchronizing and desynchronizing effects of EP DBS suggests a complex modulation of activity along cortico-BG-thalamic circuits underlying the therapeutic

  20. Expression, tissue localization and serodiagnostic potential of Taenia multiceps acidic ribosomal protein P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Yang, Yingdong; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Yu; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-12-01

    The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, also known as coenurus, is the causative agent of coenurosis, which results in severe health problems in sheep, goats, cattle and other animals that negatively impact on animal husbandry. There is no reliable method to identify coenurus infected goats in the early period of infection. We identified a full-length cDNA that encodes acidic ribosomal protein P2 from the transcriptome of T. multiceps (TmP2). Following cloning, sequencing and structural analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. Recombinant TmP2 (rTmP2) was prokaryotically expressed and then used to test immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in immunoblotting assays. The native proteins in adult stage and coenurus were located via immunofluorescence assays, while the potential of rTmP2 for indirect ELISA-based serodiagnostics was assessed using native goat sera. In addition, 20 goats were randomly divided into a drug treatment group and a control group. Each goat was orally given mature, viable T. multiceps eggs. The drug treatment group was given 10% praziquantel by intramuscular injection 45 days post-infection (p.i), and all goats were screened for anti-TmP2 antibodies with the indirect ELISA method established here, once a week for 17 weeks p.i. The open reading frame (366 bp) of the target gene encodes a 12.62 kDa protein, which showed high homology to that from Taenia solium (93% identity) and lacked a signal peptide. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TmP2 was highly localized to the parenchymatous zone of both the adult parasite and the coenurus; besides, it was widely distributed in cystic wall of coenurus. Building on good immunogenic properties, rTmP2-based ELISA exhibited a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) and a specificity of 96.3% (26/27) in detecting anti-P2 antibodies in the sera of naturally infected goats and sheep. In goats experimentally infected with T. multiceps, anti-TmP2 antibody was detectable in the control group from 3 to 10 weeks

  1. Taking potential probability function maps to the local scale and matching them with land use maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Saryu; Sinha, Vinayak; Sinha, Baerbel

    2013-04-01

    Source-Receptor models have been developed using different methods. Residence-time weighted concentration back trajectory analysis and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) are the two most popular techniques for identification of potential sources of a substance in a defined geographical area. Both techniques use back trajectories calculated using global models and assign values of probability/concentration to various locations in an area. These values represent the probability of threshold exceedances / the average concentration measured at the receptor in air masses with a certain residence time over a source area. Both techniques, however, have only been applied to regional and long-range transport phenomena due to inherent limitation with respect to both spatial accuracy and temporal resolution of the of back trajectory calculations. Employing the above mentioned concepts of residence time weighted concentration back-trajectory analysis and PSCF, we developed a source-receptor model capable of identifying local and regional sources of air pollutants like Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, SO2 and VOCs. We use 1 to 30 minute averages of concentration values and wind direction and speed from a single receptor site or from multiple receptor sites to trace the air mass back in time. The model code assumes all the atmospheric transport to be Lagrangian and linearly extrapolates air masses reaching the receptor location, backwards in time for a fixed number of steps. We restrict the model run to the lifetime of the chemical species under consideration. For long lived species the model run is limited to 180 trees/gridsquare); moderate concentrations for agricultural lands with low tree density (1.5-2.5 ppbv for 250 μg/m3 for traffic hotspots in Chandigarh City are observed. Based on the validation against the land use maps, the model appears to do an excellent job in source apportionment and identifying emission hotspots. Acknowledgement: We thank the IISER

  2. Use of an ex vivo local lymph node assay to assess contact hypersensitivity potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccotti, Joseph R; Kawabata, Thomas T

    2008-07-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to assess the contact hypersensitivity potential of compounds. In the standard assay, mice are treated topically with test compound to the dorsum of both ears on Days 1-3. The induction of a hypersensitivity response is assessed on Day 6 by injecting [(3)H]-thymidine into a tail vein and measuring thymidine incorporation into DNA of lymph node cells draining the ears. The ex vivo LLNA is conducted similarly except lymphocyte proliferation is assessed after in vitro incubation of lymph node cells with [(3)H]-thymidine, which significantly reduces the amount of radioactive waste. The current study tested the use of this approach for hazard assessment of contact hypersensitivity and to estimate allergenic potency. Female BALB/c mice were treated on Days 1-3 with two nonsensitizers (4' -methoxyacetophenone, diethyl phthalate), three weak sensitizers (hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, citral), one weak-to-moderate sensitizer (hexylcinnamic aldehyde), two moderate sensitizers (isoeugenol, phenyl benzoate), and one strong sensitizer (dinitrochlorobenzene). On Day 6, isolated lymph node cells were incubated overnight with [(3)H]-thymidine and thymidine incorporation was measured by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. The ex vivo LLNA accurately distinguished the contact sensitizers from the nonsensitizing chemicals, and correctly ranked the relative potency of the compounds tested. The EC3 values, i.e., the effective concentration of test substance needed to induce a stimulation index of 3, were as follows: 4' -methoxyacetophenone (> 50%), diethyl phthalate (> 50%), hydroxycitronellal (20.4%), eugenol (13.6%), citral (8.9%), isoeugenol (3.8%), hexylcinnamic aldehyde (2.7%), phenyl benzoate (2%), and dinitrochlorobenzene (0.02%). In addition, low inter-animal and inter-experiment variability was seen with 25% hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde (assay positive control). The results of the ex vivo LLNA in the current study were consistent with

  3. Bcl-xL regulates mitochondrial energetics by stabilizing the inner membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Bei; Aon, Miguel A; Hsu, Yi-Te; Soane, Lucian; Teng, Xinchen; McCaffery, J Michael; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Qi, Bing; Li, Hongmei; Alavian, Kambiz N; Dayhoff-Brannigan, Margaret; Zou, Shifa; Pineda, Fernando J; O'Rourke, Brian; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Jonas, Elizabeth A; Hardwick, J Marie

    2011-10-17

    Mammalian Bcl-x(L) protein localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it inhibits apoptosis by binding Bax and inhibiting Bax-induced outer membrane permeabilization. Contrary to expectation, we found by electron microscopy and biochemical approaches that endogenous Bcl-x(L) also localized to inner mitochondrial cristae. Two-photon microscopy of cultured neurons revealed large fluctuations in inner mitochondrial membrane potential when Bcl-x(L) was genetically deleted or pharmacologically inhibited, indicating increased total ion flux into and out of mitochondria. Computational, biochemical, and genetic evidence indicated that Bcl-x(L) reduces futile ion flux across the inner mitochondrial membrane to prevent a wasteful drain on cellular resources, thereby preventing an energetic crisis during stress. Given that F(1)F(O)-ATP synthase directly affects mitochondrial membrane potential and having identified the mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit in a screen for Bcl-x(L)-binding partners, we tested and found that Bcl-x(L) failed to protect β subunit-deficient yeast. Thus, by bolstering mitochondrial energetic capacity, Bcl-x(L) may contribute importantly to cell survival independently of other Bcl-2 family proteins.

  4. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F.; Statnikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods’ performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost. PMID:26939894

  5. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 10195 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... event from outside the regulated area, but may not block the navigable channel. Other vessels intending... their plans accordingly. If you think that your business, organization, or governmental jurisdiction... a comment (see ADDRESSES) explaining why you think it qualifies and how and to what degree this rule...

  7. 76 FR 35802 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Patuxent River, Solomons, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ..., longitude 076[deg]28'22'' W. Spectator vessels viewing the event outside the regulated area may not block... will issue maritime advisories so mariners can adjust their plans accordingly. If you think that your... think it qualifies and how and to what degree this rule would economically affect it. Assistance for...

  8. 75 FR 32866 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Patuxent River, Solomons, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... outside the regulated area may not block the navigable channel. Other vessels intending to transit the... their plans accordingly. If you think that your business, organization, or governmental jurisdiction... a comment (see ADDRESSES) explaining why you think it qualifies and how and to what degree this rule...

  9. 76 FR 15244 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    .... Spectator vessels will be allowed to view the event from outside the regulated area, but may not block the... mariners can adjust their plans accordingly. If you think that your business, organization, or governmental..., please submit a comment (see ADDRESSES) explaining why you think it qualifies and how and to what degree...

  10. 76 FR 80850 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that... safety of life or property. (f) For all power boat races listed, vessels operating within the regulated... that will not interfere with the progress of the event. (g) For all regattas and boat parades listed...

  11. 77 FR 63720 - Special Local Regulations; 2012 Ironman 70.3 Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and would not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that might... remaining within the regulated area unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Miami or a designated...

  12. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... defined boundary for which regulations for vessels navigating within the area have been established by the...)...... 9/19/2008 USCG-2008-0814 San Diego, CA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 9/6/2008 USCG-2008-0827 Ocean... (Part 165). USCG-2009-0402 Ocean City, NJ Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 10/10/2009 USCG-2009-0403...

  14. 76 FR 44877 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... filing. If you submit comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please... the Patrol Commander to transit. Any vessel transiting the regulated area must do so at a no-wake... safe course that minimizes wake near the swim course. The Patrol Commander will allow non-participating...

  15. 75 FR 56024 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... submit comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped... the Patrol Commander to transit. Any vessel transiting the regulated area must do so at a no-wake... maintain a safe course that minimizes wake near the swim course. The Patrol Commander will allow non...

  16. 76 FR 17530 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... available in the docket, are part of docket USCG-2010-0110 and are available online by going to http://www...[deg] 21'36'' W. 7.7 Friendship Lobster Boat Races. Event Type: Power Boat Race. Sponsor: Friendship...: The regulated area includes all waters of Friendship Harbor, Maine within the following points (NAD 83...

  17. 77 FR 23599 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... was held. Background and Purpose On June 2, 2012, Enviro-Sports Productions, Inc. of Stinson Beach... regulations. The commenter, Mr. David R. Horning of EnviroSports, who is the event organizer, stated that... substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States...

  18. Cholesterol regulates DAF-16 nuclear localization and fasting-induced longevity in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Akiko; Uno, Masaharu; Miyatake, Koichi; Honjoh, Sakiko; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol has attracted significant attention as a possible lifespan regulator. It has been reported that serum cholesterol levels have an impact on mortality due to age-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Diet is also known to be an important lifespan regulator. Dietary restriction retards the onset of age-related diseases and extends lifespan in various organisms. Although cholesterol and dietary restriction are known to be lifespan regulators, it remains to be established whether cholesterol is involved in dietary restriction-induced longevity. Here, we show that cholesterol deprivation suppresses longevity induced by intermittent fasting, which is one of the dietary restriction regimens that effectively extend lifespan. We also found that cholesterol is required for the fasting-induced upregulation of transcriptional target genes such as the insulin/IGF-1 pathway effector DAF-16 and that cholesterol deprivation suppresses the long lifespan of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor daf-2 mutant. Remarkably, we found that cholesterol plays an important role in the fasting-induced nuclear accumulation of DAF-16. Moreover, knockdown of the cholesterol-binding protein NSBP-1, which has been shown to bind to DAF-16 in a cholesterol-dependent manner and to regulate DAF-16 activity, suppresses both fasting-induced longevity and DAF-16 nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, this suppression was not additive to the cholesterol deprivation-induced suppression, which suggests that NSBP-1 mediates, at least in part, the action of cholesterol to promote fasting-induced longevity and DAF-16 nuclear accumulation. These findings identify a novel role for cholesterol in the regulation of lifespan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  20. Hyaluronan, CD44, and Emmprin Regulate Lactate Efflux and Membrane Localization of Monocarboxylate Transporters in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, Mark G.; Grass, G. Daniel; Robertson, Angela D.; Yang, Xiao Y.; Maria, Bernard L.; Beeson, Craig; Toole, Bryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of hyaluronan with CD44 in tumor cells play important cooperative roles in various aspects of malignancy and drug resistance. Emmprin (CD147; basigin)is a cell surface glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is highly up-regulated in malignant cancer cells and stimulates hyaluronan production, as well as several downstream signaling pathways. Emmprin also interacts with various monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Malignant cancer cells use the glycolytic pathway and require MCTs to efflux lactate that results from glycolysis. Glycolysis and lactate secretion contribute to malignant cell behaviors and drug resistance in tumor cells. In the present study, we find that perturbation of endogenous hyaluronan, using small hyaluronan oligosaccharides, rapidly inhibits lactate efflux from breast carcinoma cells; down-regulation of emmprin, using emmprin small interfering RNA, also results in decreased efflux. In addition, we find that CD44 coimmunoprecipitates with MCT1, MCT4, and emmprin and colocalizes with these proteins at the plasma membrane. Moreover, after treatment of the cells with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, CD44, MCT1, and MCT4 become localized intracellularly whereas emmprin remains at the cell membrane. Together, these data indicate that constitutive interactions among hyaluronan, CD44, and emmprin contribute to regulation of MCT localization and function in the plasma membrane of breast carcinoma cells. PMID:19176383

  1. 77 FR 33967 - Special Local Regulations; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Niantic Bay, Long Island Sound, Thames River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ..., Operation Sail, Inc., is planning to publish information on the event in local newspapers, internet sites... areas for viewing the ``Parade of Sail'' have been established to allow for maximum use of the waterways... SLIS or designated representative. Before the effective period, the Coast Guard will make notifications...

  2. 78 FR 13576 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ..., local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of $100,000,000 (adjusted for... administrative workload and expedite public notification of events. Entry into or movement within these proposed... detailed description of the geographical area of the district and each Coast Guard Sector--Captain of the...

  3. Suggestions for Local School District Compliance with Title IX Rules and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This guidebook is designed to help local districts determine how well they comply with the spirit of the Title IX requirements against sex discrimination, which in turn could aid in compliance with the letter of the law. The document's first section presents samples of required antidiscrimination policy statements issued by two districts. The…

  4. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... organization or a Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR... Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR part 230... to applicable cost principles for grants and cooperative agreements with State and Local Governments...

  5. 77 FR 23601 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... England AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is updating special local... provide the event name, sponsor, and type, as well as approximate dates and locations of the events. The... can better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking. If the rule affects your...

  6. USP2 Regulates the Intracellular Localization of PER1 and Circadian Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yaoming; Duguay, David; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Although Per1 mRNA expression rhythm remained intact in the Usp2 KO MEFs, the expression profiles of other core clock genes were altered. This was also true for the expression of clock-controlled genes (e.g., Dbp, Tef, Hlf, E4bp4). A similar phase advance of PER1 nuclear localization rhythm and alteration...

  7. The Proteoglycan Syndecan 4 Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 6 Channels via RhoA/ROCK Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Echtermeyer, Frank; Thilo, Florian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Syndecan 4 (Sdc4) modulates signal transduction and regulates activity of protein channels. Sdc4 is essential for the regulation of cellular permeability. We hypothesized that Sdc4 may regulate transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels, a determinant of glomerular perme...... permeability, in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sdc4 knockout (Sdc4(-/-)) mice showed increased glomerular filtration rate and ameliorated albuminuria under baseline conditions and after bovine serum albumin overload (each P...

  8. A laser pointer driven microheater for precise local heating and conditional gene regulation in vivo. Microheater driven gene regulation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achermann Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue heating has been employed to study a variety of biological processes, including the study of genes that control embryonic development. Conditional regulation of gene expression is a particularly powerful approach for understanding gene function. One popular method for mis-expressing a gene of interest employs heat-inducible heat shock protein (hsp promoters. Global heat shock of hsp-promoter-containing transgenic animals induces gene expression throughout all tissues, but does not allow for spatial control. Local heating allows for spatial control of hsp-promoter-driven transgenes, but methods for local heating are cumbersome and variably effective. Results We describe a simple, highly controllable, and versatile apparatus for heating biological tissue and other materials on the micron-scale. This microheater employs micron-scale fiber optics and uses an inexpensive laser-pointer as a power source. Optical fibers can be pulled on a standard electrode puller to produce tips of varying sizes that can then be used to reliably heat 20-100 μm targets. We demonstrate precise spatiotemporal control of hsp70l:GFP transgene expression in a variety of tissue types in zebrafish embryos and larvae. We also show how this system can be employed as part of a new method for lineage tracing that would greatly facilitate the study of organogenesis and tissue regulation at any time in the life cycle. Conclusion This versatile and simple local heater has broad utility for the study of gene function and for lineage tracing. This system could be used to control hsp-driven gene expression in any organism simply by bringing the fiber optic tip in contact with the tissue of interest. Beyond these uses for the study of gene function, this device has wide-ranging utility in materials science and could easily be adapted for therapeutic purposes in humans.

  9. Four-cluster chimera state in non-locally coupled phase oscillator systems with an external potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yun; Zheng Zhi-Gang; Yang Jun-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of a one-dimensional array of non-locally coupled Kuramoto phase oscillators with an external potential is studied. A four-cluster chimera state is observed for the moderate strength of the external potential. Different from the clustered chimera states studied before, the instantaneous frequencies of the oscillators in a synchronized cluster are different in the presence of the external potential. As the strength of the external potential increases, a bifurcation from the two-cluster chimera state to the four-cluster chimera states can be found. These phenomena are well predicted analytically with the help of the Ott—Antonsen ansatz. (general)

  10. [On the influence of local molecular environment on the redox potential of electron transfer cofactors in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'nikov, P M; Noks, P P; Rubin, A B

    2011-01-01

    The addition of cryosolvents (glycerol, dimethylsulfoxide) to a water solution containing bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers changes the redox potential of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer, but does not affect the redox potential of the quinone primary acceptor. It has been shown that the change in redox potential can be produced by changes of the electrostatic interactions between cofactors and the local molecular environment modified by additives entered into the solution. The degree of influence of a solvent on the redox potential of various cofactors is determined by degree of availability of these cofactors for molecules of solvent, which depends on the arrangement of cofactors in the structure of reaction centers.

  11. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  12. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-30

    During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Using immunoprecipitated (IPed) DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites) in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes during ripening. Moreover, the binding of RIN to its own

  13. A20 Functional Domains Regulate Subcellular Localization and NF-Kappa B Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    endothelial cells or if the effects of A20 are limited strictly to the process of apoptosis. The Ferran group began by taking bovine aortic endothelial...protein (64, 67, 81, 118, 122). Interestingly, A20 is also involved in the regulation of intracellular parasite infection (109, 123). Given the...was supplemented with a combination of heat inactivated 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin G/streptomycin sulfate/gentamycin sulfate

  14. TrkB and PKMζ regulate synaptic localization of PSD-95 in developing cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Akira; Murata, Yasunobu; Kim, Jihye; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M.; Constantine-Paton, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95), the major scaffold at excitatory synapses, is critical for synapse maturation and learning. In rodents, eye opening, the onset of pattern vision, triggers a rapid movement of PSD-95 from visual neuron somata to synapses. We previously showed that the PI3 kinase-Akt pathway downstream of BDNF/TrkB signaling stimulates synaptic delivery of PSD-95 via vesicular transport. However, vesicular transport requires PSD-95 palmitoylation to attach it to a lipid membrane. Also PSD-95 insertion at synapses is known to require this lipid modification. Here, we show that BDNF/TrkB signaling is also necessary for PSD-95 palmitoylation and its transport to synapses in mouse visual cortical layer 2/3 neurons. However, palmitoylation of PSD-95 requires the activation of another pathway downstream of BDNF/TrkB, namely signaling through PLCγ and the brain-specific PKC variant PKMζ. We find that PKMζ selectively regulates phosphorylation of the palmitoylation enzyme ZDHHC8. Inhibition of PKMζ results in a reduction of synaptic PSD-95 accumulation in vivo, which can be rescued by over-expression ZDHHC8. Therefore, TrkB and PKMζ, two critical regulators of synaptic plasticity, facilitate PSD-95 targeting to synapses. These results also indicate that palmitoylation can be regulated by a trophic factor. Our findings have implications for neurodevelopmental disorders as well as ageing brains. PMID:21849550

  15. Novel p47phox-related organizers regulate NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) activity and localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Davide; Diaz, Begoña; Taulet, Nicolas; Fowler, Bruce; Courtneidge, Sara A.; Bokoch, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidases (Nox) in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 and Tks5 are functional members of a p47phox-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (vs. Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems, and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an SH3-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac GTPase-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Tks4 recruits Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent novel members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation. PMID:19755710

  16. Analysis of clock-regulated genes in Neurospora reveals widespread posttranscriptional control of metabolic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer M.; Dasgupta, Arko; Emerson, Jillian M.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Knabe, Nicole; Lipzen, Anna M.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Daum, Christopher G.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Smith, Kristina M.; Galagan, James E.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah; Freitag, Michael; Cheng, Chao; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has been for decades a principal model for filamentous fungal genetics and physiology as well as for understanding the mechanism of circadian clocks. Eukaryotic fungal and animal clocks comprise transcription-translation–based feedback loops that control rhythmic transcription of a substantial fraction of these transcriptomes, yielding the changes in protein abundance that mediate circadian regulation of physiology and metabolism: Understanding circadian control of gene expression is key to understanding eukaryotic, including fungal, physiology. Indeed, the isolation of clock-controlled genes (ccgs) was pioneered in Neurospora where circadian output begins with binding of the core circadian transcription factor WCC to a subset of ccg promoters, including those of many transcription factors. High temporal resolution (2-h) sampling over 48 h using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) identified circadianly expressed genes in Neurospora, revealing that from ∼10% to as much 40% of the transcriptome can be expressed under circadian control. Functional classifications of these genes revealed strong enrichment in pathways involving metabolism, protein synthesis, and stress responses; in broad terms, daytime metabolic potential favors catabolism, energy production, and precursor assembly, whereas night activities favor biosynthesis of cellular components and growth. Discriminative regular expression motif elicitation (DREME) identified key promoter motifs highly correlated with the temporal regulation of ccgs. Correlations between ccg abundance from RNA-Seq, the degree of ccg-promoter activation as reported by ccg-promoter–luciferase fusions, and binding of WCC as measured by ChIP-Seq, are not strong. Therefore, although circadian activation is critical to ccg rhythmicity, posttranscriptional regulation plays a major role in determining rhythmicity at the mRNA level. PMID:25362047

  17. Goldfish neurokinin B: Cloning, tissue distribution, and potential role in regulating reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Zhou, Wenyi; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Yun; Ye, Gang; Liu, Xiaochun; Peng, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-09-15

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tackykinin (TAC) family known to play a critical role in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in mammals. However, its biological functions in teleosts are less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NKB in fish reproduction using goldfish as a model. Two transcripts, TAC3a and TAC3b, which encode several NKBs, including NKBa-13, NKBa-10, NKBb-13, and NKBb-11, were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKBa-10 and NKBb-11 are closely related to mammalian NKB, while NKB-13s are more conserved in teleosts. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in various tissues showed that TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. In situ hybridization further detected TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs in several regions of the brain known to be involved in the regulation of reproduction and metabolism, as well as in the neurohypophysis of the pituitary. To investigate the potential role of NKBs in reproduction, goldfish were injected intraperitoneally with synthetic NKBa-13, -10, NKBb-13, or -11 peptides and the mRNA levels of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary gonadotropin subunits were measured. NKBa-13, -10, or NKBb-13, but not -11, significantly increased hypothalamic salmon GnRH and pituitary FSHβ and LHβ mRNA levels in both female and male goldfish. Finally, ovariectomy increased, while estradiol replacement reduced, TAC3a mRNA levels without affecting TAC3b expression in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that NKBa-13, -10, and NKBb-13 play a role in mediating the estrogen negative feedback regulation of gonadotropins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential of pest regulation by insectivorous birds in Mediterranean woody crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Rey Benayas

    Full Text Available Regulation of agricultural pests managing their natural enemies represents an alternative to chemical pesticides. We assessed the potential of insectivorous birds as pest regulators in woody crops located in central Spain. A total of 417 nest boxes installed in five field study sites (one vineyard, two fruit orchards, and two olive groves were monitored for use and breeding of insectivorous birds and other species for four consecutive years (2013-2016. At all field sites except the two olive groves, where birds never occupied the nest boxes, predation experiments were conducted with Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella sentinel caterpillars, and food consumption by birds was estimated. Nesting of insectivorous birds, chiefly Great tit (Parus major, and sparrows (Passer domesticus and P. montanus increased over time, averaging 60% per field site in the vineyard and fruit orchards by the fourth year. Use of nest boxes by sparrows and by Garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus was high at the fruit orchards (70% and the vineyard (30%, respectively. Micro-habitat characteristics (nest box level and meso-habitat characteristics (patch level strongly affected use of nest boxes and bird breeding (i.e. number of laid eggs and produced chicks in different years. Distance to natural or semi-natural vegetation did not consistently affect bird breeding, nor did we see consistent evidence of competition between adjacent breeding birds. Predation rates of sentinel caterpillars were approximately one-third higher near boxes with nesting birds (31.51 ± 43.13% than at paired distant areas without nest boxes (22.45% ± 38.58%. Food consumption by insectivorous birds per ha and breeding season were conservatively estimated to range from 0.02 kg in one fruit orchard to 0.15 kg in the vineyard. We conclude that installation of nest boxes in Mediterranean woody crops enhances populations of insectivorous birds that regulate pests, but that the effects are moderate and

  19. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a regulator of myosin-X localization and filopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Arjonen, Antti; Lock, John G

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a key regulator of cell signaling that acts by recruiting proteins to the cell membrane, such as at the leading edge during cell migration. Here, we show that PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 plays a central role in filopodia formation via the bindi...... endosomal vesicles. Given that the localization of Myo10 was dynamically restored to filopodia upon reinstatement of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-binding, our results indicate that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding to the Myo10-PH2 domain is involved in Myo10 trafficking and regulation of filopodia dynamics....

  20. Astrocyte-neuron crosstalk regulates the expression and subcellular localization of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczur, Piotr; Borsuk, Borys; Paszko, Jadwiga; Sas, Zuzanna; Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Gizak, Agnieszka; Rakus, Dariusz

    2015-02-01

    Astrocytes releasing glucose- and/or glycogen-derived lactate and glutamine play a crucial role in shaping neuronal function and plasticity. Little is known, however, how metabolic functions of astrocytes, e.g., their ability to degrade glucosyl units, are affected by the presence of neurons. To address this issue we carried out experiments which demonstrated that co-culturing of rat hippocampal astrocytes with neurons significantly elevates the level of mRNA and protein for crucial enzymes of glycolysis (phosphofructokinase, aldolase, and pyruvate kinase), glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase), and glutamine synthetase in astrocytes. Simultaneously, the decrease of the capability of neurons to metabolize glucose and glutamine is observed. We provide evidence that neurons alter the expression of astrocytic enzymes by secretion of as yet unknown molecule(s) into the extracellular fluid. Moreover, our data demonstrate that almost all studied enzymes may localize in astrocytic nuclei and this localization is affected by the co-culturing with neurons which also reduces proliferative activity of astrocytes. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that the astrocyte-neuron crosstalk substantially affects the expression of basal metabolic enzymes in the both types of cells and influences their subcellular localization in astrocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Neurotoxicity of a Novel Local Anesthetic Agent, Ropivacaine: The Possible Roles of Bursts of Potential and Cytoplasmic Second Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lin Lin

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Ropivacaine reversibly elicited bursts of potential in the central snail neuron. The ropivacaine-elicited bursts of potential were associated with phospholipase C activity in the RP4 snail neuron. Our results suggest that ropivacaine-induced neurotoxicity is highly associated with phospholipase C activity and phospholipase C inhibitor may offer a novel therapeutic approach for managing local anesthetic-induced convulsion or other transient neurologic toxicity.

  2. Regulation of Constitutive GPR3 Signaling and Surface Localization by GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 Overexpression in HEK293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M Lowther

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3 is a constitutively active receptor that maintains high 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels required for meiotic arrest in oocytes and CNS function. Ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs signal at the cell surface and are silenced by phosphorylation and β-arrestin recruitment upon endocytosis. Some GPCRs can also signal from endosomes following internalization. Little is known about the localization, signaling, and regulation of constitutively active GPCRs. We demonstrate herein that exogenously-expressed GPR3 localizes to the cell membrane and undergoes internalization in HEK293 cells. Inhibition of endocytosis increased cell surface-localized GPR3 and cAMP levels while overexpression of GPCR-Kinase 2 (GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 decreased cell surface-localized GPR3 and cAMP levels. GRK2 by itself is sufficient to decrease cAMP production but both GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 are required to decrease cell surface GPR3. GRK2 regulates GPR3 independently of its kinase activity since a kinase inactive GRK2-K220R mutant significantly decreased cAMP levels. However, GRK2-K220R and β-arrestin-2 do not diminish cell surface GPR3, suggesting that phosphorylation is required to induce GPR3 internalization. To understand which residues are targeted for desensitization, we mutated potential phosphorylation sites in the third intracellular loop and C-terminus and examined the effect on cAMP and receptor surface localization. Mutation of residues in the third intracellular loop dramatically increased cAMP levels whereas mutation of residues in the C-terminus produced cAMP levels comparable to GPR3 wild type. Interestingly, both mutations significantly reduced cell surface expression of GPR3. These results demonstrate that GPR3 signals at the plasma membrane and can be silenced by GRK2/β-arrestin overexpression. These results also strongly implicate the serine and/or threonine residues in the third

  3. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  4. Feature selectivity of the gamma-band of the local field potential in primate primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Berens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular voltage fluctuations (local field potentials; LFPs reflecting neural mass action are ubiquitous across species and brain regions. Numerous studies have characterized the properties of LFP signals in the cortex to study sensory and motor computations as well as cognitive processes like attention, perception and memory. In addition, its extracranial counterpart – the electroencelphalogram (EEG – is widely used in clinical applications. However, the link between LFP signals and the underlying activity of local populations of neurons remains largely elusive. Here, we review recent work elucidating the relationship between spiking activity of local neural populations and LFP signals. We focus on oscillations in the gamma-band (30-90Hz of the local field potential in the primary visual cortex (V1 of the macaque that dominate during visual stimulation. Given that in area V1 much is known about the properties of single neurons and the cortical architecture, it provides an excellent opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying the generation of the local field potential.

  5. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T. M.; Mauel, M. E.; Worstell, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback

  6. Promoting University Students' Metacognitive Regulation through Peer Learning: The Potential of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although successful learning in university education can be advanced by students' competence to self-regulate their learning, students often possess insufficient metacognitive regulation skills to regulate their learning adequately. The present study investigates changes in university students' adoption of metacognitive regulation after…

  7. Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Lu Cheng-Biao; Li Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases. (paper)

  8. Antiangiogenic Treatment Diminishes Renal Injury and Dysfunction via Regulation of Local AKT in Early Experimental Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiao; Tian, Jianwei; Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin...

  9. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, James L.; McDonough, Alicia A.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    The proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border, where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis; however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change the reabsorption rate, we constructed a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental results supported the model by demonstrating that a rise of blood pressure induces the development of pH microdomains near the bottom of the brush border. These local changes in pH reduce NHE3 activity, which may explain the pressure natriuresis response to NHE3 redistribution. PMID:25298526

  10. Regulation of NO synthesis, local inflammation, and innate immunity to pathogens by BET family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienerroither, Sebastian; Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Jamieson, Amanda M; Bradner, James; Muhar, Matthias; Zuber, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Transcriptional activation of the Nos2 gene, encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), during infection or inflammation requires coordinate assembly of an initiation complex by the transcription factors NF-κB and type I interferon-activated ISGF3. Here we show that infection of macrophages with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes caused binding of the BET proteins Brd2, Brd3, and, most prominently, Brd4 to the Nos2 promoter and that a profound reduction of Nos2 expression occurred in the presence of the BET inhibitor JQ1. RNA polymerase activity at the Nos2 gene was regulated through Brd-mediated C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation at serine 5. Underscoring the critical importance of Brd for the regulation of immune responses, application of JQ1 reduced NO production in mice infected with L. monocytogenes, as well as innate resistance to L. monocytogenes and influenza virus. In a murine model of inflammatory disease, JQ1 treatment increased the colitogenic activity of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The data presented in our study suggest that BET protein inhibition in a clinical setting poses the risk of altering the innate immune response to infectious or inflammatory challenge.

  11. The daughter centriole controls ciliogenesis by regulating Neurl-4 localization at the centrosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil, Abdelhalim; Tormanen, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The two centrioles of the centrosome differ in age and function. Although the mother centriole mediates most centrosome-dependent processes, the role of the daughter remains poorly understood. A recent study has implicated the daughter centriole in centriole amplification in multiciliated cells, but its contribution to primary ciliogenesis is unclear. We found that manipulations that prevent daughter centriole formation or induce its separation from the mother abolish ciliogenesis. This defect was caused by stabilization of the negative ciliogenesis regulator CP110 and was corrected by CP110 depletion. CP110 dysregulation may be caused by effects on Neurl-4, a daughter centriole–associated ubiquitin ligase cofactor, which was required for ciliogenesis. Centrosome-targeted Neurl-4 was sufficient to restore ciliogenesis in cells with manipulated daughter centrioles. Interestingly, early during ciliogenesis, Neurl-4 transiently associated with the mother centriole in a process that required mother–daughter centriole proximity. Our data support a model in which the daughter centriole promotes ciliogenesis through Neurl-4–dependent regulation of CP110 levels at the mother centriole. PMID:28385950

  12. Local Inflammatory Cues Regulate Differentiation and Persistence of CD8+ Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Bergsbaken

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogens initiate infection at mucosal surfaces, and tissue-resident memory T (Trm cells play an important role in protective immunity, yet the tissue-specific signals that regulate Trm differentiation are poorly defined. During Yersinia infection, CD8+ T cell recruitment to areas of inflammation within the intestine is required for differentiation of the CD103−CD69+ Trm subset. Intestinal proinflammatory microenvironments have elevated interferon (IFN-β and interleukin-12 (IL-12, which regulated Trm markers, including CD103. Type I interferon-receptor- or IL-12-receptor-deficient T cells functioned similarly to wild-type (WT cells during infection; however, the inability of T cells to respond to inflammation resulted in defective differentiation of CD103−CD69+ Trm cells and reduced Trm persistence. Intestinal macrophages were the main producers of IFN-β and IL-12 during infection, and deletion of CCR2+ IL-12-producing cells reduced the size of the CD103− Trm population. These data indicate that intestinal inflammation drives phenotypic diversity and abundance of Trm cells for optimal tissue-specific immunity.

  13. Ornithine decarboxylase regulates the activity and localization of rhoA via polyamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekitie, Laura T.; Kanerva, Kristiina; Andersson, Leif C.

    2009-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. Polyamines and ODC are connected to cell proliferation and transformation. Resting cells display a low ODC activity while normal, proliferating cells display fluctuations in ODC activity that coincide with changes in the actin cytoskeleton during the cell cycle. Cancerous cells display constitutively elevated ODC activity. Overexpression of ODC in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts induces a transformed phenotype. The cytoskeletal rearrangements during cytokinesis and cell transformation are intimately coupled to the ODC activity but the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. In this study we investigated how ODC and polyamines influence the organization of the cytoskeleton. Given that the small G-proteins of the rho family are key modulators of the actin cytoskeleton, we investigated the molecular interactions of rhoA with ODC and polyamines. Our results show that transglutaminase-catalyzed polyamination of rhoA regulates its activity. The polyamination status of rhoA crucially influences the progress of the cell cycle as well as the rate of transformation of rat fibroblasts infected with temperature-sensitive v-src. We also show that ODC influences the intracellular distribution of rhoA. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which ODC and polyamines regulate the dynamics of the cytoskeleton during cell proliferation and transformation

  14. Demand Response Potential for California SubLAPs and Local Capacity Planning Areas: An Addendum to the 2025 California Demand Response Potential Study – Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, Laurel N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stensson, Sofia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Szinai, Julia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The 2025 California Demand Response Potential Study Phase 2 Report1 was released on March 1, 2017, and described a range of pathways for Demand Response (DR) to support a clean, stable, and cost-effective electric grid for California. One of the Report’s key findings was that while there appears to be very low future value for untargeted DR Shed aimed at system-wide peak load conditions, there could be significant value for locally focused Shed resources. Although the dynamics of renewable capacity expansion have reduced the pressure to build new thermal generation in general, there are still transmission-constrained areas of the state where load growth needs to be managed with the addition of new local capacity, which could include DERs and/or DR. This Addendum to the Phase 2 Report presents a breakdown of the expected future “Local Shed” DR potential at a finer geographic resolution than what is available in the original report, with results summarized by SubLAP and Local Capacity Area (LCA).

  15. Potential regulation on the climatic effect of Tibetan Plateau heating by tropical air-sea coupling in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqian; Duan, Anmin; Yang, Song

    2018-05-01

    Based on the conventional weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and the air-sea coupled mode WRF-OMLM, we investigate the potential regulation on the climatic effect of Tibetan Plateau (TP) heating by the air-sea coupling over the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Results indicate that the TP heating significantly enhances the southwesterly monsoon circulation over the northern Indian Ocean and the South Asia subcontinent. The intensified southwesterly wind cools the sea surface mainly through the wind-evaporation-SST (sea surface temperature) feedback. Cold SST anomaly then weakens monsoon convective activity, especially that over the Bay of Bengal, and less water vapor is thus transported into the TP along its southern slope from the tropical oceans. As a result, summer precipitation decreases over the TP, which further weakens the TP local heat source. Finally, the changed TP heating continues to influence the summer monsoon precipitation and atmospheric circulation. To a certain extent, the air-sea coupling over the adjacent oceans may weaken the effect of TP heating on the mean climate in summer. It is also implied that considerations of air-sea interaction are necessary in future simulation studies of the TP heating effect.

  16. Towards a more balanced view of the potentials of locally-based monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    The literature on locally-based monitoring in the context of conservation of ecosystems and natural resources in developing countries displays a great deal of optimism about its prospects as a low-cost approach to gather information about conservation outcomes. Yet, this optimism stands in stark...... the information can be perceived by those who monitor to be linked to claims over resource rights and associated benefits. In such situations, trust in locally-based monitoring should be tempered by scepticism and systems of checks and balances....... contrast to studies on co-management between States and local communities showing that such processes—in which communities and the State ostensibly work hand in hand on the monitoring and management of natural resources—are fraught with power struggles within communities as well as between communities...

  17. Novel p47(phox)-related organizers regulate localized NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Davide; Diaz, Begoña; Taulet, Nicolas; Fowler, Bruce; Courtneidge, Sara A; Bokoch, Gary M

    2009-09-15

    The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (Nox) family members in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 (tyrosine kinase substrate with four SH3 domains) and Tks5 are functional members of a p47(phox)-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (and not Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an Src homology 3 domain-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac guanosine triphosphatase- and Nox1-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Our results are consistent with the Tks-mediated recruitment of Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent previously unrecognized members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation.

  18. Activated Cdc42 kinase regulates Dock localization in male germ cells during Drosophila spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Abbas M; Zhou, Xin; Kim, Christine; Shah, Kushani K; Hogden, Christopher; Schoenherr, Jessica A; Clemens, James C; Chang, Henry C

    2013-06-15

    Deregulation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ACK1 (Activated Cdc42-associated kinase) correlates with poor prognosis in cancers and has been implicated in promoting metastasis. To further understand its in vivo function, we have characterized the developmental defects of a null mutation in Drosophila Ack, which bears a high degree of sequence similarity to mammalian ACK1 but lacks a CRIB domain. We show that Ack, while not essential for viability, is critical for sperm formation. This function depends on Ack tyrosine kinase activity and is required cell autonomously in differentiating male germ cells at or after the spermatocyte stage. Ack associates predominantly with endocytic clathrin sites in spermatocytes, but disruption of Ack function has no apparent effect on clathrin localization and receptor-mediated internalization of Boss (Bride of sevenless) protein in eye discs. Instead, Ack is required for the subcellular distribution of Dock (dreadlocks), the Drosophila homolog of the SH2- and SH3-containing adaptor protein Nck. Moreover, Dock forms a complex with Ack, and the localization of Dock in male germ cells depends on its SH2 domain. Together, our results suggest that Ack-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation recruits Dock to promote sperm differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New Potential Pharmacological Functions of Chinese Herbal Medicines via Regulation of Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Yuen Kwan Law

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a universal catabolic cellular process for quality control of cytoplasm and maintenance of cellular homeostasis upon nutrient deprivation and environmental stimulus. It involves the lysosomal degradation of cellular components such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancers, myopathy, neurodegenerations, infections and cardiovascular diseases. In the recent decade, traditional drugs with new clinical applications are not only commonly found in Western medicines, but also highlighted in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM. For instance, pharmacological studies have revealed that active components or fractions from Chaihu (Radix bupleuri, Hu Zhang (Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati, Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubesens, Hou po (Cortex magnoliae officinalis and Chuan xiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong modulate cancers, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease via autophagy. These findings shed light on the potential new applications and formulation of CHM decoctions via regulation of autophagy. This article reviews the roles of autophagy in the pharmacological actions of CHM and discusses their new potential clinical applications in various human diseases.

  20. Nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions regulate thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression and thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fernando Toshio; Batista, Wagner Luiz; Sartori, Adriano; Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Masutani, Hiroshi; Arai, Roberto Jun; Yodoi, Junji; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo Pequeno

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX-1) is a multifunctional protein that controls the redox status of other proteins. TRX-1 can be found in the extracellular milieu, cytoplasm and nucleus, and it has distinct functions in each environment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of TRX-1 and its relationship with the activation of the p21Ras-ERK1/2 MAP Kinases signaling pathway. In situations where this pathway was activated by stress conditions evoked by a nitrosothiol, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), TRX-1 accumulated in the nuclear compartment due to nitrosylation of p21Ras and activation of downstream ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Presently, we demonstrate that ERK1/2 MAP Kinases activation and spatial distribution within cells trigger TRX-1 nuclear translocation through down-regulation of the physiological inhibitor of TRX-1, Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP). Once activated by the oxidants, SNAP and H₂O₂, the ERK1/2 MAP kinases migrate to the nucleus. This is correlated with down-regulation of TXNIP. In the presence of the MEK inhibitors (PD98059 or UO126), or in cells transfected with the Protein Enriched in Astrocytes (PEA-15), a cytoplasmic anchor of ERK1/2 MAP kinases, TRX-1 nuclear migration and TXNIP down-regulation are no longer observed in cells exposed to oxidants. On the other hand, over-expression of TXNIP abolishes nuclear migration of TRX-1 under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions, whereas gene silencing of TXNIP facilitates nuclear migration even in the absence of stress conditions. Studies based on the TXNIP promoter support this regulation. In conclusion, changes in TRX-1 compartmentalization under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions are dependent on the expression levels of TXNIP, which are regulated by cellular compartmentalization and activation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases.

  1. Nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions regulate thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP expression and thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Toshio Ogata

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin (TRX-1 is a multifunctional protein that controls the redox status of other proteins. TRX-1 can be found in the extracellular milieu, cytoplasm and nucleus, and it has distinct functions in each environment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of TRX-1 and its relationship with the activation of the p21Ras-ERK1/2 MAP Kinases signaling pathway. In situations where this pathway was activated by stress conditions evoked by a nitrosothiol, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, TRX-1 accumulated in the nuclear compartment due to nitrosylation of p21Ras and activation of downstream ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Presently, we demonstrate that ERK1/2 MAP Kinases activation and spatial distribution within cells trigger TRX-1 nuclear translocation through down-regulation of the physiological inhibitor of TRX-1, Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP. Once activated by the oxidants, SNAP and H₂O₂, the ERK1/2 MAP kinases migrate to the nucleus. This is correlated with down-regulation of TXNIP. In the presence of the MEK inhibitors (PD98059 or UO126, or in cells transfected with the Protein Enriched in Astrocytes (PEA-15, a cytoplasmic anchor of ERK1/2 MAP kinases, TRX-1 nuclear migration and TXNIP down-regulation are no longer observed in cells exposed to oxidants. On the other hand, over-expression of TXNIP abolishes nuclear migration of TRX-1 under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions, whereas gene silencing of TXNIP facilitates nuclear migration even in the absence of stress conditions. Studies based on the TXNIP promoter support this regulation. In conclusion, changes in TRX-1 compartmentalization under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions are dependent on the expression levels of TXNIP, which are regulated by cellular compartmentalization and activation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases.

  2. Local, organic food initiatives and their potentials for transforming the conventional food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Lieblein

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de discuter l’importance des initiatives locales dans la distribution de produits biologiques. Le sujet est abordé d’une part en fonction de la relation entre ce type d’initiatives et le système agroalimentaire conventionnel et d’autre part en fonction de la possibilité du développement d’un système agroalimentaire plus durable. Basé sur trois études scandinaves, concernant des produits biologiques en Norvège et au Danemark, cet article souligne le fait que les différents acteurs intreviewés jouent à la fois sur le tableau du local et du biologique et sur le tableau du conventionnel. En dépit de différences structurelles distinctes, les deux systèmes, et les conventions qui leur sont rattachées, s’influencent mutuellement. Afin de mettre au point une agriculture plus durable, il semble donc important de mettre en valeur le fondement global de l’agriculture écologique, qui repose non seulement sur des valeurs biologiques et locales, mais encore sur des aspects économiques, sociaux et culturels qui doivent être pris en considération.The aim of this article is to discuss the importance of local initiatives for distribution of organic food. This subject is discussed both in relation to how such initiatives may affect the overall conventional food system and the possible implications for development of a more sustainable food system. The article is based on findings from three different cases of local, organic food in Norway and Denmark. We found that actors within the cases are both involved with local, organic food initiatives and at the same time part of the overall conventional food system. Even though there are distinctive structural differences between these distribution systems, they mutually affect each other. This means that conventions normally associated with local, organic food systems may ‘rub off’ to the conventional food system and vice versa. In order to develop

  3. 'A potential fifth column': conflicts and struggles for control in the context of local NHS privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    This article uses case study data to discuss how a new procurement policy (Local Improvement Finance Trust, or LIFT) in English primary care may affect general practitioners' control over their work. LIFT, a series of 51 public-private partnerships, will enable over the medium term a shift towards the corporate ownership of surgeries and the creation of polyclinics or 'onestop-shops'. In this article, I explore the struggles over work autonomy and control within these new LIFT structures, as expressed by clinicians and managers in meetings and in research interviews. More generally, I consider how the findings inform debates over the changing position of professionals within increasingly financialized 'local health economies'.

  4. Hydrological Drought in the Anthropocene: Impacts of Local Water Extraction and Reservoir Regulation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenhua; Zhao, Jianshi; Li, Hong-Yi; Mishra, Ashok; Ruby Leung, L.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Wang, Wei; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissisie, Yonas; Wang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Hydrological drought is a substantial negative deviation from normal hydrologic conditions and is influenced by climate and human activities such as water management. By perturbing the streamflow regime, climate change and water management may significantly alter drought characteristics in the future. Here we utilize a high-resolution integrated modeling framework that represents water management in terms of both local surface water extraction and reservoir regulation and use the Standardized Streamflow Index to quantify hydrological drought. We explore the impacts of water management on hydrological drought over the contiguous U.S. in a warming climate with and without emissions mitigation. Despite the uncertainty of climate change impacts, local surface water extraction consistently intensifies drought that dominates at the regional to national scale. However, reservoir regulation alleviates drought by enhancing summer flow downstream of reservoirs. The relative dominance of drought intensification or relief is largely determined by the water demand, with drought intensification dominating in regions with intense water demand such as the Great Plains and California, while drought relief dominates in regions with low water demand. At the national level, water management increases the spatial extent of extreme drought despite some alleviations of moderate to severe drought. In an emissions mitigation scenario with increased irrigation demand for bioenergy production, water management intensifies drought more than the business-as-usual scenario at the national level, so the impacts of emissions mitigation must be evaluated by considering its benefit in reducing warming and evapotranspiration against its effects on increasing water demand and intensifying drought.

  5. Porcine models for the study of local and systemic regulation of innate immune factors in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard

    state of low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissues, which involves several factors of the innate immune response having a range of systemic effects and which has been implicated in the development of the metabolic syndrome. To investigate the impact of obesity and obesity-related diseases good...... translational animal models are needed, and as such pigs have been proposed as relevant models for human obesity-induced inflammation as pigs share many genetic, anatomical and physiological features with humans. In this project the up- and downregulation of genes and proteins involved in the innate immune...... the number of animals to be used in a trial to obtain statistical power. For the gene regulation analysis, two platforms for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were employed: The Rotor-Gene Q instrument and the microfluidics-based high-throughput Bio-Mark. For the serum protein concentrations analysis several...

  6. Values of Local Wisdom: A Potential to Develop an Assessment and Remedial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toharudin, Uus; Kurniawan, Iwan Setia

    2017-01-01

    Development assessment and remedial needs to be done because it is an important part of a learning process. This study aimed to describe the ability of student teachers of biology in developing assessment and remedial based on local wisdom. using a quasi-experimental research methods with quantitative descriptive analysis techniques. The research…

  7. Potential contribution of natural enemies to patterns of local adaptation in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crémieux, L.; Bischoff, A.; Šmilauerová, M.; Lawson, C.S.; Mortimer, S. R.; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Edwards, A.R.; Brook, A.J.; Tscheulin, T.; Macel, M.; Lepš, Jan; Müller-Schärer, H.; Steinger, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 2 (2008), s. 524-533 ISSN 0028-646X Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : local adaptation * plant-parasite interaction * pathogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.178, year: 2008

  8. The diffusion of some radionuclides in local rocks collected from potential repository in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ibrahim; Abou Jamous, Jamal

    1992-07-01

    Diffusion factor was estimated for 137 Cs in local rocks marl, limestone, and basalt. Slab activity measuring was constructed. Factors affecting the 137 Cs diffusion has been studied. These are dynamic state of water, length of contacting time and the concentration of radioisotope. (author). 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Dynamic Regulation of Ero1α and Peroxiredoxin 4 Localization in the Secretory Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, Taichi; Araki, Kazutaka; Vavassori, Stefano; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Cortini, Margherita; Fagioli, Claudio; Natsume, Tohru; Sitia, Roberto; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    In the early secretory compartment (ESC), a network of chaperones and enzymes assists oxidative folding of nascent proteins. Ero1 flavoproteins oxidize protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), generating H2O2 as a byproduct. Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) can utilize luminal H2O2 to oxidize PDI, thus favoring oxidative folding while limiting oxidative stress. Interestingly, neither ER oxidase contains known ER retention signal(s), raising the question of how cells prevent their secretion. Here we show that the two proteins share similar intracellular localization mechanisms. Their secretion is prevented by sequential interactions with PDI and ERp44, two resident proteins of the ESC-bearing KDEL-like motifs. PDI binds preferentially Ero1α, whereas ERp44 equally retains Ero1α and Prx4. The different binding properties of Ero1α and Prx4 increase the robustness of ER redox homeostasis. PMID:23979138

  10. Regulation of local subcutaneous blood flow in patients with psoriasis and effects of antipsoriatic treatment on subcutaneous blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.

    1985-01-01

    Local regulation of the doubled subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) rates in psoriatic lesional skin was studied in 8 patients using a traumatic epicutaneous 133 Xe labeling washout technique. Venous stasis of 40 mm Hg induced a significant reduction in the SBF (-34%, p less than 0.01), i.e., a normal vasoconstrictor response. Limb elevation of 40 cm above heart level induced no statistical changes in the SBF (p = 0.50), i.e., a normal local autoregulation response. This indicates normal, local regulation mechanisms of SBF in psoriasis. In another 8 patients, the effect on SBF of a 4-week antipsoriatic treatment with tar was studied in lesional and symmetrically nonlesional skin areas. One patient was clear of psoriasis on day 22, and was followed only to that time. The mean pretreatment SBF in lesional skin areas was 3.87 +/- SD 0.78 ml X (100 g X min)-1, which was not statistically different from measurements on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 after treatment had started. Between day 21 and day 28, the SBF decreased significantly to 3.38 +/- SD 0.78 ml X (100 g X min)-1, p less than 0.05. The difference between the pretreatment SBF and SBF at the end of treatment was statistically significant, p less than 0.05. The changes in SBF in symmetrically nonlesional skin areas were statistically nonsignificant during the period of treatment. Pretreatment SBF was 2.60 +/- SD 1.08 (N = 8), and on day 28 was 1.91 +/- SD 0.74 ml X (100 g X min)-1 (N = 7). However, the tendency of a decreasing SBF at the end of treatment was a clear trend, since SBF in 6 of 7 patients decreased during the third week and in the patient who was discharged on day 22, a decrease in the SBF was observed on days 14 and 21

  11. Semiclassical derivation of a local optical potential for heavy-ion plastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.; Qanto, L.F.; Hussein, M.S.

    A semiclassical method to determine the contribution to the optical potential in the elastic channel due to the coupling to other processes taking place in heavy-ion collisions is developed. An application is made to the case of coulomb excitation. The lowest order term of our potential is shown to be identical to the quantum mechanical expression of Baltz et al

  12. The interpretation of resonance formation in coupled-channel models of positron scattering by atomic hydrogen using localized optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bransden, B.H.; Hewitt, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    Above-threshold resonances can occur in coupled-channel models of the e + + H system when Ps formation is taken into account (although it should be pointed out that, in this specific system, resonances do not occur in an exact theory). In general, to understand the mechanism of resonance formation it is useful to obtain the exact optical potential in a given channel in a localized form. The methods of achieving this localization are discussed with reference to a specific application to the resonance found in the two-state approximation for the l = 0 partial wave. (author)

  13. Hypoxia regulates the expression and localization of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α by hypoxia inducible factor-1α in bladder transitional carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Li, Xu; Chen, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is overexpressed in various types of solid tumor in humans, including bladder cancer. HIF-1α regulates the expression of a series of genes, which are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion and represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human cancer. Despite extensive investigation of the effects of HIF-1α in the progression and metastasis of bladder cancer, the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of HIF-1α on bladder cancer cell proliferation and differentiation remain to be elucidated. It has been suggested that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) acts as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer cell, which are involved in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The present study confirmed that, in bladder cancer cells, the expression and localization of C/EBPα was regulated by hypoxia through an HIF-1α -dependent mechanism, which may be significant in bladder cancer cell proliferation and differentiation. The 5637 and T24 bladder cancer cell lines were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The expression levels of HIF-1α and C/EBPα were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. The results revealed that, under hypoxic conditions, the protein expression levels of HIF-1α were markedly upregulated, but the mRNA levels were not altered. However, the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPα were significantly reduced. The present study further analyzed the subcellular localization of C/EBPα, which was markedly decreased in the nuclei under hypoxic conditions. Following HIF-1α small interference RNA silencing of HIF-1α, downregulation of C/EBPα was prevented in the bladder cancer cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. In addition, groups of cells treated with 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl

  14. Antiangiogenic treatment diminishes renal injury and dysfunction via regulation of local AKT in early experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiao; Tian, Jianwei; Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser⁴⁷³-AKT, phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1) were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the interstitial fibrosis

  15. Antiangiogenic treatment diminishes renal injury and dysfunction via regulation of local AKT in early experimental diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Bai

    Full Text Available In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM. In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser⁴⁷³-AKT, phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II, angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1 were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the

  16. A fraction of Crm1 locates at centrosomes by its CRIME domain and regulates the centrosomal localization of pericentrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qinying; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2009-01-01

    Crm1 plays a role in exporting proteins containing nuclear export signals (NESs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Some proteins that are capable of interacting with Ran/Crm1 were reported to be localized at centrosomes and to function as centrosome checkpoints. But it remains unclear how Crm1 locates at centrosomes. In this study, we found that a fraction of Crm1 is located at centrosomes through its N-terminal CRM1, importin β etc. (CRIME) domain, which is responsible for interacting with RanGTP, suggesting that Crm1 might target to centrosomes through binding centrosomal RanGTP. Moreover, overexpression of the CRIME domain, which is free of NES binding domain, resulted in the dissociation of pericentrin and γ-tubulin complex from centrosomes and the disruption of microtubule nucleation. Deficiency of Crm1 provoked by RNAi also decreased the spindle poles localization of pericentrin and γ-tubulin complex, coupled with mitotic defects. Since pericentrin was sensitive to Crm1 specific inhibitor leptomycin B, we propose that the centrosomal Crm1 might interact with pericentrin and regulate the localization and function of pericentrin at centrosomes.

  17. MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aamir; Veeranki, Sailaja Naga; Chinchole, Akash; Tyagi, Shweta

    2017-06-19

    Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Somatic stem cell differentiation is regulated by PI3K/Tor signaling in response to local cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyel, Marc; Hillion, Kenzo-Hugo; Margolis, Shally R; Bach, Erika A

    2016-11-01

    Stem cells reside in niches that provide signals to maintain self-renewal, and differentiation is viewed as a passive process that depends on loss of access to these signals. Here, we demonstrate that the differentiation of somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs) in the Drosophila testis is actively promoted by PI3K/Tor signaling, as CySCs lacking PI3K/Tor activity cannot differentiate properly. We find that an insulin peptide produced by somatic cells immediately outside of the stem cell niche acts locally to promote somatic differentiation through Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation. These results indicate that there is a local 'differentiation' niche that upregulates PI3K/Tor signaling in the early daughters of CySCs. Finally, we demonstrate that CySCs secrete the Dilp-binding protein ImpL2, the Drosophila homolog of IGFBP7, into the stem cell niche, which blocks InR activation in CySCs. Thus, we show that somatic cell differentiation is controlled by PI3K/Tor signaling downstream of InR and that the local production of positive and negative InR signals regulates the differentiation niche. These results support a model in which leaving the stem cell niche and initiating differentiation are actively induced by signaling. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Spatial distribution of limited resources and local density regulation in juvenile Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Anders G; Einum, Sigurd; Ugedal, Ola; Forseth, Torbjørn

    2009-01-01

    1. Spatial heterogeneity of resources may influence competition among individuals and thus have a fundamental role in shaping population dynamics and carrying capacity. In the present study, we identify shelter opportunities as a limiting resource for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Experimental and field studies are combined in order to demonstrate how the spatial distribution of shelters may influence population dynamics on both within and among population scales. 2. In closed experimental streams, fish performance scaled negatively with decreasing shelter availability and increasing densities. In contrast, the fish in open stream channels dispersed according to shelter availability and performance of fish remaining in the streams did not depend on initial density or shelters. 3. The field study confirmed that spatial variation in densities of 1-year-old juveniles was governed both by initial recruit density and shelter availability. Strength of density-dependent population regulation, measured as carrying capacity, increased with decreasing number of shelters. 4. Nine rivers were surveyed for spatial variation in shelter availability and increased shelter heterogeneity tended to decrease maximum observed population size (measured using catch statistics of adult salmon as a proxy). 5. Our studies highlight the importance of small-scale within-population spatial structure in population dynamics and demonstrate that not only the absolute amount of limiting resources but also their spatial arrangement can be an important factor influencing population carrying capacity.

  20. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coarse-grained models using local-density potentials optimized with the relative entropy: Application to implicit solvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Tanmoy; Shell, M. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Bottom-up multiscale techniques are frequently used to develop coarse-grained (CG) models for simulations at extended length and time scales but are often limited by a compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy. The conventional approach to CG nonbonded interactions uses pair potentials which, while computationally efficient, can neglect the inherently multibody contributions of the local environment of a site to its energy, due to degrees of freedom that were coarse-grained out. This effect often causes the CG potential to depend strongly on the overall system density, composition, or other properties, which limits its transferability to states other than the one at which it was parameterized. Here, we propose to incorporate multibody effects into CG potentials through additional nonbonded terms, beyond pair interactions, that depend in a mean-field manner on local densities of different atomic species. This approach is analogous to embedded atom and bond-order models that seek to capture multibody electronic effects in metallic systems. We show that the relative entropy coarse-graining framework offers a systematic route to parameterizing such local density potentials. We then characterize this approach in the development of implicit solvation strategies for interactions between model hydrophobes in an aqueous environment.

  2. Computing the Local Field Potential (LFP) from Integrate-and-Fire Network Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Alberto; Linden, Henrik; Cuntz, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) network models are commonly used to study how the spiking dynamics of neural networks changes with stimuli, tasks or dynamic network states. However, neurophysiological studies in vivo often rather measure the mass activity of neuronal microcircuits with the local f...... in cases where a single pyramidal population dominates the LFP generation, and thereby facilitate quantitative comparison between computational models and experimental LFP recordings in vivo....

  3. Cellular localization of steroid hormone-regulated proteins during sexual development in achlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunt, S.A.; Silver, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the fungus Achlya ambisexualis sexual development in the male strain E87 is controlled by the steroid hormone antheridiol. To investigate the effects of antheridiol on the synthesis and/or accumulation of specific cellular proteins we have analyzed [ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins from control and hormone-treated cells using both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE. The addition of the hormone antheridiol to vegetatively growing cells of Achlya E87 was found to result in changes in the synthesis and/or accumulation of at least 16 specific proteins, which could be localized to the cytoplasmic, nuclear or cell was/cell membrane fractions. The most prominent changes observed in the hormone-treated cells included the appearance in the cytoplasmic fraction of labeled proteins at 28.4 and 24.3kD which were not detectable in control cells, and a significant enrichment in the labeling of a 24.3kD protein in the cell wall/cell membrane fraction. Quantitative changes in the [ 35 S]methionine labeling of several other proteins were noted in all three cell fractions

  4. Bone remodelling: its local regulation and the emergence of bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T John; Seeman, Ego

    2008-10-01

    Bone modelling prevents the occurrence of damage by adapting bone structure - and hence bone strength - to its loading circumstances. Bone remodelling removes damage, when it inevitably occurs, in order to maintain bone strength. This cellular machinery is successful during growth, but fails during advancing age because of the development of a negative balance between the volumes of bone resorbed and formed during remodelling by the basic multicellular unit (BMU), high rates of remodelling during midlife in women and late in life in both sexes, and a decline in periosteal bone formation. together resulting in bone loss and structural decay each time a remodelling event occurs. The two steps in remodelling - resorption of a volume of bone by osteoclasts and formation of a comparable volume by osteoblasts - are sequential, but the regulatory events leading to these two fully differentiated functions are not. Reparative remodelling is initiated by damage producing osteocyte apoptosis, which signals the location of damage via the osteocyte canalicular system to endosteal lining cells which forms the canopy of a bone-remodelling compartment (BRC). Within the BRC, local recruitment of osteoblast precursors from the lining cells, the marrow and circulation, direct contact with osteoclast precursors, osteoclastogenesis and molecular cross-talk between precursors, mature cells, cells of the immune system, and products of the resorbed matrix, titrate the birth, work and lifespan of the cells of this multicellular remodelling machinery to either remove or form a net volume of bone appropriate to the mechanical requirements.

  5. NAT10, a nucleolar protein, localizes to the midbody and regulates cytokinesis and acetylation of microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Qi; Zheng, Xingzheng; McNutt, Michael A.; Guang, Lizhao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Jiaochen; Gong, Yilei; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The midbody is a structural organelle formed in late phase mitosis which is responsible for completion of cytokinesis. Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. In this study, we demonstrated that NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase 10, NAT10) is not only predominantly distributed in the nucleolus in interphase, but is also concentrated in the mitotic midbody during telophase. The domain in N-terminal residues 549-834 of NAT10 specifically mediated its subcellular localization. Treatment with genotoxic agents or irradiation increased concentration of NAT10 in both the nucleolus and midbody. Moreover, DNA damage induced increase of NAT10 in the midbody apparently accompanied by in situ elevation of the level of acetylated α-tubulin, suggesting that it plays a role in maintaining or enhancing stability of α-tubulin. The depletion of NAT10 induced defects in nucleolar assembly, cytokinesis and decreased acetylated α-tubulin, leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest or delay of mitotic exit. In addition, over-expression of NAT10 was found in a variety of soft tissue sarcomas, and correlated with tumor histological grading. These results indicate that NAT10 may play an important role in cell division through facilitating reformation of the nucleolus and midbody in the late phase of cell mitosis, and stabilization of microtubules.

  6. NAT10, a nucleolar protein, localizes to the midbody and regulates cytokinesis and acetylation of microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Qi; Zheng, Xingzheng; McNutt, Michael A.; Guang, Lizhao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Jiaochen; Gong, Yilei; Hou, Lin [Department of Pathology, Health Science Center of Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbo@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Health Science Center of Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-06-10

    The midbody is a structural organelle formed in late phase mitosis which is responsible for completion of cytokinesis. Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. In this study, we demonstrated that NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase 10, NAT10) is not only predominantly distributed in the nucleolus in interphase, but is also concentrated in the mitotic midbody during telophase. The domain in N-terminal residues 549-834 of NAT10 specifically mediated its subcellular localization. Treatment with genotoxic agents or irradiation increased concentration of NAT10 in both the nucleolus and midbody. Moreover, DNA damage induced increase of NAT10 in the midbody apparently accompanied by in situ elevation of the level of acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting that it plays a role in maintaining or enhancing stability of {alpha}-tubulin. The depletion of NAT10 induced defects in nucleolar assembly, cytokinesis and decreased acetylated {alpha}-tubulin, leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest or delay of mitotic exit. In addition, over-expression of NAT10 was found in a variety of soft tissue sarcomas, and correlated with tumor histological grading. These results indicate that NAT10 may play an important role in cell division through facilitating reformation of the nucleolus and midbody in the late phase of cell mitosis, and stabilization of microtubules.

  7. LOCAL REGULATIONS ON ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCES: GREYWATER AND RAINWATER USE IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION OF BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Domènech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fuentes alternativas de agua están ganando importancia en Cataluña (nordeste de España como resultado de las nuevas políticas locales que promueven la conservación del agua y una mayor resiliencia frente a episodios de sequía. Desde 2002, más de 50 municipios (incluyendo en total más de 1.3 millones de personas han aprobado ordenanzas municipales de ahorro de agua, las cuáles exigen la instalación de sistemas de captación de aguas pluviales y reutilización de aguas grises en edificios de nueva construcción. Estas nuevas tecnologías transforman el ciclo hídrico existente e inducen importantes cambios institucionales y sociales relacionados con la descentralización de la gestión del agua. A partir de una serie de entrevistas con técnicos municipales y encuestas con usuarios de sistemas de aguas grises y pluviales, este artículo analiza el aprendizaje socio-técnico generado durante la implementación de las ordenanzas y los principales impedimentos y barreras que deben ser superados para minimizar los riesgos para la salud y promover la aceptación social de estas fuentes de agua alternativas.

  8. Potential Fluctuations and Localization Effects in CZTS Single Crystals, as Revealed by Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuse, Joël; Ducroquet, Frédérique; Mariette, Henri

    2018-03-01

    Reports on Cu_2 ZnSn(S_x Se_{1-x} )_4 (CZTSSe) solar cell devices all show an open-circuit voltage lower than expected, especially when compared to CuIn_x Ga_{1-x} (S,Se)_2 devices, which reduces their power efficiency and delays their development. A high concentration of intrinsic defects in CZTSSe, and their stabilization through neutral complex formation, which induces some local fluctuations, are at the origin of local energy shifts in the conduction and valence band edges. The implied band tail in Cu_2 ZnSnS_4 is studied in this work by combining three types of optical spectroscopy data: emission spectra compared to photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, emission spectra as a function of excitation power, and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra. All these data converge to show that both the bandgap and the band tail of localized states just below are dependent on the degree of order/disorder in the Cu/Zn cation sublattice of the quaternary structure: in the more ordered structures, the bandgap increases by about 50 meV, and the energy range of the band tail is decreased from about 110 to 70 meV.

  9. Aging Potentiates Lateral but Not Local Inhibition of Orientation Processing in Primary Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging-related declines in vision can decrease well-being of the elderly. Concerning early sensory changes as in the primary visual cortex, physiological and behavioral reports seem contradictory. Neurophysiological studies on orientation tuning properties suggested that neuronal changes might come from decreased cortical local inhibition. However, behavioral results either showed no clear deficits in orientation processing in older adults, or proposed stronger surround suppression. Through psychophysical experiments and computational modeling, we resolved these discrepancies by suggesting that lateral inhibition increased in older adults while neuronal orientation tuning widths, related to local inhibition, stayed globally intact across age. We confirmed this later result by re-analyzing published neurophysiological data, which showed no systematic tuning width changes, but instead displayed a higher neuronal noise with aging. These results suggest a stronger lateral inhibition and mixed effects on local inhibition during aging, revealing a more complex picture of age-related effects in the central visual system than people previously thought.

  10. Stability of stationary states of non-local equations with singular interaction potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Fellner, Klemens; Raoul, Gaë l

    2011-01-01

    repulsive interaction potentials we show the stability of stationary states of uniformly bounded solutions under a convexity condition.Finally, we present numerical simulations to illustrate our results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Empowering local potential resources: strategies and challenges of vocational high school in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadewo, FX S.; Utami, D.; Handoyo, P.; Pribadi, F.

    2018-01-01

    The low interest of entrepreneurship in Indonesia can be seen from two factors, namely cultural and structural. However, it can be addressed through education, one of its strategy is through Vocational Entrepreneurship development program based on the potential of the region. This research seeks to see the readiness of SMK in developing entrepreneurship program in accordance with the potential of the region. The research approach uses Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) method. The research location is SMK in Tuban, Jember, Malang, Kediri and Pamekasan. The subject of the research is the managerial side of the school, including the curriculum development team, the School Committee and Vice Principals of Curriculum. The results of this study indicate that all principals already know about the potential of the region and have tried entrepreneurial development based on the potential of the area.

  12. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 35 - Preamble to Regulation on Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... many comments on the proposed rule's inclusion of the word “temporary” in the definition of “disability... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services (Published July 26, 1991) A... DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Pt. 35, App. A Appendix A to Part 35—Preamble to Regulation...

  13. Reflection effect of localized absorptive potential on non-resonant and resonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, A.; Kumar, N.

    1992-06-01

    The reflection due to absorptive potential (-iV i ) for resonant and non-resonant tunneling has been considered. We show that the effect of reflection leads to a non-monotonic dependence of absorption on the strength V i with a maximum absorption of typically 0.5. This has implications for the operation of resonant tunneling devices. General conceptual aspects of absorptive potentials are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  14. Endocytosis regulates membrane localization and function of the fusogen EFF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smurova, Ksenia; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2017-07-03

    Cell fusion is essential for sexual reproduction and formation of muscles, bones, and placenta. Two families of cell fusion proteins (Syncytins and FFs) have been identified in eukaryotes. Syncytins have been shown to form the giant syncytial trophoblasts in the placenta. The FFs are essential to fuse cells in the skin, reproductive, excretory, digestive and nervous systems in nematodes. EFF-1 (Epithelial Fusion Failure 1), a member of the FF family, is a type I membrane glycoprotein that is essential for most cell fusions in C. elegans. The crystal structure of EFF-1 ectodomain reveals striking structural similarity to class II fusion glycoproteins from enveloped viruses (e.g. dengue and rubella) that mediate virus to cell fusion. We found EFF-1 to be present on the plasma membrane and in RAB-5-positive early endosomes, with EFF-1 recycling between these 2 cell compartments. Only when EFF-1 proteins transiently arrive to the surfaces of 2 adjacent cells do they dynamically interact in trans and mediate membrane fusion. EFF-1 is continuously internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis via the activity of 2 small GTPases: RAB-5 and Dynamin. Here we propose a model that explains how EFF-1 endocytosis together with interactions in trans can control cell-cell fusion. Kontani et al. showed that vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) mutations result in EFF-1-dependent hyperfusion. 1 We propose that vATPase is required for normal degradation of EFF-1. Failure to degrade EFF-1 results in delayed hyperfusion and mislocalization to organelles that appear to be recycling endosomes. EFF-1 is also required to fuse neurons as part of the repair mechanism following injury and to prune dendrites. We speculate that EFF-1 may regulate neuronal tree like structures via endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis of cell-cell fusion proteins functions to prevent merging of cells and to sculpt organs and neurons.

  15. Modulation of KCNQ1 alternative splicing regulates cardiac IKs and action potential repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Rudy, Yoram; Po-Yuan, Phd; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Cui, Jianmin

    2013-08-01

    Slow delayed-rectifier potassium current (IKs) channels, made of the pore-forming KCNQ1 and auxiliary KCNE1 subunits, play a key role in determining action potential duration (APD) in cardiac myocytes. The consequences of drug-induced KCNQ1 splice alteration remain unknown. To study the modulation of KCNQ1 alternative splicing by amiloride and the consequent changes in IKs and action potentials (APs) in ventricular myocytes. Canine endocardial, midmyocardial, and epicardial ventricular myocytes were isolated. Levels of KCNQ1a and KCNQ1b as well as a series of splicing factors were quantified by using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effect of amiloride-induced changes in the KCNQ1b/total KCNQ1 ratio on AP was measured by using whole-cell patch clamp with and without isoproterenol. With 50 μmol/L of amiloride for 6 hours, KCNQ1a at transcriptional and translational levels increased in midmyocardial myocytes but decreased in endo- and epicardial myocytes. Likewise, changes in splicing factors in midmyocardial were opposite to that in endo- and epicardial myocytes. In midmyocardial myocytes amiloride shortened APD and decreased isoproterenol-induced early afterdepolarizations significantly. The same amiloride-induced effects were demonstrated by using human ventricular myocyte model for AP simulations under beta-adrenergic stimulation. Moreover, amiloride reduced the transmural dispersion of repolarization in pseudo-electrocardiogram. Amiloride regulates IKs and APs with transmural differences and reduces arrhythmogenicity through the modulation of KCNQ1 splicing. We suggested that the modulation of KCNQ1 splicing may help prevent arrhythmia. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An audit of local government planning tools for their potential use in addressing community food and nutrition issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Elizabeth; Hammond, Melinda; Martin, Caroline; Burns, Catherine; Groos, Anita

    2010-04-01

    This project aimed to identify how local government planning tools could be used to influence physical and policy environments to support healthy eating behaviours in communities. An audit of Queensland's legislative and non-legislative local government planning tools was conducted by a public health nutritionist to assess their potential use in addressing strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes. Ten strategies were identified and covered the following themes: improving access to healthy foods and drinks; increasing access to breastfeeding facilities; decreasing fast food outlet density; and unhealthy food advertising. The audit found that all of the 10 strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes could be considered through three or more of the planning tools. Based on the findings of this audit, local government planning tools provide opportunities to address food and nutrition issues and contribute toward creating physical and policy environments that support healthy eating behaviours.

  17. Underlying Mechanisms of Cooperativity, Input Specificity, and Associativity of Long-Term Potentiation Through a Positive Feedback of Local Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Hao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP is a specific form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that is a leading mechanism of learning and memory in mammals. The properties of cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity are essential for LTP; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, based on experimentally observed phenomena, we introduce a computational model of synaptic plasticity in a pyramidal cell to explore the mechanisms responsible for the cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity of LTP. The model is based on molecular processes involved in synaptic plasticity and integrates gene expression involved in the regulation of neuronal activity. In the model, we introduce a local positive feedback loop of protein synthesis at each synapse, which is essential for bimodal response and synapse specificity. Bifurcation analysis of the local positive feedback loop of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling illustrates the existence of bistability, which is the basis of LTP induction. The local bifurcation diagram provides guidance for the realization of LTP, and the projection of whole system trajectories onto the two-parameter bifurcation diagram confirms the predictions obtained from bifurcation analysis. Moreover, model analysis shows that pre- and postsynaptic components are required to achieve the three properties of LTP. This study provides insights into the mechanisms underlying the cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity of LTP, and the further construction of neural networks for learning and memory.

  18. Redox Regulation in Cancer: A Double-edged Sword with Therapeutic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Acharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, implicated in the etiology of cancer, results from an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell’s own antioxidant defenses. ROS deregulate the redox homeostasis and promote tumor formation by initiating an aberrant induction of signaling networks that cause tumorigenesis. Ultraviolet (UV exposures, γ-radiation and other environmental carcinogens generate ROS in the cells, which can exert apoptosis in the tumors, thereby killing the malignant cells or induce the progression of the cancer growth by blocking cellular defense system. Cancer stem cells take the advantage of the aberrant redox system and spontaneously proliferate. Oxidative stress and gene-environment interactions play a significant role in the development of breast, prostate, pancreatic and colon cancer. Prolonged lifetime exposure to estrogen is associated with several kinds of DNA damage. Oxidative stress and estrogen receptor-associated proliferative changes are suggested to play important roles in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis. BRCA1, a tumor suppressor against hormone responsive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer, plays a significant role in inhibiting ROS and estrogen mediated DNA damage; thereby regulate the redox homeostasis of the cells. Several transcription factors and tumor suppressors are involved during stress response such as Nrf2, NFκB and BRCA1. A promising strategy for targeting redox status of the cells is to use readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices. Many of the phytochemicals have already been identified to have chemopreventive potential, capable of intervening in carcinogenesis.

  19. Therapeutic potential of helminths in autoimmune diseases: helminth-derived immune-regulators and immune balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wu, Linxiang; Weng, Rennan; Zheng, Weihong; Wu, Zhongdao; Lv, Zhiyue

    2017-08-01

    Helminths have accompanied human throughout history by releasing immune-evasion molecules that could counteract an aberrant immune response within the host. In the past decades, helminth infections are becoming less prevalent possibly due to the developed sanitation. Meanwhile, the incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing, which cannot be exclusively explained by the changes of susceptibility genes. While the hygiene hypothesis casts light on the problem. The infections of helminths are believed to interact with and regulate human immunity with the byproduct of suppressing the autoimmune diseases. Thus, helminths are potential to treat or cure the autoimmune diseases. The therapeutic progresses and possible immune suppression mechanisms are illustrated in the review. The helminths that are studied most intensively include Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Hymenolepis diminuta, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis. Special attentions are paid on the booming animal models and clinical trials that are to detect the efficiency of immune-modulating helminth-derived molecules on autoimmune diseases. These trials provide us with a prosperous clinical perspective, but the precise mechanism of the down-regulatory immune response remains to be clarified. More efforts are needed to be dedicated until these parasite-derived immune modulators could be used in clinic to treat or cure the autoimmune diseases under a standard management.

  20. Role of riboswitches in gene regulation and their potential for algal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Scaife, Mark A; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2016-06-01

    Riboswitches are regulatory elements in messenger RNA to which specific ligands can bind directly in the absence of proteins. Ligand binding alters the mRNA secondary structure, thereby affecting expression of the encoded protein. Riboswitches are widespread in prokaryotes, with over 20 different effector ligands known, including amino acids, cofactors, and Mg(2+) ions, and gene expression is generally regulated by affecting translation or termination of transcription. In plants, fungi, and microalgae, riboswitches have been found, but only those that bind thiamine pyrophosphate. These eukaryotic riboswitches operate by causing alternative splicing of the transcript. Here, we review the current status of riboswitch research with specific emphasis on microalgae. We discuss new riboswitch discoveries and insights into the underlying mechanism of action, and how next generation sequencing technology provides the motivation and opportunity to improve our understanding of these rare but important regulatory elements. We also highlight the potential of microalgal riboswitches as a tool for synthetic biology and industrial biotechnology. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  1. 12-lipoxygenase regulates hippocampal long-term potentiation by modulating L-type Ca2+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCostanzo, Anthony J.; Voloshyna, Iryna; Rosen, Zev B.; Feinmark, Steven J.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Although long-term potentiation (LTP) has been intensely studied, there is disagreement as to which molecules mediate and modulate LTP. This is partly due to the presence of mechanistically distinct forms of LTP that are induced by different patterns of stimulation and that depend on distinct Ca2+ sources. Here we report a novel role for the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) in LTP at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses that is dependent on the pattern of tetanic stimulation. We find that 12-LO activity is required for the induction of LTP in response to a theta-burst stimulation (TBS) protocol, which depends on Ca2+ influx through both NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. In contrast, LTP induced by 100 Hz tetanic stimulation, which requires Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors but not L-type channels, does not require 12-LO. We find that 12-LO regulates LTP by enhancing postsynaptic somatodendritic Ca2+ influx through L-type channels during theta burst stimulation, an action exerted via 12(S)-HPETE, a downstream metabolite of 12-LO. These results help define the role of a long-disputed signaling enzyme in LTP. PMID:20130191

  2. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  3. RHEB: a potential regulator of chondrocyte phenotype for cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, S; Ahn, J; Cha, B-H; Kim, J-S; Han, I; Park, H; Lee, S-H

    2017-09-01

    As articular cartilage has a limited ability to self-repair, successful cartilage regeneration requires clinical-grade chondrocytes with innate characteristics. However, cartilage regeneration via chondrocyte transplantation is challenging, because chondrocytes lose their innate characteristics during in vitro expansion. Here, we investigated the mechanistic underpinning of the gene Ras homologue enriched in brain (RHEB) in the control of senescence and dedifferentiation through the modulation of oxidative stress in chondrocytes, a hallmark of osteoarthritis. Serial expansion of human chondrocytes led to senescence, dedifferentiation and oxidative stress. RHEB maintained the innate characteristics of chondrocytes by regulating senescence, dedifferentiation and oxidative stress, leading to the upregulation of COL2 expression via SOX9 and the downregulation of p27 expression via MCL1. RHEB also decreased the expression of COL10. RHEB knockdown mimics decreased the expression of SOX9, COL2 and MCL1, while abrogating the suppressive function of RHEB on p27 and COL10 in chondrocytes. RHEB-overexpressing chondrocytes successfully formed cartilage tissue in vitro as well as in vivo, with increased expression of GAG matrix and chondrogenic markers. RHEB induces a distinct gene expression signature that maintained the innate chondrogenic properties over a long period. Therefore, RHEB expression represents a potentially useful mechanism in terms of cartilage tissue regeneration from chondrocytes, by which chondrocyte phenotypic and molecular characteristics can be retained through the modulation of senescence, dedifferentiation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Therapeutic potential of α7 nicotinic receptor agonists to regulate neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Foucault-Fruchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, are all characterized by a component of innate immunity called neuroinflammation. Neuronal loss and neuroinflammation are two phenomena closely linked. Hence, the neuroinflammation is a relevant target for the management of the neurodegenerative diseases given that, to date, there is no treatment to stop neuronal loss. Several studies have investigated the potential effects of activators of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system. After activation, they seem to mediate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the brain. This anti-inflammatory pathway, first described in periphery, regulates activation of microglial cells considered as the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system. In this article, we shortly review the agonists of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that have been evaluated in vivo and we focused on the selective positive allosteric modulators of these receptors. These compounds represent a key element to enhance receptor activity only in the presence of the endogenous agonist.

  5. The potential application of a transcriptionally regulated oncolytic herpes simplex virus for human cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L; Fraefel, C; Sia, K C; Newman, J P; Mohamed-Bashir, S A; Ng, W H; Lam, P Y P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emerging studies have shown the potential benefit of arming oncolytic viruses with therapeutic genes. However, most of these therapeutic genes are placed under the regulation of ubiquitous viral promoters. Our goal is to generate a safer yet potent oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) for cancer therapy. Methods: Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering, a cell cycle-regulatable luciferase transgene cassette was replaced with the infected cell protein 6 (ICP6) coding region (encoded for UL39 or large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase) of the HSV-1 genome. These recombinant viruses, YE-PC8, were further tested for its proliferation-dependent luciferase gene expression. Results: The ability of YE-PC8 to confer proliferation-dependent transgene expression was demonstrated by injecting similar amount of viruses into the tumour-bearing region of the brain and the contralateral normal brain parenchyma of the same mouse. The results showed enhanced levels of luciferase activities in the tumour region but not in the normal brain parenchyma. Similar findings were observed in YE-PC8-infected short-term human brain patient-derived glioma cells compared with normal human astrocytes. intratumoural injection of YE-PC8 viruses resulted in 77% and 80% of tumour regression in human glioma and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts, respectively. Conclusion: YE-PC8 viruses confer tumour selectivity in proliferating cells and may be developed further as a feasible approach to treat human cancers. PMID:24196790

  6. Local chromatin structure of heterochromatin regulates repeated DNA stability, nucleolus structure, and genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jamy C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Heterochromatin constitutes a significant portion of the genome in higher eukaryotes; approximately 30% in Drosophila and human. Heterochromatin contains a high repeat DNA content and a low density of protein-encoding genes. In contrast, euchromatin is composed mostly of unique sequences and contains the majority of single-copy genes. Genetic and cytological studies demonstrated that heterochromatin exhibits regulatory roles in chromosome organization, centromere function and telomere protection. As an epigenetically regulated structure, heterochromatin formation is not defined by any DNA sequence consensus. Heterochromatin is characterized by its association with nucleosomes containing methylated-lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me), heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) that binds H3K9me, and Su(var)3-9, which methylates H3K9 and binds HP1. Heterochromatin formation and functions are influenced by HP1, Su(var)3-9, and the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. My thesis project investigates how heterochromatin formation and function impact nuclear architecture, repeated DNA organization, and genome stability in Drosophila melanogaster. H3K9me-based chromatin reduces extrachromosomal DNA formation; most likely by restricting the access of repair machineries to repeated DNAs. Reducing extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA stabilizes rDNA repeats and the nucleolus structure. H3K9me-based chromatin also inhibits DNA damage in heterochromatin. Cells with compromised heterochromatin structure, due to Su(var)3-9 or dcr-2 (a component of the RNAi pathway) mutations, display severe DNA damage in heterochromatin compared to wild type. In these mutant cells, accumulated DNA damage leads to chromosomal defects such as translocations, defective DNA repair response, and activation of the G2-M DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints that ensure cellular and animal viability. My thesis research suggests that DNA replication, repair, and recombination mechanisms in heterochromatin differ from those in

  7. Measuring the Potential of Local Green Growth – An Analysis of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, Samantha; Andersen, Maj Munch; Genoff, Rodin

    . Early results show that Copenhagen is well advanced on the path to a green economy; however, building on recent achievements, more can be done to accelerate the transition and secure Copenhagen’s leadership position in green industries and foster a green way of life for its citizens.......This briefing note summarises preliminary findings from the first case study in an OECD project to develop indicators for the green transition which can be used at the local level1. This new framework is being tested in regions in five countries: Denmark, Belgium, Chile, Germany and Luxembourg...

  8. Localization of higher grade tumor foci in potential candidates for active surveillance who opt for radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Hong

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Among patients deemed clinically appropriate for AS, higher-grade tumor foci missed by standard prostate biopsies were localized to both the anterior and posterior prostate, without predominance of a particular area. These findings lend additional support to performing repeat standard prostate biopsy in potential candidates for AS and should be considered in efforts to optimize current biopsy strategies for the selection of AS patients.

  9. Middle East and North Africa Region Assessment of the Local Manufacturing Potential for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzo, A.; Gousseland, P.; Verdier, J. [Ernst and Young et Associes, Neuilly-Sur-Seine (France); Kost, C.; Morin, G.; Engelken, M.; Schrof, J.; Nitz, P.; Selt, J.; Platzer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Ragwitz, M.; Boie, I.; Hauptstock, D.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The MENA CSP (Middle East and North Africa - Concentrated Solar Power) plan is an ambitious scheme with an appeal to anyone concerned about climate change and convinced by the need for clean, renewable power. But what does it really mean for the average citizen of say Morocco or Tunisia? The World Bank sees potential for significant job and wealth creation in solar energy producing countries. If the CSP market grows rapidly over the next few years, equipment manufacturing will be essential to supply this new sector. This study proposes roadmaps and an action plan to help develop the potential of locally manufactured CSP components in the existing industry and for new market entrants.

  10. State Anxiety Carried Over From Prior Threat Increases Late Positive Potential Amplitude During an Instructed Emotion Regulation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S.; Larson, Christine L.

    2018-01-01

    Emotion regulation has important consequences for emotional and mental health (Saxena, Dubey & Pandey, 2011) and is dependent on executive function (Eisenberg, Smith & Spinrad, 2011). Because state anxiety disrupts executive function (Robinson, Vytal, Cornwell & Grillon, 2013), we tested whether state anxiety disrupts emotion regulation by having participants complete an instructed emotion regulation task, while under threat of unpredictable shock and while safe from shock. We used the late positive potential (LPP) component of the event related potential to measure emotion regulation success. We predicted that LPP responses to negatively valenced images would be modulated by participants’ attempts to increase and decrease their emotions when safe from shock, but not while under threat of shock. Our manipulation check revealed an order effect such that for participants who completed the threat of shock condition first self-reported state anxiety carried over into the subsequent safe condition. Additionally, we found that although instructions to regulate affected participants’ ratings of how unpleasant the images made them feel, instructions to regulate had no effect on LPP amplitude regardless of threat condition. Instead we found that participants who received the threat condition prior to safe had greater LPP responses to all images in the safe condition. We posit that the carryover of anxiety resulted in misattribution of arousal and potentiation of neural responses to the images in the safe condition. Thus, our results imply that physiological arousal and cognition combine to influence the basic neural response to emotional stimuli. PMID:27055095

  11. Linking hydrology, morphodynamics and ecology to assess the restoration potential of the heavily regulated Sarca River, NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolli, Mauro; Zolezzi, Guido; Pellegrini, Stefano; Gelmini, Francesca; Deriu, Micaela

    2017-04-01

    We develop an integrated eco-hydro-morphological quantitative investigation of the upper course of the Alpine Sarca River (NE Italy), for the purpose of assessing its potential in terms of environmental restoration. The Sarca River has been subject to heavy exploitation for hydropower production since the 1950s through a complex infrastructural system. As for many regulated Alpine rivers, increasing local interest has recently been developing to design and implement river restoration measures to improve the environmental conditions and ecosystem services that the river can provide. The aim of the work is to develop and apply a quantitative approach for a preliminary assessment of the successful potential of different river restoration options in the light of the recent eco-hydro-morphological dynamics of the Sarca river system at the catchment scale. The proposed analysis consists of three main steps: (1) detection of the main drivers of flow and sediment supply regimes alteration and characterization of such alteration; (2) a quantification of the effects of those alterations on geomorphic processes and fish habitat conditions; (3) the analysis of the restoration potential in the light of the results of the previous assessment. The analysis is tailored to the existing data availability, which is relatively high as for most river systems of comparable size in Europe, but not as much as in the case of a targeted research project, thus providing a representative case for many other regulated river catchments. Hydrological alteration is quantified by comparing recent (20 years) streamflow time series with a reconstructed series of analogous length, using a hydrological model that has been run excluding any man-made water abstraction, release and artificial reservoirs. upstream and downstream a large dam in the middle course of the river. By choosing the adult marble trout as target (endemic) fish species, effects of the alterations on the temporal and spatial habitat

  12. Influence of the Reform of Local Self-Government in Ukraine on the Formation and Development of Labor Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharuk Kateryna B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the peculiarities of formation and development of the labor potential in the process of the reforming local self-government in Ukraine. It has been found that an integration of population, the system of economic entities, infrastructure units, scientific-technical potential allows to determine the need for modern spatial forms of concentration of labor potential, i.e. for consolidated territorial communities. With the purpose of formation and development of labor potential, considering impacts of the reform of local self-government in Ukraine, the following activities has been proposed to be carried out: improving the living standards of rural residents, creation of productive jobs, socio-economic cooperation between communities, infrastructure development, use of natural resources, socio-labor, agricultural and industrial capacities, effective use of rural socio-labour potential, development of agricultural production, rural non-farm activities, development of social infrastructure, creation of advisory service and introduction of a system of continuous education, development of family medicine, collaboration with regional and central authorities, involvement of the regional budget funds, establishment of a fund for economic development, cooperation with domestic and foreign investors. It has been determined that the introduction of the above measures will affect the increase in employment within the consolidated territorial communities.

  13. Time-dependent local potential in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Naushad Ahmad; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    We study the energy deposition in a one-dimensional interacting quantum system with a pointlike potential modulated in amplitude. The pointlike potential at position x =0 has a constant part and a small oscillation in time with a frequency ω . We use bosonization, renormalization group, and linear response theory to calculate the corresponding energy deposition. It exhibits a power law behavior as a function of the frequency that reflects the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) nature of the system. Depending on the interactions in the system, characterized by the TLL parameter K of the system, a crossover between weak and strong coupling for the backscattering due to the potential is possible. We compute the frequency scale ω*, at which such crossover exists. We find that the energy deposition due to the backscattering shows different exponents for K >1 and K <1 . We discuss possible experimental consequences, in the context of cold atomic gases, of our theoretical results.

  14. Community financing of local ivermectin distribution in Nigeria: potential payment and cost-recovery outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, O E; Shu, E N; Okonkwo, P O

    2000-04-01

    The preferred payment mechanism in a community financing scheme for local ivermectin distribution was elicited from randomly selected household heads from three communities in Nigeria using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The majority of the respondents in the three communities were prepared to pay for local ivermectin distribution. Additionally, the average amounts the respondents were prepared to pay per person treated ($0.28, $0.30 and $0.38 in Nike, Achi and Toro, respectively) were all more than the $0.20 ceiling recommended by the partners of the African Programme on Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Thus, the cost-recovery outlook is bright in these communities. However, the preferred payment modality varied. Fee-for-service was the predominant payment modality in the Achi and Nike communities, while the Toro community preferred pre-payment. This study demonstrates that many communities have different payment preferences for endemic disease control efforts. This knowledge will help in developing acceptable and sustainable schemes. The imposition of unacceptable payment mechanisms will lead to an unwillingness to pay.

  15. Localized transitions in the thermoluminescence of LiF : Mg,Ti: potential for nanoscale dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Y S; Biderman, S; Einav, Y

    2003-01-01

    We describe the effect of nanoscale spatially coupled trapping centre (TC)-luminescent centre (LC) pairs on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of LiF : Mg,Ti. It is shown that glow peak 5a (a low-temperature satellite of the major glow peak 5) arises from localized electron-hole (e-h) recombination in a TC-LC pair believed to be based on Mg sup 2 sup + -Li sub v sub a sub c trimers (the TCs) coupled to Ti(OH) sub n molecules (the LCs). Due to the localized nature of the e-h pair, two important properties are affected: (i) heavy charged particle (HCP) TL efficiency: the intensity of peak 5a relative to peak 5 following HCP high-ionization density irradiation is greater than that following low ionization density irradiation in a manner somewhat similar to the ionization density dependence of the yield of double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced in DNA. Our experimental measurements in a variety of HCP and fast neutron radiation fields have demonstrated that the ratio of glow peaks 5a/5 is nearly independent of p...

  16. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Calle-Guisado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated kinase (AMPK, a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work′s aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%-80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC. AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied.

  17. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Guisado, Violeta; de Llera, Ana Hurtado; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Mijares, Jose; Gil, Maria C; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Bragado, Maria J; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work's aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%–80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS) in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied. PMID:27678462

  18. Local Fruit Wastes as a Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Kamarrudin, N.; Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Hashib, S. Abd

    2017-06-01

    Food industry in Malaysia which used fruits as one of the raw material such as the production of fruit juices, concentrates, jams and dried fruits, the main wastes of the production are the peel and the seed of the fruit. Nowadays, people have shown the interests to study the antioxidant content in the fruit wastes. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as vitamins, phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid. Thus, this paper presented the work done by researcher on antioxidant activity in the peel especially on local fruit such as mango peel, watermelon rind, banana peel and mangosteen pericarp. The review shows that the peel of the fruit is a good source of antioxidant and other bioactive compounds which have many benefits especially towards human health.

  19. Local mechanical properties of bladder cancer cells measured by AFM as a signature of metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidine, Y.; Laurent, V. M.; Michel, R.; Duperray, A.; Verdier, C.

    2015-10-01

    The rheological properties of bladder cancer cells of different invasivities have been investigated using a microrheological technique well adapted in the range [1-300Hz] of interest to understand local changes in the cytoskeleton microstructure, in particular actin fibres. Drugs disrupting actin and acto-myosin functions were used to study the resistance of such cancer cells. Results on a variety of cell lines were fitted with a model revealing the importance of two parameters, the elastic shear plateau modulus G N 0 as well as the glassy transition frequency f T. These parameters are good markers for invasiveness, with the notable exception of the cell periphery, which is stiffer for less invasive cells, and could be of importance in cancer metastasis.

  20. Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Nedergaard, S; Greenfield, S A

    1992-01-01

    of differential polarization through applied electric fields, the cell body and dendrites have been activated in effective isolation during intracellular recordings from pars compacta neurons in the substantia nigra in vitro. In one class of neurons, which discharge in a "phasic" fashion and are located......The dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra play a pivotal role in the neurochemical homeostasis of the nucleus. It is conceivable therefore that the cell body and dendrites of these nigral neurons possess distinct and independent electro-responsive features. By means......, a high-threshold calcium spike is located principally in the cell body. The differential localization of these calcium conductances in sub-populations of neurons is likely to determine the functions for the calcium responses in each type of neuron, and moreover highlight the dendrites as dynamic...