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Sample records for potential igneous processes

  1. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, M.; Perry, F.; Valentine, G.; Smistad, E.

    2005-01-01

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgment, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 x 10 -8 per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 x 10 -8 be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered: (1) igneous intrusion-poundwater transport case and (2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the contents of

  2. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  3. The uranium potential of the Bushveld igneous complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Hart, R.J.; Brynard, H.J.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.

    1987-06-01

    A review of published literature supported by field observations on the uranium potential of the Bushveld Complex indicates that this geological region may host deposits with reserves in the range of a few thousand tons U 3 O 8 . The possibility that the Bushveld Complex or its cover rocks hosts, or has ever hosted in the past, giant uranium deposits such as those of Olympic Dam, Key Lake, Jabiluka or Rossing is considered to be unlikely. The potential for volcanogenic, caldera-type deposits in the Rooiberg Felsites remains at present untested. Recommendations for research currently sponsored by the AEC at the University of Pretoria are presented

  4. PROBABILISTIC ANALYSES OF WASTE PACKAGE QUANTITIES IMPACTED BY POTENTIAL IGNEOUS DISRUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.G. Wallace

    2005-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis was conducted to estimate ranges for the numbers of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The first scenario, igneous intrusion, investigated the case where one or more igneous dikes intersect the repository. A swarm of dikes was characterized by distributions of length, width, azimuth, and number of dikes and the spacings between them. Through the use in part of a latin hypercube simulator and a modified video game engine, mathematical relationships were built between those parameters and the number of waste packages hit. Corresponding cumulative distribution function curves (CDFs) for the number of waste packages hit under several different scenarios were calculated. Variations in dike thickness ranges, as well as in repository magma bulkhead positions were examined through sensitivity studies. It was assumed that all waste packages in an emplacement drift would be impacted if that drift were intersected by a dike. Over 10,000 individual simulations were performed. Based on these calculations, out of a total of over 11,000 planned waste packages distributed over an area of approximately 5.5 km 2 , the median number of waste packages impacted was roughly 1/10 of the total. Individual cases ranged from 0 waste packages to the entire inventory being impacted. The igneous intrusion analysis involved an explicit characterization of dike-drift intersections, built upon various distributions that reflect the uncertainties associated with the inputs. The second igneous scenario, volcanic eruption (eruptive conduits), considered the effects of conduits formed in

  5. Criticality Potential of Waste Packages Containing DOE SNF Affected by Igneous Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.S. Kimball; C.E. Sanders

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently preparing an application to submit to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a construction authorization for a monitored geologic repository. The repository will contain spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and defense high-level waste (DHLW) in waste packages placed in underground tunnels, or drifts. The primary objective of this paper is to perform a criticality analysis for waste packages containing DOE SNF affected by a disruptive igneous intrusion event in the emplacement drifts. The waste packages feature one DOE SNF canister placed in the center and surrounded by five High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canisters. The effective neutron multiplication factor (k eff ) is determined for potential configurations of the waste package during and after an intrusive igneous event. Due to the complexity of the potential scenarios following an igneous intrusion, finding conservative and bounding configurations with respect to criticality requires some additional considerations. In particular, the geometry of a slumped and damaged waste package must be examined, drift conditions must be modeled over a range of parameters, and the chemical degradation of DOE SNF and waste package materials must be considered for the expected high temperatures. The secondary intent of this calculation is to present a method for selecting conservative and bounding configurations for a wide range of end conditions

  6. High radioactive heat-producing, economically potential granites around Jodhpur city, Malani Igneous Suite, Northwestern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.L.; Prajapat, Tina; Mathur, Anju; Gaur, Virendra; Dadhich; Mamta Chauhan, C.P.; Tripathi, Beena

    2013-01-01

    In the south and southeast periphery of the desert city of Jodhpur, there are pink and grey granite islands in the desert sand at Fitkasni-Rasida and Salawas-Nandanvan areas of Malani Igneous Suite (Neoproterozoic). We are reporting the average heat generation value of 15.33 HGU for first and 8.83 HGU for the second area that is much higher than the average (3.8 HGU) known for the continental crust. The concentration of uranium determined is two to four times higher than the average continental crust and thorium is still higher than U and K. The radioelement concentration (Ur) varies from 25.06 to 27 in the Salawas-Nandanvan granites and 43.73 to 75.81 in Fitkasni-Rasida granites. It clearly indicates a 'hot crust', hence favourable for the formation of mineralization of HFS elements, Nb, Ce, REE, U and Th, which need yet to be explored. (author)

  7. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S and ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriate distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S and ER analyses

  8. Igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Neish, Catherine D.; Pilles, Eric A.; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2018-03-01

    Igneous rocks are the primary building blocks of planetary crusts. Most igneous rocks originate via decompression melting and/or wet melting of protolith lithologies within planetary interiors and their classification and compositional, petrographic, and textural characteristics, are well-studied. As our exploration of the Solar System continues, so too does the inventory of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, settings, and processes. The results of planetary exploration have also clearly demonstrated that impact cratering is a ubiquitous geological process that has affected, and will continue to affect, all planetary objects with a solid surface, whether that be rock or ice. It is now recognized that the production of igneous rocks is a fundamental outcome of hypervelocity impact. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date synthesis of our knowledge and understanding of igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact. Following a brief overview of the basics of the impact process, we describe how and why melts are generated during impact events and how impact melting differs from endogenic igneous processes. While the process may differ, we show that the products of hypervelocity impact can share close similarities with volcanic and shallow intrusive igneous rocks of endogenic origin. Such impact melt rocks, as they are termed, can display lobate margins and cooling cracks, columnar joints and at the hand specimen and microscopic scale, such rocks can display mineral textures that are typical of volcanic rocks, such as quench crystallites, ophitic, porphyritic, as well as features such as vesicles, flow textures, and so on. Historically, these similarities led to the misidentification of some igneous rocks now known to be impact melt rocks as being of endogenic origin. This raises the question as to how to distinguish between an impact versus an endogenic origin for igneous-like rocks on other planetary bodies where fieldwork and sample analysis may not

  9. Effects of low-pressure igneous processes and subduction on Fe3+/ΣFe and redox state of mantle eclogites from Lace (Kaapvaal craton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, S.; Woodland, A. B.; Vasilyev, P.; Galvez, M. E.; Viljoen, K. S.

    2017-09-01

    Reconstructing the redox state of the mantle is critical in discussing the evolution of atmospheric composition through time. Kimberlite-borne mantle eclogite xenoliths, commonly interpreted as representing former oceanic crust, may record the chemical and physical state of Archaean and Proterozoic convecting mantle sources that generated their magmatic protoliths. However, their message is generally obscured by a range of primary (igneous differentiation) and secondary processes (seawater alteration, metamorphism, metasomatism). Here, we report the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio and δ18 O in garnet from in a suite of well-characterised mantle eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths hosted in the Lace kimberlite (Kaapvaal craton), which originated as ca. 3 Ga-old ocean floor. Fe3+/ΣFe in garnet (0.01 to 0.063, median 0.02; n = 16) shows a negative correlation with jadeite content in clinopyroxene, suggesting increased partitioning of Fe3+ into clinopyroxene in the presence of monovalent cations with which it can form coupled substitutions. Jadeite-corrected Fe3+/ΣFe in garnet shows a broad negative trend with Eu*, consistent with incompatible behaviour of Fe3+ during olivine-plagioclase accumulation in the protoliths. This trend is partially obscured by increasing Fe3+ partitioning into garnet along a conductive cratonic geotherm. In contrast, NMORB-normalised Nd/Yb - a proxy of partial melt loss from subducting oceanic crust (1) - shows no obvious correlation with Fe3+/ΣFe, nor does garnet δ18OVSMOW (5.14 to 6.21‰) point to significant seawater alteration. Median bulk-rock Fe3+/ΣFe is roughly estimated at 0.025. This observation agrees with V/Sc systematics, which collectively point to a reduced Archaean convecting mantle source to the igneous protoliths of these eclogites compared to the modern MORB source. Oxygen fugacites (fO2) relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) range from Δlog ⁡ fO2 = FMQ-1.3 to FMQ-4.6. At those reducing conditions, the solubility

  10. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios

  11. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  12. Petrogenesis of Igneous-Textured Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa 7034 (and pairings) is a breccia that samples a variety of materials from the martian crust. Several previous studies have identified multiple types of igneous-textured clasts within the breccia [1-3], and these clasts have the potential to provide insight into the igneous evolution of Mars. One challenge presented by studying these small rock fragments is the lack of field context for this breccia (i.e., where on Mars it formed), so we do not know how many sources these small rock fragments are derived from or the exact formation his-tory of these sources (i.e., are the sources mantle de-rived melt or melts contaminated by a meteorite impactor on Mars). Our goal in this study is to examine specific igneous-textured clast groups to determine if they are petrogenetically related (i.e., from the same igneous source) and determine more information about their formation history, then use them to derive new insights about the igneous history of Mars. We will focus on the basalt clasts, FTP clasts (named due to their high concentration of iron, titanium, and phosphorous), and mineral fragments described by [1] (Fig. 1). We will examine these materials for evidence of impactor contamination (as proposed for some materials by [2]) or mantle melt derivation. We will also test the petrogenetic models proposed in [1], which are igneous processes that could have occurred regardless of where the melt parental to the clasts was formed. These models include 1) derivation of the FTP clasts from a basalt clast melt through silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI), 2) derivation of the FTP clasts from a basalt clast melt through fractional crystallization, and 3) a lack of petrogenetic relationship between these clast groups. The relationship between the clast groups and the mineral fragments will also be explored.

  13. Igneous-related geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R L; Shaw, H R

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary survey of the geothermal resource base associated with igneous-derived thermal anomalies in the upper 10 km of the crust is presented. The approach to numerical estimates of igneous-related heat contents rests on estimates of the probable volumes of high-level magma chambers and determinations of the radiometric ages of the youngest volcanism from those chambers combined with simple thermal calculations based on these values. (MHR)

  14. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Dry and Water Saturated Igneous Rock with Acoustic Emission Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniaxial cyclic loading tests have been conducted to study the mechanical behavior of dry and water saturated igneous rock with acoustic emission (AE monitoring. The igneous rock samples are dried, naturally immersed, and boiled to get specimens with different water contents for the testing. The mineral compositions and the microstructures of the dry and water saturated igneous rock are also presented. The dry specimens present higher strength, fewer strains, and rapid increase of AE count subjected to the cyclic loading, which reflects the hard and brittle behavior and strong burst proneness of igneous rock. The water saturated specimens have lower peak strength, more accumulated strains, and increase of AE count during the cyclic loading. The damage of the igneous rocks with different water contents has been identified by the Felicity Ratio Analysis. The cyclic loading and unloading increase the dislocation between the mineral aggregates and the water-rock interactions further break the adhesion of the clay minerals, which jointly promote the inner damage of the igneous rock. The results suggest that the groundwater can reduce the burst proneness of the igneous rock but increase the potential support failure of the surrounding rock in igneous invading area. In addition, the results inspire the fact that the water injection method is feasible for softening the igneous rock and for preventing the dynamic disasters within the roadways and working faces located in the igneous intrusion area.

  15. Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, Jaayke L.; Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur P.; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Holtz, François; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are an important source of iron and other elements (e.g., REE, P, U, Ag and Co) vital to modern society. However, their formation, including the namesake Kiruna-type IOA deposit (Sweden), remains controversial. Working hypotheses include a purely magmatic origin involving separation of an Fe-, P-rich, volatile-rich oxide melt from a Si-rich silicate melt, and precipitation of magnetite from an aqueous ore fluid, which is either of magmatic-hydrothermal or non-magmatic surface or metamorphic origin. In this study, we focus on the geochemistry of magnetite from the Cretaceous Kiruna-type Los Colorados IOA deposit (∼350 Mt Fe) located in the northern Chilean Iron Belt. Los Colorados has experienced minimal hydrothermal alteration that commonly obscures primary features in IOA deposits. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) transects and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectrometry mapping demonstrate distinct chemical zoning in magnetite grains, wherein cores are enriched in Ti, Al, Mn and Mg. The concentrations of these trace elements in magnetite cores are consistent with igneous magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt, whereas magnetite rims show a pronounced depletion in these elements, consistent with magnetite grown from an Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. Further, magnetite grains contain polycrystalline inclusions that re-homogenize at magmatic temperatures (>850 °C). Smaller inclusions (500 ppm) concentrations.

  16. Igneous-sedimentary petroleum systems; Sistemas petroliferos igneo-sedimentares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Jaime Fernandes [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil)]. E-mail: eiras@ufpa.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios-BSOL]. E-mail: jwand@petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    Igneous-sedimentary petroleum systems are mixed systems in which one or more essential elements or processes are related to magmatic events. Many examples worldwide are presented to show the importance of igneous rocks in the exploratory activities, as well as in the petroleum occurrence. Volcanic ash layers are of great importance in stratigraphic correlation and elucidation of structures, particularly when they occur in thick nonfossiliferous strata. They are also good indicators of turbidite deposition where turbidity currents are related to earthquakes generated by magmatic events. Unconventional reservoirs can be created by volcanic eruptions or intrusions, crystallization, reworking, and fracturing. Unaltered igneous rocks can seal vertically and laterally conventional reservoirs due to its excellent cap capacity. Abnormal thermal effect of igneous rocks can compensate the lack of overburden in shallow basins. Structural or combined traps can be formed due to intrusions, such as folded, faulted, and unconformity traps. Porosity can be either primary or secondary, or both. Primary porosity mainly consists of cavities produced by gas volatilization during eruption and cooling. Secondary porosity refers to those pores that result from hydrothermal alteration, recrystallization, and dissolution by groundwater, and tectonic stress. It includes intercrystalline pores formed by crystallization of various secondary minerals, dissolution pores, and tectonic fractures. New technologies of petroleum development and production are encouraging to search for oil and gas within igneous rocks, and new discoveries are expected. (author)

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of igneous inclusions in recent Merapi deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P.; Troll, V.R.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2013-01-01

    Recent basaltic-andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant and varied igneous inclusions suggesting a complex sub-volcanic magmatic system for Merapi volcano. In order to better understand the processes occurring beneath Merapi, we have studied this suite of inclusions by petrography, ge...

  18. Association of igneous phophate and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, F.E.V.L.

    1980-10-01

    Data from Catalao permit some brief comments about the association of igneous phosphate and uranium, and on the possible economic importance of this type of mineralization in spite of the low grades of metals observed. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of carbonatites, phosphate ore and different phosphate concentrates, reveal the existence of important low-grade reserves of Th, Nb, Zr, U and La, and possibly of other metals such as V and Cu. Uranium is enriched 1.6 and 1.2 times, respectively, in the residual muds and flotation wastes produced at the processing plant of Goiasfertil operating in the area. The uranium is associated with two types of minerals, the first one comprised primarily of phosphates of the gorceixite group and secondarily of apatite and dahllite. THe second association is with pyrochlore, or rather barium-pyrochlore. Further investigations of similar occurences may define more clearly and specifically the various factors controlling the observed enrichment in heavy elements. (Author) [pt

  19. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  20. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...

  1. Records of Triassic volcanism in Pangean Great Lakes, and implications for reconstructing the distal effects of Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Percival, L.; Kinney, S.; Olsen, P. E.; Mather, T. A.; Philpotts, A.

    2017-12-01

    Documentation of the precise timing of volcanic eruptions in sedimentary records is key for linking volcanic activity to both historical and geological episodes of environmental change. Deposition of tuffs in sediments, and sedimentary enrichment of trace metals linked to igneous processes, are both commonly used for such correlations. In particular, sedimentary mercury (Hg) enrichments have been used as a marker for volcanic activity from Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) to support their link to episodes of major climate change and mass extinction in the geological record. However, linking such enrichments to a specific eruption or eruption products is often challenging or impossible. In this study, the mercury records from two exactly contemporaneous latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic rift lakes are presented. Both sedimentary records feature igneous units proposed to be related to the later (Early Jurassic) stages of volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). These CAMP units include a small tuff unit identified by thin-section petrology and identified at 10 localities over a distance of over 200 km, and a major CAMP basalt flow overlying this tuff (and dated at 200.916±0.064 Ma) which is also known across multiple sedimentary basins in both North America and Morocco and is thought to have been emplaced about 120 kyr after the tuff. A potential stratigraphic correlation between Hg enrichments and the igneous units is considered, and compared to the established records of mercury enrichments from the latest Triassic that are thought to be coeval with the earlier stages of CAMP volcanism. Investigating the Hg records of sedimentary successions containing tuffs and basalt units is an important step for demonstrating whether the mercury emissions from specific individual volcanic eruptions in the deep past can be identified in the geological record, and are thus important tools for interpreting the causes of associated past geological events, such as

  2. Application of air hammer drilling technology in igneous rocks of Junggar basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongshan; Feng, Guangtong; Yu, Haiye

    2018-03-01

    There were many technical problems such as serious well deviation, low penetration rate and long drilling cycle in igneous rocks because of its hardness, strong abrasive and poor drillability, which severely influenced the exploration and development process of Junggar basin. Through analyzing the difficulties of gas drilling with roller bits in Well HS 2, conducting the mechanics experiments about igneous rock, and deeply describing the rock-breaking mechanism of air hammer drilling and its adaptability in igneous rocks, air hammer drilling can realize deviation control and fast drilling in igneous rocks of piedmont zone and avoid the wear and fatigue fracture of drilling strings due to its characteristics of low WOB, low RPM and high frequency impact. Through firstly used in igneous rocks of Well HS 201, compared with gas drilling with cone bit, the average penetration rate and one-trip footage of air hammer drilling respectively increased by more than 2.45 times and 6.42 times while the well deviation was always controlled less than 2 degrees. Two records for Block HS were set up such as the fastest penetration rate of 14.29m/h in Φ444.5mm well hole and the highest one-trip footage of 470.62m in Φ311.2mm well hole. So air hammer drilling was an effective way to realize optimal and fast drilling in the igneous rock formation of Junggar basin.

  3. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  4. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  5. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can

  6. On the radiogenic heat production of igneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hasterok

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiogenic heat production is a physical parameter crucial to properly estimating lithospheric temperatures and properly understanding processes related to the thermal evolution of the Earth. Yet heat production is, in general, poorly constrained by direct observation because the key radiogenic elements exist in trace amounts making them difficulty image geophysically. In this study, we advance our knowledge of heat production throughout the lithosphere by analyzing chemical analyses of 108,103 igneous rocks provided by a number of geochemical databases. We produce global estimates of the average and natural range for igneous rocks using common chemical classification systems. Heat production increases as a function of increasing felsic and alkali content with similar values for analogous plutonic and volcanic rocks. The logarithm of median heat production is negatively correlated (r2 = 0.98 to compositionally-based estimates of seismic velocities between 6.0 and 7.4 km s−1, consistent with the vast majority of igneous rock compositions. Compositional variations for continent-wide models are also well-described by a log-linear correlation between heat production and seismic velocity. However, there are differences between the log-linear models for North America and Australia, that are consistent with interpretations from previous studies that suggest above average heat production across much of Australia. Similar log-linear models also perform well within individual geological provinces with ∼1000 samples. This correlation raises the prospect that this empirical method can be used to estimate average heat production and natural variance both laterally and vertically throughout the lithosphere. This correlative relationship occurs despite a direct causal relationship between these two parameters but probably arises from the process of differentiation through melting and crystallization.

  7. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Bernot

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  8. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  9. Teaching Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Through Guided Inquiry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate Petrology at New Mexico State University (GEOL 399) has been taught using three, 5-6 week long projects in place of lectures, lab, and exams for the last six years. Reasons for changing from the traditional format include: 1) to move the focus from identification and memorization to petrologic thinking; 2) the need for undergraduate students to apply basic chemical, structural, and field concepts to igneous and metamorphic rocks; 3) student boredom in the traditional mode by the topic that has captivated my professional life, in spite of my best efforts to offer thrilling lectures, problems, and labs. The course has three guided inquiry projects: volcanic, plutonic, and pelitic dynamothermal. Two of the rock suites are investigated during field trips. Each project provides hand samples and thin sections; the igneous projects also include whole-rock major and trace element data. Students write a scientific paper that classifies and describes the rocks, describes the data (mineralogical and geochemical), and uses data to interpret parameters such as tectonic setting, igneous processes, relationship to phase diagrams, geologic history, metamorphic grade, metamorphic facies, and polymetamorphic history. Students use the text as a major resource for self-learning; mini-lectures on pertinent topics are presented when needed by the majority of students. Project scores include evaluation of small parts of the paper due each Friday and participation in peer review as well as the final report. I have found that petrology is much more fun, although more difficult, to teach using this method. It is challenging to be totally prepared for class because students are working at different speeds on different levels on different aspects of the project. Students enjoy the course, especially the opportunity to engage in scientific investigation and debate. A significant flaw in this course is that students see fewer rocks and have less experience in rock classification

  10. On the source material of magmas - with special reference to Nd isotopic ratios of igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuto, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    In 1973, the Sm-Nd method was first used for the measurement of the absolute age of igneous rocks and meteorites. Subsequently in the following years, the research works by means of the Nd isotopic ratio in igneous rocks have been made strenuously in order to reveal the chemistry of the source materials of magma giving rise to the igneous rocks and further the evolution process of mantle and earth's crust. The fundamental items for the Sm-Nd method are explained. Then, the research results more important in the above connection are given. Finally, the ideas by the author concerning the source materials of magma are presented from the data available on the Nd isotopes in meteorites and igneous rocks. The following matters are described: the fundamentals of Sm-Nd method, the Nd content in seawater, the negative correlation between Nd and Sr isotopic ratios in igneous rocks, magma source materials and Nd isotopes, and considerations on magma source materials. (J.P.N.)

  11. The role of igneous sills in shaping the Martian uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelms, D. E.; Baldwin, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Relations among geologic units and landforms suggest that igneous sills lie beneath much of the intercrater and intracrater terrain of the Martian uplands. The igneous rocks crop out along the upland-lowland front and in crater floors and other depressions that are low enough to intersect the sill's intrusion horizons. It is suggested that heat from the cooling sills melted some of the ice contained in overlying fragmental deposits, creating valley networks by subsurface flow of the meltwater. Terrains with undulatory, smooth surfaces and softened traces of valleys were created by more direct contact with the sills. Widespread subsidence following emplacement of the sills deformed both them and the nonvolcanic deposits that overlie them, accounting for the many structures that continue from ridged plains into the hilly uplands. Crater counts show that the deposit that became valleyed, softened, and ridged probably began to form (and to acquire interstitial ice) during or shortly after the Middle Noachian Epoch, and continued to form as late as the Early Hesperian Epoch. The upper layers of this deposit, many of the visible valleys, and the ridged plains and postulated sills all have similar Early Hesperian ages. Continued formation of valleys is indicated by their incision of fresh-appearing crater ejecta. The dependence of valley formation on internal processes implies that Mars did not necessarily have a dense early atmosphere or warm climate.

  12. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  13. Features of the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks - uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.

    1977-01-01

    The generally accepted main features of the distribution of uranium and thorium in igneous rocks are briefly reviewed. It is pointed out that uranium in most cases examined is strongly partitioned into the melt during consolidation of magmas and that uranium is concentrated in the most volatile-rich parts of magmas. The mode of emplacement and the consolidation of magmas control the retention or the expulsion of the volatile phase from consolidating magmas and also the distribution of uranium between magmas and the volatile phase. After a brief review of the types of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks it is concluded that it is difficult to establish universally valid exploration criteria to be used in the search of these types of deposit. It is emphasized, however, that detailed petrological and geochemical studies may be useful in outlining exploration targets. (author)

  14. PRESENTATION POTENTIAL USING IN PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Ershova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article is aimed at considering multimedia presentation potential and its influence on strengthening classroom teacher-student interaction. In the article the importance of using this kind of activity in the study process is pointed in connection with educational state policy on the one hand. On the other hand, gained students’ skills as a final result of work with presentations met employers’ demand for both parent and world labour-markets and bring competitive benefit to the candidates. Scientific novelty and results. Multimedia presentation is considered as a specific complex of classroom activities. The students are oriented on the self analysis and presentation assessment. It is shown that well-organized process of peer students’ assessment allows to simultaneously helping in solving the didactic and methodical problems. To this purpose the system of assessment criteria should be developed. It has to be clear for students for making assessment feasible and time-saving. The example of a possible variant of criteria system is described; quality of the presentations prepared by students can be defined based on such system criteria. The author also analyzed software products of the three main platforms (Windows, Linux, MacOs which have different tools and allow to follow users’ needs for creating presentations. In the article there is a comparative table of the two most popular software development: the program Microsoft PowerPoint and the web-service Prezi for realizing the relevance of their use in the study process. Practical significance of the present article concludes in author’s suggestions of some recommendations for presentation potential use as a tool of improving pedagogical interaction process with contemporary students. 

  15. Precambrian large igneous provinces: an overview of geochronology, origins and impact on earth evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaman, Larry M.

    2008-01-01

    Precambrian large igneous provinces flourished during the Proterozoic and some, such as the 1.27 Ga Mackenzie event in North America, resemble their Phanerozoic counterparts with good evidence for the production of large volumes of mafic magma in short periods of geologic time (<10 m.y.), a specific focus of this magmatism, and regional uplift prior to the onset of volcanism. In many Precambrian examples, the flood basalts have been largely removed by erosion and only the root zone (e.g. dyke swarm, layered mafic intrusion) of these large igneous provinces is preserved. The short duration of this magmatism and the geometric relationship between linear dyke swarms and basement geology can potentially provide a robust geological pin in continental reconstructions. The extensive 2.37 Ga E-W trending Bangalore dyke swarm in the Dharwar craton, India cross-cuts N-S trending Neoarchean greenstone belts and the 2.51 Ga Closepet granite and is a good example of the potential for providing a cornerstone in Paleoproterozoic continent reconstruction. In contrast, the 1.89 Ga Southern Bastar-Cuddapah large igneous province in southern India is one of several large igneous provinces formed at this time on different continents, including the 1.89-1.88 Ga circum-Superior mafic/ultramafic magmatism in North America and the 1.88-1.87 Ga Waterberg Group sills in South Africa, and is part of a global period of enhanced mantle melting. A challenge for future attempts at Precambrian continent reconstruction is to distinguish between discrete global periods of enhanced mantle melting and a single specific focus large igneous province. (author)

  16. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, C.L.; Artur, A.C. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Guedes, S. [Departamento de Cronologia e Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Sergio Buarque de Holanda No. 777, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martinelli, C.D. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. Such data were used to estimate Ra{sub eq}, H{sub ex} and I{sub {gamma}}, which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra{sub eq} and H{sub ex} in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces {approx}10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m{sup 2}/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (={sup 226}Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation.

  17. Aspects of igneous activity significant to a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krier, D.J.; Perry, F.V.

    2004-01-01

    Location, timing, volume, and eruptive style of post-Miocene volcanoes have defined the volcanic hazard significant to a proposed high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a low-probability, high-consequence event. Examination of eruptive centers in the region that may be analogueues to possible future volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining and evaluating the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption above a repository. The probability of a future event intersecting a repository at Yucca Mountain has a mean value of 1.7 x 10 -8 per year. This probability comes from the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) completed in 1996 and updated to reflect change in repository layout. Since that time, magnetic anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified fiom magnetic surveys; however these potential buried centers only slightly increase the probability of an event intersecting the repository. The proposed repository will be located in its central portion of Yucca Mountain at approximately 300m depth. The process for assessing performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain has identified two scenarios for igneous activity that, although having a very low probability of occurrence, could have a significant consequence should an igneous event occur. Either a dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, or a volcanic eruption through the repository could result in release of radioactive material to the accessible environment. Ongoing investigations are assessing the mechanisms and significance of the consequence scenarios. Lathrop Wells Cone (∼80,000 yrs), a key analogue for estimating potential future volcanic activity, is the youngest surface expression of apparent waning basaltic volcanism in the region. Cone internal structure, lavas, and ash-fall tephra have been examined to estimate eruptive volume, eruption

  18. Activity of radioactive inclusions in igneous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, R

    1949-01-10

    It has been shown by Hee (Compt. rend. 227, 356(1948)) that the radioactivity of igneous rocks is traceable to radioactive inclusions. The present author used the photoemulsion method for the determination of U and Th content of rocks, by counting ..cap alpha.. tracks produced by such inclusions, per cm/sup 2/ and per sec. Rock powder was placed upon Ilford C/sub 2/ emulsions, the exposition time varying between 7 and 18 days. In most cases, prolonged trajectories meet upon a well delineated small surface corresponding to the inclusions. The formula used is that given by I. Curie (J. Phys., (1946) Nov) which, after substitution of constants, has the form N = 8.4KC(U) + 2.5KC(Th); here N is the number of trajectories, C(U) and C(Th) are the concentrations of U and Th, and K is a coefficient varying between 14 for granite and 31 for uranium oxide and thorite. Using as a second equation C(Th) = 2.5C(U), the concentrations C(Th) and C(U) can be determined. The method was tested on seven samples of granitic sand and micaschist from Brittany. Their average contents was found to be about 10% U and 22% Th, with approximations of about 20%.

  19. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernot, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  20. Using Tellus data to enhance targeting of volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation in the Tyrone Igneous Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Hollis, Steven; Cooper, Mark; Earls, Garth; Roberts, Stephen; Herrington, Richard; Piercey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Tyrone Igneous Complex of Northern Ireland has been a target for base and precious metal exploration since the 1970s. Historic exploration was hampered by poor exposure and consequently a limited understanding of the local geology. Extensive new field mapping, utilising the high-resolution Tellus geophysical survey, coupled with U-Pb zircon geochronology and whole-rock geochemistry, has greatly improved our understanding of the complex and its potential to host volcanogenic massive sulphi...

  1. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    -Pb dating of zircon from both host rock and ore samples confirms a previously documented event around 1880 - 1900 Ma in the Norrbotten region. However, U-Pb in monazite from an ore sample suggests a further event at ca. 1650 Ma, a period of known activity in Fennoscandia. Further investigation and more U-Pb data are needed to confirm those dates and how the iron mineralization is related to those two events. The combination of U-Th-Pb ages, tracer isotopes and trace element abundances at mineral scale (e.g., Lu-Hf in zircon, and Sm-Nd in monazite, apatite, titanite), along with the O isotopic composition of zircon, will be used to decipher whether the Kiruna iron ore deposits are of metasomatic or igneous origin. Overall, the study also intends to develop a predictive model for exploration of similar iron oxide apatite deposits worldwide.

  2. Geophysical Processes - MO 2013 Collapse Potential (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Collapse potential correlates with locations of underground mines and sinkholes. Computer-generated hazard calculations include areas in close proximity to mines and...

  3. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included

  4. Paleozoic and Paleoproterozoic Zircon in Igneous Xenoliths Assimilated at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Vazquez, J. A.; Wooden, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Historically active Redoubt Volcano is a basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic-early Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. New SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age and trace-element concentration results for zircons from gabbroic xenoliths and crystal-rich andesitic mush from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit indicate that ~310 Ma and ~1865 Ma igneous rocks underlie Redoubt at depth. Two gabbros have sharply terminated prismatic zircons that yield ages of ~310 Ma. Zircons from a crystal mush sample are overwhelmingly ~1865 Ma and appear rounded due to incomplete dissolution. Binary plots of element concentrations or ratios show clustering of data for ~310-Ma grains and markedly coherent trends for ~1865-Ma grains; e.g., ~310-Ma grains have higher Eu/Eu* than most of the ~1865-Ma grains, the majority of which form a narrow band of decreasing Eu/Eu* with increasing Hf content which suggests that ~1865-Ma zircons come from igneous source rocks. It is very unlikely that detrital zircons from a metasedimentary rock would have this level of homogeneity in age and composition. One gabbro contains abundant ~1865 Ma igneous zircons, ~300-310 Ma fluid-precipitated zircons characterized by very low U and Th concentrations and Th/U ratios, and uncommon ~100 Ma zircons. We propose that (1) ~310 Ma gabbro xenoliths from Redoubt Volcano belong to the same family of plutons dated by Aleinikoff et al. (USGS Circular 1016, 1988) and Gardner et al. (Geology, 1988) located ≥500 km to the northeast in basement rocks of the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes and (2) ~1865 Ma zircons are inherited from igneous rock, potentially from a continental fragment that possibly correlates with the Fort Simpson terrane or Great Bear magmatic zone of the Wopmay Orogen of northwestern Laurentia. Possibly, elements of these Paleoproterozoic terranes intersected the Paleozoic North American continental margin where they may have formed a component of the basement to the Wrangellia

  5. Potential Dimension Yields From Direct Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie Lin; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    As the price of timber increases and environmental leigslation limits harvestable log volumes, the process of converting logs directly into dimension parts needs further exploration. Direct processing converts logs directly into rough green dimension parts without the intermediate steps of lumber manufacturing, grading, trading, shipping and drying. A major attraction...

  6. Precise U-Pb Zircon Dating of the Syenite Phase from the Ditrau Alkaline Igneous Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pană Dinu

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ditrău igneous complex represents the largest alkaline intrusion in the Carpathian-Pannonian region consisting of a plethora of rock types formed by complicated magmatic and metasomatic processes. A detailed U-Pb zircon age study is currently underway and the results for the syenite intrusion phase is reported herein. The U-Pb zircon emplacement age of the syenite of 229.6 +1.7/-1.2 Ma documents the quasi-contemporaneous production and emplacement of the gabbro and syenite magmas. We suggest that the syenite and associated granite formed by crustal melting during the emplacement of the mantle derived gabbroic magma around 230 Ma. The thermal contact aureole produced by the Ditrău alkaline igneous complex constrains the main tectonism recorded by surrounding metamorphic lithotectonic assemblages to be pre-Ladinian.

  7. Geochemical and modal data for igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this report are to (1) present available geochemical and modal data for igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits and (2) to make those data widely and readily available for subsequent, more in-depth consideration and interpretation. Epithermal precious and base-metal deposits are commonly associated with subduction-related calc-alkaline to alkaline arc magmatism as well as back-arc continental rift magmatism. These deposits form in association with compositionally diverse extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. Temperature and depth regimes prevailing during deposit formation are highly variable. The deposits form from hydrothermal fluids that range from acidic to near-neutral pH, and they occur in a variety of structural settings. The disparate temperature, pressure, fluid chemistry, and structural controls have resulted in deposits with wide ranging characteristics. Economic geologists have employed these characteristics to develop classification schemes for epithermal deposits and to constrain the important genetic processes responsible for their formation.

  8. The Emeishan large igneous province: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Shellnutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone. The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040–0.7132, Nd (ɛNd(t ≈ −14 to +8, Pb (206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9–20.6 and Os (γOs ≈ −5 to +11 isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2-rich fluids

  9. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  10. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance.

  11. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M and O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance

  12. 40Ar/39Ar studies of deep sea igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidemann, D.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to date deep-sea igneous rocks reliably was made using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating technique. It was determined that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental release technique could not be used to eliminate the effects of excess radiogenic 40 Ar in deep-sea basalts. Excess 40 Ar is released throughout the extraction temperature range and cannot be distinguished from 40 Ar generated by in situ 40 K decay. The problem of the reduction of K-Ar dates associated with sea water alteration of deep-sea igneous rocks could not be resolved using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar technique. Irradiation induced 39 Ar loss and/or redistribution in fine-grained and altered igneous rocks results in age spectra that are artifacts of the experimental procedure and only partly reflect the geologic history of the sample. Therefore, caution must be used in attributing significance to age spectra of fine grained and altered deep-sea igneous rocks. Effects of 39 Ar recoil are not important for either medium-grained (or coarser) deep-sea rocks or glasses because only a small fraction of the 39 Ar recoils to channels of easy diffusion, such as intergranular boundaries or cracks, during the irradiation. (author)

  13. Effects of igneous intrusions on the petroleum system: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, Kim; Millett, John; Planke, Sverre; Ogata, Kei; Eide, Christian Haug; Festøy, Marte; Galland, Olivier; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2017-01-01

    Igneous intrusions feature in many sedimentary basins where hydrocarbon exploration and production is continuing. Owing to distinct geophysical property contrasts with siliciclastic host rocks (e.g., higher Vp, density and resistivity than host rocks), intrusions can be easily delineated within data

  14. Towards a comprehensive classification of igneous rocks and magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemost, Eric A. K.

    1991-08-01

    The IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks has recently published an excellent book on the classification of these rocks. This event has shifted the vexed question of classification towards the top of the agenda in igneous petrology. Over the years the Subcommission has used many different criteria to establish the positions of the boundaries between the various common igneous rocks. It now has to adopt a holistic approach and develop a comprehensive, coherent classification that is purged of all the minor anomalies that arise between the various classifications that it has approved. It is appreciated that the Subcommission's classification was never intended to have any genetic implications; however, it is suggested that an ideal classification should he presented in such a way that it is able to group rocks into an order that directs attention to petrogenetic relationships between individual rocks and larger groups of rocks. Unfortunately, many of the Subcommission's definitions are Earth chauvinistic; for example, igneous rocks are defined as being those rocks that solidified from a molten state either within or on the surface of the Earth. Nowhere in the book is it acknowledged that during the past 20 years, while the Subcommission has been framing its many recommendations, a whole new science of planetary petrology has subsumed classical petrology. In any new edition of the book, the Subcommission should acknowledge that rocks are essentially the solid materials of which planets, natural satellites and other broadly similar cosmic bodies are made. The Subcommission should also explicitly recognise that igneous rocks can be divided into either a main sequence of essentially common rocks or a number of supplementary clans of special rocks that evolved outside the main sequence. It is hoped that in the near future the Subcommission will rescind its recommendation that the TAS classification should be regarded as an adjunct to its more traditional

  15. Igneous Consequence Modeling for the TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, John

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to develop credible, defendable, substantiated models for the consequences of igneous activity for the TSPA-SR Model. The effort will build on the TSPA-VA and improve the quality of scenarios and depth of the technical basis underlying disruptive events modeling. Computational models for both volcanic eruptive releases (this is an event that results in ash containing waste being ejected from Yucca Mountain) and igneous intrusion groundwater releases (this is an event that reaches the repository level, impacts the waste packages, and produces releases from waste packages damaged by igneous activity) will be included directly in the TSPA calculations as part of the TSPA-SR Model. This Analysis Model Report (AMR) is limited to development of the conceptual models for these two scenarios. The mathematical implementation of these conceptual models will be done within the TSPA-SR Model. Thus, this AMR will not include any model results or sensitivity analyses. Calculation of any doses resulting from igneous releases will also be done within the TSPA-SR model, as will the probabilistic weighting of these doses. Calculation and analysis of the TSPA-SR Model results for igneous disruption are, therefore, outside the scope of this activity. The reason for not running the mathematical models as part of this AMR is that the models are integrated within the TSPA-SR model and, thus, any model simulations and the corresponding results are out of the scope of this AMR. The scope of this work as defined in the development plan (CRWMS M and O 2000j) involves using data that has been extracted from existing sources to design and support the TSPA-SR models for the transport of radionuclides following igneous disruption of the repository. The development plan states ''applications of the code in this analysis will be limited to testing of the code and sensitivity analyses during analysis design.'' In contrast to the development plan, the ASHPLUME

  16. Charge Generation and Propagation in Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann

    2002-01-01

    Various electrical phenomena have been reported prior to or concurrent with earthquakes such as resistivity changes, ground potentials, electromagnetic (EM), and luminous signals. Doubts have been raised as to whether some of these phenomena are real and indeed precursory. One of the reasons for uncertainty is that, despite decades of intense work, there is still no physically coherent model. Using low- to medium-velocity impacts to measure electrical signals with microsecond time resolution, it has now been observed that when dry gabbro and diorite cores are impacted at relatively low velocities, approximately 100 m/s, highly mobile charge carriers are generated in a small volume near the impact point. They spread through the rocks, causing electric potentials exceeding +400 mV, EM, and light emission. As the charge cloud spreads, the rock becomes momentarily conductive. When a dry granite block is impacted at higher velocity, approximately 1.5 km/s, the propagation of the P and S waves is registered through the transient piezoelectric response of quartz. After the sound waves have passed, the surface of the granite block becomes positively charged, suggesting the same charge carriers as observed during the low-velocity impact experiments, expanding from within the bulk. During the next 2-3 ms the surface potential oscillates, indicating pulses of electrons injected from ground and contact electrodes. The observations are consistent with positive holes, e.g., defect electrons in the O(2-) sublattice, traveling via the O 2p-dominated valence band of the silicate minerals. Before activation, the positive holes lay dormant in the form of electrically inactive positive hole pairs (PHP), chemically equivalent to peroxy links, O3X/OO\\XO3, with X=Si(4+), Al(3+), etc. PHPs are introduced into the minerals by way of hydroxyl,O3X-OH, which all nominally anhydrous minerals incorporate when crystallizing in H2O-laden environments. The fact that positive holes can be

  17. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity

  18. Potential of membrane processes in management of radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Jain, Savita; Raj, Kanwar

    2010-01-01

    Various categories of radioactive liquid waste are generated during operations and maintenance of nuclear installations. The potential of membrane processes for the treatment of low-level radioactive liquids is discussed in this paper

  19. A Change in Igneous Activity of the Jack Hills Zircon Sources ca. 3.9 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    New Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature (Txlln) data for Jack Hills zircons reveal that the tight clustering of Hadean grains around a Txlln of 680°C, possibly indicative of felsic-to-intermediate minimum melting conditions, continues to ~3.92 Ga. Between 3.92-3.82 Ga the 680°C clustering ceases and most concordant grains cluster around an apparent Txlln of 610°C. A small group of zircons with higher Txlln (~750°C), present during the Hadean, is also observed during this period. After 3.82 Ga a Hadean-like distribution resumes for ~100 Ma. This large, concordant, low-Ti group at ~3.9 Ga is statistically distinct from the Hadean distribution and appears to be unique in the Jack Hills zircon record. The existence of coeval high- and low-Ti groups suggests that two distinct zircon-forming processes are distinguishable ~3.9 Ga, unlike during the Hadean. The significant numbers of zircons with apparent Txlln below 600°C may be suggestive of subsolidus formation, since igneous units with solidii below 600°C are relatively rare. The higher-Ti group is more consistent with an intermediate to mafic igneous origin but metamorphic overprinting or subsolidus formation at granulite grade cannot be ruled out by Txlln alone. A substantial proportion of the high-Ti group display oscillatory and disrupted oscillatory zoning in cathodoluminescence images, usually indicative of igneous origins and later metamorphism, respectively; most low-Ti grains are homogeneous. Several of each group display patchy zonation indicative of metamorphic overprinting. Although several grains with apparent Txlln >600°C display oscillatory zonation, the majority of the low-Ti group do not show textural evidence for igneous origins. We interpret these results to indicate the transition from a mechanism(s) that produced dominantly 680°C apparent zircon temperatures at ca. 3.9 Ga to include a new zircon-forming process in the sediment source(s), likely a protracted period of metamorphism

  20. Geometry and controls on the development of igneous sill-related forced folds: 2D seismic reflection case study from offshore Southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Schofield, Nick; Magee, Craig; Golenkov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Emplacement of magma in the shallow subsurface can result in the development of dome-shaped folds at the Earth's surface. These so-called 'forced folds' have been described in the field and in subsurface datasets, although the exact geometry of the folds and the nature of their relationship to underlying sills remains unclear and, in some cases, controversial. As a result, the utility of these features in tracking the subsurface movement of magma, and predicting the potential size and location of potentially hazardous volcanic eruptions, is uncertain. Here we use high-quality, 2D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Ceduna sub-basin, offshore southern Australia to describe the structure and infer the evolution of igneous sill-related forced folds in the Bight Basin Igneous Complex (BBIC). We mapped 33 igneous sills, which were emplaced 200-1500 m below the palaeo-seabed in an Upper Cretaceous, coal-bearing, predominantly coastal-plain succession. The intrusions, which are expressed as packages of high-amplitude reflections, are 32-250 m thick and 7-19 km in diameter. They are overlain by dome-shaped folds, which are up to 17 km wide and display up to 210 m of relief. The edges of these folds coincide with the margins of the underlying sills and the folds display the greatest relief where the underlying sills are thickest; the folds are therefore interpreted as forced folds that formed in response to emplacement of magma in the shallow subsurface. The folds are onlapped by Lutetian (middle Eocene) strata, indicating they formed and the intrusions were emplaced during the latest Ypresian (c. 48 Ma). We demonstrate that fold amplitude is typically less than sill thickness even for sills with very large diameter-to-depth ratios, suggesting that pure elastic bending (forced folding) of the overburden is not the only process accommodating magma emplacement, and that supra-sill compaction may be important even at relatively shallow depths. Based on the

  1. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The central-western Mediterranean area is a key region for understanding the complex interaction between igneous activity and tectonics. In this review, the specific geochemical character of several 'subduction-related' Cenozoic igneous provinces are described with a view to identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of their sources. Different petrogenetic models are reviewed in the light of competing geological and geodynamic scenarios proposed in the literature. Plutonic rocks occur almost exclusively in the Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic Province of the Alps while relatively minor plutonic bodies (mostly Miocene in age) crop out in N Morocco, S Spain and N Algeria. Igneous activity is otherwise confined to lava flows and dykes accompanied by relatively greater volumes of pyroclastic (often ignimbritic) products. Overall, the igneous activity spanned a wide temporal range, from middle Eocene (such as the Periadriatic Province) to the present (as in the Neapolitan of southern Italy). The magmatic products are mostly SiO 2-oversaturated, showing calcalkaline to high-K calcalcaline affinity, except in some areas (as in peninsular Italy) where potassic to ultrapotassic compositions prevail. The ultrapotassic magmas (which include leucitites to leucite-phonolites) are dominantly SiO 2-undersaturated, although rare, SiO 2-saturated (i.e., leucite-free lamproites) appear over much of this region, examples being in the Betics (southeast Spain), the northwest Alps, northeast Corsica (France), Tuscany (northwest Italy), southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Cornacya Seamount) and possibly in the Tell region (northeast Algeria). Excepted for the Alpine case, subduction-related igneous activity is strictly linked to the formation of the Mediterranean Sea. This Sea, at least in its central and western sectors, is made up of several young (fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the

  2. GLOBALIZATION AND THE POTENTIAL FOR FROZEN POTATO PROCESSING IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the potential for the establishment and survival of frozen potato processing in Mexico is provided. Tools used include demand analysis (including demographic data and elasticities) and Porter's competitive forces model. The process of globalization is reviewed, from an agribusiness perspective. Prepared for the "Globalization and Its (Dis) Contents: Multiple Perspectives" Conference held April 3-4, 1998, East Lansing, Michigan.

  3. Status and potential of atmospheric plasma processing of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Daphne [United States Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    This paper is a review of the current status and potential of atmospheric plasma technology for materials processing. The main focus is the recent developments in the area of dielectric barrier discharges with emphasis in the functionalization of polymers, deposition of organic and inorganic coatings, and plasma processing of biomaterials. A brief overview of both the equipment being used and the physicochemical reactions occurring in the gas phase is also presented. Atmospheric plasma technology offers major industrial, economic, and environmental advantages over other conventional processing methods. At the same time there is also tremendous potential for future research and applications involving both the industrial and academic world.

  4. Status and potential of atmospheric plasma processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current status and potential of atmospheric plasma technology for materials processing. The main focus is the recent developments in the area of dielectric barrier discharges with emphasis in the functionalization of polymers, deposition of organic and inorganic coatings, and plasma processing of biomaterials. A brief overview of both the equipment being used and the physicochemical reactions occurring in the gas phase is also presented. Atmospheric plasma technology offers major industrial, economic, and environmental advantages over other conventional processing methods. At the same time there is also tremendous potential for future research and applications involving both the industrial and academic world.

  5. Potential Applications of Zeolite Membranes in Reaction Coupling Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde V. Ojumu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Future production of chemicals (e.g., fine and specialty chemicals in industry is faced with the challenge of limited material and energy resources. However, process intensification might play a significant role in alleviating this problem. A vision of process intensification through multifunctional reactors has stimulated research on membrane-based reactive separation processes, in which membrane separation and catalytic reaction occur simultaneously in one unit. These processes are rather attractive applications because they are potentially compact, less capital intensive, and have lower processing costs than traditional processes. Therefore this review discusses the progress and potential applications that have occurred in the field of zeolite membrane reactors during the last few years. The aim of this article is to update researchers in the field of process intensification and also provoke their thoughts on further research efforts to explore and exploit the potential applications of zeolite membrane reactors in industry. Further evaluation of this technology for industrial acceptability is essential in this regard. Therefore, studies such as techno-economical feasibility, optimization and scale-up are of the utmost importance.

  6. Semi-quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of elements in igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.Q. da; Eichhoff, H.-J.

    1982-01-01

    A semi-quantitative spectrographic technique based on Harveys'method, using background radiation as internal standard is described for the analysis of trace elements in igneous rocks by the total energy method. A certain amount of the sample was completely vapourized in a DC arc with anodic excitation under argon and oxygen atmosphere, using graphite electrodes of standard dimensions. In the processed film, selected lines and adjancent backgrounds were evaluated by densitometry and the corresponding intensity ratios were calculated. Sensitivity factors were determined for the analytical lines of Co, Cu, Ga, Ni, Sc, Sr, V, Y, Zn, and Zr in geological standards (G-2, BCR-1, AGV-1, GSP-1) from the United States Geological Survey. Matrix effects between samples and standards were minimized by using the above mentioned geological standards. An average value of the sensitivity factors was employed for the calculation of the concentration of the elements in the samples. A comparison between the results obtained by this method and those from the analysis of zinc by atomic absorption is presented. This method enabled the analyses of igneous rock samples having SiO2 contents between 40 and 80%, with an error in the determinations of trace elements less than 30%.(Author) [pt

  7. Genesis of felsic plutonic magmas and their igneous enclaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemens, John D.; Maas, Roland; Waight, Tod Earle

    2016-01-01

    -type Pyalong pluton was emplaced, apparently along an east-west-orientated fracture zone. Around 367 Ma, the main I-type Baynton pluton intruded as numerous shallow-dipping sheets. The last plutonic event was the intrusion of the broad, thin, flat-lying, and crosscutting sheet of the I-type Beauvallet pluton...... the relatively high abundance of igneous-textured microgranular enclaves (MEs). The MEs show neither chemical nor isotope mixing trends with each other or with the host magmas. Variations in the Baynton magmas were derived from the heterogeneity of the source terrane, with individual magma batches formed from...

  8. Subducted slab-plume interaction traced by magnesium isotopes in the northern margin of the Tarim Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xie, Qiuhong; Hou, Tong; Ke, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Incorporation of subducted slabs may account for the geochemical and isotopic variations of large igneous provinces (LIPs). However, the mechanism and process by which subducted slabs are involved into magmas is still highly debated. Here, we report a set of high resolution Mg isotopes for a suite of alkaline and Fe-rich rocks (including basalts, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, diabase dykes and mantle xenoliths in the kimberlitic rocks) from Tarim Large Igneous Province (TLIP). We observed that δ26 Mg values of basalts range from -0.29 to - 0.45 ‰, -0.31 to - 0.42 ‰ for mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, -0.28 to - 0.31 ‰ for diabase dykes and -0.29 to - 0.44 ‰ for pyroxenite xenoliths from the kimberlitic rocks, typically lighter than the normal mantle source (- 0.25 ‰ ± 0.04, 2 SD). After carefully precluding other possibilities, we propose that the light Mg isotopic compositions and high FeO contents should be ascribed to the involvement of recycled sedimentary carbonate rocks and pyroxenite/eclogite. Moreover, from basalts, through layered intrusions to diabase dykes, (87Sr/86Sr)i values and δ18OV-SMOW declined, whereas ε (Nd) t and δ26 Mg values increased with progressive partial melting of mantle, indicating that components of carbonate rock and pyroxenite/eclogite in the mantle sources were waning over time. In combination with the previous reported Mg isotopes for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks in TLIP, two distinct mantle domains are recognized for this province: 1) a lithospheric mantle source for basalts and mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions which were modified by calcite/dolomite and eclogite-derived high-Si melts, as evidenced by enriched Sr-Nd-O and light Mg isotopic compositions; 2) a plume source for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks which were related to magnesite or periclase/perovskite involvement as reflected by depleted Sr-Nd-O and extremely light Mg isotopes. Ultimately, our study suggests

  9. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  11. Deep processes in non-relativistic confining potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbane, P.M.; Grisaru, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The authors study deep inelastic and hard scattering processes for non-relativistic particles confined in deep potentials. The mechanisms by which the effects of confinement disappear and the particles scatter as if free are useful in understanding the analogous results for a relativistic field theory. (Auth.)

  12. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  13. Post-igneous redistribution of components in eucrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    In our analyses, we utilize a microdrilling technique that removes 40 to 100 micron diameter cores from mineral grains in thin sections analyzed by microprobe. The cores are then analyzed by INAA using the technique of Lindstrom. Three eucrites were selected for application of this analytical technique: monomict breccias Pasamonte and Stannern and unbrecciated EET90020. Pasamonte is among the most unequilibrated of the eucrites on the basis of zoning in pyroxenes and is considered to be an igneous rock not significantly affected by metamorphism. Stannern has igneous texture but its pyroxenes indicate some re-equilibration, although little, if any, recrystallization. EET90020 has a granulite texture and has been substantially recrystallized. Our sample of Pasamonte contains several clasts of different grain sizes ranging from glass to fine grained with diabasic texture containing lathy plagioclase, unexsolved pigeonite, and mesostasis. Cores were taken of the glass and from minerals and mesostases in six lithic clasts which normally allowed sampling of more than one phase per clast. Our sample of Stannern is also a breccia but with little difference in grain size between clasts and matrix. The plagioclase and pigeonite are blocky, twinned, and exsolved and coexist with a bit of mesostasis. Cores were taken of plagioclase and pigeonite with no attempt to distinguish separate clasts. EET90020 is a granular mixture of twinned plagioclase and pigeonite having rather uniform size and many triple junctions. Several cores were taken of both phases. Both clear and cloudy grains of plagioclase and pyroxene were sampled in all three eucrites.

  14. Exploring the Potential of Dynamic Perspective Taking on Business Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Krenn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although many organizations have started to work with business process models in their operational practice, they have not explored the entire potential of intertwining business process modeling with organizational development. Process specifications contain workflows that require execution, in order to achieve business objectives and support business operation effectively. With the advent of Subject-oriented and Social Business Process Management, communication and stakeholder interaction have become novel perspectives on how to design and implement processes. They go beyond formal responsibilities encoded in functional roles, and are not very common across organizational hierarchies. However, stakeholders, including organizational developers and IT specialists, can be supported looking at processes and their execution from either perspective, namely, from a traditional one, focusing on functions and task accomplishment, and from an interactional perspective, focusing on communication among stakeholders and system interactions. The introduced dual-mode workflow execution engine UeberFlow allows considering both perspectives during process runtime, thus, checking operational completeness from either perspective. Stakeholders can start modeling with a perspective they are familiar with and subsequently proceed with the another one by switching dynamically to an alternate mode of execution. The presented meta-model and architecture of such a dual mode support tool enables coupling business process management directly with organizational development.

  15. Developments and potential of radiation processing in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singson, C; Carmona, C [Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Diliman, Quezon City

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the research and development activities in three areas of radiation processing, namely: food irradiation, medical product sterilization and wood plastic combination. Plans and efforts exerted to acquire a larger gamma source to augment our present 5,000 curie source are discussed. Cost estimates for a radiation facility are presented on the basis of the market potential of food irradiation and medical product sterilization. Existing local industries that can benefit from the adaptation of irradiation technology in their processing requirements are described.

  16. In-situ detection of microbial life in the deep biosphere in igneous ocean crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Cosio Salas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in-situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  17. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  18. Lead dioxide electrodes for high potential anodic processes

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. VELICHENKO; ROSSANO AMADELLI

    2001-01-01

    Doping of PbO2 by cations (Fe3+, Co2+ and Ni2+), by F- and by cations and F- simultaneously is discussed as a way of improving the stability and electrochemical activity in processes occurring at high potentials. Doping allows the control of the amount of structural water in an oxide. Radiotracer experiments showed that high electrodeposition current densities favour the segregation of incorporated tritium (protons) at the surface. On the other hand, fluorine doping results in a marked decrea...

  19. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  20. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  1. The effects of weathering on the physical and mechanical properties of igneous and metamorphic saprolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Coop, M. R.; Maccarini, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper presents three extensive datasets of laboratory testing on weathered geomaterials, which are emblematic of soil types widely found worldwide. The overall dataset includes soils originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks, either coarse or fine grained and having either felsic...... or mafic minerals. In particular, the data are interpreted to highlight the effects that weathering has on the physical and mechanical properties of these natural geomaterials comparing them with published data with the aim to provide a general framework of interpretation that takes into account...... this geological process and links soil mechanics to engineering geology. Generally, weathering induces a reduction in the grain size, both due to physical actions (e.g. opening of grain contacts) and to the chemical decomposition of minerals resulting in the formation of clay minerals. As weathering proceeds...

  2. New kind of radioactive inclusions in igneous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, R

    1949-06-20

    In previous notes (Compt. rend 228, 176 and 1218(1949)) two sorts of radioactive inclusions in igneous rocks, as recorded on photographic plates, were described: (1) very small (several microns) and strongly radioactive inclusions containing U and Th, (2) crystals of undertermined species, about 1 mm large, containing about 1% Th, and no U. The present note is a report on a third kind of inclusions, observed in a sand from Brittany and in a granite: having an area of several hundredths of mm/sup 2/, they are strongly radioactive; they contain Th, but little or no U; the Th content, which is about 76%, corresponds to pure thorite ThO/sub 2/.SiO/sub 2/.

  3. Identification of igneous rocks in a superimposed basin through integrated interpretation dominantly based on magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, S.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of igneous rocks in the basin environment is of great significance to the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs hosted in igneous rocks. Magnetic methods are often used to alleviate the difficulties faced by seismic imaging in basins with thick cover and complicated superimposed structures. We present a case study on identification of igneous rocks in a superimposed basin through integrated interpretation based on magnetic and other geophysical data sets. The study area is located in the deepest depression with sedimentary cover of 14,000 m in Huanghua basin, which is a Cenozoic basin superimposed on a residual pre-Cenozoic basin above the North China craton. Cenozoic and Mesozoic igneous rocks that are dominantly intermediate-basic volcanic and intrusive rocks are widespread at depth in the basin. Drilling and seismic data reveal some volcanic units and intrusive rocks in Cenozoic stratum at depths of about 4,000 m. The question remains to identify the lateral extent of igneous rocks in large depth and adjacent areas. In order to tackle the difficulties for interpretation of magnetic data arisen from weak magnetic anomaly and remanent magnetization of igneous rocks buried deep in the superimposed basin, we use the preferential continuation approach to extract the anomaly and magnetic amplitude inversion to image the 3D magnetic units. The resultant distribution of effective susceptibility not only correlates well with the locations of Cenozoic igneous rocks known previously through drilling and seismic imaging, but also identifies the larger scale distribution of Mesozoic igneous rocks at greater depth in the west of the basin. The integrated interpretation results dominantly based on magnetic data shows that the above strategy is effective for identification of igneous rocks deep buried in the superimposed basin. Keywords: Identification of igneous rocks; Superimposed basin; Magnetic data

  4. Potential and Limitations of the Internet Use in Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pavlovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main research objective of this paper is to point out potentials and limitations of the Internet in the process of learning in higher education, through review and analysis of literature. The results of this theoretical study emphasize positive aspects of the Internet use in the learning process of university students that arise from the Internet features such as high technical capabilities, power, speed, universality and accessibility, as well as high sensitivity of young people to the means of new media. The positive effects of the applica-tion of the Internet were pointed out in research studies that analysed the pro-cess of innovation in higher education, the changes in the culture of learning, or certain aspects of personality development of university students. In contrast, some studies pointed out the limitations that may occur when using the Internet in the learning process related primarily to the credibility of the infor-mation, light and entertaining content dominance, and dependence on technology. Accordingly, it is recommended to adopt the measures on a larger scale that will affect the greater use of the Internet in the process of acquiring knowledge, especially in the field of higher education.

  5. Assessing Potential Additional PFAS Retention Processes in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. Current conceptual and mathematical models are based on an assumption that solid-phase adsorption is the sole source of retention for PFASs. However, additional retention processes may be relevant for PFAS compounds in vadose-zone systems and in source zones that contain trapped immiscible organic liquids. These include adsorption at the air-water interface, partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at the NAPL-water interface, and absorption by NAPL. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for these potential additional sources of PFAS retardation. An initial assessment of the relative magnitudes and significance of these retention processes was conducted for three representative PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH). Data collected from the literature were used to determine measured or estimated values for the relevant distribution coefficients, which were in turn used to calculate retardation factors for a representative porous medium. Adsorption at the air-water interface was shown to be a primary source of retention for PFOA and PFOS, contributing approximately 80% of total retardation. Adsorption to NAPL-water interfaces and absorption by bulk NAPL were also shown to be significant sources of retention for PFOS and PFOA. The latter process was the predominant source of retention for 8:2 FTOH, contributing 98% of total retardation. These results indicate that we may anticipate significant retention of PFASs by these additional processes. In such cases, retardation of PFASs in source areas may be significantly greater than what is typically estimated based on the standard assumption of solid-phase adsorption as the sole retention mechanism. This has significant ramifications for

  6. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  7. Evaluating the potential of process sites for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin; Perry, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis considers the temperature and duties of the available waste heat. • Models for organic Rankine cycles, absorption heat pumps and chillers proposed. • Exploitation of waste heat from site processes and utility systems. • Concept of a site energy efficiency introduced. • Case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: As a result of depleting reserves of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources are becoming less available. In spite of this, energy is still being wasted, especially in the form of heat. The energy efficiency of process sites (defined as useful energy output per unit of energy input) may be increased through waste heat utilisation, thereby resulting in primary energy savings. In this work, waste heat is defined and a methodology developed to identify the potential for waste heat recovery in process sites; considering the temperature and quantity of waste heat sources from the site processes and the site utility system (including fired heaters and, the cogeneration, cooling and refrigeration systems). The concept of the energy efficiency of a site is introduced – the fraction of the energy inputs that is converted into useful energy (heat or power or cooling) to support the methodology. Furthermore, simplified mathematical models of waste heat recovery technologies using heat as primary energy source, including organic Rankine cycles (using both pure and mixed organics as working fluids), absorption chillers and absorption heat pumps are developed to support the methodology. These models are applied to assess the potential for recovery of useful energy from waste heat. The methodology is illustrated for an existing process site using a case study of a petroleum refinery. The energy efficiency of the site increases by 10% as a result of waste heat recovery. If there is an infinite demand for recovered energy (i.e. all the recoverable waste heat sources are exploited), the site

  8. A Marked Point Process Framework for Extracellular Electrical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Loza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulations are an important component of extracellular electrical potentials (EEP, such as the Electroencephalogram (EEG, Electrocorticogram (ECoG and Local Field Potentials (LFP. This spatially temporal organized multi-frequency transient (phasic activity reflects the multiscale spatiotemporal synchronization of neuronal populations in response to external stimuli or internal physiological processes. We propose a novel generative statistical model of a single EEP channel, where the collected signal is regarded as the noisy addition of reoccurring, multi-frequency phasic events over time. One of the main advantages of the proposed framework is the exceptional temporal resolution in the time location of the EEP phasic events, e.g., up to the sampling period utilized in the data collection. Therefore, this allows for the first time a description of neuromodulation in EEPs as a Marked Point Process (MPP, represented by their amplitude, center frequency, duration, and time of occurrence. The generative model for the multi-frequency phasic events exploits sparseness and involves a shift-invariant implementation of the clustering technique known as k-means. The cost function incorporates a robust estimation component based on correntropy to mitigate the outliers caused by the inherent noise in the EEP. Lastly, the background EEP activity is explicitly modeled as the non-sparse component of the collected signal to further improve the delineation of the multi-frequency phasic events in time. The framework is validated using two publicly available datasets: the DREAMS sleep spindles database and one of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI competition datasets. The results achieve benchmark performance and provide novel quantitative descriptions based on power, event rates and timing in order to assess behavioral correlates beyond the classical power spectrum-based analysis. This opens the possibility for a unifying point process framework of

  9. Thallium isotope variations in an ore-bearing continental igneous setting: Collahuasi Formation, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. G. A.; Rehkämper, M.; Ihlenfeld, C.; Oates, C. J.; Coggon, R.

    2010-08-01

    Thallium is a highly incompatible element and a large fraction of the bulk silicate Earth Tl budget is, therefore, expected to reside in the continental crust. Nonetheless, the Tl isotope systematics of continental rocks are essentially unexplored at present. Here, we present new Tl isotope composition and concentration data for a suite of 36 intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks from the vicinity of porphyry Cu deposits in the Collahuasi Formation of the Central Andes in northern Chile. The igneous lithologies of the rocks are variably affected by the hydrothermal alteration that accompanied the formation of the Cu deposits. The samples display Tl concentrations that vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 3.2 μg/g, whilst ɛ 205Tl ranges between -5.1 and +0.1 (ɛ 205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from a standard in parts per 10 4). These variations are primarily thought to be a consequence of hydrothermal alteration processes, including metasomatic transport of Tl, and formation/breakdown of Tl-bearing minerals, which are associated with small but significant Tl isotope effects. The Tl abundances show excellent correlations with both K and Rb concentrations but no co-variation with Cu. This demonstrates that Tl displays only limited chalcophile affinity in the continental crust of the Collahuasi Formation, but behaves as a lithophile element with a distribution that is primarily governed by partitioning of Tl + into K +-bearing phases. Collahuasi samples with propylitic alteration features, which are derived from the marginal parts of the hydrothermal systems, have, on average, slightly lighter Tl isotope compositions than rocks from the more central sericitic and argillic alteration zones. This small but statistically significant difference most likely reflects preferential retention of isotopically heavy Tl in alteration phases, such as white micas and clays, which formed during sericitic and argillic alteration.

  10. Genesis of Soils Formed from Mafic Igneous Rock in the Atlantic Forest Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailde do Carmo Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Different parent materials participate in the formation of soils in the hilly landscape of “Mar de Morros” in the Atlantic Forest environment. Those derived from mafic igneous rock (gabbro frequently show erosion problems because of land use, which is aggravated by the mountainous relief and soil attributes. This study evaluated the main pedogenic processes of soils formed from mafic igneous rock (gabbro in a toposequence in Pinheiral (RJ by characterizing physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological attributes. The profiles are located at different sections in the toposequence: summit (P1, shoulder (P2, backslope (P3 and footslope (P4.They were classified according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SiBCS and correlated to Soil Taxonomy. The soil morphology of profiles P2, P3 and P4 is expressed by a brownish-red color, blocky structure with high to moderate development, clay films and clay loam to clay texture, with a textural B horizon. P1 shows less development, with a shallow profile and the sequence of horizons A-C-Cr. The soils have a slightly low degree of weathering, identified by the presence of pyroxenes and feldspars in the sand fraction and montorillonite in the clay fraction; the sum of bases is from 15 to 24 cmolc kg-1; and cation exchange capacity (CEC is from 12 to 22 cmolc kg-1. A significant presence of clay skins was observed in the field and was confirmed by thin section analysis, which showed features such as argillans, ferriargillans and iron nodules. The soil profile at the summit (P1 was classified as Neossolo Regolítico Órtico (Typic Udorthents, and the other profiles as Chernossolo Argilúvicos Órticos (Typic Argiudolls.

  11. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  12. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  13. Consequence Prioritization Process for Potential High Consequence Events (HCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This document describes the process for Consequence Prioritization, the first phase of the Consequence-Driven Cyber-Informed Engineering (CCE) framework. The primary goal of Consequence Prioritization is to identify potential disruptive events that would significantly inhibit an organization’s ability to provide the critical services and functions deemed fundamental to their business mission. These disruptive events, defined as High Consequence Events (HCE), include both events that have occurred or could be realized through an attack of critical infrastructure owner assets. While other efforts have been initiated to identify and mitigate disruptive events at the national security level, such as Presidential Policy Directive 41 (PPD-41), this process is intended to be used by individual organizations to evaluate events that fall below the threshold for a national security. Described another way, Consequence Prioritization considers threats greater than those addressable by standard cyber-hygiene and includes the consideration of events that go beyond a traditional continuity of operations (COOP) perspective. Finally, Consequence Prioritization is most successful when organizations adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, engaging both cyber security and engineering expertise, as in-depth engineering perspectives are required to recognize and characterize and mitigate HCEs. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview of the prioritization process.

  14. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, F.; Youngs, B.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M and O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M and O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M and O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M and O 2000b). The calculations for both footprints are presented in this AMR. In

  15. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; B. Youngs

    2000-11-06

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M&O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M&O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The calculations for both

  16. Lead-isotope inhomogeneity in Precambrian igneous K-feldspars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Silver, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    Stepwise PB-removal experiments, using both vacuum volatilization and HF-leaching techniques, on acid-washed K-feldspar concentrates from Precambrian igneous rocks show that all contain some unsupported radiogenic Pb. Two types of radiogenic Pb were recognised. One has a 'normal' isotopic composition, with relative abundances of 206 Pb, 207 Pb and 208 Pb consistent with the age and U-Th contents of the rocks. The other type of unsupported radiogenic lead in the feldspars is apparently pure 206 Pb, derived from long-term migration and accumulation of radioactive daughter(s) of 238 U. This 'pure' 206 Pb lead occupies different sites from the 'normal' radiogenic lead, and tends to show a release maximum during vacuum volatilization at about 1150 0 C. The usefulness of stepwise vacuum volatilization may be limited by the tendency of a small amount of radiogenic lead to concentrate in the least volatile fraction. Stepwise partial HF attacks appear to give at least as good separation of radiogenic from original feldspar lead, and are recommended as a routine procedure for isotopic analyses of Precambrian feldspars. The fact that most of the five K-feldspars examined contained unsupported radiogenic lead implies that caution must be used in applying total-sample lead analyses of Precambrian feldspars to problems of lead-isotope evolution in crustal rocks. (author)

  17. Brain potentials associated with the outcome processing in framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Feng, Yandong; Xu, Qing; Bian, Jun; Tang, Huixian

    2012-10-24

    Framing effect is a cognitive bias referring to the phenomenon that people respond differently to different but objectively equivalent descriptions of the same problem. By measuring event-related potentials, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the framing effect, especially how the negative and positive frames influence the outcome processing in our brain. Participants were presented directly with outcomes framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large and small group conditions, and were asked to rate the favorableness of each of them. The behavioral results showed that the framing effect occurred in both group size conditions, with more favorable evaluations associated with positive framing. Compared with outcomes in positive framing condition, a significant feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect was elicited by outcomes in negative framing condition, even though the outcomes in different conditions were objectively equivalent. The results are explained in terms of the associative model of attribute framing effect which states that attribute framing effect occurs as a result of a valence-based associative processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lead dioxide electrodes for high potential anodic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. VELICHENKO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Doping of PbO2 by cations (Fe3+, Co2+ and Ni2+, by F- and by cations and F- simultaneously is discussed as a way of improving the stability and electrochemical activity in processes occurring at high potentials. Doping allows the control of the amount of structural water in an oxide. Radiotracer experiments showed that high electrodeposition current densities favour the segregation of incorporated tritium (protons at the surface. On the other hand, fluorine doping results in a marked decrease in the amount of surface oxygen species. The influence of doping with metal cations strongly depends on the nature of the metal. Iron behaves like fluorine, while nickel causes an accumulation of surface oxygen species. Doped PbO2 electrodes have quite good activities for the electrogeneration of ozone. In particular, Fe and Co doped PbO2 showed a current efficiency of 15–20 % for this process. This result is relevant to our recent studies on “cathodic oxidation”, i.e., an ozone mediated electrochemical method in which an O2 stream is used to sweep the O2/O3 gas mixture produced at a PbO2 anode into the cathodic compartment of the same electrochemical cell containing polluting species.

  19. Neural substrate of the late positive potential in emotional processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuelu; Huang, Haiqing; McGinnis, Menton; Keil, Andreas; Ding, Mingzhou

    2012-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) is a reliable electrophysiological index of emotional perception in humans. Despite years of research the brain structures that contribute to the generation and modulation of LPP are not well understood. Recording EEG and fMRI simultaneously, and applying a recently proposed single-trial ERP analysis method, we addressed the problem by correlating the single-trial LPP amplitude evoked by affective pictures with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity. Three results were found. First, relative to neutral pictures, pleasant and unpleasant pictures elicited enhanced LPP, as well as heightened BOLD activity in both visual cortices and emotion-processing structures such as amygdala and prefrontal cortex, consistent with previous findings. Second, the LPP amplitude across three picture categories was significantly correlated with BOLD activity in visual cortices, temporal cortices, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. Third, within each picture category, LPP-BOLD coupling revealed category-specific differences. For pleasant pictures, the LPP amplitude was coupled with BOLD in occipitotemporal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and precuneus, whereas for unpleasant pictures, significant LPP-BOLD correlation was observed in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest that LPP is generated and modulated by an extensive brain network comprised of both cortical and subcortical structures associated with visual and emotional processing and the degree of contribution by each of these structures to the LPP modulation is valence-specific. PMID:23077042

  20. PETROS - Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PETROS is a worldwide data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes by Dr. Felix Mutschler and Staff at...

  1. Induced gravity with Higgs potential. Elementary interactions and quantum processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel

    2010-07-01

    This work is intended to first serve as introduction in fundamental subjects of physics in order to be then able to review the mechanism of symmetry breakdown and its essential character in physics. It introduces the concept of scalar-tensor theories of gravity based on Bergmann-Wagoner models with a Higgs potential. The main physical context aimed is the problem of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the one hand, there is gravitation. Within this context, we have Dark Matter as an especially relevant concept. This work entails the following main contributions: - General features of Einstein's theory are introduced together with generalities of the different elementary interactions of physics from which the concepts of dark sectors and Higgs Mechanism are derived. - The concept of symmetry breaking and especially the Higgs Mechanism of mass generation are discussed in their relevance for the most different subjects of physics, especially in relation to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics with elementary Higgs fields. - Scalar-Tensor Theories are introduced in order to build in them the process of Higgs Mechanism. This is then fulfilled with a theory of induced gravity with a Higgs potential which seems renormalizable according to deWitt's power counting criterion, and with mass-generating Higgs fields which only couple gravitationally as well as with Higgs fields which act analogously to cosmon fields. - Further, the energy density of the gravitational field is derived for the specific model of induced gravity from an analogy to electrodynamics. It is shown that a nonvanishing value of pressure related to the scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce standard linear solar-relativistic dynamics. Within astrophysical considerations for flat rotation curves of galaxies, a possible dark-matter behavior is concluded within spherical symmetry. The scalar field and the dark-matter profile of total energy density are derived. An analogous

  2. Induced gravity with Higgs potential. Elementary interactions and quantum processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work is intended to first serve as introduction in fundamental subjects of physics in order to be then able to review the mechanism of symmetry breakdown and its essential character in physics. It introduces the concept of scalar-tensor theories of gravity based on Bergmann-Wagoner models with a Higgs potential. The main physical context aimed is the problem of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the one hand, there is gravitation. Within this context, we have Dark Matter as an especially relevant concept. This work entails the following main contributions: - General features of Einstein's theory are introduced together with generalities of the different elementary interactions of physics from which the concepts of dark sectors and Higgs Mechanism are derived. - The concept of symmetry breaking and especially the Higgs Mechanism of mass generation are discussed in their relevance for the most different subjects of physics, especially in relation to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics with elementary Higgs fields. - Scalar-Tensor Theories are introduced in order to build in them the process of Higgs Mechanism. This is then fulfilled with a theory of induced gravity with a Higgs potential which seems renormalizable according to deWitt's power counting criterion, and with mass-generating Higgs fields which only couple gravitationally as well as with Higgs fields which act analogously to cosmon fields. - Further, the energy density of the gravitational field is derived for the specific model of induced gravity from an analogy to electrodynamics. It is shown that a nonvanishing value of pressure related to the scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce standard linear solar-relativistic dynamics. Within astrophysical considerations for flat rotation curves of galaxies, a possible dark-matter behavior is concluded within spherical symmetry. The scalar field and the dark-matter profile of total energy density are derived. An analogous relation between

  3. Potential use of advanced process control for safety purposes during attack of a process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many refineries and commodity chemical plants employ advanced process control (APC) systems to improve throughputs and yields. These APC systems utilize empirical process models for control purposes and enable operation closer to constraints than can be achieved with traditional PID regulatory feedback control. Substantial economic benefits are typically realized from the addition of APC systems. This paper considers leveraging the control capabilities of existing APC systems to minimize the potential impact of a terrorist attack on a process plant (e.g., petroleum refinery). Two potential uses of APC are described. The first is a conventional application of APC and involves automatically moving the process to a reduced operating rate when an attack first begins. The second is a non-conventional application and involves reconfiguring the APC system to optimize safety rather than economics. The underlying intent in both cases is to reduce the demands on the operator to allow focus on situation assessment and optimal response planning. An overview of APC is provided along with a brief description of the modifications required for the proposed new applications of the technology

  4. Survey of potential chlorine production processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This report is part of the ongoing study of industrial electrochemical processes for the purpose of identifying methods of improving energy efficiencies. A computerized literature search of past and current chlorine generation methods was performed to identify basic chlorine production processes. Over 200 pertinent references are cited involving 20 separate and distinct chlorine processes. Each basic process is evaluated for its engineering and economic viability and energy efficiency. A flow diagram is provided for each basic process. Four criteria are used to determine the most promising processes: raw material availability, type and amount of energy required, by-product demand/disposal and status of development. The most promising processes are determined to be the membrane process (with and without catalytic electrodes), Kel-Chlor, Mobay (direct electrolysis of hydrogen chloride), the Shell process (catalytic oxidation of hydrogen chloride) and oxidation of ammonium chloride. Each of these processes is further studied to determine what activities may be pursued.

  5. Extra-terrestrial igneous granites and related rocks: A review of their occurrence and petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard

    2012-11-01

    The telluric planets and the asteroid belt display the same internal structure with a metallic inner core and a silicate outer shell. Experimental data and petrological evidence in silicate systems show that granite can be produced by extreme igneous differentiation through various types of igneous processes. On Moon, 4.4-3.9 Ga granite clasts display dry mineral assemblages. They correspond to at least 8 discrete intrusive events. Large K/Ca enrichment and low REE abundances in granite relative to KREEP are consistent with silicate liquid immiscibility, a process observed in melt inclusions within olivine of lunar basalts and in lunar meteorites. Steep-sided domes identified by remote sensing can represent intrusive or extrusive felsic formations. On Mars, black-and-white rhythmic layers observed on the Tharsis rise along the flanks of the peripheral scarps of the Tharsis Montes giant volcanoes suggest the possible eruption of felsic pyroclastites. Though no true granites were found so far in the Martian SNC meteorites, felsic glasses and mesostases were identified and a component close to terrestrial continental (granitic) crust is inferred from trace element and isotope systematics. Venus has suffered extensive volcanic resurfacing, whereas folded and faulted areas resemble terrestrial continents. Near large shield volcanoes, with dominant basaltic compositions, steep-sided domes have been interpreted as non-degassed silicic extrusions. The hypothesis of a granitic component is "tantalising". Extra-terrestrial granite is frequently found as clasts and mesostases in asteroidal meteorites. Porphyritic textures, with alkali feldspar crystals up to several centimetres in size, were observed in silicate enclaves within iron meteorites. In the chondrite clan, polymict breccias can contain granitic clasts, whose provenance is debated. One clast from the Adzhi-Bogdo meteorite yields a 4.53 ± 0.03 Ga Pb-Pb age, making it the oldest known granite in the solar system. The

  6. Rock- and Paleomagnetic Properties and Modeling of a Deep Crustal Volcanic System, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, G. W.; Pastore, Z.; Michels, A.; Church, N. S.; McEnroe, S. A.; Larsen, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex is part of the 5000 km2 Seiland Igneous Province (SIP) in Northern Norway. The SIP is argued to be the deep-seated conduit system of a Large Igneous Province and was emplaced at 25-35 km depth in less than 10 Ma (570-560 Ma). The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex was emplaced during three major successive events at 22-28km depth at pressures of 6-8kb, with associated temperatures 1450-1500°C (Roberts, 2006). The rocks are divided into three formations: the central series (CS) consisting of mainly dunites, upper layered series (ULS) consisting of dunites and wehrlites, a lower layered series (LLS) containing most pyroxene-rich rocks and a marginal zone (MZ) which formed where the ultramafic melts intruded the gabbro-norite and metasedimentary gneisses. Deep exposures such as the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex are rare, therefore this study gives a unique insight in the rock magnetic properties of a deep ultramafic system. Localised serpentinised zones provide an opportunity to observe the effect of this alteration process on the magnetic properties of deep-seated rocks. Here, we present the results from the rock magnetic properties, a paleomagnetic study and combined potential-fields modeling. The study of the rock magnetic properties provides insight in primary processes associated with the intrusion, and later serpentinization. The paleomagnetic data yields two distinct directions. One direction corresponds to a Laurentia pole at ≈ 532 Ma while the other, though younger, is not yet fully understood. Rock magnetic properties were measured on > 700 specimens and used to constrain the modelling of gravity, high-resolution helicopter, and ground magnetic data. The intrusion is modelled as a cylindrically shaped complex with a dunite core surrounded by wehrlite and gabbro. The ultramafic part of the complex dips to the NE and its maximum vertical extent is modelled to 1400m. Furthermore, modelling allows estimation of relative volumes of

  7. Effect of the Potential Shape on the Stochastic Resonance Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoé, G. Djuidjé; Ngouongo, Y. J. Wadop; Kofané, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    The stochastic resonance (SR) induced by periodic signal and white noises in a periodic nonsinusoidal potential is investigated. This phenomenon is studied as a function of the friction coefficient as well as the shape of the potential. It is done through an investigation of the hysteresis loop area which is equivalent to the input energy lost by the system to the environment per period of the external force. SR is evident in some range of the shape parameter of the potential, but cannot be observed in the other range. Specially, variation of the shape potential affects significantly and not trivially the heigh of the potential barrier in the Kramers rate as well as the occurrence of SR. The finding results show crucial dependence of the temperature of occurrence of SR on the shape of the potential. It is noted that the maximum of the input energy generally decreases when the friction coefficient is increased.

  8. Dating of authigenic clays related to igneous intrusions in Hunter Valley Coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Sydney Basin is composed mainly of Permian and Triassic marine and non-marine clastic sedimentary strata together with economically significant coal deposits and volumetrically minor igneous rocks. Many of these igneous rocks are also economically significant not only for their use in the construction industry but also for their deleterious effects on coal mining, particularly in underground mines utilising longwall extraction systems. Igneous activity in the Sydney Basin ranges from Early Permian to Tertiary in age and although episodic in nature, activity was unlikely to have ceased for periods of more than approximately 10 million years (Carr and Facer 1980; Embleton et al. 1982). Dating of the time of emplacement of igneous rocks using the K-Ar isotopic system is a relatively straightforward procedure if suitable analytical facilities and samples of appropriate, fresh, primary minerals are available. In the case of intrusions in coal seams, however, the occurrence of fresh, primary minerals is very rare due to widespread alteration produced by interaction between the igneous rock and fluids in the coal seam. This interaction produces a variety of secondary minerals with most primary minerals and glass being altered to clays (mainly kaolinite) and carbonates. Consequently, relatively few isotopic dates for intrusions into coal seams have been determined. A detailed study of several hundred samples of igneous rocks from the Sydney Basin found only six samples of intrusions into coal seams that were suitable for conventional K-Ar dating (Carr and Facer 1980). Techniques for K-Ar dating of authigenic illite, developed in response to the need by the petroleum industry to understand the timing of diagenesis in petroleum source-rocks and reservoirs, are now well established (Clauer and Chaudhuri 1995). As part of a larger project on the impact of igneous intrusions on coal mining and the alienation of coal reserves, a preliminary investigation of the timing of

  9. Surface processing: existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Solid foods represent optimal matrices for ultraviolet processing with effects well beyond nonthermal surface disinfection. UV radiation favors hormetic response in plant tissues and degradation of toxic compound on the product surface. Photoinduced reactions can also provide unexplored possibilities to steer structure and functionality of food biopolymers. The possibility to extensively exploit this technology will depend on availability of robust information about efficacious processing conditions and adequate strategies to completely and homogeneously process food surface.

  10. Agronomic potential of mineral concentrate from processed manure as fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Hoeksma, P.; Schröder, J.J.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Geel, van W.C.A.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Holshof, G.; Klop, G.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of manure intends to increase the use efficiency of nutrients. A concentrated solution of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) (‘mineral concentrate’) is one of the possible products resulting from manure processing. A study is carried out in the Netherlands to determine the agronomic and

  11. The ammonium content in the Malayer igneous and metamorphic rocks (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, Vahid; Hirt, Ann Marie; Valizadeh, Mohammad-Vali; Bokani, Saeed Jabbari

    2011-04-01

    The ammonium (NH4+) contents of the Malayer area (Western Iran) have been determined by using the colorimetric method on 26 samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is the first analysis of the ammonium contents of Iranian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The average ammonium content of metamorphic rocks decreases from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks (in ppm): slate 580, phyllite 515, andalusite schist 242. In the case of igneous rocks, it decreases from felsic to mafic igneous types (in ppm): granites 39, monzonite 20, diorite 17, gabbro 10. Altered granitic rocks show enrichment in NH4+ (mean 61 ppm). The high concentration of ammonium in Malayer granites may indicate metasedimentary rocks as protoliths rather than meta-igneous rocks. These granitic rocks (S-types) have high K-bearing rock-forming minerals such as biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar which their potassium could substitute with ammonium. In addition, the high ammonium content of metasediments is probably due to inheritance of nitrogen from organic matter in the original sediments. The hydrothermally altered samples of granitic rocks show highly enrichment of ammonium suggesting external sources which intruded additional content by either interaction with metasedimentary country rocks or meteoritic solutions.

  12. Influence of crystallised igneous intrusions on fault nucleation and reactivation during continental extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Craig; McDermott, Kenneth G.; Stevenson, Carl T. E.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2014-05-01

    Continental rifting is commonly accommodated by the nucleation of normal faults, slip on pre-existing fault surfaces and/or magmatic intrusion. Because crystallised igneous intrusions are pervasive in many rift basins and are commonly more competent (i.e. higher shear strengths and Young's moduli) than the host rock, it is theoretically plausible that they locally intersect and modify the mechanical properties of pre-existing normal faults. We illustrate the influence that crystallised igneous intrusions may have on fault reactivation using a conceptual model and observations from field and subsurface datasets. Our results show that igneous rocks may initially resist failure, and promote the preferential reactivation of favourably-oriented, pre-existing faults that are not spatially-associated with solidified intrusions. Fault segments situated along strike from laterally restricted fault-intrusion intersections may similarly be reactivated. This spatial and temporal control on strain distribution may generate: (1) supra-intrusion folds in the hanging wall; (2) new dip-slip faults adjacent to the igneous body; or (3) sub-vertical, oblique-slip faults oriented parallel to the extension direction. Importantly, stress accumulation within igneous intrusions may eventually initiate failure and further localise strain. The results of our study have important implications for the structural of sedimentary basins and the subsurface migration of hydrocarbons and mineral-bearing fluids.

  13. Purex process extraction cycles: a potential for progress today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boullis, B.; Germain, M.; Goumondy, J.P.; Rouyer, H.

    1994-12-31

    The Purex process very quickly and very widely supplanted the other concepts considered for nuclear fuel reprocessing after the presentation made at the Geneva Conference in 1955. The selectivity and radiolytic stability of tributylphosphate (T.B.P) clearly appeared to augur an extremely attractive process for completing the separation of valuable elements in the irradiated fuel. The concept has confirmed its validity, and subsequently its ability to adapt to changing requirements or constraints. Its industrial viability is in fact unquestioned today: Purex process is the basis of all the reprocessing plants in operation or planned throughout the world, and recent commissioning of the UP3 plant in France, in remarkable conditions, attests to such a level of maturity that one is tempted to ask the question: ``What remains to be proved, discovered or improved in the core of the Purex process?``. (authors). 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Purex process extraction cycles: a potential for progress today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Germain, M.; Goumondy, J.P.; Rouyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Purex process very quickly and very widely supplanted the other concepts considered for nuclear fuel reprocessing after the presentation made at the Geneva Conference in 1955. The selectivity and radiolytic stability of tributylphosphate (T.B.P) clearly appeared to augur an extremely attractive process for completing the separation of valuable elements in the irradiated fuel. The concept has confirmed its validity, and subsequently its ability to adapt to changing requirements or constraints. Its industrial viability is in fact unquestioned today: Purex process is the basis of all the reprocessing plants in operation or planned throughout the world, and recent commissioning of the UP3 plant in France, in remarkable conditions, attests to such a level of maturity that one is tempted to ask the question: ''What remains to be proved, discovered or improved in the core of the Purex process?''. (authors). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Event-related potential evidence for the processing efficiency theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N P; Janelle, C M

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the processing efficiency theory using psychophysiological measures of attention and effort. Twenty-eight participants were divided equally into either a high or low trait anxiety group. They were then required to perform a simulated driving task while responding to one of four target light-emitting diodes. Cortical activity and dual task performance were recorded under two conditions -- baseline and competition -- with cognitive anxiety being elevated in the competitive session by an instructional set. Although driving speed was similar across sessions, a reduction in P3 amplitude to cue onset in the light detection task occurred for both groups during the competitive session, suggesting a reduction in processing efficiency as participants became more state anxious. Our findings provide more comprehensive and mechanistic evidence for processing efficiency theory, and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety can result in a reduction of processing efficiency with little change in performance effectiveness.

  16. Gasification potential for process industries in Languedoc-Roussillon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This study, requested by the French 'BioenergieSud' network, aims at identifying the potentialities of gasification in Languedoc-Roussillon region (France). The goals are: evaluating the degree of information of industrialists with respect to gasification, their present day perception and the different obstacles and levers for the adoption of this technology; estimating the potential market of gasification units in this area through the study of the existing industrial actors; better evaluating the energy needs and expectations of the industrialists from different sectors in order to develop suitable gasification solutions

  17. Innovating the IPCC review process: The potential of young talent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, L.; Visser, H.; Petersen, A.C.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    There is significant potential in young talent for enhancing the credibility of the scientific assessments such as the IPCC’s by contributing to quality assurance and quality control. In this essay, we reflect on an experiment that was done by the Dutch government as part of its government review of

  18. Palaeomagnetism and K-Ar age of Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous rocks from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencio, D.A.; Mendia, J.E.; Vilas, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    A new analysis of palaeomagnetic data for igneous rocks from Deception Island, 25 de Mayo Island (King George Island) and Cape Spring, are given. K-Ar age determinations indicate that most of the igneous samples from 25 de Mayo Island included in the palaeomagnetic study are of Late Mesozoic/Early Tertiary age. The significance of these palaeomagnetic-radiometric data on the hypothesis of oroclinal bending of the Antarctic Peninsula and on the apparent polar movement of Antarctica is discussed. The positions of palaeomagnetic poles for the Andean igneous complex indicate that there has not been any apparent post-Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary oroclinal bending in the Antarctic Peninsula from 74 0 S to 62 0 S. A comparison of the positions of palaeomagnetic poles for Antarctica and Australia suggests that the direction of apparent polar movement relative to Antarctica reversed after the Miocene. (Auth.)

  19. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  20. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  1. Compilation of new and previously published geochemical and modal data for Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks of the St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Day, Warren C.; Meighan, Corey J.

    2018-04-16

    The purpose of this report is to present recently acquired as well as previously published geochemical and modal petrographic data for igneous rocks in the St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri, as part of an ongoing effort to understand the regional geology and ore deposits of the Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of southeast Missouri, USA. The report includes geochemical data that is (1) newly acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey and (2) compiled from numerous sources published during the last fifty-five years. These data are required for ongoing petrogenetic investigations of these rocks. Voluminous Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in the St. Francois Mountains of southeast Missouri constitute the basement buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rock that is over 600 meters thick in places. The Mesoproterozoic rocks of southeast Missouri represent a significant component of approximately 1.4 billion-year-old (Ga) igneous rocks that crop out extensively in North America along the southeast margin of Laurentia and subsequent researchers suggested that iron oxide-copper deposits in the St. Francois Mountains are genetically associated with ca. 1.4 Ga magmatism in this region. The geochemical and modal data sets described herein were compiled to support investigations concerning the tectonic setting and petrologic processes responsible for the associated magmatism.

  2. The Law of Element Abundance Relationships in Igneous Rocks Petrogenetically Associated with Fractional Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪云亮; 王旺章

    1991-01-01

    Reported in this paper are:1)the law of element abundance relationships:element abun-dances are of power function with each other in an igneous rock petrogenetically associated with fractional crystallization,2)deduction of the law and relevant parameters:abundance relationship constant(a°) and phase constant? from Henry's law and the law of mass conservation,3)the data basis and evidence of the law of element abundance relationships,4)establishment of the equa-bions for element abundance relationships in igneous rocks formed from the same parental magma during the same fractional crystallization stage ,and all measurable parameters involved in the equations.

  3. Ising Processing Units: Potential and Challenges for Discrete Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffrin, Carleton James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nagarajan, Harsha [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-05

    The recent emergence of novel computational devices, such as adiabatic quantum computers, CMOS annealers, and optical parametric oscillators, presents new opportunities for hybrid-optimization algorithms that leverage these kinds of specialized hardware. In this work, we propose the idea of an Ising processing unit as a computational abstraction for these emerging tools. Challenges involved in using and bench- marking these devices are presented, and open-source software tools are proposed to address some of these challenges. The proposed benchmarking tools and methodology are demonstrated by conducting a baseline study of established solution methods to a D-Wave 2X adiabatic quantum computer, one example of a commercially available Ising processing unit.

  4. Potential applications of process irradiation in Irish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Dr. Mary Upton draws attention to the U.S.A. Food and Drugs Administration agreement to allow irradiation for fresh fruit and vegetables of up to one kilogray and of spices up to 30 kilograys. There is also the likelihood of favourable legislation in the U.K. later this year. The potential for Irish industry may well lie in the extension of shelf-life of poultry, fish, fruit and vegetables; salmonella eradication; control of sprouting in potatoes and onions; treatment of food additives such as spices and enzymes; the replacement of ethylene oxide or of ethylene dibromide as preservatives, residues of which are currently considered somewhat suspect for health reasons

  5. Adaptive electric potential sensors for smart signal acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prance, R J; Beardsmore-Rust, S; Prance, H; Harland, C J; Stiffell, P B

    2007-01-01

    Current applications of the Electric Potential Sensor operate in a strongly (capacitively) coupled limit, with the sensor physically close to or touching the source. This mode of operation screens the sensor effectively from the majority of external noise. To date however the full capability of these sensors operating in a remote mode has not been realised outside of a screened environment (Faraday cage). This paper describes the results of preliminary work in tailoring the response of the sensors to particular signals and so reject background noise, thereby enhancing both the dynamic range and signal to noise ratio significantly

  6. Adaptive electric potential sensors for smart signal acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prance, R. J.; Beardsmore-Rust, S.; Prance, H.; Harland, C. J.; Stiffell, P. B.

    2007-07-01

    Current applications of the Electric Potential Sensor operate in a strongly (capacitively) coupled limit, with the sensor physically close to or touching the source. This mode of operation screens the sensor effectively from the majority of external noise. To date however the full capability of these sensors operating in a remote mode has not been realised outside of a screened environment (Faraday cage). This paper describes the results of preliminary work in tailoring the response of the sensors to particular signals and so reject background noise, thereby enhancing both the dynamic range and signal to noise ratio significantly.

  7. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements

  8. Potential ceramics processing applications with high-energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    High-energy, high-current electron beams may offer unique features for processing of ceramics that are not available with any other heat source. These include the capability to instantaneously heat to several centimeters in depth, to preferentially deposit energy in dense, high-z materials, to process at atmospheric pressures in air or other gases, to have large control over heating volume and heating rate, and to have efficient energy conversion. At a recent workshop organized by the authors to explore opportunities for electron beam processing of ceramics, several applications were identified for further development. These were ceramic joining, fabrication of ceramic powders, and surface processing of ceramics. It may be possible to join ceramics by either electron-beam brazing or welding. Brazing with refractory metals might also be feasible. The primary concern for brazing is whether the braze material can wet to the ceramic when rapidly heated by an electron beam. Raw ceramic powders, such as silicon nitride and aluminum nitride, which are difficult to produce by conventional techniques, could possibly be produced by vaporizing metals in a nitrogen atmosphere. Experiments need to be done to verify that the vaporized metal can fully react with the nitrogen. By adjusting beam parameters, high-energy beams can be used to remove surface flaws which are often sites of fracture initiation. They can also be used for surface cleaning. The advantage of electron beams rather than ion beams for this application is that the heat deposition can be graded into the material. The authors will discuss the capabilities of beams from existing machines for these applications and discuss planned experiments

  9. Lignocellulosic bioethanol potential utilizing subproducts from the biodiesel production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Evan Michael; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Toledo, Olga Moraes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production is one of the most researched fields in today's biofuels industry, and one of the major problems facing the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is the challenge of collecting biomass. Oil extraction for biodiesel production yields large amounts of cellulose rich biomass sub-products, which in many cases can produce enough ethanol to meet the alcohol demands of transesterification. Soybean, castor bean, Jatropha Curcas, palm kernel, sunflower seed, rapeseed and cottonseed were studied to determine ethanol production potential from their oil extraction co-products and also the capacity to meet transesterification alcohol demands. Nearly all crops studied were capable of producing enough ethanol for biodiesel production and, in the case of palm kernels, 383% of the transesterification demands could be met with cellulosic ethanol production of the proper sub-products. Based on Brazilian yields, Palm kernels have a production potential of 6725 L ha{sup -1} of ethanol followed by Jatropha curcas with 695 L ha{sup -1}. (author)

  10. The processing and potential applications of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syyuan Shieh.

    1992-07-01

    Stability of a cylindrical pore under the influence of surface energy is important for porous silicon (PS) processing in the integrated circuit industry. Once the zig-zag cylindrical pores of porous silicon or oxidized porous silicon (OPS) are unstable and breakup into rows of isolated spherical pores, oxidation of PS and densification/nitridation of OPS become difficult. Swing to difficulty transport of reactant gas (O{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}) or the trapped gas (for densification of OPS). A first order analysis of the stability of a cylindrical pore or cylinder is considered first. Growth of small sinusoidal perturbations by viscous flow or evaporation/condensation result in dependence of perturbation growth rate on perturbation wavelength. Rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of porous silicon is proposed as an alternative for the tedious two-step 300 and 800C oxidation process. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy ESCA are used for quality control. Also, rapid thermal nitridation of oxidized porous silicon in ammonia is proposed to enhance OPS resistance to HF solution. Pores breakup of OPS results in a trapped gas problem during densification. Wet helium is proposed as OPS densification ambient gas to shorten densification time. Finally, PS is proposed to be an extrinsic gettering center in silicon wafers. The suppression of oxidation-induced stacking faults is used to demonstrate the gettering ability. Possible mechanism is discussed.

  11. The processing and potential applications of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Syyuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Stability of a cylindrical pore under the influence of surface energy is important for porous silicon (PS) processing in the integrated circuit industry. Once the zig-zag cylindrical pores of porous silicon or oxidized porous silicon (OPS) are unstable and breakup into rows of isolated spherical pores, oxidation of PS and densification/nitridation of OPS become difficult. Swing to difficulty transport of reactant gas (O2, NH3) or the trapped gas (for densification of OPS). A first order analysis of the stability of a cylindrical pore or cylinder is considered first. Growth of small sinusoidal perturbations by viscous flow or evaporation/condensation result in dependence of perturbation growth rate on perturbation wavelength. Rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of porous silicon is proposed as an alternative for the tedious two-step 300 and 800C oxidation process. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy ESCA are used for quality control. Also, rapid thermal nitridation of oxidized porous silicon in ammonia is proposed to enhance OPS resistance to HF solution. Pores breakup of OPS results in a trapped gas problem during densification. Wet helium is proposed as OPS densification ambient gas to shorten densification time. Finally, PS is proposed to be an extrinsic gettering center in silicon wafers. The suppression of oxidation-induced stacking faults is used to demonstrate the gettering ability. Possible mechanism is discussed.

  12. Extremozymes from metagenome: Potential applications in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahejibin; Sathya, T A

    2017-06-12

    The long-established use of enzymes for food processing and product formulation has resulted in an increased enzyme market compounding to 7.0% annual growth rate. Advancements in molecular biology and recognition that enzymes with specific properties have application for industrial production of infant, baby and functional foods boosted research toward sourcing the genes of microorganisms for enzymes with distinctive properties. In this regard, functional metagenomics for extremozymes has gained attention on the premise that such enzymes can catalyze specific reactions. Hence, metagenomics that can isolate functional genes of unculturable extremophilic microorganisms has expanded attention as a promising tool. Developments in this field of research in relation to food sector are reviewed.

  13. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Zhang, Shuxia; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Large changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation are predicted by 2100, yet the long-term consequences for carbon, water, and nitrogen cycling in forests are poorly understood. We applied the PnET-CN ecosystem model to compare the long-term effects of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 on productivity, evapotranspiration, runoff, and net nitrogen mineralization in current Great Lakes forest types. We used two statistically downscaled climate projections, PCM B1 (warmer and wetter) and GFDL A1FI (hotter and drier), to represent two potential future climate and atmospheric CO2 scenarios. To separate the effects of climate and CO2, we ran PnET-CN including and excluding the CO2 routine. Our results suggest that, with rising CO2 and without changes in forest type, average regional productivity could increase from 67% to 142%, changes in evapotranspiration could range from –3% to +6%, runoff could increase from 2% to 22%, and net N mineralization could increase 10% to 12%. Ecosystem responses varied geographically and by forest type. Increased productivity was almost entirely driven by CO2 fertilization effects, rather than by temperature or precipitation (model runs holding CO2 constant showed stable or declining productivity). The relative importance of edaphic and climatic spatial drivers of productivity varied over time, suggesting that productivity in Great Lakes forests may switch from being temperature to water limited by the end of the century.

  14. Using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter to Teach Phase Equilibria to Students of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Anton H.; Millam, Evan L.; Wright, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    As an aid for teaching phase equilibria to undergraduate students of igneous and metamorphic petrology, we have designed a laboratory exercise that allows them to create a phase diagram from data produced by differential scanning calorimetry. By preparing and analyzing samples of naphthalene and phenanthrene, students acquire hands-on insight into…

  15. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  16. Physical ages of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.; Pilot, J.

    1980-01-01

    Age determinations of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia, have been performed using the K-Ar and Rb-Sr methods. The results obtained permit to draw conclusions with regard to the tectono-magmatic evolution of Eastern Cordilleres of Bolivia, and to the prospection and exploration of new deposits in the metallogenetic province

  17. Smectite clay identification and quantification as an indicator of basic igneous rock durability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leyland, RC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In terms of aerial extent, basic igneous rocks are one of the most used road building materials in South Africa. This is mainly due to the fact that approximately 57% of the surface lithology in South Africa is of poor road construction quality...

  18. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic igneous activity in the Netherlands: a tectonomagmatic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    To date, igneous rocks, either intrusive or extrusive, have been encountered in the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary series of the Netherlands in some 65 exploration and production wells. Following 17 new isotopic K/Ar age determinations of the recovered rock material (amounting to a total of 28

  19. Biological energy from the igneous rock enhances cell growth and enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Y.-L.; Kuo, H.-S; Chen, C.-T.; Kuo, S.-C.

    2000-01-01

    Some effects from natural resources might be ignored and unused by humans. Environmental hormesis could be a phenomena necessary to bio-organism existence on earth. Since 1919, radiation and some heavy metal hormesis from the environment were proved in various reports. In this study, igneous rock with very low radioactivity and high ferrous activity was measured by multichannel analyzer and inductively coupled plasma analyzer. The water treated by igneous rock, both directly soaked or indirectly in contact, induced increased activities of glucose oxidase, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It also increased cell growth of SC-M1, HCT-15, Raji, and fibroblast cell lines. The water after treatment of igneous rock had no change in pH values, but displayed decreased conductivity values. We assume that the igneous rock could transfer energy to water to change the molecular structure or conformation of water cluster, or by radiation hormesis effect could then induce increased enzyme activity and cell growth. It is also possible that the energy from rock may combine radiation hormesis with other transferable biological energy forms to change water cluster conformation

  20. Petrografic description of some igneous rocks from the Cordillera of South Mendoza, in the Argentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1926-01-01

    Comparatively little is yet known of the intricate igneous history of the Cordillera of South Mendoza. Almost all the knowledge we have is due to the field- and stratigraphical work of Dr. H. Gerth of Leiden (bibl. 1 and 2), and the petrographic studies of Dr. H. G. Backlund (bibl. 3 and 4) on the

  1. Origins of igneous microgranular enclaves in granites: the example of Central Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Elburg, M. A.; Harris, C.

    2017-10-01

    To investigate their genesis and relations with their host rocks, we study igneous microgranular enclaves (IMEs) in the c. 370 Ma, post-orogenic, high-level, felsic plutons and volcanic rocks of Central Victoria, Australia. The IMEs are thermally quenched magma globules but are not autoliths, and they do not form mixing series with their host magmas. These IMEs generally represent hybrids between mantle-derived magmas and very high- T crust-derived melts, modified by fractionation, ingestion of host-derived crystals and, to a lesser extent, by chemical interactions with their hosts. Isotopic and elemental evidence suggests that their likely mafic progenitors formed by partial melting of subcontinental mantle, but that the IME suites from different felsic host bodies did not share a common initial composition. We infer that melts of heterogeneous mantle underwent high- T hybridisation with melts from a variety of crustal rocks, which led to a high degree of primary variability in the IME magmas. Our model for the formation of the Central Victorian IMEs is likely to be applicable to other occurrences, especially in suites of postorogenic granitic magmas emplaced in the shallow crust. However, there are many different origins for the mingled magma globules that we call IMEs, and different phenomena seem to occur in differing tectonic settings. The complexity of IME formation means that it is difficult to unravel the petrogenesis of these products of chaotic magma processes. Nevertheless, the survival of fine-grained, non-equilibrium mineralogy and texture in the IMEs suggests that their tenure in the host magmas must have been geologically brief.

  2. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  3. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  4. Reexamination of the source material of acid igneous rocks, based on the selected Sr isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Shuto, Kenji; Gorai, Masao

    1975-01-01

    The relation between the ages and the initial strontium isotopic compositions obtained from acid igneous rocks by the whole-rock isochron method is re-examined, on the basis of the selected data. The points based on the data having high values of standard deviation (on the isochrons) show considerable scattering. This is probably ascribed to admixture of sialic materials, or secondary alteration and other geologic causes. The points based on the data having lower values of standard deviation (sigma value: 0.0001 - 0.0019), on the other hand, are evidently plotted within a narrow region just above the presumed Sr evolutional region of the source material of oceanic tholeiites. It is noteworthy that the former region meets the latter region at an earlier stage of the evolutional history of the earth (about 40 x 10 8 yrs. ago or older). It may be conceivable that the former region is the Sr evolutional region of the source material of acid igneous rocks. Considering from the inclination of the above Sr evolutional region, the source material of most of acid igneous rocks may possibly be a certain basic material, chemically similar to the continental tholeiitic basalts or basaltic andesites. On the other hand, the source material of a few acid igneous rocks with low initial strontium isotopic ratios may be a certain basic material resembling the oceanic tholeiites. Another possibility is that these acid igneous rocks and oceanic tholeiites may have been formed, under different physical conditions, directly from a certain common source material presumably of peridotitic composition. (auth.)

  5. Pristine Igneous Rocks and the Genesis of Early Planetary Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Our studies are highly interdisciplinary, but are focused on the processes and products of early planetary and asteroidal differentiation, especially the genesis of the ancient lunar crust. The compositional diversity that we explore is the residue of process diversity, which has strong relevance for comparative planetology.

  6. Radiometric ages of some igneous rocks from the southern and southwestern coalfields of New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, P.F.; Facer, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from six igneous rock units of the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields (Sydney Basin) of New South Wales have been dated using the K-Ar radiometric technique. The following ages were determined: a dolerite from Towradgi, 243 +- 10 MY; a dolerite from a diamond-drill hole at Sutton Forest, 202 +- 8 MY; the Bong Bong Basalt, 190 +- 8 MY; the Good Dog Lamprophyre, 101 +- 4 MY; a teschenite from South Bulli coal mine 74.0 +- 3.6 MY; and a dolerite from Robertson, 63.8 +- 3.2 MY. Combination of these new ages wth previously-published ages indicates that igneous activity in the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields occurred during four discrete periods of time - Middle-to-Late Permian; Late Triassic to Early Jurassic; mid-Cretaceous (only the Good Dog Lamprophyre has yielded such an age); and latest Cretaceous to Late Oligocene

  7. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-02-01

    The primary objectives of this report are to list known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks in New Mexico, and to provide an annotated bibliography of geologic reports concerning these regions. Only plutonic, metamorphic, vein, and Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits are considered in this report; other nonsandstone uranium deposits (such as shale, limestone, phosphorite, coal, evaporative precipitates, and fossil placer deposits) will be considered at a later time. These objectives were achieved through a literature search. Some field examinations of some of the radioactive occurrences have been completed. A table of known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks was compiled from the literature (Appendix I)

  8. Classification Scheme for Diverse Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks Encountered by MSL in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D. W.; Sumner, D.; Sautter, V.; Williams, A. J.; Gellert, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed in a lithologically and geochemically diverse region of Mars. We present a recommended rock classification framework based on terrestrial schemes, and adapted for the imaging and analytical capabilities of MSL as well as for rock types distinctive to Mars (e.g., high Fe sediments). After interpreting rock origin from textures, i.e., sedimentary (clastic, bedded), igneous (porphyritic, glassy), or unknown, the overall classification procedure (Fig 1) involves: (1) the characterization of rock type according to grain size and texture; (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers according to Figs 3 and 4; and if applicable, in depth study of (3) mineralogy and (4) geologic/stratigraphic context. Sedimentary rock types are assigned by measuring grains in the best available resolution image (Table 1) and classifying according to the coarsest resolvable grains as conglomerate/breccia, (coarse, medium, or fine) sandstone, silt-stone, or mudstone. If grains are not resolvable in MAHLI images, grains in the rock are assumed to be silt sized or smaller than surface dust particles. Rocks with low color contrast contrast between grains (e.g., Dismal Lakes, sol 304) are classified according to minimum size of apparent grains from surface roughness or shadows outlining apparent grains. Igneous rocks are described as intrusive or extrusive depending on crystal size and fabric. Igneous textures may be described as granular, porphyritic, phaneritic, aphyric, or glassy depending on crystal size. Further descriptors may include terms such as vesicular or cumulate textures.

  9. Magnetic Susceptibility as a Tool for Investigating Igneous Rocks—Experience from IODP Expedition 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger C. Searle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of magnetic susceptibility have been commonly used on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODPexpeditions to study minor lithological variations (forexample, those related to climatic cycles in sedimentary rocks, but they have been less frequently used on igneous rocks, although important post-cruise studies have utilized them (e.g., Ildefonse and Pezard, 2001. Here I report its use (and that of the closely related electrical conductivity on IODP Expedition 304 to examine igneous crustal rocks. Expedition 304/305 targeted the Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and recovered a suite of igneous rocks comprising mainly gabbros, troctolites, and some diabases (Blackman et al., 2006; Ildefonse et al., 2006, 2007; IODP Expeditions 304 and 305 Scientists, 2005. Shipboard measurements (on D/V JOIDES Resolution of physical properties were made to characterize lithological units and alteration products, to correlate cored material with down-hole logging data, and to interpret broader-scale geophysical data.

  10. Large Igneous Provinces, Their Giant Mafic Dyke Swarms, and Links to Metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowitt, S.; Ernst, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The relationships between large igneous provinces (LIPs), their giant dyke swarms and differing metallogenic systems can be condensed into five distinct although partially overlapping classifications: (1) LIP magmas that directly generate mineral deposits such as orthomagmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfides. Many carbonatites (Nb, Ta REE deposits) and kimberlites (diamonds) are also often LIP related. On the other hand, LIP-related thermal pulses (from a mantle plume) can sometimes destroy diamond potential in the overlying lithosphere. A key locus for Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization is within a few hundred km of the plume center region and plume centers are best located using giant radiating dyke swarms. Dyke subswarms with chalcophile element depletions can also be tracked "upstream" toward the plume center to identify exploration targets. (2) LIP magmas that provide energy, fluids, and/or metals for ore types such as hydrothermal volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Heat loss from the margins of dykes and sills can also generate local enrichments in key metals (e.g. Co) within the surrounding sedimentary rocks. (3) LIP rocks (particularly sills and dykes) can act barriers to fluid flow and/or as reaction zones that control mineralizing events, act as structural traps within hydrocarbon systems, and form impermeable barriers that control water flow and hence aquifer formation (4) surficial effects, such as the formation of Ni-Co laterites and Al bauxites from tropical weathering of LIP mafic-ultramafic rocks (including volcanics fed by radiating dykes as well as the dykes themselves). This category also includes LIP-related anoxia events that generate hydrocarbon source rocks; and (5) indirect links between LIPs and ore deposits, where continental breakup-related LIP events define a `barcode' record (usually dominated by dyke swarms) that can be used to correlate and reconstruct Precambrian supercontinents. This fifth classification type

  11. Silicon Isotope Fractionation During Acid Water-Igneous Rock Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boorn, S. H.; van Bergen, M. J.; Vroon, P. Z.

    2007-12-01

    ), the &δ&&30Si value of dissolved silicon in the lake water must be even higher. We infer that progressive cation removal alone is inadequate to describe rock dissolution and silicification by acid fluid. Exchange of silicon between the solution and mineral phases probably accompanied the alteration process. This hypothesis is qualitatively consistent with the idea that elements in solution take part in the formation of altered silica-rich layers at mineral-solution interfaces, as invoked to interpret surface reactions during silicate mineral weathering (e.g., Adriaens et al., 1999; Hellmann et al., 2003). References Adriaens et al., 1999. Surf. Interface Anal., 27: 8-23 Basile-Doelsch et al., 2006. Nature, 433: 399-402. Hellmann et al., 2003. Phys. Chem. Minerals, 30: 192-197.

  12. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental ...

  13. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    igneous rocks is progressively more alkaline and silicic from basalt to granodiorite. Early (Stage I) chalcopyrite-bornite (-molybdenite) mineralization and genetically related K-silicate alteration are centered on the Christmas stock. K-silicate alteration is manifested by pervasive hornblende-destructive biotitization in the stock, biotitization of basaltic volcanic wall rocks, and a continuous stockwork of K-feldspar veinlets and quartz-K-feldspar veins in the stock and quartz-sulfide veins in volcanic rocks. Younger (Stage II) pyrite-chalcopyrite mineralization and quartz-sericite-chlorite alteration occur in a zone overlapping with but largely peripheral to the zone of Stage I stockwork veins. Within the Christmas intrusive complex, K-silicate-altered rocks in the central stock are flanked east and west by zones of fracture-controlled quartz-sericite alteration and strong pyritization. In volcanic rocks quartz-chlorite-pyrite-chalcopyrite veins are superimposed on earlier biotitization and crosscut Stage I quartz-sulfide veins. Beyond the zones of quartz-sericite alteration, biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes contain the propylitic alteration assemblage epidote-chlorite-albite-sphene. Chemical analyses indicate the following changes during pervasive alteration of igneous rocks: (1) addition of Si, K, H, S, and Cu, and loss of Fe 3+ and Ca during intense biotitization of basalt; (2) loss of Na and Ca, increase of Fe3+/Fe2+, and strong H-metasomatism during sericitization of quartz diorite; and (3) increase in Ca, Na, and Fe3+/Fe2+, and loss of K during intense propylitization of biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes. Thorough biotitization of biotite granodiorite porphyry in the Christmas stock was largely an isochemical process. Fluid-inclusion petrography reveals that Stage I veins are characterized by low to moderate populations of moderate-salinity and gas-rich inclusions, and sparse but ubiquitous halite-bearing inclusions. Moderate-salinity an

  14. Comparison of potential method in analytic hierarchy process for multi-attribute of catering service companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Siti Salwana; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-08-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method used in structuring, measuring and synthesizing criteria, in particular ranking of multiple criteria in decision making problems. On the other hand, Potential Method is a ranking procedure in which utilizes preference graph ς (V, A). Two nodes are adjacent if they are compared in a pairwise comparison whereby the assigned arc is oriented towards the more preferred node. In this paper Potential Method is used to solve problem on a catering service selection. The comparison of result by using Potential method is made with Extent Analysis. The Potential Method is found to produce the same rank as Extent Analysis in AHP.

  15. The Phasing of the Process of Diagnosing the Personnel Potential at Trade Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peniuk Valeriia O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at carrying out phasing of the process of diagnosing the personnel potential at trade enterprise, taking into consideration the possible restrictions of a structural nature. The article determines the main causes for unequal attitude by the directors of differently sized trade enterprises of Ukraine towards diagnosing the personnel potential and personnel evaluation. The author’s vision of the phasing of the process of diagnosing the personnel potential has been submitted. An economic-mathematical model of the optimal implementation of the stages of diagnostics of the personnel potential at trade enterprise has been built. A list of principles has been compiled, along with clarifying their contents, on the basis of which diagnosing the personnel potential at trade enterprise should be carried out. The author’s definition of the concept of «desired status of the personnel potential» for trade enterprise has been formulated. Examples of endogenous and exogenous factors that impact the desired status of the personnel potential of trading enterprise and cause its changing have been provided. Prospects for further research in this direction can be research on the diagnostics of other constituents of the strategic potential of trade enterprise, as well as improvement or development of a new methodological instrumentarium to carry out diagnostics of the personnel potential at enterprises.

  16. Uranium and thorium content of some sedimentary and igneous rocks from the Rolla 10 x 20 quadrangle, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odland, S.K.; Millard, H.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium and thorium contents of 175 samples of Precambrian and overlying sedimentary rocks from 28 drill holes in the Rolla 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle, Missouri, were determined in 1978 as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) effort. The limited number of drill-hole samples analyzed and the great distance between drill holes does not provide sufficient analytical data for an evaluation of the uranium potential in this quadrangle. However, because NURE studies in the quadrangle have been recessed, the data at hand are being made available in this report. The 175 rock samples for uranium and thorium analyses were selected to determine the uranium and thorium content of lower Paleozoic stratigraphic units in the quadrangle, and to test the conceptual model of uranium accumulation in basal sandstones, conglomerates, and arkoses that onlap the Precambrian igneous rocks. The conceptual model of uranium in intragranitic veins was not tested, because not all drill holes penetrate Precambrian rocks and none penetrate them more than a few meters

  17. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  18. The Recording and Quantification of Event-Related Potentials: II. Signal Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Tavakoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials are an informative method for measuring the extent of information processing in the brain. The voltage deflections in an ERP waveform reflect the processing of sensory information as well as higher-level processing that involves selective attention, memory, semantic comprehension, and other types of cognitive activity. ERPs provide a non-invasive method of studying, with exceptional temporal resolution, cognitive processes in the human brain. ERPs are extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalography by a series of signal processing steps. The present tutorial will highlight several of the analysis techniques required to obtain event-related potentials. Some methodological issues that may be encountered will also be discussed.

  19. Experimental constraints on partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; Van Westrenen, W.; van Bergen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fast diffusion and homogenization of divalent cations hamper the preservation of original chemical compositions and zoning patterns of igneous olivine phenocrysts. Sluggish intracrystalline diffusion of phosphorus in igneous olivine on the other hand allows the complex zoning patterns to be retained, making it a crucial element for reconstruction of cooling histories and evolution of the host magma. Crystallization rate variations, diffusion controlled growth or compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning have been put forward as mechanisms controlling zoning of igneous olivine in phosphorus. Here, we investigate partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivines by a comparison of natural and experimentally grown olivines. We explore the importance of variable degrees of undercooling and cooling rates in crystallizing melt (M1) with a starting composition equivalent to that of an Italian high-potassium basalt (Tliq=1274 °C). We examine the extent of compositional control on partitioning by varying the amount of alkali enrichment in starting compositions that are otherwise equivalent to melt M1. Olivine crystallization experiments were conducted in rhenium capsules suspended in a vertical 1-atm gas-mixing furnace at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) with fO2 buffered at 1.4 to 1.7 log units below the Ni-NiO buffer. Sets of dynamic crystallization experiments with various degrees of undercooling and controlled cooling rate experiments with varying cooling rates were performed. We compare the results with our extensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian K-rich mafic lavas and olivine hosted primitive melt inclusions (MIs). Phosphorus concentrations in the natural olivines reach 435 ppm P and MIs contain up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-4 µm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory, patchy and large scale sector zoning in P, uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are almost always found in P-poor zones

  20. Evaluating the Relationships Between NTNU/SINTEF Drillability Indices with Index Properties and Petrographic Data of Hard Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligholi, Saeed; Lashkaripour, Gholam Reza; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Azali, Sadegh Tarigh

    2017-11-01

    Thorough and realistic performance predictions are among the main requisites for estimating excavation costs and time of the tunneling projects. Also, NTNU/SINTEF rock drillability indices, including the Drilling Rate Index™ (DRI), Bit Wear Index™ (BWI), and Cutter Life Index™ (CLI), are among the most effective indices for determining rock drillability. In this study, brittleness value (S20), Sievers' J-Value (SJ), abrasion value (AV), and Abrasion Value Cutter Steel (AVS) tests are conducted to determine these indices for a wide range of Iranian hard igneous rocks. In addition, relationships between such drillability parameters with petrographic features and index properties of the tested rocks are investigated. The results from multiple regression analysis revealed that the multiple regression models prepared using petrographic features provide a better estimation of drillability compared to those prepared using index properties. Also, it was found that the semiautomatic petrography and multiple regression analyses provide a suitable complement to determine drillability properties of igneous rocks. Based on the results of this study, AV has higher correlations with studied mineralogical indices than AVS. The results imply that, in general, rock surface hardness of hard igneous rocks is very high, and the acidic igneous rocks have a lower strength and density and higher S20 than those of basic rocks. Moreover, DRI is higher, while BWI is lower in acidic igneous rocks, suggesting that drill and blast tunneling is more convenient in these rocks than basic rocks.

  1. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.

  2. Atomic-Scale Simulation of Electrochemical Processes at Electrode/Water Interfaces under Referenced Bias Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Assil; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2018-04-19

    Based on constant Fermi-level molecular dynamics and a proper alignment scheme, we perform simulations of the Pt(111)/water interface under variable bias potential referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). Our scheme yields a potential of zero charge μ pzc of ∼0.22 eV relative to the SHE and a double layer capacitance C dl of ≃19 μF cm -2 , in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. In addition, we study the structural reorganization of the electrical double layer for bias potentials ranging from -0.92 eV to +0.44 eV and find that O down configurations, which are dominant at potentials above the pzc, reorient to favor H down configurations as the measured potential becomes negative. Our modeling scheme allows one to not only access atomic-scale processes at metal/water interfaces, but also to quantitatively estimate macroscopic electrochemical quantities.

  3. Unusually thickened crust beneath the Emeishan large igneous province detected by virtual deep seismic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Tian, Xiaobo; Chen, Yun; Xu, Tao; Bai, Zhiming; Liang, Xiaofeng; Iqbal, Javed; Xu, Yigang

    2017-11-01

    The Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwest China represents the erosional remnant of a vast basalt field emplaced during the Permian Period. Spanning 0.25 million km2, the ELIP occupies a relatively small area relative to other Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) such as the Siberian Traps and Ontong Java Plateau. The original volume of an ancient LIP can be constrained from estimates of its intrusive component. We used virtual deep seismic sounding (VDSS) to detect the boundary between the crust and the upper mantle (Moho) beneath the ELIP. A strong set of reflections from depths of 60-70 km indicate an unusually thick crust having a P-wave velocity of 7.0-7.4 km/s located beneath the inner zone of the ELIP. A high-velocity lower crustal body (HVLCB) of this thickness may have been formed by ponding magmas derived from the Emeishan mantle plume and associated fractionated materials. Combined images of crustal structure allow re-estimation of Emeishan magmatic volume. With a total estimated volume of 1.76-3.2 × 106 km3, the ELIP appears to have been a typical sized plume-generated LIP relative to other global examples.

  4. Correlation between parent and daughter element concentrations as a means of valuing isochrons of igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1989-01-01

    The question whether a series of samples from an igneous rock can be attributed to an isochron for radiogeochronological dating or for determining the initial isotope ratio of the daughter element of the radioactive decay can be valued by investigating the correlation between the concentrations 1 c and 2 c of mother ( 1 c) and daughter element ( 2 c). The slope of the regression line in a lg 1 c to lg 2 c diagram is given by 1 D - 1/ 2 D - 1 or 1 D - 1/ 2 D - 1 · 2 D/ 1 D, where 1 D and 2 D are the solid-liquid distribution coefficients of parent and daughter element, if the concentration patterns are ruled by fractional crystallization or by partial melting, respectively. The agreement between experimentally found slopes and those calculated from distribution coefficients thus gives additional evidence whether or not the isochron reflects a magma solidification or magma generation age, respectively. The method is discussed for the Rb-Sr-, Sm-Nd-, La-Ce-, La-Ba- and K-Ca-geochronometers, using distribution coefficients calculated on the basis of a global model of the generation of the most abundant continental igneous rocks. The application on Rb-Sr-isochrons of a series of various granites of the Erzgebirge and the Saxonian Granulite Massif in the Southern Part of the GDR reveals new evidence of postmagmatic autosomatosis having altered the chemical composition of the Younger granites of the Western Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge). (author)

  5. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces. PMID:29046625

  6. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Emilia Nicolae

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain.Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination. Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing.Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs.Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  7. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70-90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  8. Book Review: Potassic igneous rocks and associated gold-copper mineralization, Fourth edition (D. Muller and D.I. Groves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    The fourth edition of this comprehensive textbook, which succeeds those published in 1995, 1997, and 2000, very nicely summarizes the geochemical and petrological characteristics of potassic igneous rock complexes and the different tectonic settings in which they occur. The authors provide an overview and a classification of these rocks and they outline the geochemical differences between barren and mineralized potassic igneous complexes. Owing to the common association of potassic igneous rocks with many gold- and copper-rich ore deposits, this book will be of interest not only to research scientists but also to those exploring for major deposits in young and ancient terranes. In fact, there was a clear attempt by the authors to provide a good mix of theoretical discussions based on experimental work, with case studies that illustrate field and applied research.

  9. A study of the potential of plasma processing in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, P.N.; Connolly, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    This work describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs from a plasma based processing system. Based on these mass flows and the energy flows to the processor an economic assessment of the plasma processing system is made. This economic assessment which also includes the capital costs of the processor, can be used to determine if the plasma system is competitive with the conventional system

  10. Potentials of Information and Organisational Process Improvement Through Trained Office Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromjaková Felicita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main possibilities on how to improve the production rate, total ef- ficiency and profit-cost ratio in the administrative processes of public administrative offices. The results that are realized from this research serves as an important output for public administration offices in Slovakia. Process improvements can be achieved through the efficient utilization of own-staff potentials, especially by the optimal use of training modules. Well trained own-staff can radically improve the efficiency of office works, jobs and processes and can influence the satisfaction of internal and external stakeholders.

  11. Characterization of the Degree of Food Processing in Relation With Its Health Potential and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Up today technological processes are intended to produce safe and palatable food products. Yet, it is also expected that processing produces healthy and sustainable foods. However, due to the dramatic increase of chronic diseases prevalence worldwide, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers, ultraprocessing has been pointed out as producing unhealthy foods, rich in energy and poor in protective micronutrients and fiber, i.e., "empty" calories. Indeed the 1980s saw massive arrivals of ultraprocessed foods in supermarkets, i.e., fractionated-recombined foods with added ingredients and/or additives. Epidemiological studies clearly emphasized that populations adhering the most to ultraprocessed foods, e.g., processed meat, refined grains, ultraprocessed plant-based foods, and/or sweetened beverages, exhibited the higher prevalence of chronic diseases. This prompted researchers to classify foods according to their degree of processing as with the international NOVA classification (i.e., un/minimally processed, processed, and ultraprocessed foods). More and more studies showed that such a classification makes sense for health. Overall one distinguishes three categories of processes: mechanical, thermal, and fermentative treatments, this latter being the more favorable to food health potential. This chapter has therefore several ambitions: (1) to review association between degree of food processing and chronic disease risk prevalence; (2) to explore the impact of technological processes on food health potential considering both matrix and compositional effects; (3) to discuss the need for classifying food according to their degree of processing in future epidemiological studies; and (4) to analyze consequences of adhering to a more holistic paradigm in both food processing and nutrition. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Grammatical Categories on Children's Visual Language Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Hart, Laura J.; Spruill, John E., III

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how school-aged children process different grammatical categories. Event-related brain potentials elicited by words in visually presented sentences were analyzed according to seven grammatical categories with naturally varying characteristics of linguistic functions, semantic features, and quantitative attributes of length and…

  13. Event-related Potentials Reflecting the Processing of Phonological Constraint Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiese, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Flow are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of ail event-related potentials (ERP) Study oil a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within it syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three

  14. Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, U.; Kehrein, W.; Knaus, J.; Wiese, R.; Schlesewsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC iVCi). We examined three types of

  15. Early referential context effects in sentence processing: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, J.J.A. van; Brown, C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    1999-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials experiment was carried out to examine the interplay of referential and structural factors during sentence processing in discourse. Subjects read (Dutch) sentences beginning like “David told the girl that … ” in short story contexts that had introduced either one or

  16. Effect of processing on antioxidant potential and total phenolics content in beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of beet is associated with non-nutritive constituents, such as phenolic compounds. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of two different heat-processing techniques (drying and canned on the antioxidant potential (ABTS and phenolics content of beets. A forced air circulation dehydrator was used for the drying. Drying at high temperatures (100 + 90 °C/5.6 hours; 90 °C/6 hours increased the antioxidant potential of the processed products while mild drying conditions decreased it (80 °C/6 hours; 100 + 70 °C/6 hours or had no effect on it (70 °C/7 hours; 100 + 80 °C/6 hours. For the canned products, the antioxidant potential did not differ according to the pH (4.2 to 3.8 for any of the four acids tested. Some processing methods influenced the antioxidant potential of the processed products, and this was also dependent on changes in the total phenolics content.

  17. Opening the Learning Process: The Potential Role of Feature Film in Teaching Employment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of feature film to encourage more inclusive, participatory and open learning in the area of employment relations. Evaluations of student responses in a single postgraduate course over a five-year period revealed how feature film could encourage participatory learning processes in which students reexamined their…

  18. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  19. Internal mechanisms underlying anticipatory language processing: Evidence from event-related-potentials and neural oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yuping; Xia, Jinyan; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2017-07-28

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts. We examined the effects of semantic predictability on anticipatory processing prior to the onset of the critical nouns and on integration of the critical nouns. The results revealed that, at the integration stage, the strong-constraint condition (compared to the weak-constraint condition) elicited a reduced N400 and reduced theta activity (4-7Hz) for the congruent nouns, but induced beta (13-18Hz) and theta (4-7Hz) power decreases for the incongruent nouns, indicating benefits of confirmed predictions and potential costs of disconfirmed predictions. More importantly, at the anticipatory stage, the strongly constraining context elicited an enhanced sustained anterior negativity and beta power decrease (19-25Hz), which indicates that strong prediction places a higher processing load on the anticipatory stage of processing. The differences (in the ease of processing and the underlying neural oscillatory activities) between anticipatory and integration stages of lexical processing were discussed with regard to predictive processing models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  1. Impact of accelerated electrons on activating process and foaming potential of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, V.; Pospisil, M.; Mucka, V.; Silber, R.; Jenicek, P.; Dohanyos, M.; Zabranska, J.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Presently, anaerobic and/or aerobic biological treatment is the cheapest and the most effective method of wastewater and sludge processing. However, due to some non-biodegradable substances present in wastewater and also due to limited capacity of wastewater treatment plants, it is necessary to find effective processes, that would be complementary to existing sludge treatment methods. Beside chemical and physical processes, radiation technology seems to offer improvement of effectivity of biological treatment. The paper describes possibilities of irradiation in activating process. Activated sludge can be affected in all its parameters, including physico chemical properties, such as sedimentation rate, or resulting volume of sludge. For the purpose of this research, laboratory experimental reactors simulating activating process were operated. According to previous results, accelerated electrons were used for irradiation, for e-beam seems to be more expedient than gamma irradiation. Reactor with irradiated sludge has been compared with the one without irradiation. It is shown, that pre-irradiation of sludge can positively affect following process of activation. Beside the activating process, another goal has been pursued. Radiation can strongly affect sludge foaming potential. Biological foaming caused by surfactant microorganisms, represents quite serious problem in many wastewater treatment plants, especially in digesters. It was proved that after irradiation foaming potential of sludge decreases. Pre-irradiation of activated sludge with relatively low doses also results in reduction of number of pathogenic microorganisms, presented in sludge

  2. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  3. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  4. Attenuation of deep semantic processing during mind wandering: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Judy; Friedman, David; Metcalfe, Janet

    2018-03-21

    Although much research shows that early sensory and attentional processing is affected by mind wandering, the effect of mind wandering on deep (i.e. semantic) processing is relatively unexplored. To investigate this relation, we recorded event-related potentials as participants studied English-Spanish word pairs, one at a time, while being intermittently probed for whether they were 'on task' or 'mind wandering'. Both perceptual processing, indexed by the P2 component, and deep processing, indexed by a late, sustained slow wave maximal at parietal electrodes, was attenuated during periods preceding participants' mind wandering reports. The pattern when participants were on task, rather than mind wandering, is similar to the subsequent memory or difference in memory effect. These results support previous findings of sensory attenuation during mind wandering, and extend them to a long-duration slow wave by suggesting that the deeper and more sustained levels of processing are also disrupted.

  5. Evaluation the potential and energy efficiency of dual stage pressure retarded osmosis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaee, Ali; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Drioli, Enrico; Zhou, John

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Single and dual stage PRO was evaluated at different membrane configurations. •Impact of increasing module area or numbers on the power efficiency was studied. •DSPRO reduced the impact of CP & restored the osmotic potential of salinity gradient. •DSPRO outperforms single stage PRO process but depends on salinity gradient type. -- Abstract: Power generation by means of Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) has been proposed for harvesting the energy of a salinity gradient. Energy recovery by the PRO process decreases along the membrane module due to depleting of the chemical potential across the membrane and concentration polarization effects. A dual stage PRO (DSPRO) design can be used to rejuvenate the chemical potential difference and reduce the concentration polarization on feed solution. Several design configurations were suggested for the membrane module arrangements in the first and second stage of the PRO process. PRO performance was evaluated for a number of salinity gradients proposed by coupling Dead Sea water or Reverse Osmosis (RO) brine with seawater or wastewater effluent. Maximum specific energy of inlet and outlet feeds was calculated using a developed computer model to identify the amount of recovered and remaining energy. Initially, specific power generation by the PRO process increased by increasing the number of modules of the first stage. Maximum specific energy is calculated along the PRO module to understand the degradation of the maximum specific energy in each module before introducing a second stage PRO process. Adding a second stage PRO process resulted in a sharp increase of the chemical potential difference and the specific energy yield of the process. Between 10% and 13% increase of the specific power generation was achieved by the DSPRO process for the Dead Sea-seawater salinity gradient depending on the dual stage design configuration. For Dead Sea-RO brine, 12–16% increase of the specific power generation was

  6. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research

  7. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  8. Current and potential uses of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone

    2016-03-15

    Food industries produce huge amounts of processing waste that are often disposed of incurring expenses and impacting upon the environment. For these and other reasons, food processing waste streams, in particular marine processing waste streams, are gaining popularity amongst pharmaceutical, cosmetic and nutraceutical industries as sources of bioactive molecules. In the last 30 years, there has been a gradual increase in processed marine products with a concomitant increase in waste streams that include viscera, heads, skins, fins, bones, trimmings and shellfish waste. In 2010, these waste streams equated to approximately 24 million tonnes of mostly unused resources. Marine processing waste streams not only represent an abundant resource, they are also enriched with structurally diverse molecules that possess a broad panel of bioactivities including anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, anti-thrombotic, anti-cancer and immune-stimulatory activities. Retrieval and characterisation of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste also contributes valuable information to the vast field of marine natural product discovery. This review summarises the current use of bioactive molecules from marine processing waste in different products and industries. Moreover, this review summarises new research into processing waste streams and the potential for adoption by industries in the creation of new products containing marine processing waste bioactives. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The effect of science learning integrated with local potential to improve science process skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardini, Riris Riezqia Budy; Suryadarma, I. Gusti Putu; Wilujeng, Insih

    2017-08-01

    This research was aimed to know the effectiveness of science learning that integrated with local potential to improve student`s science process skill. The research was quasi experiment using non-equivalent control group design. The research involved all student of Muhammadiyah Imogiri Junior High School on grade VII as a population. The sample in this research was selected through cluster random sampling, namely VII B (experiment group) and VII C (control group). Instrument that used in this research is a nontest instrument (science process skill observation's form) adapted Desak Megawati's research (2016). The aspect of science process skills were making observation and communication. The data were using univariat (ANOVA) analyzed at 0,05 significance level and normalized gain score for science process skill increase's category. The result is science learning that integrated with local potential was effective to improve science process skills of student (Sig. 0,00). This learning can increase science process skill, shown by a normalized gain score value at 0,63 (medium category) in experiment group and 0,29 (low category) in control group.

  10. 118-115 Ma magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya igneous province: Constraints on Early Cretaceous rifting of the northern margin of Greater India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Shi, Ren-Deng; Liu, Xiao-Han; Zhou, Xue-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is critical to deciphering processes associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Microcontinental calving, the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, is particularly poorly understood. Here we present new insights into these processes from geochronological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from the Tethyan Himalaya. Early Cretaceous mafic dikes are widely exposed in the eastern and western Tethyan Himalaya, but no such rocks have been reported from the central Tethyan Himalaya. Here we present an analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic data for bimodal magmatic rocks from the center-east Tethyan Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating yields six weighted-mean concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 118 ± 1.2 to 115 ± 1.3 Ma. Mafic rocks display MORB-like compositions with flat to depleted LREE trends, and positive εNd(t) (+2.76 to +5.39) and εHf(t) (+8.0 to +11.9) values. The negative Nb anomalies and relatively high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.15-0.19) of these rocks are related to variable degrees (up to 10%) of crustal contamination. Geochemical characteristics indicate that mafic rocks were generated by variable degrees (2-20%) of partial melting of spinel lherzolites in shallow depleted mantle. Felsic rocks are enriched in Th and LREE, with negative Nb anomalies and decoupling of Nd (εNd(t) = -13.39 to -12.78) and Hf (εHf(t) = -4.8 to -2.0), suggesting that they were derived mainly from garnet-bearing lower continental crust. The geochemical characteristics of the bimodal magmatic associations are comparable to those of associations that form in a continental rift setting. Results indicate that Early Cretaceous magmatism occurred across the whole Tethyan Himalaya, named here as the "Tethyan Himalaya igneous province". Separation of the Tethyan Himalaya from the Indian craton may have occurred during ongoing Early Cretaceous extension

  11. Determining the potential volume of industrial process steam to be generated in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobsky, T.

    1990-01-01

    The present study serves to determine the market potential of nuclear energy for industrial process steam supply according to branches and sites in the Federal Republic of Germany (excluding the new East German Laender). On the nuclear plant side two HTR reference plants with different unit powers of 200 MWth (HTR-Modul) and 100 MWth are investigated. An essential result in analysing the nuclear market potential is the finding that the number of potential users and sites will triple if smaller unit sizes were introduced. This corresponds to an increase in nuclear plant potential from 28 units of 200 MWth each to 91 units of 100 MWth on the assumptions made in this study. A comparison of economic efficiency between fossil-fired power production plants and the HTR-Modul shows the competitiveness of nuclear process steam and electricity production in the base load range. A single-site evaluation for the centres of energy demand competes conceptually with a combined heat supply by nuclear long-distance energy. This integrated supply concept makes it possible to supply considerably more industrial companies with process steam while reducing the number of sites, since the heat requirements of smaller sites can also be covered by the integrated system. (orig.) [de

  12. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  13. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  14. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  15. Temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Raquel; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; Santos, Renata Beatriz Fernandes; Marangoni, Andrea Tortosa; Schiefer, Ana Maria; Gil, Daniela

    Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n=20) and non-stutters (n=21), compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Prestes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. Objective: To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. Methods: The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n = 20 and non-stutters (n = 21, compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Results: Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Conclusion: Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components.

  17. SELECTED ISSUES OF COMPETITIVENESS POTENTIAL OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING COMPANIES LOCATED IN THE WIELKOPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smoluk-Sikorska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses results of the research concerning potential and strategy of competitiveness of companies of fruit and vegetable processing industry located in the Wielkopolskie voivodeship. Special attention was paid to the assessment of the companies’ financial situation, their production resources, management system and adopted development strategies. The investigated companies are characterised by strong domestic market position, which is mainly results of the assessment of their financial situation. They asses competitiveness potential very high, particularly human resources and related with them management skills. Furthermore, most of the companies assess the use of strategy of quality control and specialisation strategy as high or very high.

  18. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively......Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...

  19. The Jiaodong gold district, northeastern China, in the context of the Late Paleozoic and Late Mesozoic large igneous provinces, orogeny and metallogeny in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, Hugo

    The Permo-Triassic continental large igneous provinces (LIPs) of Eurasia linked in to orogenic systems in decay. Their bulk appearance varies from the massive flood-basalts and (ultra)mafic intrusives to the groups of coeval, widely spread, diverse intrusions and extrusions of the Scattered Igneous

  20. Priority listing of industrial processes by total energy consumption and potential for savings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of eight of the most energy-intensive segments of the U.S. industry is made to quantify the energy consumed in the principal process units, to identify areas in which significant improvement appear possible, and to rank the process units in terms of total energy consumption and the potential for improvement. Data on the steel, paper, aluminum, textile, cement, and glass industries, petroleum refineries, and olefins and derivative products industries were compiled to help plan the development of new energy sources and to provide targets for energy conservation activities. (MCW)

  1. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  2. Evolution of KREEP - Further petrologic evidence. [igneous rocks from Apollo 15 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. L.; Hollister, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    It is hypothesized that KREEP samples from the Apollo 15 site are igneous. To support the hypothesis, comparisons are made with other crystalline KREEP samples, especially 14310. It is noted that the low siderophile element content and lack of high pressure phenocrysts in the Apollo 15 KREEP may be indications of a slower rise of KREEP melt to the surface, when contrasted with sample 14310. Gravitational separation of Fe-Ni metal is proposed as a mechanism to account for the depletion of siderophile elements relative to the Si-rich component. It is further suggested that KREEP may be the parent of Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, as well as of granitic rocks, due to the liquid immiscibility occurring during the KREEP melt crystallization, and the subsequent independent evolution of the components.

  3. A hierarchy of event-related potential markers of auditory processing in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Beukema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging of covert perceptual and cognitive processes can inform the diagnoses and prognoses of patients with disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS;MCS. Here we report an event-related potential (ERP paradigm for detecting a hierarchy of auditory processes in a group of healthy individuals and patients with disorders of consciousness. Simple cortical responses to sounds were observed in all 16 patients; 7/16 (44% patients exhibited markers of the differential processing of speech and noise; and 1 patient produced evidence of the semantic processing of speech (i.e. the N400 effect. In several patients, the level of auditory processing that was evident from ERPs was higher than the abilities that were evident from behavioural assessment, indicating a greater sensitivity of ERPs in some cases. However, there were no differences in auditory processing between VS and MCS patient groups, indicating a lack of diagnostic specificity for this paradigm. Reliably detecting semantic processing by means of the N400 effect in passively listening single-subjects is a challenge. Multiple assessment methods are needed in order to fully characterise the abilities of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  4. Development of an automated processing system for potential fishing zone forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardianto, R.; Setiawan, A.; Hidayat, J. J.; Zaky, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute for Marine Research and Observation (IMRO) - Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia (MMAF) has developed a potential fishing zone (PFZ) forecast using satellite data, called Peta Prakiraan Daerah Penangkapan Ikan (PPDPI). Since 2005, IMRO disseminates everyday PPDPI maps for fisheries marine ports and 3 days average for national areas. The accuracy in determining the PFZ and processing time of maps depend much on the experience of the operators creating them. This paper presents our research in developing an automated processing system for PPDPI in order to increase the accuracy and shorten processing time. PFZ are identified by combining MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) data in order to detect the presence of upwelling, thermal fronts and biological productivity enhancement, where the integration of these phenomena generally representing the PFZ. The whole process involves data download, map geo-process as well as layout that are carried out automatically by Python and ArcPy. The results showed that the automated processing system could be used to reduce the operator’s dependence on determining PFZ and speed up processing time.

  5. Potential applications of helium-cooled high-temperature reactors to process heat use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs) permit nuclear energy to be applied to a number of processes presently utilizing fossil fuels. Promising applications of HTRs involve cogeneration, thermal energy transport using molten salt systems, steam reforming of methane for production of chemicals, coal and oil shale liquefaction or gasification, and - in the longer term - energy transport using a chemical heat pipe. Further, HTRs might be used in the more distant future as the energy source for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Preliminary results of ongoing studies indicate that the potential market for Process Heat HTRs by the year 2020 is about 150 to 250 GW(t) for process heat/cogeneration application, plus approximately 150 to 300 GW(t) for application to fossil conversion processes. HTR cogeneration plants appear attractive in the near term for new industrial plants using large amounts of process heat, possibly for present industrial plants in conjunction with molten-salt energy distribution systems, and also for some fossil conversion processes. HTR reformer systems will take longer to develop, but are applicable to chemicals production, a larger number of fossil conversion processes, and to chemical heat pipes

  6. Differential processing of social chemosignals obtained from potential partners in regards to gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Hoenen, Matthias; Pause, Bettina M

    2012-03-17

    On an individual level, human body odors carry information about whether a person is an eligible mate. The current studies investigate if body odors also transmit information about individuals being potential partners in more general terms, namely in regards to gender and sexual orientation. In study 1, 14 gay and 14 heterosexual men were presented with body odors obtained from potential partners (gay male and heterosexual female body odors, respectively) and heterosexual male body odor as a control. In study 2, 14 lesbian and 14 heterosexual women were presented with lesbian female and heterosexual male body odors representing body odors of potential partners, and heterosexual female body odor as a control. Central nervous processing was analyzed using chemosensory event-related potentials and current source density analysis (64-channel EEG recording). Gay and heterosexual men responded with shorter P2 latencies to the body odors of their preferred sexual partners, and lesbian women responded with shorter P2 latencies to body odors of their preferred gender. In response to heterosexual male body odors, lesbian women displayed the most pronounced P3 amplitude, and distinct neuronal activation in medial frontal and parietal neocortical areas. A similar pattern of neuronal activation was observed in gay men when presented with heterosexual male body odor. Both the early processing advantage (P2) for desirable partners' body odors as well as the enhanced evaluative processing (P3, CSD) of undesirable partners' body odors suggest that human body odors indeed carry information about individuals being potential partners in terms of gender and sexual orientation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some ha...

  8. An Event-related Brain Potential Study of English Morphosyntactic Processing in Japanese Learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuta, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...

  9. Integral Hellmann--Feynman analysis of nonisoelectronic processes and the determination of local ionization potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, G.

    1975-01-01

    The integral Hellmann--Feynmann theorem is extended to apply to nonisoelectronic processes. A local ionization potential formula is proposed, and test calculations on three different approximate helium wavefunctions are reported which suggest that it may be numerically superior to the standard difference of expectation values. Arguments for the physical utility of the new concept are presented, and an integral Hellmann--Feynman analysis of transition energies is begun

  10. Differentiation of pre-existing trapped methane from thermogenic methane in an igneous-intruded coal by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Robert F.; Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Kotarba, Maciej J.

    2014-01-01

    So as to better understand how the gas generation potential of coal changes with increasing rank, same-seam samples of bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin that were naturally matured to varying degrees by the intrusion of an igneous dike were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (HP) conditions of 360 °C for 72 h. The accumulated methane in the reactor headspace was analyzed for δ13C and δ2H, and mol percent composition. Maximum methane production (9.7 mg/g TOC) occurred in the most immature samples (0.5 %Ro), waning to minimal methane values at 2.44 %Ro (0.67 mg/g TOC), and rebounding to 3.6 mg/g TOC methane in the most mature sample (6.76 %Ro). Methane from coal with the highest initial thermal maturity (6.76 %Ro) shows no isotopic dependence on the reactor water and has a microbial δ13C value of −61‰. However, methane from coal of minimal initial thermal maturity (0.5 %Ro) shows hydrogen isotopic dependence on the reaction water and has a δ13C value of −37‰. The gas released from coals under hydrous pyrolysis conditions represents a quantifiable mixture of ancient (270 Ma) methane (likely microbial) that was generated in situ and trapped within the rock during the rapid heating by the dike, and modern (laboratory) thermogenic methane that was generated from the indigenous organic matter due to thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis conditions. These findings provide an analytical framework for better assessment of natural gas sources and for differentiating generated gas from pre-existing trapped gas in coals of various ranks.

  11. Heat flow study of the Emeishan large igneous province region: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2018-01-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is widely considered to be a consequence of a mantle plume. The supporting evidence includes rapid emplacement, voluminous flood basalt eruptions, and high mantle potential temperature estimates. Several studies have suggested that there was surface uplift prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts. Additionally, the plume's lateral extent is hard to constrain and has been variously estimated to be 800-1400 km in diameter. In this study, we analyzed present-day heat flow data and reconstructed the Permian paleo-heat flow using vitrinite reflectance and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology data in the ELIP region and discussed implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume. The present-day heat flow is higher in the inner and intermediate zones than in the outer zone, with a decrease of average heat flow from 76 mW/m2 to 51 mW/m2. Thermal history modeling results show that an abnormal high paleo-heat flow of 90-110 mW/m2 was caused by the Emeishan mantle plume activity. Based on the present-day heat flow data, we can calculate that there is lithospheric thinning in the central ELIP region, which may be due to the destruction of the lithosphere by mantle plume upwelling and magmatic underplating. The Permian paleo-heat flow anomaly implies that there was a temperature anomaly in the mantle. The ascending high-temperature mantle plume and the thinned lithosphere may have induced the large-scale uplift in the ELIP region. According to the range of the surface heat flow anomaly, it can be estimated that the diameter of the flattened head of the Emeishan mantle plume could have reached 1600-1800 km. Our research provides new insights into the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume through study of heat flow.

  12. Weathering of Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks in a Semi-arid Climate - An Engineering Application of Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.; Wendlandt, R. F.

    2003-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, analytical methods have been introduced to students in CSM's undergraduate geological engineering program through a multi-year and multi-course approach. Beginning with principles and simple applications of XRD and SEM in sophomore Mineralogy and building on these skills in subsequent junior and senior year courses, geological engineers acquire proficiency in analytical methods. Essential workplace skills are thus acquired without adding an extra course in the undergraduate program. The following exercise is completed by juniors in an integrated Ig.-Met.-Sed. petrology course. The identification of clay mineral assemblages in soils provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how basic principles of petrology and geochemistry are applied to engineering design criteria in construction site preparation. Specifically, the problem investigates the conditions leading to the formation of smectite in soils and the resulting construction risk due to soil expansion. Students examine soils developed on igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks near Denver, Colorado. The field locations are areas of suburban growth and several have expansive soil problems. The 2-week exercise includes sample collection, description, and preparation, determining clay mineralogy by XRD, and measurement of Atterberg Plasticity Indices. Teaching materials may be found at: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/. This exercise accomplishes three objectives: First, skills in XRD analysis are developed by introducing students to concepts of particle size separation, particle orientation, and sequential analysis steps which are standard practices in clay characterization. Second, lecture material on the geochemistry of weathering of different rock types is reinforced. Students interpret the origin of clay mineral assemblages developed in soils derived from Precambrian gneisses, lower Paleozoic feldspathic sandstones, upper Paleozoic marine shales, and Tertiary

  13. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltić Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  14. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals.

  15. The role of plant processing for the cancer preventive potential of Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, Grace Akinyi; Schlotz, Nina; Herz, Corinna; Hanschen, Franziska S; Baldermann, Susanne; Neugart, Susanne; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Frommherz, Lara; Franz, Charles M A P; Ngwene, Benard; Luvonga, Abraham Wahid; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Background : Ethiopian kale ( Brassica carinata ) is a horticulturally important crop used as leafy vegetable in large parts of East and Southern Africa. The leaves are reported to contain high concentrations of health-promoting secondary plant metabolites. However, scientific knowledge on their health benefits is scarce. Objective : This study aimed to determine the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata using a human liver in vitro model focusing on processing effects on the pattern of secondary plant metabolites and bioactivity. Design : B. carinata was cultivated under controlled conditions and differentially processed (raw, fermented, or cooked) after harvesting. Human liver cancer cells (HepG2) were treated with ethanolic extracts of raw or processed B. carinata leaves and analyzed for their anti-genotoxic, anti-oxidant, and cytostatic potential. Chemical analyses were carried out on glucosinolates including breakdown products, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll content. Results : Pre-treatment with B. carinata extracts concentration dependently reduced aflatoxin-induced DNA damage in the Comet assay, reduced the production of reactive oxygen species as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and induced Nrf2-mediated gene expression. Increasing extract concentrations also promoted cytostasis. Processing had a significant effect on the content of secondary plant metabolites. However, different processing methodologies did not dramatically decrease bioactivity, but enhanced the protective effect in some of the endpoints studied. Conclusion : Our findings highlight the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata as indicated by the protection of human liver cells against aflatoxin in vitro . In general, consumption of B. carinata should be encouraged as part of chemopreventive measures to combat prevalence of aflatoxin-induced diseases.

  16. Estimating the potential for solar thermal applications in the industrial process heat market 1990-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeter, C.P.; Gray, E.E.; Carwile, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary evaluation of the potential domestic market for solar thermal energy supply technologies matched to industrial process heat applications. The study estimates current and projects future industrial process heat demand to the year 2030 by two-digit standard industrial classification code for the manufacturing industrial sector and discusses the potential to displace conventional fossil fuel sources such as natural gas with alternative sources of supply. The PC Industrial Model, used by DOE's Energy Information Administration in support of the National Energy Strategy (NES) is used for forecast industrial energy demand. Demand is disaggregated by census region to account for geographic variations in solar insolation, and by heat medium and temperature to facilitate end-use matching with appropriate solar energy supply technologies. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for flat plate collectors for low- temperature preheat applications, parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat, and parabolic dish technologies for high-temperature, direct heat applications. LEC is also developed for a conventional natural gas-fueled Industrial Process Heat (IPH) supply source assuming natural gas price escalation consistent with NES forecasts to develop a relative figure of merit used in a market penetration model

  17. New Factors of Conflict Potential of Modern Ethno-Political Processes in the South of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmanov Rafik Khammatovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of recent studies of modern ethno-political processes the author shows the new threats and challenges of uncontrolled migration flows from the Middle East and North Africa. These processes have created a serious threat not only to EU countries but also in other continents. The author analyzes and forecasts the growing conflict potential in the Caspian region, which is particularly applied to Southern Russia. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the old and the modern conflicts, the author makes conclusion about the continuity of data due to the lack of development of negative processes of democratic processes and the low level of tolerance in the regions of the North Caucasus, which is a breeding ground for Islamic radicalism. The only constructive solution to this problem in the present period is the socio-economic stabilization of the society and the revival of the principles of tolerance since the Soviet period, taking into account regional peculiarities of the peoples living in these territories. As a result, it is necessary to provide recommendations and suggestions of scientists, economists and social scientists to expand intellectual scientific potential with a degree of respect for the principles of tolerance. In conclusion it is noted that today for Russia there cannot be a future without policy capable of ensuring harmony in inter-ethnic and religious relations, the cooperation of all constituent peoples.

  18. Nanotechnology in Meat Processing and Packaging: Potential Applications — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Ramachandraiah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  19. Spatial and Semantic Processing between Audition and Vision: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, this study investigated how the brain bound the spatial and semantic features in multisensory processing. The visual stimuli (pictures of animals were presented after the auditory stimuli (sounds of animals, and the stimuli from different modalities may match spatially (or semantically or not. Participants were required to detect the head orientation of the visual target (an oddball paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs to the visual stimuli was enhanced by spatial attention (150–170 ms irrespectively of semantic information. The early crossmodal attention effect for the visual stimuli was more negative in the spatial-congruent condition than in the spatial-incongruent condition. By contrast, the later effects of spatial ERPs were significant only for the semantic- congruent condition (250–300 ms. These findings indicated that spatial attention modulated early visual processing, and semantic and spatial features were simultaneously used to orient attention and modulate later processing stages.

  20. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhishuai, Jin; Hong, Liu; Daxing, Wu; Pin, Zhang; Xuejing, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG) while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC) in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  1. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhishuai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  2. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  3. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  4. Does the Effort of Processing Potential Incentives Influence the Adaption of Context Updating in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Hannah; Kray, Jutta; Ferdinand, Nicola K

    2017-01-01

    A number of aging studies suggest that older adults process positive and negative information differently. For instance, the socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that older adults preferably process positive information in service of emotional well-being (Reed and Carstensen, 2012). Moreover, recent research has started to investigate whether incentives like gains or losses can influence cognitive control in an ongoing task. In an earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015), we examined whether incentive cues, indicating potential monetary gains, losses, or neutral outcomes for good performance in the following trial, would influence older adults' ability to exert cognitive control. Cognitive control was measured in an AX-Continuous-Performance-Task (AX-CPT) in which participants had to select their responses to probe stimuli depending on a preceding context cue. In this study, we did not find support for a positivity effect in older adults, but both gains and losses led to enhanced context processing. As the trial-wise presentation mode may be too demanding on cognitive resources for such a bias to occur, the main goal of the present study was to examine whether motivational mindsets, induced by block-wise presentation of incentives, would result in a positivity effect. For this reason, we examined 17 older participants (65-76 years) in the AX-CPT using a block-wise presentation of incentive cues and compared them to 18 older adults (69-78 years) with the trial-wise presentation mode from our earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015). Event-related potentials were recorded to the onset of the motivational cue and during the AX-CPT. Our results show that (a) older adults initially process cues signaling potential losses more strongly, but later during the AX-CPT invest more cognitive resources in preparatory processes like context updating in conditions with potential gains, and (b) block-wise and trial-wise presentation of incentive cues differentially influenced

  5. Does the Effort of Processing Potential Incentives Influence the Adaption of Context Updating in Older Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Schmitt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of aging studies suggest that older adults process positive and negative information differently. For instance, the socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that older adults preferably process positive information in service of emotional well-being (Reed and Carstensen, 2012. Moreover, recent research has started to investigate whether incentives like gains or losses can influence cognitive control in an ongoing task. In an earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015, we examined whether incentive cues, indicating potential monetary gains, losses, or neutral outcomes for good performance in the following trial, would influence older adults’ ability to exert cognitive control. Cognitive control was measured in an AX-Continuous-Performance-Task (AX-CPT in which participants had to select their responses to probe stimuli depending on a preceding context cue. In this study, we did not find support for a positivity effect in older adults, but both gains and losses led to enhanced context processing. As the trial-wise presentation mode may be too demanding on cognitive resources for such a bias to occur, the main goal of the present study was to examine whether motivational mindsets, induced by block-wise presentation of incentives, would result in a positivity effect. For this reason, we examined 17 older participants (65–76 years in the AX-CPT using a block-wise presentation of incentive cues and compared them to 18 older adults (69–78 years with the trial-wise presentation mode from our earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015. Event-related potentials were recorded to the onset of the motivational cue and during the AX-CPT. Our results show that (a older adults initially process cues signaling potential losses more strongly, but later during the AX-CPT invest more cognitive resources in preparatory processes like context updating in conditions with potential gains, and (b block-wise and trial-wise presentation of incentive cues

  6. Arc-continent collision and the formation of continental crust: A new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Schouten, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Collisions between oceanic island-arc terranes and passive continental margins are thought to have been important in the formation of continental crust throughout much of Earth's history. Magmatic evolution during this stage of the plate-tectonic cycle is evident in several areas of the Ordovician Grampian-Taconic orogen, as we demonstrate in the first detailed geochemical study of the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. New U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 493 2 Ma from a primitive mafic intrusion, indicating intra-oceanic subduction in Tremadoc time, and 475 10 Ma from a light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched tonalite intrusion that incorporated Laurentian continental material by early Arenig time (Early Ordovician, Stage 2) during arc-continent collision. Notably, LREE enrichment in volcanism and silicic intrusions of the Tyrone Igneous Complex exceeds that of average Dalradian (Laurentian) continental material that would have been thrust under the colliding forearc and potentially recycled into arc magmatism. This implies that crystal fractionation, in addition to magmatic mixing and assimilation, was important to the formation of new crust in the Grampian-Taconic orogeny. Because similar super-enrichment of orogenic melts occurred elsewhere in the Caledonides in the British Isles and Newfoundland, the addition of new, highly enriched melt to this accreted arc terrane was apparently widespread spatially and temporally. Such super-enrichment of magmatism, especially if accompanied by loss of corresponding lower crustal residues, supports the theory that arc-continent collision plays an important role in altering bulk crustal composition toward typical values for ancient continental crust. ?? 2009 Geological Society of London.

  7. Chemostratigraphy and evolution of the Paraná Igneous Province volcanism in the central portion of the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Allan Silva; Licht, Otavio Augusto Boni; Vasconcellos, Eleonora Maria Gouvêa; Soares, Jan Savaris

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of borehole samples offers the potential to investigate the chemostratigraphic variations of a large igneous province in subsurface. New geochemical data based on multielement analyses of 829 chip samples that were obtained during the drilling of seven deep boreholes is presented for the central area of the Paraná Igneous Province (PIP). In order to detail the compositional variations found within the two main types from the Central-Northern Subprovince (CNSP), simple statistical treatment was carried out for part this database. Thus, the combination of low (L) and high (H) contents of Th, Nb, La and Yb was used as a means to create 16 geochemical subtypes for the Type 4 (LSi-LZr-HTi-HP) sequence. Likewise, other four elements (Cr, Ni, Cu and Pd) were selected with the same intention for the Type 1 (Central-Northern) (LSi-LZr-LTi-LP) sequence. When subtypes are plotted in the cross section, it is possible to observe that those with similar characteristics tend to be associated in groups (cycles). This analysis showed that the volcanic pile can be divided into at least eleven different cycles and also that they are laterally continuous throughout the section. The compositional changes observed in these volcanic cycles also display correlations with Mg#, Zr, Ti/Y and La/SmN ratios, for example. Therefore, since the reservoir is marked by periods of injection of more differentiated or more mafic magmas, it could be suggested that it was periodically recharged with batches of magma from the parental source.

  8. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  9. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  10. Ionizing radiation processing and its potential in advancing biorefining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Poster, Dianne L; Vládar, András E; Driscoll, Mark S; LaVerne, Jay A; Tsinas, Zois; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad I

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H 2 and CO. The application of radiation processing to the production of nanocellulose from woody and non-wood sources, such as field grasses, bio-refining byproducts, industrial pulp waste, and agricultural surplus materials remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. Elucidating the mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition of cellulose and the mass generation of nanocellulose by radiation processing is key to tapping into this source of nanocelluose for the growth of nanocellulostic-product development. More importantly, understanding the structural break-up of the cell walls as a function of radiation exposure is a key goal and only through careful, detailed characterization and dimensional metrology can this be achieved at the level of detail that is needed to further the growth of large scale radiation processing of plant materials. This work is resulting from strong collaborations between NIST and its academic partners who are pursuing the unique demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials as well as the development of manufacturing metrology for novel nanomaterials.

  11. The Maillard reaction and its control during food processing. The potential of emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, H; Janositz, A; Knorr, D

    2010-06-01

    The Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids is a common reaction in foods which undergo thermal processing. Desired consequences like the formation of flavor and brown color of some cooked foods but also the destruction of essential amino acids and the production of anti-nutritive compounds require the consideration of the Maillard reaction and relevant mechanisms for its control. This paper aims to exemplify the recent advances in food processing with regard to the controllability of heat-induced changes in the food quality. Firstly, improved thermal technologies, such as ohmic heating, which allows direct heating of the product and overcoming the heat transfer limitations of conventional thermal processing are presented in terms of their applicability to reduce the thermal exposure during food preservation. Secondly, non-thermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields and their ability to extend the shelf life of food products without the application of heat, thus also preserving the quality attributes of the food, will be discussed. Finally, an innovative method for the removal of Maillard reaction substrates in food raw materials by the application of pulsed electric field cell disintegration and extraction as well as enzymatic conversion is presented in order to demonstrate the potential of the combination of processes to control the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in food processing. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Lucy J.; Bastidas, Stephanie; Nguyen, Maia T.; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A.; Bowers, Matthew; Nomi, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs). ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention. PMID:26926868

  13. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Investigation of potential toxic factors for fleece-flower root: from perspective of processing methods evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, He-Rong; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Song, Hai-Bo; Jia, Tian-Zhu; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth of reports on fleece-flower root-caused liver damages has drawn wide attention of both at home and abroad, however, there were rare literature on toxicology of fleece-flower root in ancient Chinese medicine. But why there are so many reports on toxicology of fleece-flower root now compared with the ancient literature? As a typical tonic medicine, the clinical utility of fleece-flower root was largely limited by its standardization and reliability of processing methods in ancient Chinese medicine. The ancient processing methods of fleece-flower root emphasized nine times of steaming and nine times of drying, while the modern processes have been simplified into one time of steaming. Whether the differences between ancient and modern processing methods are the potential cause of the increased events of fleece-flower root-caused liver damages. We will make deep analysis and provide new clues and perspectives for the research on its toxicity. This article, therefore, would discuss the affecting factors and key problems in toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root on the basis of sorting out the processing methods of fleece-flower root in ancient medical books and modern standards, in order to provide the reference for establishing specification for toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Ionizing radiation processing and its potential in advancing biorefining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Poster, Dianne L.; Vládar, András E.; Driscoll, Mark S.; LaVerne, Jay A.; Tsinas, Zois; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad I.

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H2 and CO. The application of radiation processing to the production of nanocellulose from woody and non-wood sources, such as field grasses, bio-refining by-products, industrial pulp waste, and agricultural surplus materials remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. Elucidating the mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition of cellulose and the mass generation of nanocellulose by radiation processing is key to tapping into this source of nanocelluose for the growth of nanocellulostic-product development. More importantly, understanding the structural break-up of the cell walls as a function of radiation exposure is a key goal and only through careful, detailed characterization and dimensional metrology can this be achieved at the level of detail that is needed to further the growth of large scale radiation processing of plant materials. This work is resulting from strong collaborations between NIST and its academic partners who are pursuing the unique demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials as well as the development of manufacturing metrology for novel nanomaterials.

  16. Emotional processing and psychopathic traits in male college students: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amy L; Kirilko, Elvira; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    Emotional processing deficits are often considered a hallmark of psychopathy. However, there are relatively few studies that have investigated how the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by both positive and negative emotional stimuli is modulated by psychopathic traits, especially in undergraduates. Attentional deficits have also been posited to be associated with emotional blunting in psychopathy, consequently, results from previous studies may have been influenced by task demands. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the neural correlates of emotional processing and psychopathic traits by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) during a task with a relatively low cognitive load. A group of male undergraduates were classified as having either high or low levels of psychopathic traits according to their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R). A subgroup of these participants then passively viewed complex emotional and neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their EEGs were recorded. As hypothesized, in general the late LPP elicited by emotional pictures was found to be significantly reduced for participants with high Total PPI-R scores relative to those with low scores, especially for pictures that were rated as less emotionally arousing. Our data suggest that male undergraduates with high, but subclinical levels of psychopathic traits did not maintain continued higher-order processing of affective information, especially when it was perceived to be less arousing in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spent coffee enhanced biomethane potential via an integrated hydrothermal carbonization-anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codignole Luz, Fábio; Volpe, Maurizio; Fiori, Luca; Manni, Alessandro; Cordiner, Stefano; Mulone, Vincenzo; Rocco, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    This study reports the implications of using spent coffee hydrochar as substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. Three different spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180, 220 and 250 °C, 1 h residence time, were investigated for their biomethane potential in AD process inoculated with cow manure. Spent coffee hydrochars were characterized in terms of ultimate, proximate and higher heating value (HHV), and their theoretical bio-methane yield evaluated using Boyle-Buswell equation and compared to the experimental values. The results were then analyzed using the modified Gompertz equation to determine the main AD evolution parameters. Different hydrochar properties were related to AD process performances. AD of spent coffee hydrochars produced at 180 °C showed the highest biomethane production rate (46 mL CH 4 /gVS . d), a biomethane potential of 491 mL/gVS (AD lasting 25 days), and a biomethane gas daily composition of about 70%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K; Mode, Charles J

    2012-02-07

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k=1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.38). When less dispersed with k=2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA: Review of synthesis, characteristics, processing and potential applications in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bugnicourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are gaining increasing attention in the biodegradable polymer market due to their promising properties such as high biodegradability in different environments, not just in composting plants, and processing versatility. Indeed among biopolymers, these biogenic polyesters represent a potential sustainable replacement for fossil fuel-based thermoplastics. Most commercially available PHAs are obtained with pure microbial cultures grown on renewable feedstocks (i.e. glucose under sterile conditions but recent research studies focus on the use of wastes as growth media. PHA can be extracted from the bacteria cell and then formulated and processed by extrusion for production of rigid and flexible plastic suitable not just for the most assessed medical applications but also considered for applications including packaging, moulded goods, paper coatings, non-woven fabrics, adhesives, films and performance additives. The present paper reviews the different classes of PHAs, their main properties, processing aspects, commercially available ones, as well as limitations and related improvements being researched, with specific focus on potential applications of PHAs in packaging.

  20. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR.

  1. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Efficient molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zheyong; Chen, Wei; Vierimaa, Ville; Harju, Ari

    2017-09-01

    Graphics processing units have been extensively used to accelerate classical molecular dynamics simulations. However, there is much less progress on the acceleration of force evaluations for many-body potentials compared to pairwise ones. In the conventional force evaluation algorithm for many-body potentials, the force, virial stress, and heat current for a given atom are accumulated within different loops, which could result in write conflict between different threads in a CUDA kernel. In this work, we provide a new force evaluation algorithm, which is based on an explicit pairwise force expression for many-body potentials derived recently (Fan et al., 2015). In our algorithm, the force, virial stress, and heat current for a given atom can be accumulated within a single thread and is free of write conflicts. We discuss the formulations and algorithms and evaluate their performance. A new open-source code, GPUMD, is developed based on the proposed formulations. For the Tersoff many-body potential, the double precision performance of GPUMD using a Tesla K40 card is equivalent to that of the LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) molecular dynamics code running with about 100 CPU cores (Intel Xeon CPU X5670 @ 2.93 GHz).

  3. Accelerating electrostatic surface potential calculation with multi-scale approximation on graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandakrishnan, Ramu; Scogland, Tom R W; Fenley, Andrew T; Gordon, John C; Feng, Wu-chun; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2010-06-01

    Tools that compute and visualize biomolecular electrostatic surface potential have been used extensively for studying biomolecular function. However, determining the surface potential for large biomolecules on a typical desktop computer can take days or longer using currently available tools and methods. Two commonly used techniques to speed-up these types of electrostatic computations are approximations based on multi-scale coarse-graining and parallelization across multiple processors. This paper demonstrates that for the computation of electrostatic surface potential, these two techniques can be combined to deliver significantly greater speed-up than either one separately, something that is in general not always possible. Specifically, the electrostatic potential computation, using an analytical linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (ALPB) method, is approximated using the hierarchical charge partitioning (HCP) multi-scale method, and parallelized on an ATI Radeon 4870 graphical processing unit (GPU). The implementation delivers a combined 934-fold speed-up for a 476,040 atom viral capsid, compared to an equivalent non-parallel implementation on an Intel E6550 CPU without the approximation. This speed-up is significantly greater than the 42-fold speed-up for the HCP approximation alone or the 182-fold speed-up for the GPU alone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerating Electrostatic Surface Potential Calculation with Multiscale Approximation on Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandakrishnan, Ramu; Scogland, Tom R. W.; Fenley, Andrew T.; Gordon, John C.; Feng, Wu-chun; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2010-01-01

    Tools that compute and visualize biomolecular electrostatic surface potential have been used extensively for studying biomolecular function. However, determining the surface potential for large biomolecules on a typical desktop computer can take days or longer using currently available tools and methods. Two commonly used techniques to speed up these types of electrostatic computations are approximations based on multi-scale coarse-graining and parallelization across multiple processors. This paper demonstrates that for the computation of electrostatic surface potential, these two techniques can be combined to deliver significantly greater speed-up than either one separately, something that is in general not always possible. Specifically, the electrostatic potential computation, using an analytical linearized Poisson Boltzmann (ALPB) method, is approximated using the hierarchical charge partitioning (HCP) multiscale method, and parallelized on an ATI Radeon 4870 graphical processing unit (GPU). The implementation delivers a combined 934-fold speed-up for a 476,040 atom viral capsid, compared to an equivalent non-parallel implementation on an Intel E6550 CPU without the approximation. This speed-up is significantly greater than the 42-fold speed-up for the HCP approximation alone or the 182-fold speed-up for the GPU alone. PMID:20452792

  5. Possible links between intestinal permeablity and food processing: a potential therapeutic niche for glutamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Robert Rapin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability is a likely cause of various pathologies, such as allergies and metabolic or even cardiovascular disturbances. Intestinal permeability is found in many severe clinical situations and in common disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. In these conditions, substances that are normally unable to cross the epithelial barrier gain access to the systemic circulation. To illustrate the potential harmfulness of leaky gut, we present an argument based on examples linked to protein or lipid glycation induced by modern food processing. Increased intestinal permeability should be largely improved by dietary addition of compounds, such as glutamine or curcumin, which both have the mechanistic potential to inhibit the inflammation and oxidative stress linked to tight junction opening. This brief review aims to increase physician awareness of this common, albeit largely unrecognized, pathology, which may be easily prevented or improved by means of simple nutritional changes.

  6. Harm avoidance in adolescents modulates late positive potentials during affective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-08-01

    Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Possible Links between Intestinal Permeablity and Food Processing: A Potential Therapeutic Niche for Glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Jean Robert; Wiernsperger, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is a likely cause of various pathologies, such as allergies and metabolic or even cardiovascular disturbances. Intestinal permeability is found in many severe clinical situations and in common disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. In these conditions, substances that are normally unable to cross the epithelial barrier gain access to the systemic circulation. To illustrate the potential harmfulness of leaky gut, we present an argument based on examples linked to protein or lipid glycation induced by modern food processing. Increased intestinal permeability should be largely improved by dietary addition of compounds, such as glutamine or curcumin, which both have the mechanistic potential to inhibit the inflammation and oxidative stress linked to tight junction opening. This brief review aims to increase physician awareness of this common, albeit largely unrecognized, pathology, which may be easily prevented or improved by means of simple nutritional changes. PMID:20613941

  8. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succ...

  9. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  10. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grégoire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.

  11. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry.

  12. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Savic

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  13. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Olivera; Savic, Andrej M; Kovic, Vanja

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  14. Initial Investigation into the Potential of CSP Industrial Process Heat for the Southwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    After significant interest in the 1970s, but relatively few deployments, the use of solar technologies for thermal applications, including enhanced oil recovery (EOR), desalination, and industrial process heat (IPH), is again receiving global interest. In particular, the European Union (EU) has been a leader in the use, development, deployment, and tracking of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. The objective of this study is to ascertain U.S. market potential of IPH for concentrating collector technologies that have been developed and promoted through the U.S. Department of Energy's Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program. For this study, the solar-thermal collector technologies of interest are parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) and linear Fresnel (LF) systems.

  15. Mastication accelerates Go/No-go decisional processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Sadato, Norihiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of mastication on Go/No-go decisional processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen normal subjects underwent seven sessions of a somatosensory Go/No-go paradigm for approximately 4min; Pre, and Post 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The Control condition included the same seven sessions. The RT and standard deviation were recorded, and the peak amplitude and latency of the N140 and P300 components were analyzed. The RT was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 1-3 and 4-6. The peak latency of N140 was earlier in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The latency of N140 was shortened by repeated sessions in Mastication, but not by those in Control. The peak latency of P300 was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The peak latency of P300 was significantly longer in Control with repeated sessions, but not in Mastication. These results suggest that mastication may influence response execution processing in Go trials, as well as response inhibition processing in No-go trials. Mastication accelerated Go/No-go decisional processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. False memory and level of processing effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Boldini, Angela; Cadavid, Sara

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to determine the effects of level of processing on true and false memory, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, lists of words highly associated to a single nonpresented word (the 'critical lure') are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. Lists with three critical lures per list were auditorily presented here to participants who studied them with either a shallow (saying whether the word contained the letter 'o') or a deep (creating a mental image of the word) processing task. Visual presentation modality was used on a final recognition test. True recognition of studied words was significantly higher after deep encoding, whereas false recognition of nonpresented critical lures was similar in both experimental groups. At the ERP level, true and false recognition showed similar patterns: no FN400 effect was found, whereas comparable left parietal and late right frontal old/new effects were found for true and false recognition in both experimental conditions. Items studied under shallow encoding conditions elicited more positive ERP than items studied under deep encoding conditions at a 1000-1500 ms interval. These ERP results suggest that true and false recognition share some common underlying processes. Differential effects of level of processing on true and false memory were found only at the behavioral level but not at the ERP level.

  17. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela I. Olivares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM. New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing.

  18. Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Ku, Li-Chuan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000-1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succession were of the same person or not. The ERP waveforms in response to the first faces were analyzed. In two experiments with different stimulus probabilities, the amplitudes of N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) were smaller for faces with light makeup than for faces with heavy makeup or no makeup. The P1 amplitude did not differ between facial types. In a subsequent rating phase, faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with heavy makeup and no makeup. The results suggest that the processing fluency of faces with light makeup is one of the reasons why light makeup is preferred to heavy makeup and no makeup in daily life.

  20. Impaired Empathy Processing in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is associated with deficits in social communication and avoidance of social contact. It has been hypothesized that people with IAD may have an impaired capacity for empathy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the processing of empathy for others’ pain in IADs. Event-related potentials produced in response to pictures showing others in painful and non-painful situations were recorded in 16 IAD subjects and 16 healthy controls (HCs. The N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential components were compared between the two groups. Robust picture × group interactions were observed for N2 and P3. The painful pictures elicited larger N2 and P3 amplitudes than the non-painful pictures did only in the HC group but not in the IAD group. The results of this study suggest that both of the early automatic and of the later cognitive processes of pain empathy may be impaired in IADs. This study provides psychophysical evidence of empathy deficits in association with IAD. Further studies combining multidimensional measurements of empathy are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Modelling and Enhancement of Organizational Resilience Potential in Process Industry SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is rapidly changing and puts pressure on enterprises to find effective ways to survive and develop. Since it is almost impossible to identify the multitude of complex conditions and business risks, an organization has to build its resilience in order to be able to overcome issues and achieve long term sustainability. This paper contributes by establishing a two-step model for assessment and enhancement of organizational resilience potential oriented towards Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the process industry. Using a dynamic modelling technique and statistical tools, a sample of 120 SMEs in Serbia has been developed as a testing base, and one randomly selected enterprise was used for model testing and verification. Uncertainties regarding the relative importance of organizational resilience potential factors (ORPFs and their value at each level of business are described by pre-defined linguistic expressions. The calculation of the relative importance of ORPFs for each business level is stated as a fuzzy group decision making problem. First, the weighted ORPFs’ values and resilience potential at each business level are determined. In the second step, near optimal enhancement of ORPFs’ values is achieved by applying a genetic algorithm (GA.

  2. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes

  3. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes.

  4. Evaluating Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Numerical Models using Current and Potential Future Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Tanelli, S.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Petersen, W. A.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud, aerosol and precipitation processes play a fundamental role in the water and energy cycle. It is critical to accurately represent these microphysical processes in numerical models if we are to better predict cloud and precipitation properties on weather through climate timescales. Much has been learned about cloud properties and precipitation characteristics from NASA satellite missions such as TRMM, CloudSat, and more recently GPM. Furthermore, data from these missions have been successfully utilized in evaluating the microphysical schemes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and global models. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. These uncertainties can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that microphysical processes cannot be directly observed or measured, but instead have to be inferred from those cloud properties that can be measured. Evaluation of microphysical parameterizations are becoming increasingly important as enhanced computational capabilities are facilitating the use of more sophisticated schemes in CRMs, and as future global models are being run on what has traditionally been regarded as cloud-resolving scales using CRM microphysical schemes. In this talk we will demonstrate how TRMM, CloudSat and GPM data have been used to evaluate different aspects of current CRM microphysical schemes, providing examples of where these approaches have been successful. We will also highlight CRM microphysical processes that have not been well evaluated and suggest approaches for addressing such issues. Finally, we will introduce a potential NASA satellite mission, the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CAPPM), which would facilitate the development and evaluation of different microphysical-dynamical feedbacks in numerical models.

  5. Self-Referential Processing in Adolescents: Stability of Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Bondy, Erin; Stanton, Colin H.; Webb, Christian A.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    The self-referential encoding task (SRET)—an implicit measure of self-schema—has been used widely to probe cognitive biases associated with depression, including among adolescents. However, research testing the stability of behavioral and electrocortical effects is sparse. Therefore, the current study sought to evaluate the stability of behavioral markers and event-related potentials (ERP) elicited from the SRET over time in healthy, female adolescents (n = 31). At baseline, participants were administered a diagnostic interview and a self-report measure of depression severity. In addition, they completed the SRET while 128-channel event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded to examine early (P1) and late (late positive potential [LPP]) ERPs. Three months later, participants were re-administered the depression self-report measure and the SRET in conjunction with ERPs. Results revealed that healthy adolescents endorsed, recalled, and recognized more positive and fewer negative words at each assessment, and these effects were stable over time (rs = 0.44–0.83). Similarly, they reported a faster reaction time when endorsing self-relevant positive words, as opposed to negative words, at both the initial and follow-up assessment (r = 0.82). Second, ERP responses, specifically potentiated P1 and late LPP positivity to positive versus negative words, were consistent over time (rs = 0.56–0.83), and the internal reliability of ERPs were robust at each time point (rs = 0.52–0.80). As a whole, these medium-to-large effects suggest that the SRET is a reliable behavioral and neural probe of self-referential processing. PMID:27302282

  6. Assessing the potential contributions of additional retention processes to PFAS retardation in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2018-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces. An initial assessment of the relative magnitudes and significance of these retention processes was conducted for two PFAS of primary concern, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an example precursor (fluorotelomer alcohol, FTOH). The illustrative evaluation was conducted using measured porous-medium properties representative of a sandy vadose-zone soil. Data collected from the literature were used to determine measured or estimated values for the relevant distribution coefficients, which were in turn used to calculate retardation factors for the model system. The results showed that adsorption at the air-water interface was a primary source of retention for both PFOA and PFOS, contributing approximately 50% of total retention for the conditions employed. Adsorption to NAPL-water interfaces and partitioning to bulk NAPL were also shown to be significant sources of retention. NAPL partitioning was the predominant source of retention for FTOH, contributing ~98% of total retention. These results indicate that these additional processes may be, in some cases, significant sources of retention for subsurface transport of PFAS. The specific magnitudes and significance of the individual retention processes will depend upon the properties and conditions of the specific system of interest (e.g., PFAS constituent and concentration, porous medium, aqueous chemistry, fluid saturations, co-contaminants). In cases wherein these

  7. Oxidative potential of gas phase combustion emissions - An underestimated and potentially harmful component of air pollution from combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, S.; Vaughan, A.; Hedayat, F.; Salimi, F.; Rahman, M. M.; Zare, A.; Brown, R. A.; Brown, R. J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, X.; Bottle, S. E.; Yang, I. A.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2017-06-01

    The oxidative potential (OP) of the gas phase is an important and neglected aspect of environmental toxicity. Whilst prolonged exposure to particulate matter (PM) associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to lead to negative health effects, the potential for compounds in gas phase to cause similar effects is yet to be understood. In this study we describe: the significance of the gas phase OP generated through vehicle emissions; discuss the origin and evolution of species contributing to measured OP; and report on the impact of gas phase OP on human lung cells. The model aerosol for this study was exhaust emitted from a Euro III Common-rail diesel engine fuelled with different blends of diesel and biodiesel. The gas phase of these emissions was found to be potentially as hazardous as the particle phase. Fuel oxygen content was found to negatively correlate with the gas phase OP, and positively correlate with particle phase OP. This signifies a complex interaction between reactive species present in gas and particle phase. Furthermore, this interaction has an overarching effect on the OP of both particle and gas phase, and therefore the toxicity of combustion emissions.

  8. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  9. The time course of implicit processing of erotic pictures: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Wang, Lili; Wang, Naiyi; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2012-12-13

    The current study investigated the time course of the implicit processing of erotic stimuli using event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs elicited by erotic pictures were compared with those by three other types of pictures: non-erotic positive, negative, and neutral pictures. We observed that erotic pictures evoked enhanced neural responses compared with other pictures at both early (P2/N2) and late (P3/positive slow wave) temporal stages. These results suggested that erotic pictures selectively captured individuals' attention at early stages and evoked deeper processing at late stages. More importantly, the amplitudes of P2, N2, and P3 only discriminated between erotic and non-erotic (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative) pictures. That is, no difference was revealed among non-erotic pictures, although these pictures differed in both valence and arousal. Thus, our results suggest that the erotic picture processing is beyond the valence and arousal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Applying the Nernst equation to simulate redox potential variations for biological nitrification and denitrification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Nan; Cheng, Hong-Bang; Chao, Allen C

    2004-03-15

    In this paper, various forms of Nernst equations have been developed based on the real stoichiometric relationship of biological nitrification and denitrification reactions. Instead of using the Nernst equation based on a one-to-one stoichiometric relation for the oxidizing and the reducing species, the basic Nernst equation is modified into slightly different forms. Each is suitable for simulating the redox potential (ORP) variation of a specific biological nitrification or denitrification process. Using the data published in the literature, the validity of these developed Nernst equations has been verified by close fits of the measured ORP data with the calculated ORP curve. The simulation results also indicate that if the biological process is simulated using an incorrect form of Nernst equation, the calculated ORP curve will not fit the measured data. Using these Nernst equations, the ORP value that corresponds to a predetermined degree of completion for the biochemical reaction can be calculated. Thus, these Nernst equations will enable a more efficient on-line control of the biological process.

  11. Global warming potential of the sulfur-iodine process using life cycle assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, William C.; Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2009-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of one proposed method of hydrogen production - thermochemical water-splitting using the sulfur-iodine cycle couple with a very high-temperature nuclear reactor - is presented in this paper. Thermochemical water-splitting theoretically offers a higher overall efficiency than high-temperature electrolysis of water because heat from the nuclear reactor is provided directly to the hydrogen generation process, instead of using the intermediate step of generating electricity. The primary heat source for the S-I cycle is an advanced nuclear reactor operating at temperatures corresponding to those required by the sulfur-iodine process. This LCA examines the environmental impact of the combined advanced nuclear and hydrogen generation plants and focuses on quantifying the emissions of carbon dioxide per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of the system is 2500 g carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO 2 -eq) per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The GWP of this process is approximately one-sixth of that for hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas, and is comparable to producing hydrogen from wind- or hydro-electric conventional electrolysis. (author)

  12. U-Pb zircon geochronology and evolution of some Adirondack meta-igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclelland, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    An update was presented of the recent U-Pb isotope geochronology and models for evolution of some of the meta-igneous rocks of the Adirondacks, New York. Uranium-lead zircon data from charnockites and mangerites and on baddeleyite from anorthosite suggest that the emplacement of these rocks into a stable crust took place in the range 1160 to 1130 Ma. Granulite facies metamorphism was approximately 1050 Ma as indicated by metamorphic zircon and sphene ages of the anorthosite and by development of magmatitic alaskitic gneiss. The concentric isotherms that are observed in this area are due to later doming. However, an older contact metamorphic aureole associated with anorthosite intrusion is observed where wollastonite develops in metacarbonates. Zenoliths found in the anorthosite indicate a metamorphic event prior to anorthosite emplacement. The most probable mechanism for anorthosite genesis is thought to be ponding of gabbroic magmas at the Moho. The emplacement of the anorogenic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite was apparently bracketed by compressional orogenies.

  13. Semiclassical derivation of a local optical potential for heavy-ion elastic scattering. [Coupling to other processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donangelo, R; Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Hussein, M S [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1979-05-21

    A semiclassical method to determine the contribution to the optical potential in the elastic channel due to the coupling to other processes taking place in heavy-ion collisions is developed. An application is made to the case of Coulomb excitation. The lowest-order term of the potential used is shown to be identical to the potential derived by Baltz et al.

  14. Characterisation of sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hirsikko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa holds significant mineral resources, with a substantial fraction of these reserves occurring and being processed in a large geological structure termed the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC. The area is also highly populated by informal, semi-formal and formal residential developments. However, knowledge of air quality and research related to the atmosphere is still very limited in the area. In order to investigate the characteristics and processes affecting sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events, air ion and aerosol particle size distributions and number concentrations, together with meteorological parameters, trace gases and particulate matter (PM were measured for over two years at Marikana in the heart of the western BIC. The observations showed that trace gas (i.e. SO2, NOx, CO and black carbon concentrations were relatively high, but in general within the limits of local air quality standards. The area was characterised by very high condensation sink due to background aerosol particles, PM10 and O3 concentration. The results indicated that high amounts of Aitken and accumulation mode particles originated from domestic burning for heating and cooking in the morning and evening, while during daytime SO2-based nucleation followed by the growth by condensation of vapours from industrial, residential and natural sources was the most probable source for large number concentrations of nucleation and Aitken mode particles. Nucleation event day frequency was extremely high, i.e. 86% of the analysed days, which to the knowledge of the authors is the highest frequency ever reported. The air mass back trajectory and wind direction analyses showed that the secondary particle formation was influenced both by local and regional pollution and vapour sources. Therefore, our observation of the annual cycle and magnitude of the particle formation and growth rates during

  15. Commercial processed food may have endocrine-disrupting potential: soy-based ingredients making the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Kabiersch, Grit; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Processed and packaged food items as well as ready-to-eat snacks are neglected and poorly characterised sources of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study we investigated the presence of xenoestrogens in commercially processed and packaged Finnish foods, arising from substances deliberately added or inadvertently contaminating the food, substances formed as a result of food processing, or substances leaching from food packaging materials. Samples were obtained in three separate batches of equivalent products from both a supermarket and a local representative of a global chain of hamburger restaurants and extracted by a solid-phase extraction method. Their endocrine-disrupting potential was determined by yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. In this test system, the majority of samples (both foodstuffs and wrappers) analysed proved negative. However, all batches of industrially prepared hamburgers (but not those obtained from a hamburger restaurant) as well as pepper salami significantly induced luciferase activity in the BMAEREluc/ERα yeast strain indicating the presence of xenoestrogens, with estradiol equivalents of these products ranging from 0.2 to 443 pg g(-1). All three products contained soy-based ingredients, which apparently accounted for, or at least contributed to, their high estrogenic activity, since no signal in the assay was observed with extracts of the packaging material, while two different soy sauces tested yielded an intense signal (28 and 54 pg ml(-1) estradiol-equivalent). These findings imply that by and large chemicals arising in the processing or packaging of foodstuffs in Finland constitute an insignificant source of xenoestrogens to consumers. However, soy-derived ingredients in certain food items might render the entire products highly estrogenic. The estrogenic activity of soy is attributed to isoflavones whose

  16. Iron Mineral Catalyzed C-H Activation As a Potential Pathway for Halogenation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbesing, C.; Schoeler, H. F.; Benzing, K.; Krause, T.; Lippe, S.; Rudloff, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing drinking water demand of mankind and an expected climate change the impact of salt lakes and salt deserts will increase within the next decades. Furthermore, a rising sea level influences coastal areas like salt marshes and abets processes which will lead to elevated organohalogen formation. An additional increase of the global warming potential, of particle formation and stratospheric ozone depletion is expected. Understanding these multifaceted processes is essential for mankind to be prepared for these alterations of the atmosphere. For example, Keppler et al. (2000) described the production of volatile halogenated organic compounds via oxidation of organic matter driven by ferric iron. However, the formation of long-chained alkyl halides in salt lakes is yet undisclosed. Despite the relative "inertness" of alkanes a direct halogenation of these compounds might be envisaged. In 2005 Vaillancourt et al. discovered a nonheme iron enzyme which is able to halogenate organic compounds via generating the high valent ferryl cation as reaction center. Based on various publications about C-H activation (Bergman, 2007) we postulate a halogenation process in which an iron containing minerals catalyse the C-H bond cleavage of organic compounds in soils. The generated organic radicals are highly reactive towards halides connected to the iron complex. We suggest that next to diagenetically altered iron containing enzymes, minerals such as oxides, hydroxides and sulfides are involved in abiotic halogenation processes. We applied the amino acid methionine as organic model compound and soluble iron species as reactants. All samples were incubated in aqueous phases containing various NaCl concentrations. As a result various halogenated ethanes and ethenes were identified as reaction products. References Bergman, R. G. (2007) Nature, 446(7134) 391-393 Keppler, F., et al. (2000) Nature, 403(6767) 298-301 Vaillancourt, F. H., et al. (2005) Nature, 436(7054) 1191-1194

  17. Morphologies, Processing and Properties of Ceramic Foams and Their Potential as TPS Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Simoes, Conan R.; Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2002-01-01

    The current research is focused on processing ceramic foams with compositions that have potential as a thermal protection material. The use of pre-ceramic polymers with the addition of sacrificial blowing agents or sacrificial fillers offers a viable approach to form either open or closed cell insulation. Our work demonstrates that this is a feasible method to form refractory ceramic foams at relatively low processing temperatures. It is possible to foam complex shapes then pyrolize the system to form a ceramic while retaining the shape of the unfired foam. Initial work focused on identifying suitable pre-ceramic polymers with desired properties such as ceramic yield and chemical make up of the pyrolysis product after firing. We focused on making foams in the Si system (Sic, Si02, Si-0-C), which is in use in current acreage TPS systems. Ceramic foams with different architectures were formed from the pyrolysis of pre-ceramic polymers at 1200 C in different atmospheres. In some systems a sacrificial polyurethane was used as the blowing agent. We have also processed foams using sacrificial fillers to introduce controlled cell sizes. Each sacrificial filler or blowing agent leads to a unique morphology. The effect of different fillers on foam morphologies and the characterization of these foams in terms of mechanical and thermal properties are presented. We have conducted preliminary arc jet testing on selected foams with the materials being exposed to typical re-entry conditions for acreage TPS and these results will be discussed. Foams processed using these approaches have bulk densities ranging from 0.15 to 0.9 g/cm3 and cell sizes ranging from 5 to 500 pm. Compression strengths ranged from 2 to 7 MPa for these systems. Finally, preliminary oxidation studies have been conducted on selected systems and will be discussed.

  18. Optimal protocol for maximum work extraction in a feedback process with a time-varying potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chulan

    2017-12-01

    The nonequilibrium nature of information thermodynamics is characterized by the inequality or non-negativity of the total entropy change of the system, memory, and reservoir. Mutual information change plays a crucial role in the inequality, in particular if work is extracted and the paradox of Maxwell's demon is raised. We consider the Brownian information engine where the protocol set of the harmonic potential is initially chosen by the measurement and varies in time. We confirm the inequality of the total entropy change by calculating, in detail, the entropic terms including the mutual information change. We rigorously find the optimal values of the time-dependent protocol for maximum extraction of work both for the finite-time and the quasi-static process.

  19. Mass customization process for the Social Housing. Potentiality, critical points, research lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Di Sivo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for lengthening the life cycle of the residential estate, engendered with the economical and housing crisis since the last few years, brings out, in the course of time, the need for conservation and improvement works of the property house performances, through the direct involvement of the users. The possibility of reducing maintenance and adjustment costs may develop into a project resource, consistent to the participation and cooperation principles, identifying social housing interventions. With this aim, the BETHA group of the d’Annunzio University is investigating the potentiality of technological transfer of the ‘mass customization’ process from the industrial products field to the social housing segment, by detecting issues, strategies and opportunities.

  20. Aeromagnetic data processing and application in the evaluation of uranium resource potential in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanzhi; Zhang Junwei; Feng Chunyuan

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the main methods to deduce geological structures with aeromagnetic data, and summarizes the prediction elements of aeromagnetic characteristics for granite, volcanic, carbonaceous-siliceous-argillaceous rock and sandstone type uranium deposits. By analysing the relationship of aeromagnetic deduced geological structures and uranium mineralization, the prediction model of combined factors was summarized for each type uranium deposit. A case study in Taoshan-Zhuguang mineralization belt shows that the fault, plutons and volcanic structures deduced from areomagnetic information can judge the favorable mineralization environment and ore control structure. Therefore, the process and application of aeromagnetic data can play an important role in the evaluation of uranium resource potential and uranium exploration. (authors)

  1. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Roberts, Jenny R; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2015-02-03

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m(3); 3h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas-metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Reversal of long-term potentiation-like plasticity processes after motor learning disrupts skill retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Gabriela; Lloyd, Ashley; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-07-31

    Plasticity of synaptic connections in the primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to play an essential role in learning and memory. Human and animal studies have shown that motor learning results in long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, biochemical processes essential for LTP are also crucial for certain types of motor learning and memory. Thus, it has been speculated that the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after learning, indicative of how much LTP was used to learn, is essential for retention. Here we provide supporting evidence of it in humans. Induction of LTP-like plasticity can be abolished using a depotentiation protocol (DePo) consisting of brief continuous theta burst stimulation. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess whether application of DePo over M1 after motor learning affected (1) occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and (2) retention of motor skill learning. We found that the magnitude of motor memory retention is proportional to the magnitude of occlusion of LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, DePo stimulation over M1, but not over a control site, reversed the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity induced by motor learning and disrupted skill retention relative to control subjects. Altogether, these results provide evidence of a link between occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and retention and that this measure could be used as a biomarker to predict retention. Importantly, attempts to reverse the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after motor learning comes with the cost of reducing retention of motor learning.

  3. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X.; Jefferson, Amy M.; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J.; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L.; Roberts, Jenny R.; Frazer, David G.; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m 3 ; 3 h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas–metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks

  4. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, S.; Fioretti, A.M.; Cavazzini, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Potentially disruptive hydrologic features, events and processes at the Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxie, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been selected by the United States to be evaluated as a potential site for the development of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the site is determined to be suitable for repository development and construction is authorized, the repository at the Yucca Mountain site is planned to be constructed in unsaturated tuff at a depth of about 250 meters below land surface and at a distance of about 250 meters above the water table. The intent of locating a repository in a thick unsaturated-zone geohydrologic setting, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain under the arid to semi-arid climatic conditions that currently prevail in the region, is to provide a natural setting for the repository system in which little ground water will be available to contact emplaced waste or to transport radioactive material from the repository to the biosphere. In principle, an unsaturated-zone repository will be vulnerable to water entry from both above and below. Consequently, a major effort within the site-characterization program at the Yucca Mountain site is concerned with identifying and evaluating those features, events, and processes, such as increased net infiltration or water-table rise, whose presence or future occurrence could introduce water into a potential repository at the site in quantities sufficient to compromise the waste-isolation capability of the repository system

  6. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH’s potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and suggests that TH is a good candidate to be a modulator of memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

  7. Potential Impact of Risk and Loss Aversion on the Process of Accepting Kidneys for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Raymond L; Green, Ellen P; Reddy, Kunam S; Moss, Adyr; Kaplan, Bruce

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral economic theory suggests that people make decisions based on maximizing perceived value; however, this may be influenced more by the risk of loss rather than of potential gain. Additionally, individuals may seek certainty over uncertainty. These are termed loss aversion and risk aversion, respectively. Loss aversion is particularly sensitive to how the decision is "framed." Thus, labeling a kidney as high Kidney Donor Profile Index results in higher discard rates because this creates a nonlinearity in perceived risk. There is also evidence that the perceived loss due to regulatory sanction results in increased organ discard rates. This may be due to the overuse of terminology that stresses regulatory sanctions and thus perpetuates fear of loss through a form of nudging. Our goal is to point out how these concepts of behavioral economics may negatively influence the decision process to accept these suboptimal organs. We hope to make the community more aware of these powerful psychological influences and thus potentially increase the utilization of these suboptimal organs. Further, we would urge regulatory bodies to avoid utilizing strategies that frame outcomes in terms of loss due to flagging and build models that are less prone to uncertain expected versus observed outcomes.

  8. Cognitive processing in non-communicative patients: what can event-related potentials tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulay Rosario Lugo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERP have been proposed to improve the differential diagnosis of non-responsive patients. We investigated the potential of the P300 as a reliable marker of conscious processing in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS. Eleven chronic LIS patients and ten healthy subjects (HS listened to a complex-tone auditory oddball paradigm, first in a passive condition (listen to the sounds and then in an active condition (counting the deviant tones. Seven out of nine HS displayed a P300 waveform in the passive condition and all in the active condition. HS showed statistically significant changes in peak and area amplitude between conditions. Three out of seven LIS patients showed the P3 waveform in the passive condition and 5 of 7 in the active condition. No changes in peak amplitude and only a significant difference at one electrode in area amplitude were observed in this group between conditions. We conclude that, in spite of keeping full consciousness and intact or nearly intact cortical functions, compared to HS, LIS patients present less reliable results when testing with ERP, specifically in the passive condition. We thus strongly recommend applying ERP paradigms in an active condition when evaluating consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  9. Microbial redox processes in deep subsurface environments and the potential application of (perchlorate in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G Liebensteiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to thrive under oxygen-free conditions in subsurface environments relies on the enzymatic reduction of oxidized elements, such as sulfate, ferric iron or CO2, coupled to the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds. A broad phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms from subsurface environments has been described using isolation-based and advanced molecular ecological techniques. The physiological groups reviewed here comprise iron-, manganese- and nitrate-reducing microorganisms. In the context of recent findings also the potential of chlorate and perchlorate [jointly termed (perchlorate] reduction in oil reservoirs will be discussed. Special attention is given to elevated temperatures that are predominant in the deep subsurface. Microbial reduction of (perchlorate is a thermodynamically favorable redox process, also at high temperature. However, knowledge about (perchlorate reduction at elevated temperatures is still scarce and restricted to members of the Firmicutes and the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. By analyzing the diversity and phylogenetic distribution of functional genes in (metagenome databases and combining this knowledge with extrapolations to earlier-made physiological observations we speculate on the potential of (perchlorate reduction in the subsurface and more precisely oil fields. In addition, the application of (perchlorate for bioremediation, souring control and microbial enhanced oil recovery are addressed.

  10. Potential Process for the Decontamination of Pyro-electrometallurgical LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Christopher S.; Sizgek, Erden; Sizgek, Devlet; Luca, Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    Presented here is a potential option with experimental validation for the decontamination of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte from a pyro-electrometallurgical process by employing already developed inorganic ion exchange materials. Adsorbent materials considered include titano-silicates and molybdo- and tungstophosphates for Cs extraction, Si-doped antimony pyrochlore for Sr extraction and hexagonal tungsten bronzes for lanthanide (LN) and minor actinide (MA) polishing. Encouraging results from recent investigations on the removal of target elements (Cs, Sr and LN) from aqueous solutions containing varying concentrations of alkali and alkali metal contaminants which would be akin to a solution formed from the dissolution of spent LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte are presented. Further investigations have also shown that the saturated adsorbents can be treated at relatively low temperatures to afford potential waste forms for the adsorbed elements. Efficient evaporation and drying of a solution of dissolved LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte (50 L, 5 L.h -1 ) has been demonstrated using a Microwave-Heated Mechanical Fluidized Bed (MWMFB) apparatus. (authors)

  11. Potential Process for the Decontamination of Pyro-electrometallurgical LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Christopher S.; Sizgek, Erden; Sizgek, Devlet; Luca, Vittorio [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Institute of Materials Engineering, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, New South Wales, 2234 (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Presented here is a potential option with experimental validation for the decontamination of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte from a pyro-electrometallurgical process by employing already developed inorganic ion exchange materials. Adsorbent materials considered include titano-silicates and molybdo- and tungstophosphates for Cs extraction, Si-doped antimony pyrochlore for Sr extraction and hexagonal tungsten bronzes for lanthanide (LN) and minor actinide (MA) polishing. Encouraging results from recent investigations on the removal of target elements (Cs, Sr and LN) from aqueous solutions containing varying concentrations of alkali and alkali metal contaminants which would be akin to a solution formed from the dissolution of spent LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte are presented. Further investigations have also shown that the saturated adsorbents can be treated at relatively low temperatures to afford potential waste forms for the adsorbed elements. Efficient evaporation and drying of a solution of dissolved LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte (50 L, 5 L.h{sup -1}) has been demonstrated using a Microwave-Heated Mechanical Fluidized Bed (MWMFB) apparatus. (authors)

  12. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  13. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karcher Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, packed bed reactor (PBR, fluidized bed reactor (FBR, airlift reactor (ALR, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  15. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  16. Effects of mastication on human somatosensory processing: A study using somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Aoki, Mai; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mastication on somatosensory processing using somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). Fourteen healthy subjects received a median nerve stimulation at the right wrist under two conditions: Mastication and Control. SEPs were recorded in five sessions for approximately seven minutes: Pre, Post 1, 2, 3, and 4. Subjects were asked to chew gum for five minutes after one session in Mastication. Control included the same five sessions. The amplitudes and latencies of P14, N20, P25, N35, P45, and N60 components at C3', frontal N30 component at Fz, and P100 and N140 components at Pz were analyzed. The amplitude of P45-N60 was significantly smaller at Post 1, 2, 3, and 4 than at Pre in Control, but not in Mastication. The latency of P25 was significantly longer at Post 2, 3, and 4 than at Pre in Control, but not in Mastication. The latency of P100 was significantly longer at Post 2 than at Pre in Control, but not in Mastication. These results suggest the significant effects of mastication on the neural activity of human somatosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Managing the potential risks of using bacteria-laden water in mineral processing to protect freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenying; Moran, Chris J; Vink, Sue

    2013-06-18

    The minerals industry is being driven to access multiple water sources and increase water reuse to minimize freshwater withdrawal. Bacteria-laden water, such as treated effluent, has been increasingly used as an alternative to freshwater for mineral processing, in particular flotation, where conditions are favorable for bacterial growth. However, the risk posed by bacteria to flotation efficiency is poorly understood. This could be a barrier to the ongoing use of this water source. This study tested the potential of a previously published risk-based approach as a management tool to both assist mine sites in quantifying the risk from bacteria, and finding system-wide cost-effective solutions for risk mitigation. The result shows that the solution of adjusting the flotation chemical regime could only partly control the risk. The second solution of using tailings as an absorbent was shown to be effective in the laboratory in reducing bacterial concentration and thus removing the threat to flotation recovery. The best solution is likely to combine internal and external approaches, that is, inside and outside processing plants. Findings in this study contribute possible methods applicable to managing the risk from water-borne bacteria to plant operations that choose to use bacteria-containing water, when attempting to minimize freshwater use, and avoiding the undesirable consequences of increasing its use.

  18. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-06-20

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life.

  19. Sociality Mental Modes Modulate the Processing of Advice-Giving: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People have different motivations to get along with others in different sociality mental modes (i.e., communal mode and market mode, which might affect social decision-making. The present study examined how these two types of sociality mental modes affect the processing of advice-giving using the event-related potentials (ERPs. After primed with the communal mode and market mode, participants were instructed to decide whether or not give an advice (profitable or damnous to a stranger without any feedback. The behavioral results showed that participants preferred to give the profitable advice to the stranger more slowly compared with the damnous advice, but this difference was only observed in the market mode condition. The ERP results indicated that participants demonstrated more negative N1 amplitude for the damnous advice compared with the profitable advice, and larger P300 was elicited in the market mode relative to both the communal mode and the control group. More importantly, participants in the market mode demonstrated larger P300 for the profitable advice than the damnous advice, whereas this difference was not observed at the communal mode and the control group. These findings are consistent with the dual-process system during decision-making and suggest that market mode may lead to deliberate calculation for costs and benefits when giving the profitable advice to others.

  20. Potential of radioactive and other waste disposals on the continental margin by natural dispersal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, W.B.F.; Farre, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Mass wasting, an erosional process, has recently been active at deepwater waste disposal sites on the mid-Atlantic margin of the United States. On the continental slope there is a subsea drainage network consisting of canyons, gullies, and chutes, and there are meandering channels, erosional scars, and debris aprons present on the continental rise. Fresh-looking blocks of 40 to 45 million-year-old marl and chalk (from cobble to boulder size) are strewn among canisters of low-level radioactive wastes. Some of the blocks have traveled from their original place of deposition for distances in excess of 170 km. Waste containers on the continental slope and rise cannot be considered to be disposed of permanently. The drainage network of the slope provides a natural process for collecting wastes over a catchment area, and for concentrating it with interim storage in canyons. Erosion by slumping, sliding, and debris flows ultimately will transport the wastes from the continental slope and disperse it over potentially large areas on the continental rise and abyssal plain. If it is desirable that the wastes be buried in the seafloor and isolated from the environment, then the continental slope and rise are not attractive repositories. If, however, it is deemed beneficial that the wastes ultimately be dispersed over a wide area, then the continental slope could be used as a disposal site

  1. Assessing the elements mobility through the regolith and their potential as tracers for hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragues-Quiroga, Cristina; Hissler, Christophe; Chabaux, François; Legout, Arnaud; Stille, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Regoliths encompass different materials from the fresh bedrock to the top of the organic horizons. The regolith is a major component of the critical zone where fluxes of water, energy, solutes and matter occur. Therefore, its bio-physico-chemical properties drastically impact the water that percolates and/or stores in its different parts (organic and mineral soil horizons, and weathered and fractured bedrock). In order to better understand the critical zone functioning, we propose to assess the interaction between chemical elements from the regolith matrix and water during drainage infiltration. For this, we focus firstly on the potential mobility of different groups of major and trace elements according to a leaching experiment made on 10 different layers of a 7.5 m depth slate regolith, which covers a large part of the Rhenish Massif. Secondly, we carried out Sr-Nd-Pb-U-Th isotope analyses for 5 of these samples in both the untreated and leached samples. Given the specific chemical and mineralogical composition of each sampled material, our approach enables to trace the origin of major and trace elements and eventually assess their mobility. The results deliver valuable information on exchange processes at the water-mineral interface in the different zones of the regolith, which could improve the selection of tracers for the study of hydrological processes.

  2. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

  4. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes. PMID:16122390

  5. Polarized phase shift mask: concept, design, and potential advantages to photolithography process and physical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoping; Grobman, Warren D.; Reich, Alfred J.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept and design of a novel phase shift mask technology, Polarized Phase Shift Mask (P:PSM). The P:PSM technology utilizes non-interference between orthogonally polarized light sources to avoid undesired destructive interference seen in conventional two-phase shift mask technology. Hence P:PSM solves the well-known 'phase edge' or 'phase conflict' problem. By obviating the 2nd exposure and 2nd mask in current Complementary Phase Shift Mask (C:PSM) technology, this single mask/single exposure technology offers significant advantages towards photolithography process as well as pattern design. We use examples of typical design and process difficulties associated with the C:PSM technology to illustrate the advantages of the P:PSM technology. We present preliminary aerial image simulation results that support the potential of this new reticle technology for enhanced design flexibility. We also propose possible mask structures and manufacturing methods for building a P:PSM.

  6. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z; Khalid, M N

    2014-01-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  7. Evaluation of the potential of waste processing of secondary kaolin of Para for use in porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, V.G.L.; Fernandes, L.L.; Fagury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The kaolin waste evaluated is characterized as secondary due be coming from the steps of centrifugation, magnetic separation, bleaching and filtering, which gives a ratio which provides a significant residue, about 26% of their gross, that is intended for embankments. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of reusing the kaolin waste processing from Imerys RCC in the region of Barcarena (PA) in formulation of ceramic bodies for porcelain tiles production, seeking to property of maximum water absorption of 0.5 % for this type of product. The residue from the production of kaolin had been previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and there is a significant amount of kaolinite concentration. After the ceramic processing to obtain the test specimens with different amounts of residue replacing the kaolin, these were sintered using 1200, 1220 and 1240 °C for 2 hours. The formulations were evaluated by water absorption, linear firing shrinkage and modulus of rupture at a three-point bending setup of the pieces produced. (author)

  8. Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Angwin

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.

  9. Assessment of food processing and pharmaceutical industrial wastes as potential biosorbents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hanan E M; El-Sayed, Mayyada M H

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options.

  10. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  11. Determination of the potential bioavailability of plant microRNAs using a simulated human digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Anna; Ferro, Valerie A; Tate, Rothwelle J

    2015-10-01

    The "dietary xenomiR hypothesis" proposes that microRNAs (miRNAs) in foodstuffs survive transit through the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and pass into cells intact to affect gene regulation. However, debate continues as to whether dietary intake poses a feasible route for such exogenous gene regulators. Understanding on miRNA levels during pretreatments of human diet is essential to test their bioavailability during digestion. This study makes the novel first use of an in vitro method to eliminate the inherent complexities and variability of in vivo approaches used to test this hypothesis. Plant miRNA levels in soybean and rice were measured during storage, processing, cooking, and early digestion using real-time PCR. We have demonstrated for the first time that storage, processing, and cooking does not abolish the plant miRNAs present in the foodstuffs. In addition, utilizing a simulated human digestion system revealed significant plant miRNA bioavailability after early stage digestion for 75 min. Attenuation of plant messenger RNA and synthetic miRNA was observed under these conditions. Even after an extensive pretreatment, plant-derived miRNA, delivered by typical dietary ingestion, has a robustness that could make them bioavailable for uptake during early digestion. The potential benefit of these regulatory molecules in pharma nutrition could be explored further. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Feedback processing in adolescence: an event-related potential study of age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Migliaccio, Renee; Zottoli, Tina M

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence has frequently been characterized as a period of increased risk taking, which may be largely driven by maturational changes in neural areas that process incentives. To investigate age- and gender-related differences in reward processing, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 80 participants in a gambling game, in which monetary wins and losses were either large or small. We measured two ERP components: the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the feedback P3 (fP3). The FRN was sensitive to the size of a win in both adult (aged 23-35 years) and adolescent (aged 13-17 years) males, but not in females. Small wins appeared to be less rewarding for males than for females, which may in part explain more approach-driven behavior in males in general. Furthermore, adolescent boys showed both delayed FRNs to high losses and less differentiation in FRN amplitude between wins and losses in comparison to girls. The fP3, which is thought to index the salience of the feedback at a more conscious level than the FRN, was also larger in boys than in girls. Taken together, these results imply that higher levels of risk taking that are commonly reported in adolescent males may be driven both by hypersensitivity to high rewards and insensitivity to punishment or losses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y; Lindquist, Kristen A; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity , the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60-90 ms), middle (270-300 ms), and later (540-570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals' level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8-12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30-50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of "emotional complexity." Implications for models of emotion are also discussed.

  14. Biofilm reactors for industrial bioconversion processes: employing potential of enhanced reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S

    2005-08-25

    This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL(-1) can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.

  15. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative potential of 10 common edible flowers from China assessed using a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process combined with cellular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weisu; Mao, Shuqin; Zhang, Liuquan; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Yajing; Li, Maiquan

    2017-11-01

    Phenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 common edible flowers from China and their functional components. Gallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion-dialysis process decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95-90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22-87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion-dialysis process, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R 2 = 0.794-0.924, P digestion and dialysis along with the reduction of phenolics. Nevertheless, they still had considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potential, which merited further investigation in in vivo studies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Measuring the potential of GHG emissions reductions on the food and beverage processing sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, M.; Ciccone, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Seven per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial sector in Ontario relate to the food and beverage processing sector. This report provides the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs with the ability to identify the effects of reducing greenhouse gas emissions on Ontario's food and beverage processing sector. The study was undertaken in response to Ontario's efforts to address the challenges set by the Kyoto Protocol and the proposed release of Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change. The objective of the report is to help Ontario decide if it should support a national strategy and/or ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Potential ways to meet the Kyoto commitments were also identified in the report. The study was based on an analysis of large amounts of data and information regarding the economic and technological aspects that affect the food and beverage processing industry in Ontario, including the seven major sub-sectors, located mostly in southern Ontario. The types of plants and their associated processes and fuel use were assessed to determine the size and nature of fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions for each sub-sector. The study examined end uses and base technologies for each sub-sector and compared them with energy efficient technologies and opportunities within the industry. Barriers, and how to overcome them, were also described. Ontario's results were then compared with results from Canada's Foundation Paper and Options Analysis prepared for the Agriculture and Agri-Food Table on Climate Change. It was determined that the primary source of greenhouse gases for the industry comes from the use of energy directly from the combustion of fossil fuels and indirectly from the use of electricity. The contributions to greenhouse gases through chlorofluorocarbons or through waste stream is small and shrinking. It was concluded that mitigation strategies should concentrate on energy conservation through energy

  17. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R.; Valentine, G.; Crowe, B.

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants

  18. K-U-Th systematics of terrestrial igneous rocks for planetological comparisons: volcanic rocks of the Earth oceanic island arc and Venus surface material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    Principles of the formation o data base for 339 samples of oceanic island arc (OIA) igneous rocks of the Earth available in literature are described as well as of the formation of fresh rock sample, characteristics of this sample, and K-U-Th-systematics of the fresh igneous rocks of Earth OIA. Results of comparison of the Venus measured rocks and Earth OIA rocks by K, U, Th

  19. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE UKRAINIAN PROCESSING AND MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES ECONOMIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii Gudz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to find the most appropriate application ways for simulating of the business activities of the manufacturing and processing agriculture enterprises dealing in the corruptive Ukrainian environment and to overcome the fundamental methodology contradictions to be able to perform more accurate results of the economic potential assessment despite the sophisticated defects inherent in current industry sector. Methodology includes publication research, interviews and practical comparison of the published statistic data and real production volume, returns and other indicators to be able to estimate actual potential of the target enterprises. The paper comes through the classical analytical methods showing their application pros and contras in highly corruptive environment with the strong trend of data falsification. Results of the survey show the basic economic methods applicable for the research activity of processing and manufacturing enterprises operating in the field of agriculture. The authors’ experience picks up the problem of the urgent need of new methodology among vast abstractive researching executed by the majority of the scientists as they have some contradictions when we apply them for the real industry segment or even an enterprise. Corruption affecting the general statistic data misrepresents the facts therefore current (classic methods are not able to show real economic trends in the industrial segment. So the authors persist on the significance of the corruption distortion considering e.g. to identify the actual macro- and microeconomic indicators, indexes and ratios we involve the stage researching system of multidimensional comparative analysis to rank received rating and find appropriate position for enterprise and as we cannot ignore a constantly growing shadow sector of Ukrainian economy we perform economic potential assessment of the target enterprise with the identification of the shadow sector with

  20. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    Long before the industrial evolution and the era of fossil fuels, high concentrations of aerosol particles were alluded to in heavily populated areas, including ancient Rome and medieval London. Recent radiocarbon measurements (14C) conducted in modern megacities came as a surprise: carbonaceous aerosol (mainly organic aerosol, OA), a predominant fraction of particulate matter (PM), remains overwhelmingly non-fossil despite extensive fossil fuel combustion. Such particles are directly emitted (primary OA, POA) or formed in-situ in the atmosphere (secondary OA, SOA) via photochemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Urban levels of non-fossil OA greatly exceed the levels measured in pristine environments strongly impacted by biogenic emissions, suggesting a contribution from unidentified anthropogenic non-fossil sources to urban OA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) techniques applied to ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne) data identify primary cooking emissions (COA) as one of the main sources of primary non-fossil OA in major cities like London (Allan et al., 2010), New York (Sun et al., 2011) and Beijing (Huang et al., 2010). Cooking processes can also emit VOCs that can act as SOA precursors, potentially explaining in part the high levels of oxygenated OA (OOA) identified by the AMS in urban areas. However, at present, the chemical nature of these VOCs and their secondary aerosol production potential (SAPP) remain virtually unknown. The approach adopted here involves laboratory quantification of PM and VOC emission factors from the main primary COA emitting processes and their SAPP. Primary emissions from deep-fat frying, vegetable boiling, vegetable frying and meat cooking for different oils, meats and vegetables were analysed under controlled conditions after ~100 times dilution. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR

  1. A study of the tensile behaviour of flax tows and their potential for composite processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moothoo, J.; Allaoui, S.; Ouagne, P.; Soulat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Flax tows are characterised by tensile testing under various conditions. • The tensile properties and their dispersion are dependent on the gauge length. • The distribution of the fibres length in specimens commands the tensile behaviour. • Packs of fibre bundle debonding failure mode are observed by image correlation. • Interesting tensile properties are obtained on epoxy impregnated and cured tows. - Abstract: To study the potential of flax tows in composite processing as an alternative to flax spun yarns, a flat flax tow consisting of aligned fibre bundles held together by a natural binder was used and characterised in tension under various conditions. The effect of the gauge length was studied on the dry reinforcement. The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties and failure mechanism varied significantly depending on the gauge length and are discussed in relation to the distribution of elementary fibres within the tow. A characteristic length as from which the mechanical properties are stable has been identified. At this length, the effect of the strain rate on the tensile properties was measured and their sensitivity to the strain rate suggests a viscous effect in the behaviour of the flax tow. To approach process conditions such as wet filament winding, a batch of specimens was impregnated with epoxy prior to tensile testing. The tensile properties under wet conditions were found to be close to the properties under dry conditions and shows that the tow can withstand typical processing tensions. Finally, tensile tests on cured-impregnated tows showed interesting mechanical properties for composite application

  2. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B.; Jimenez, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y M,ult ) decreased considerably from 227±23 to 107±11 ml CH 4 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g -1 VS added when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g -1 VS added was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates

  3. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  4. Effects of Age and Working Memory Load on Syntactic Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela C. Alatorre-Cruz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive changes in aging include working memory (WM decline, which may hamper language comprehension. An increase in WM demands in older adults would probably provoke a poorer sentence processing performance in this age group. A way to increase the WM load is to separate two lexical units in an agreement relation (i.e., adjective and noun, in a given sentence. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs were collected from Spanish speakers (30 older adults, mean age = 66.06 years old; and 30 young adults, mean age = 25.7 years old who read sentences to detect grammatical errors. The sentences varied with regard to (1 the gender agreement of the noun and adjective, where the gender of the adjective either agreed or disagreed with the noun, and (2 the WM load (i.e., the number of words between the noun and adjective in the sentence. No significant behavioral differences between groups were observed in the accuracy of the response, but older adults showed longer reaction times regardless of WM load condition. Compared with young participants, older adults showed a different pattern of ERP components characterized by smaller amplitudes of LAN, P600a, and P600b effects when the WM load was increased. A smaller LAN effect probably reflects greater difficulties in processing the morpho-syntactic features of the sentence, while smaller P600a and P600b effects could be related to difficulties in recovering and mapping all sentence constituents. We concluded that the ERP pattern in older adults showed subtle problems in syntactic processing when the WM load was increased, which was not sufficient to affect response accuracy but was only observed to result in a longer reaction time.

  5. The development of control processes supporting source memory discrimination as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M

    2007-08-01

    Improvement in source memory performance throughout childhood is thought to be mediated by the development of executive control. As postretrieval control processes may be better time-locked to the recognition response rather than the retrieval cue, the development of processes underlying source memory was investigated with both stimulus- and response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). These were recorded in children, adolescents, and adults during a recognition memory exclusion task. Green- and red-outlined pictures were studied, but were tested in black outline. The test requirement was to endorse old items shown in one study color ("targets") and to reject new items along with old items shown in the alternative study color ("nontargets"). Source memory improved with age. All age groups retrieved target and nontarget memories as reflected by reliable parietal episodic memory (EM) effects, a stimulus-locked ERP correlate of recollection. Response-locked ERPs to targets and nontargets diverged in all groups prior to the response, although this occurred at an increasingly earlier time point with age. We suggest these findings reflect the implementation of attentional control mechanisms to enhance target memories and facilitate response selection with the greatest and least success, respectively, in adults and children. In adults only, response-locked ERPs revealed an early-onsetting parietal negativity for nontargets, but not for targets. This was suggested to reflect adults' ability to consistently inhibit prepotent target responses for nontargets. The findings support the notion that the development of source memory relies on the maturation of control processes that serve to enhance accurate selection of task-relevant memories.

  6. Separation, Characterization and Fouling Potential of Sludge Waters from Different Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Jinkai

    2011-07-01

    of these filtration processes. For the KAUST MBR membrane tank sludge water and the Jeddah WWTP effluent, the fouling potential of humic/building blocks was much higher than that of biopolymers. Compared with the KAUST MBR membrane tank sludge water, the Jeddah WWTP effluent had comparable biopolymer fouling potential and higher humic/building blocks fouling potential.

  7. 50 Myr of pulsed mafic magmatism in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D. G.; Dockman, D. M.; Heaman, L. M.; Gibson, S. A.; Sarkar, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive and voluminous Cretaceous mafic magmatism in the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada forms the circum-Arctic High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The small number of published high-precision ages for this LIP indicate its eruption over a considerable timespan raising concerns over whether the HALIP can be strictly defined as a single LIP and questioning the role of a single or multiple plumes in its genesis. Here we present an integrated geochemical and geochronological study to better constrain the timing and cause of mafic magma genesis in the Canadian HALIP. Six new U-Pb and four 40Ar/39Ar ages of mafic lavas and intrusive sheets range from 121 Ma to 78 Ma. The U-Pb ages are the first analyzed from the mafic intrusions of Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Islands. The new geochronology, combined with other published high-precision ages, reveal a > 50 Myr duration of mafic magmatism in the HALIP defined by three main pulses. Tholeiites dominate the initial 25 Myr of magmatism, transitioning to coeval emplacement of alkali and tholeiitic basalts. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotope ratios indicate that both magma types are derived from a similar source dominated by convecting mantle. Rare-earth-element inversion models reveal that the alkalic and tholeiitic magmas were generated beneath a bimodal lithospheric `lid' thickness of 65 ± 5 and 45 ± 4 km, respectively. We suggest that the early 128 - 122 Ma tholeiitic event is primarily plume-generated and correlates across the circum-Arctic with the other HALIP tholeiites. Younger HALIP magmatism, with coeval alkalic and tholeiitic magmas erupting over 25 Myr, may be explained by alternating modes of edge-driven mantle convection as the primary control on magma genesis. A distal plume may have intensified magma production by edge-driven convection.

  8. An air quality assessment in the industrialised western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of the South African mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC, with the western limb being the most exploited. Because the majority of the world’s platinum is produced in the BIC, this area is also of international interest. There are some indications that the western BIC should be considered an air pollution hotspot; however, inadequate data exist to substantiate these claims scientifically. To partially address this knowledge gap, a comprehensive air quality monitoring station was operated for more than 2 years in this area. Meteorological parameters, trace gas concentrations and total mass concentration of particulate matter up to 10 µm in size (PM10 were measured. Compared with South African and European ambient air quality standards, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations were generally acceptable. The major sources of SO2 were identified as high-stack industry emissions, while household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements was identified as the predominant source of NO2 and CO. In contrast, O3 exceeded the 8-h moving average more than 322 times per year. The main contributing factor was identified to be the influx of regional air masses, with high O3 precursor concentrations. PM10 exceeded the current South African 24-h standard 6.6 times per year, the future (2015 standard 42.3 times per year and the European standard more than 120 times per year. The main source of PM10 was identified as household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements. The findings clearly indicate that atmospheric O3 and PM10 levels in the western BIC need to be addressed to avoid negative environmental and human health impacts.

  9. Processing of combustible α-wastes. A summary of research and development to date with an evaluation of the development potential of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, H.; Hild, W.

    On the basis of currently available literature six processes involving the oxidative treatment of combustible α-bearing wastes are described and discussed. The Wet Combustion in sulfuric/nitric acid at 250 0 C has the highest development potential. This is due to a relatively simple process, a relative low apparative requirement and the possibility of Plutonium recovery

  10. Event-related potential studies of outcome processing and feedback-guided learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eSan Martín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to control behavior in an adaptive manner the brain has to learn how some situations and actions predict positive or negative outcomes. During the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have shown that the brain is able to evaluate and learn from outcomes within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. This research has been primarily focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P3, two event-related potential (ERP components that are elicited by outcomes. The FRN is a frontally distributed negative-polarity ERP component that typically reaches its maximal amplitude 250 ms after outcome presentation and tends to be larger for negative than for positive outcomes. The FRN has been associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. The P3 (~300-600 ms is a parietally distributed positive-polarity ERP component that tends to be larger for large magnitude than for small magnitude outcomes. The neural sources of the P3 are probably distributed over different regions of the cortex. This paper examines the theories that have been proposed to explain the functional role of these two ERP components during outcome processing. Special attention is paid to extant literature addressing how these ERP components are modulated by outcome valence (negative vs. positive, outcome magnitude (large vs. small, outcome probability (unlikely vs. likely and behavioral adjustment. The literature offers few generalizable conclusions, but is beset with a number of inconsistencies across studies. This paper discusses the potential reasons for these inconsistencies and points out some challenges that will shape the field over the next decade.

  11. World Experience in Using Education and Science in the Process of Building the State Intellectual Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupka Mykhaylo I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the world experience in using education and science in the processes of increasing the intellectual potential of the state and prospects of its application in Ukraine. The article describes features of the continental, Atlantic and the East Asian models of higher education management with emphasis on the key points, which can be useful for reforming the Ukrainian system of education. It has been noted that the problem of higher education quality in Ukraine lies in fundamental principles of its functioning, because development of the national education system for a long time took place under conditions of administrative system, while the European system of education is built on principles of competition and free market. On the basis of comparative characteristics of sources of finance in the United States there has been determined a dominant role of the federal government and it has been found that among the branches of science the leading positions are occupied by the life sciences. The experience of reforming science in countries of the Central and Eastern Europe, which took place on the model of functioning of the research institutes and research process in the EU countries, has been analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the successful experience of reforming the education and science in China. Taking into account the international experience the author has substantiated the directions of increasing the intellectual potential in Ukraine by deepening the integration of education and science, in particular: the creation of a wide network of research universities and conducting of a fair share of fundamental research on their base; accelerated development of public-private partnership in education and science; quick updating of the curricula adequate to the requirements of time and introduction of interdisciplinary courses; competitive financing of scientific programs with participation of the state and

  12. Hemispheric Lateralization of Event-Related Brain Potentials in Different Processing Phases during Unimanual Finger Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Li

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional MRI and brain electrophysiology studies have studied the left-right differences during the tapping tasks and found that the activation of left hemisphere was more significant than that of right hemisphere. In this study, we wanted to delineate this lateralization phenomenon not only in the execution phase but also in other processing phases, such as early visual, pre-executive and post-executive phases. We have designed a finger-tapping task to delineate the left-right differences of event related potentials (ERPs to right finger movement in sixteen right handed college students. The mean amplitudes of ERPs were analyzed to examine the left-right dominance of cortical activity in the phase of early visual process (75-120ms, pre-execution (175-260ms, execution (310-420ms and post-execution (420-620ms. In the execution phase, ERPs at the left electrodes were significantly more pronounced than those at the right electrodes (F3 > F4, C3 > C4, P3 > P4, O1 > O2 under the situation without comparing the central electrodes (Fz, Cz, Pz, and Oz. No difference was found between left and right electrodes in other three phases except the C3 electrode still showed more dominant than C4 in the pre- and post-execution phase. In conclusion, the phenomenon of brain lateralization occur major in the execution phase. The central area also showed the lateralization in the pre- and post-execution to demonstrate its unique lateralized contributions to unilateral simple finger movements.

  13. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  14. A potential neural substrate for processing functional classes of complex acoustic signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle George

    Full Text Available Categorization is essential to all cognitive processes, but identifying the neural substrates underlying categorization processes is a real challenge. Among animals that have been shown to be able of categorization, songbirds are particularly interesting because they provide researchers with clear examples of categories of acoustic signals allowing different levels of recognition, and they possess a system of specialized brain structures found only in birds that learn to sing: the song system. Moreover, an avian brain nucleus that is analogous to the mammalian secondary auditory cortex (the caudo-medial nidopallium, or NCM has recently emerged as a plausible site for sensory representation of birdsong, and appears as a well positioned brain region for categorization of songs. Hence, we tested responses in this non-primary, associative area to clear and distinct classes of songs with different functions and social values, and for a possible correspondence between these responses and the functional aspects of songs, in a highly social songbird species: the European starling. Our results clearly show differential neuronal responses to the ethologically defined classes of songs, both in the number of neurons responding, and in the response magnitude of these neurons. Most importantly, these differential responses corresponded to the functional classes of songs, with increasing activation from non-specific to species-specific and from species-specific to individual-specific sounds. These data therefore suggest a potential neural substrate for sorting natural communication signals into categories, and for individual vocal recognition of same-species members. Given the many parallels that exist between birdsong and speech, these results may contribute to a better understanding of the neural bases of speech.

  15. Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Lillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC, linear Fresnel collector (LFC and parabolic trough collector (PTC—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year. CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.

  16. Altered processing of visual emotional stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Shalev, Hadar; Kanthak, Magdalena K; Guez, Jonathan; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E

    2015-08-30

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards emotional content. Most neurophysiological studies in PTSD found higher amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to trauma-related visual content. Here we aimed to characterize brain electrical activity in PTSD subjects in response to non-trauma-related emotion-laden pictures (positive, neutral and negative). A combined behavioral-ERP study was conducted in 14 severe PTSD patients and 14 controls. Response time in PTSD patients was slower compared with that in controls, irrespective to emotional valence. In both PTSD and controls, response time to negative pictures was slower compared with that to neutral or positive pictures. Upon ranking, both control and PTSD subjects similarly discriminated between pictures with different emotional valences. ERP analysis revealed three distinctive components (at ~300, ~600 and ~1000 ms post-stimulus onset) for emotional valence in control subjects. In contrast, PTSD patients displayed a similar brain response across all emotional categories, resembling the response of controls to negative stimuli. We interpret these findings as a brain-circuit response tendency towards negative overgeneralization in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of magmatic processes on the potential Yucca Mountain repository: Field and computational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.; Groves, K.R.; Gable, C.W.; Perry, F.V.; Crowe, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the risk of future magmatic activity at a potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository requires, in addition to event probabilities, some knowledge of the consequences of such activity. Magmatic consequences are divided into an eruptive component, which pertains to the possibility of radioactive waste being erupted onto the surface of Yucca Mountain, and a subsurface component, which occurs whether there is an accompanying eruption or not. The subsurface component pertains to a suite of processes such as hydrothermal activity, changes in country rock properties, and long term alteration of the hydrologic flow field which change the waste isolation system. This paper is the second in a series describing progress on studies of the effects of magmatic activity. We describe initial results of field analog studies at small volume basaltic centers where detailed measurements are being conducted of the amount of wall rock debris that can be erupted as a function of depth in the volcanic plumbing system. Constraints from field evidence of wall rock entrainment mechanisms are also discussed. Evidence is described for a mechanism of producing subhorizontal sills versus subvertical dikes, an issue that is important for assessing subsurface effects. Finally, new modeling techniques, which are being developed in order to capture the three dimensional complexities of real geologic situations in subsurface effects, are described

  18. Gravity data processing and research in potential evaluation of uranium resource in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hu; Zhao Dan; Ke Dan; Li Bihong; Han Shaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Through data processing, anomaly extraction, geologic structure deduction from gravity in 39 uranium metallogenic zones and 29 prediction areas, the predicting factors such as tectonic units, faults, scope and depth of rocks, scope of basins and strata structure were provided for the evaluation of uranium resources potential. Gravity field features of uranium metallogenic environment were summarized for hydrothermal type uranium deposits (granite, volcanic and carbonate-siliceous-argillaceous type) as regional gravity transition from high to the low field or the region near the low field, and the key metallogenic factors as granite rocks and volcanic basins in the low gravity field. It was found that Large-scale sandstone type uranium mineralization basins are located in the high regional gravity field, provenance areas are in the low field, and the edge and inner uplift areas usually located in the high field of the residual gravity. Faults related to different type uranium mineralization occur as the gradient zones, boundaries, a string of bead anomalies and striped gravity anomalies in the gravity field. (authors)

  19. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite in altered granitic plutons and its implications for magnetite classification schemes: Insights from the Handan-Xingtai iron district, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Li, Jian-Wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Koenig, Alan E.; Lowers, Heather A.; Adams, David

    2017-09-01

    Magnetite is a common mineral in igneous rocks and has been used as an important petrogenetic indicator as its compositions and textures reflect changing physiochemical parameters such as temperature, oxygen fugacity and melt compositions. In upper crustal settings, igneous rocks are often altered by hydrothermal fluids such that the original textures and compositions of igneous magnetite may be partly or completely obliterated, posing interpretive problems in petrological and geochemical studies. In this paper, we present textural and compositional data of magnetite from variably albitized granitoid rocks in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton to characterize the hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite. Four types of magnetite have been identified in the samples studied: pristine igneous magnetite (type 1), reequilibrated porous magnetite (type 2), reequilibrated nonporous magnetite (type 3), and hydrothermal magnetite (type 4). Pristine igneous magnetite contains abundant well-developed ilmenite exsolution lamellae that are largely replaced by titanite during subsequent hydrothermal alteration. The titanite has a larger molar volume than its precursor ilmenite and thus causes micro-fractures in the host magnetite grains, facilitating dissolution and reprecipitation of magnetite. During sodic alteration, the igneous magnetite is extensively replaced by type 2 and type 3 magnetite via fluid-induced dissolution and reprecipitation. Porous type 2 magnetite is the initial replacement product of igneous magnetite and is subsequently replaced by the nonoporous type 3 variety as its surface area is reduced and compositional equilibrium with the altering fluid is achieved. Hydrothermal type 4 magnetite is generally euhedral and lacks exsolution lamellae and porosity, and is interpreted to precipitate directly from the ore-forming fluids. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite has led to progressive chemical purification, during which trace

  20. Altered Functional Subnetwork During Emotional Face Processing: A Potential Intermediate Phenotype for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hengyi; Bertolino, Alessandro; Walter, Henrik; Schneider, Michael; Schäfer, Axel; Taurisano, Paolo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Otto, Kristina; Dixson, Luanna; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Heinz, Andreas; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mattheisen, Manuel; Witt, Stephanie H; Cichon, Sven; Noethen, Markus; Rietschel, Marcella; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Although deficits in emotional processing are prominent in schizophrenia, it has been difficult to identify neural mechanisms related to the genetic risk for this highly heritable illness. Prior studies have not found consistent regional activation or connectivity alterations in first-degree relatives compared with healthy controls, suggesting that a more comprehensive search for connectomic biomarkers is warranted. To identify a potential systems-level intermediate phenotype linked to emotion processing in schizophrenia and to examine the psychological association, task specificity, test-retest reliability, and clinical validity of the identified phenotype. The study was performed in university research hospitals from June 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013. We examined 58 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and 94 healthy controls with an emotional face-matching functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Test-retest reliability was analyzed with an independent sample of 26 healthy participants. A clinical association study was performed in 31 patients with schizophrenia and 45 healthy controls. Data analysis was performed from January 1 to September 30, 2014. Conventional amygdala activity and seeded connectivity measures, graph-based global and local network connectivity measures, Spearman rank correlation, intraclass correlation, and gray matter volumes. Among the 152 volunteers included in the relative-control sample, 58 were unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (mean [SD] age, 33.29 [12.56]; 38 were women), and 94 were healthy controls without a first-degree relative with mental illness (mean [SD] age, 32.69 [10.09] years; 55 were women). A graph-theoretical connectivity approach identified significantly decreased connectivity in a subnetwork that primarily included the limbic cortex, visual cortex, and subcortex during emotional face processing (cluster-level P corrected for familywise error =

  1. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain shapes

  2. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain

  3. The Bero Volganic Group: New Lithological, Stratigraphic, and Geochemical Data of this Extension of the Parana-Etendeka Igneous Province into SW Angola with Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J.; Swart, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Bero Volcanic Group, an extension of the Etendeka-Paraná Igneous Province into SW Angola, forms the eroded basement to the on-shore Namibe Basin, an Early Cretaceous-Cenozoic terrestrial and marine sedimentary sequence. The igneous suite outcrops between latitudes 14.68o and 15.25o S and comprises quartz latite rheoignimbrites/lavas, tholeiitic basaltic lavas, pyroclastic/volcaniclastic deposits, minor aeolian sandstones, and mafic tholeiitic dykes and gabbroic sheets. Quartz latite lithologies dominate. In the Rio Bero area in the S quartz latites are underlain by several thin flows of basalt interbedded with, and underlain by, thin discontinuous lenses of aeolian sandstone. This sequence is consistent with the general stratigraphic sequence in the northern Etendeka of Namibia. To the N basalts and aeolian sandstones are absent and the quartz latites lie directly on Precambrian basement rocks in places. To date, data for a quartz latite correlated with a Chapecó rhyolites of the Paraná are available from only one locality in Angola. This study's wider sampling and major and trace element and radiogenic isotope analysis reveals the following: (1) all mafic rocks are high-Ti, the lavas being equivalent to the Khumiba/Urubici type; (2) mafic dykes cutting the quartz latites having affinities to the Paranapanema-Ribeira mafic lavas; (3) five quartz latite geochemical types are present, three of which are known from Etendeka/Paraná (Sarusas/Guarapuava, Khoraseb/Ourinhos and Ventura) and their stratigraphic relationships in Angola are consistent with those in the Etendeka and Paraná; (4) their Angolan occurrence significantly extends the area covered by, and potential eruptive volumes of, these silicic types; (5) two other quartz latite types are unknown in the Etendeka and Paraná and are probably products of low-volume, local eruptions. The Chinguau type is geochemically similar to the low-Ti quartz lalites of the southern Etendeka but has lower Epsilon Nd

  4. Effects of beam, target and substrate potentials in ion beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beam etching and deposition are normally carried out with beam, target and substrate potentials near ground potential. In this paper, the effects of intentional or unintentional changes in these potentials are described. Examples include beam neutralization, a single extraction grid, substrate bias, and target bias. Each example is described in terms of beam plasma parameters. (Auth.)

  5. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  6. ELECTRON IRRADIATION AND THERMAL PROCESSING OF MIXED-ICES OF POTENTIAL RELEVANCE TO JUPITER TROJAN ASTEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Hodyss, Robert; Blacksberg, Jordana; Carlson, Robert W.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Brown, Michael E.; Eiler, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore the chemistry that occurs during the irradiation of ice mixtures on planetary surfaces, with the goal of linking the presence of specific chemical compounds to their formation locations in the solar system and subsequent processing by later migration inward. We focus on the outer solar system and the chemical differences for ice mixtures inside and outside the stability line for H 2 S. We perform a set of experiments to explore the hypothesis advanced by Wong and Brown that links the color bimodality in Jupiter's Trojans to the presence of H 2 S in the surface of their precursors. Non-thermal (10 keV electron irradiation) and thermally driven chemistry of CH 3 OH–NH 3 –H 2 O (“without H 2 S”) and H 2 S–CH 3 OH–NH 3 –H 2 O (“with H 2 S”) ices were examined. Mid-IR analyses of ice and mass spectrometry monitoring of the volatiles released during heating show a rich chemistry in both of the ice mixtures. The “with H 2 S” mixture experiment shows a rapid consumption of H 2 S molecules and production of OCS molecules after a few hours of irradiation. The heating of the irradiated “with H 2 S” mixture to temperatures above 120 K leads to the appearance of new infrared bands that we provisionally assign to SO 2 and CS. We show that radiolysis products are stable under the temperature and irradiation conditions of Jupiter Trojan asteroids. This makes them suitable target molecules for potential future missions as well as telescope observations with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also suggest the consideration of sulfur chemistry in the theoretical modeling aimed at understanding the chemical composition of Trojans and KOBs

  7. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Espina

    Full Text Available This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  8. Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K.; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments. PMID:23424676

  9. The Caribbean-Colombian cretaceous igneous province: The internal anatomy of an oceanic plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John; Marriner, Giselle F.; Nivia, Alvaro; Saunders, Andrew D.

    The Late Cretaceous Caribbean—Colombian igneous province is one of the world's best-exposed examples of a plume-derived oceanic plateau. The buoyancy of the plateau (resulting from residual heat and thick crust) kept it from being totally subducted as it moved eastward with the Farallon Plate from its site of generation in the eastern Pacific and encountered a destructive plate margin. In effect, the plateau makes up much of the Caribbean Plate; it is well exposed around its margins, but more so in accreted terranes in western Colombia (including the well-known Gorgona komatiites and Bolívar mafic/ultramafic cumulates). Compositionally, the lavas of the plateau form three groups: (a) basalts, picrites, and komatiites with light-rare-earth-element (LREE)-depleted chondrite-normalised patterns; (b) basalts with LREE-enriched patterns; and (c) basalts with essentially flat REE patterns (the most dominant type) similar to many of the basalts from the Ontong Java Plateau. These three types demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the mantle plume source region. The picrites and the komatiites seem to lie nearer the base of the plateau than the more homogeneous basalts; thus, the more MgO-rich melts may have been erupted before large magma chambers had a chance to develop. A reconstructed crustal cross section through the plateau consists of dunitic and pyroxenitic cumulates near the base which are overlain by layered olivine-rich gabbros and more isotropic gabbros. The lowermost eruptive sequence comprises compositionally heterogeneous picrites/komatiites overlain by more homogeneous pillow basalts. Spectacular hornblende-plagioclase veins cut the Bolívar assemblage and these may represent local partial melts of the plateau's base as it was thrusted onto the continent. Subduction-related batholiths and extrusive rocks found around the margin of the province are of two distinct ages; one suite represents pre-plateau collision-related volcanism whereas the other suite

  10. Mantle sources and magma evolution of the Rooiberg lavas, Bushveld Large Igneous Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T.; Haase, K. M.; Klemd, R.; Teschner, C.

    2018-06-01

    We report a new whole-rock dataset of major and trace element abundances and 87Sr/86Sr-143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios for basaltic to rhyolitic lavas from the Rooiberg continental large igneous province (LIP). The formation of the Paleoproterozoic Rooiberg Group is contemporaneous with and spatially related to the layered intrusion of the Bushveld Complex, which stratigraphically separates the volcanic succession. Our new data confirm the presence of low- and high-Ti mafic and intermediate lavas (basaltic—andesitic compositions) with > 4 wt% MgO, as well as evolved rocks (andesitic—rhyolitic compositions), characterized by MgO contents of N, Nb/Y and Ti/Y), indicating a different petrogenesis. MELTS modelling shows that the evolved lavas are formed by fractional crystallization from the mafic low-Ti lavas at low-to-moderate pressures ( 4 kbar). Primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the Rooiberg rocks show an enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE), rare-earth elements (REE) and pronounced negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, P, Ti and a positive Pb anomaly. Unaltered Rooiberg lavas have negative ɛNdi (- 5.2 to - 9.4) and radiogenic ɛSri (6.6 to 105) ratios (at 2061 Ma). These data overlap with isotope and trace element compositions of purported parental melts to the Bushveld Complex, especially for the lower zone. We suggest that the Rooiberg suite originated from a source similar to the composition of the B1-magma suggested as parental to the Bushveld Lower Zone, or that the lavas represent eruptive successions of fractional crystallization products related to the ultramafic cumulates that were forming at depth. The Rooiberg magmas may have formed by 10-20% crustal assimilation by the fractionation of a very primitive mantle-derived melt within the upper crust of the Kaapvaal Craton. Alternatively, the magmas represent mixtures of melts from a primitive, sub-lithospheric mantle plume and an enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM

  11. Lateral Variability of Lava flow Morphologies in the Deccan Traps Large Igneous Province (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Rader, E. L.; Self, S.; Clarke, A. B.; Sheth, H.; Moyer, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    In continental flood basalt provinces (CFBs), lava flow morphologies have traditionally been classified in two distinct groups recognizable in the field, expressing two different modes of lava flow emplacement mechanisms: (a) compound lava flow fields dominated by meter-sized pāhoehoe toes and lobes; and (b) inflated sheet lobes tens to hundreds of meters in width and meters to tens of meters in height. Temporal transitions between these two emplacement styles have been recognized in many mafic large igneous provinces worldwide and seem to be a fundamental feature of CFBs. However, lateral variations in these morphologies remain poorly studied and understood. In the Deccan CFB of India, two principal hypotheses have been proposed to account for possible lateral variations in lava flow facies: that smaller toes and lobes occur in distal regions of flow fields, representing breakouts at the edges of larger inflated lavas; or on the contrary that smaller toes and lobes represent proximal facies. We conducted a field study focusing on two of the Deccan's formations, the Khandala and the Poladpur, located in the middle and upper sections of the province's defined chemostratigraphy. We studied nine sections along a 600 km long E-W transect, with the easternmost sections representing the most distal outcrops, ≥ 500 km away from inferred vents. The Khandala Formation is traditionally described as a sequence of three thick inflated sheet lobes in the well-exposed sections of the western Deccan. However, in the central Deccan, we find the Khandala to be much thicker overall, with half of its thickness dominated by small, meter-sized toes and lobes. Inflated sheet lobes of the Khandala are thinner on average in the central Deccan than further to the east or west. We document this transition as occurring progressively in outcrops only 80 km apart. In the Poladpur, the average thickness of inflated sheet lobes increases in distal outcrops of the eastern Deccan. We interpret

  12. Portrait of a giant deep-seated magmatic conduit system: The Seiland Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Rune B.; Grant, Thomas; Sørensen, Bjørn E.; Tegner, Christian; McEnroe, Suzanne; Pastore, Zeudia; Fichler, Christine; Nikolaisen, Even; Grannes, Kim R.; Church, Nathan; ter Maat, Geertje W.; Michels, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The Seiland Igneous Province (SIP), Northern Norway, contains > 5000 km2 of mafic and ultramafic intrusions with minor alkaline, carbonatite and felsic rocks that were intruded into the lower continental crust at a depth of 25 to as much as 35 km. The SIP can be geochemically and temporally correlated to numerous dyke swarms throughout Scandinavia at 560-610 Ma, and is linked to magmatic provinces in W-Greenland and NE-America that are collectively known as the Central Iapetus Magmatic Province (CIMP). Revised mapping show that the SIP exposes 85-90% layered tholeiitic- alkaline- and syeno-gabbros, 8-10% peridotitic complexes, 2-5% carbonatite, syenite and diorite that formed within a narrow (mela-gabbro over pyroxenites that grades in to an olivine-clinopyroxenite zone, which is followed by a wehrlite zone and, finally, the centre of the complexes comprises pure dunite. From pyroxenite to dunite, olivine changes from Fo72 to Fo85 and clinopyroxene from Di80 to Di92 i.e. the complexes observe a reverse fractional crystallisation sequence with time. Parental melt compositions modelled from early dykes indicate komatiitic to picritic melts with 16-22 wt% MgO, Cr of 1594 ppm and Ni of 611 ppm, which were emplaced at 1450-1500 °C. Melt compositions calculated from clinopyroxene compositions from Reinfjord are OIB-like with LREE enriched over HREE. The high abundance of carbonatites and lamproites demonstrates the volatile-rich nature of the mantle source region and is further corroborated by the unusually high abundance of magmatic sulphides (0.5-1%) and carbonated and hydrous assemblages (c. 1%) throughout the region. In Reinfjord, they are also closely associated with PGE-Cu-Ni reef deposits. Essentially, the ultramafic complexes in the SIP comprises deep-seated transient magma chambers that facilitated mixing and homogenisation of a rich diversity of fertile asthenospheric melts en route to the upper parts of the continental crust.

  13. Functional definition of the N450 event-related brain potential marker of conflict processing: a numerical stroop study

    OpenAIRE

    Szűcs, Denes; Soltész, F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of t...

  14. Spectral analysis and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks of Hamedan region for remote sensing studies; using laboratory reflectance spectra (350-2500 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangzan, K.; Saki, A.; Hassanshahi, H.; Mojaradi, B.

    2012-01-01

    Reflectance spectrometry techniques with the integration of remote sensing data help us in identifying and mapping the phenomena on the earth. Using these techniques to discriminate the petrologic units independently and without knowing the spectral behavior of rocks along the electromagnetic wavelengths can not be so much useful. For the purposes of this study, 65 samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks from Hamedan region were collected and their spectra were measured using Fieldspec3 device in laboratory. The spectra were analyzed on the basis of absorption, position and shape. Petrographic analyses were used to interpret the absorption patterns as well. Then the spectra were classified according to spectral patterns. This measurement was done on both freshly cut and exposed surfaces of the samples and except a few samples, the two sets of spectra did not differ significantly. Finally, to evaluate the possibility of recognition of these targets, the responses of two hyper spectral and multispectral sensors were simulated from spectra representative of the spectral classes, showing that significant identification and classification of well exposed rocks are potentially possible using remote instruments providing high quality spectra. Also Aster simulation showed that a preliminary gross discrimination of rocks was however possible.

  15. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth's surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository

  16. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth`s surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository.

  17. AGING, CAFFEINE, AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING - AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; MULDER, G; KOK, A

    Structural and energetic processes in information processing were studied in young and elderly subjects. A visually focussed selective search task was used, in which subjects had to select relevant information, followed by controlled memory search processes to locate a target item. Caffeine was used

  18. Tuning coercive force by adjusting electric potential in solution processed Co/Pt(111) and the mechanism involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Kuo, Wei-Hsu; Chang, Yu-Chieh; Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Yau, Shueh-Lin

    2017-03-01

    A combination of a solution process and the control of the electric potential for magnetism represents a new approach to operating spintronic devices with a highly controlled efficiency and lower power consumption with reduced production cost. As a paradigmatic example, we investigated Co/Pt(111) in the Bloch-wall regime. The depression in coercive force was detected by applying a negative electric potential in an electrolytic solution. The reversible control of coercive force by varying the electric potential within few hundred millivolts is demonstrated. By changing the electric potential in ferromagnetic layers with smaller thicknesses, the efficiency for controlling the tunable coercive force becomes higher. Assuming that the pinning domains are independent of the applied electric potential, an electric potential tuning-magnetic anisotropy energy model was derived and provided insights into our knowledge of the relation between the electric potential tuning coercive force and the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer. Based on the fact that the coercive force can be tuned by changing the electric potential using a solution process, we developed a novel concept of electric-potential-tuned magnetic recording, resulting in a stable recording media with a high degree of writing ability.

  19. Radiation processing of agricultural products: status and potential contribution to a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of radiation processing of agricultural products is briefly reviewed with special regard to those processes which may contribute to a cleaner environment. Radurization of poultry feed and poultry meat is shown to be a major contributor to the reduction of a significant public health problem-salmonellosis. Radiation sterilized animal feeds can be produced by processing garbage - a major environmental pollutant. Radicidation and radappertization are effective processes in the treatment of sludges and waste water, to prevent pollution of seas or ground. Radiation processes can effectively replace fungicides and insecticides in the treatment of agricultural crops and thus reduce environmental pollution. (author)

  20. Development of a fully automated open-column chemical-separation system—COLUMNSPIDER—and its application to Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses of igneous rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan Stefanov; Takei, Masakazu; Suzuki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Kouzou; Chang, Qing; Takahashi, Toshiro; Hirahara, Yuka; Hanyu, Takeshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    A fully automated open-column resin-bed chemical-separation system, named COLUMNSPIDER, has been developed. The system consists of a programmable micropipetting robot that dispenses chemical reagents and sample solutions into an open-column resin bed for elemental separation. After the initial set up of resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers for the separated chemical components, all separation procedures are automated. As many as ten samples can be eluted in parallel in a single automated run. Many separation procedures, such as radiogenic isotope ratio analyses for Sr and Nd, involve the use of multiple column separations with different resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers of various volumes. COLUMNSPIDER completes these separations using multiple runs. Programmable functions, including the positioning of the micropipetter, reagent volume, and elution time, enable flexible operation. Optimized movements for solution take-up and high-efficiency column flushing allow the system to perform as precisely as when carried out manually by a skilled operator. Procedural blanks, examined for COLUMNSPIDER separations of Sr, Nd, and Pb, are low and negligible. The measured Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for JB-2 and Nd isotope ratios for JB-3 and BCR-2 rock standards all fall within the ranges reported previously in high-accuracy analyses. COLUMNSPIDER is a versatile tool for the efficient elemental separation of igneous rock samples, a process that is both labor intensive and time consuming.

  1. Petrography, mineral chemistry of tourmaline, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Tertiary igneous rocks in Shurab area(west of Khusf), Southern Khorasan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami, A. A.; Mohammadi, S. S.; Zarrinkoub, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary igneous rocks of Shurab area in eastern part of Lut block include pyroxene andesite, andesite, trachy andesite, quartz andesite, diorite, quartz diorite and porphyric quartz monzodiorite. Plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, biotite and quartz are common minerals and alkali feldspar, opaque, sphene, apatite, tourmaline and zircon exists as minor minerals. Propylitization, chloritization, silisification and tourmalinization are common alterations. Based on electron micro prob analysis, tourmaline in quartz monzodiorite is characterized by weakly chemical zoning, high Mg/Fe ratio from dravite type with alkaline nature that originated from Ca-poor metapelites and metapsammites. The studied rocks have low to medium-K calk-alkaline nature and their spider diagrams display enrichment in LILE such as Cs, Rb ,K , Sr and LREE and depletion in Nb,Ti and HREE that indicate their relation to subduction zone. Geochemical characteristics such as high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, high SiO_2 and no Eu anomaly are comparable to high-SiO_2 adakites. Shuorab adakitic rocks are likely originated from partial melting of the crust during delamination process.

  2. Thermodynamics at work - on the limits and potentials of biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The preferential use of high potential electron acceptors by microorganisms has lead to the classical concept of a redox sequence with a sequential use of O2 nitrate, Fe(III), sulfate, and finally CO2 as electron acceptors for respiration (Stumm & Morgan, 1996). Christian Blodau has rigourously applied this concept to constrain the thermodynamical limits at which specific aquatic systems operate. In sediments from acidic mining lakes his analysis revealed that sulfate reducers are not competitive as long as low-crystallinity ferric oxides are available for organic matter decomposition (Blodau et al, 1998). This analysis opened up the possibility to generalize the linkage between the iron and sulphur cycle in such systems and to constrain the biogeochemical limits for remediation (e. g. Peine et al, 2000). In a similar approach, Beer & Blodau (2007) were able to demonstrate that constraints on the removal of products from acetoclastic methanogenesis in deeper peat layers are inhibiting organic matter decomposition and provide a thermodynamic argument for peat accumulation. In this contribution I will review such ideas and further refine the limits and potentials of biogeochemical reactions in terms of redox-active metastable phases (RAMPS) that are typically mixed-valent carbon-, iron-, and sulfur-containing compounds and which allow for the occurrence of a number of enigmatic reactions, e. g. limited greenhouse gas emission (CH4) under dynamic redox conditions. It is proposed that redox equivalents are generated, stored and recycled during oxidation and reduction cycles thus suppressing methanogenesis (Blodau, 2002). Such RAMPS will preferentially occur at dynamic interfaces being exposed to frequent redox cycles. The concept of RAMPS will be illustrated along the interaction between ferric (hydr)oxides and dissolved sulphide. Recent studies using modern analytical tools revealed the formation of a number of amorphous products within a short time scale (days) both

  3. ELECTRON IRRADIATION AND THERMAL PROCESSING OF MIXED-ICES OF POTENTIAL RELEVANCE TO JUPITER TROJAN ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Hodyss, Robert; Blacksberg, Jordana; Carlson, Robert W.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Choukroun, Mathieu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, Michael E.; Eiler, John M., E-mail: Mahjoub.Ahmed@jpl.nasa.gov [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    In this work we explore the chemistry that occurs during the irradiation of ice mixtures on planetary surfaces, with the goal of linking the presence of specific chemical compounds to their formation locations in the solar system and subsequent processing by later migration inward. We focus on the outer solar system and the chemical differences for ice mixtures inside and outside the stability line for H{sub 2}S. We perform a set of experiments to explore the hypothesis advanced by Wong and Brown that links the color bimodality in Jupiter's Trojans to the presence of H{sub 2}S in the surface of their precursors. Non-thermal (10 keV electron irradiation) and thermally driven chemistry of CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O (“without H{sub 2}S”) and H{sub 2}S–CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O (“with H{sub 2}S”) ices were examined. Mid-IR analyses of ice and mass spectrometry monitoring of the volatiles released during heating show a rich chemistry in both of the ice mixtures. The “with H{sub 2}S” mixture experiment shows a rapid consumption of H{sub 2}S molecules and production of OCS molecules after a few hours of irradiation. The heating of the irradiated “with H{sub 2}S” mixture to temperatures above 120 K leads to the appearance of new infrared bands that we provisionally assign to SO{sub 2}and CS. We show that radiolysis products are stable under the temperature and irradiation conditions of Jupiter Trojan asteroids. This makes them suitable target molecules for potential future missions as well as telescope observations with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also suggest the consideration of sulfur chemistry in the theoretical modeling aimed at understanding the chemical composition of Trojans and KOBs.

  4. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Harrington

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion''. This model report provides direct inputs to

  5. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Harrington

    2004-10-25

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit

  6. Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zarmina Gillani; Nuzhat Huma; Aysha Sameen; Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

    2017-01-01

    Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturati...

  7. Additive Manufacturing Technologies Used for Processing Polymers: Current Status and Potential Application in Prosthetic Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-León, Marta; Özcan, Mutlu

    2018-04-22

    There are 7 categories of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, and a wide variety of materials can be used to build a CAD 3D object. The present article reviews the main AM processes for polymers for dental applications: stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), material jetting (MJ), and material extrusion (ME). The manufacturing process, accuracy, and precision of these methods will be reviewed, as well as their prosthodontic applications. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions of industrial process technologies. Saving potentials, barriers and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Schlomann, Barbara; Eichhammer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Which contribution can the increase of energy efficiency achieve in the industry energy for the energy transition in Germany? To answer this question a model-based analysis of existing energy efficiency potentials of the energy-intensive industries is performed, which account for about 70% of the total energy demand of the industry. Based on this industry for each sector are instruments proposed for the implementation of the calculated potential and to overcome the existing barriers. [de

  9. The potential of optimized process design to advance LCA performance of algae production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Perez-Lopez, P.; Breitmayer, E.; Slegers, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact is an essential aspect for the introduction of algae production systems. As information of large scale algae production is hardly available, process simulation is the only way to evaluate environmental sustainability in an early phase of process design. Simulation results allow

  10. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  11. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent

  12. Motivation by potential gains and losses affects control processes via different mechanisms in the attentional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Lena M; Walter, Henrik; Steimke, Rosa; Ludwig, Vera U; Gaschler, Robert; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Attentional control in demanding cognitive tasks can be improved by manipulating the motivational state. Motivation to obtain gains and motivation to avoid losses both usually result in faster reaction times and stronger activation in relevant brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about differences in the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these types of motivation in an attentional control context. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether potential gain and loss as motivating incentives lead to overlapping or distinct neural effects in the attentional network, and whether one of these conditions is more effective than the other. A Flanker task with word stimuli as targets and distracters was performed by 115 healthy participants. Using a mixed blocked and event-related design allowed us to investigate transient and sustained motivation-related effects. Participants could either gain money (potential gain) or avoid losing money (potential loss) in different task blocks. Participants showed a congruency effect with increased reaction times for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Potential gain led to generally faster responses compared to the neutral condition and to stronger improvements than potential loss. Potential loss also led to shorter response times compared to the neutral condition, but participants improved mainly during incongruent and not during congruent trials. The event-related fMRI data revealed a main effect of congruency with increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), bilateral insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and visual word form area (VWFA). While potential gain led to increased activity in a cluster of the IFJ and the VWFA only during incongruent trials, potential loss was linked to activity increases in these regions during incongruent and congruent trials. The

  13. Key decisions in a generic process for disposition of buildings that have actual or potential radiological contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spesard, A.; Donavan, K.; Bowden, B.; Crane, L.; Jensen, G.; Fox, K.L.; Goodwin, R.; Vandegrift, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Cleanup Standards Committee, formed within the Ohio Federal Facilities Forum, focuses on addressing issues related to cleanup levels and standards. To facilitate decision-making for the disposition of buildings that have potential or actual radiological contamination, the Cleanup Standards Committee developed a process to support building disposition decisions. This process is needed for two reasons: (1) due to changing missions, an increasing number of buildings on federal properties require disposition, and (2) current federal initiatives encourage the transfer of buildings and land for reuse and economic redevelopment. Since the committee developed this process using a teaming effort, the process reflects the experience, expertise, and opinions of committee members and other individuals with a broad range of experience and knowledge. The Generic Process for the Disposition of Buildings that have Potential or Actual Radiological Contamination is intended for use by Federal Facilities responsible for the cleanup of buildings at sites that have radiological process history. This process provides (1) a framework and supporting implementation guidelines for evaluating buildings that have actual or potential radiological contamination, and (2) a process for making building disposition decisions. This paper outlines on the key decision points and the associated data requirements of the process. Specifically, this paper focuses on the following decisions: Which decision-makers are appropriate to involve in the building disposition process; What is the preferred disposition of a building; What criteria are applicable for unconditional release; Is there sufficient existing information to proceed with disposition of a building; What level of survey is appropriate to determine and/or implement a preferred disposition of a building; and how are uncertainties addressed when implementing a building disposition

  14. The BGL coal gasification process - development status, operational experience and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.R.; Brown, D.J.; H. Hirschfelder [Advantica Technologies Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The BGL gasifier's fixed bed mode of operation makes for significant operational differences to the various entrained flow bed gasification processes currently available, whilst the slagging lower half offers considerable advantages over older processes in terms of efficiency and steam usage. This paper reviews operating experience of the BGL process on a variety of feedstocks and presents economic and technical assessments of the application of the BGL gasifier for IGCC, Syngas and SNG applications under current market conditions. Finally there a survey of the status of new BGL gasification projects and the scope of the current BGL technology is offering. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

  15. Tecnored process - high potential in using different kinds of solid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Noldin Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of the Brazilian Tecnored ironmaking process is its flexibility to use different types of solid fuels, other than metallurgical coke, as proved in the pilot plant tests by extensively using green petroleum coke, biomasses, high ash cokes, etc. Even if new solid fuels not thus far used are envisaged for a given project, thru the bench scale simulator of the process it is possible to predict the behavior of such solid fuels in the Tecnored furnace and establish the best techno-economical-environmental equation for its use. This paper discusses the key aspects involved in the use of alternative solid fuels in the Tecnored process.

  16. Approximation of theoretical energy-saving potentials for the petrochemical industry using energy balances for 68 key processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, Maarten; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis; Haije, Wim; Bach, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    We prepared energy and carbon balances for 68 petrochemical processes in the petrochemical industry for Western Europe, the Netherlands and the world. We analysed the process energy use in relation to the heat effects of the chemical reactions and quantified in this way the sum of all energy inputs into the processes that do not end up in the useful products of the process, but are lost as waste heat to the environment. We showed that both process energy use and heat effects of reaction contribute significantly to the overall energy loss of the processes studied and recommend addressing reaction effects explicitly in energy-efficiency studies. We estimated the energy loss in Western Europe in the year 2000 at 1620 PJ of final energy and 1936 PJ of primary energy, resulting in a total of 127 Mt CO 2 . The losses identified can be regarded as good approximations of the theoretical energy-saving potentials of the processes analysed. The processes with large energy losses in relative (per tonne of product) and absolute (in PJ per year) terms are recommended for more detailed analysis taking into account further thermodynamic, economic, and practical considerations to identify technical and economic energy-saving potentials

  17. High pressure processing of bivalve shellfish and HPP's potential use as a virus intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan ...

  18. High pressure processing's potential to inactivate norovirus and other fooodborne viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate human norovirus. However, all viruses are not equally susceptible to HPP. Pressure treatment parameters such as required pressure levels, initial pressurization temperatures, and pressurization times substantially affect inactivation. How food matrix ...

  19. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Harald T. Schupp; Ursula Kirmse; Ralf Schmälzle; Tobias Flaisch; Britta Renner

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depi...

  20. Online NIR diagnostic of laser welding processes and its potential for quality assuring sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Friedhelm; Braun, Holger; Keβler, Steffen; Pfitzner, Dieter; Rominger, Volker

    2014-02-01

    We have integrated an imaging thermographic sensor into commercial welding optics for observation of the weld zone. Key element of the sensor is an InGaAs-camera that detects the thermal radiation of the welding process in the wavelength range of 1,200 to 1,700 nm. This is well suited to record images of the keyhole, the melt pool and the thermal trace. The sensor was integrated to the welding heads for on-axis observation to minimize the interfering contour to ensure easy adaption to industrial processes. The welding heads used were established industrial-grade TRUMPF optics: a BEO fixed optics with 280 mm focal length, or a TRUMPF PFO-3D scanner optics with 450 mm focal length. We used a TRUMPF TruDisk 16002 16kW-thin disk laser that transmits its power through a 200 μm core diameter light cable. The images were recorded and features of the various process zones were evaluated by image processing. It turns out that almost all weld faults can be clearly detected in the NIR images. Quantitative features like the dimension of the melt pool and the thermal trace can be derived from the captured images. They are correlated to process input parameters as well as to process results. In contrast to observation in the visible spectrum the NIR camera records the melt pool without auxiliary illumination. As an unrivaled attribute of the NIR sensor it supports an online heat flow thermography of the seam and allows identifying missing fusion ("false friends") of lap joints virtually during the welding process. Automated weld fault detection and documentation is possible by online image processing which sets the basis for comprehensive data documentation for quality assurance and traceability.

  1. Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-08-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialised scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurisation. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, % polymeric colour, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples. Jam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (P < 0.05). Individual anthocyanin contents, determined using HPLC analysis, also showed a significant decrease (∼99% loss). In contrast, % recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS assay) increased after jam processing (16%, 12%, and 37%, respectively). Fruit processing resulted in losses of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of black mulberry jam. Optimisation of food processing could help to protect the phenolic compounds in fruits which might be helpful for the food industry to minimise the antioxidant loss and improve the final product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Visual processing of music notation: a study of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Horng-Yih; Wang, Yu-Sin

    2011-04-01

    In reading music, the acquisition of pitch information depends mostly on the spatial position of notes, hence more spatial processing, whereas the acquisition of temporal information depends mostly on the visual features of notes and object recognition. This study used both electrophysiological and behavioral methods to compare the processing of pitch and duration in reading single musical notes. It was observed that in the early stage of note reading, identification of pitch could elicit greater N1 and N2 amplitude than identification of duration at the parietal lobe electrodes. In the later stages of note reading, identifying pitch elicited a greater negative slow wave at parietal electrodes than did identifying note duration. The sustained contribution of parietal processes for pitch suggests that the dorsal pathway is essential for pitch processing. However, the duration task did not elicit greater amplitude of any early ERP components than the pitch task at temporal electrodes. Accordingly, a double dissociation, suggesting involvement of the dorsal visual stream, was not observed in spatial pitch processing and ventral visual stream in processing of note durations.

  3. Compressed-air energy storage: Commercialization potential and EPRI roles in the commercialization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics.

  4. RISE AND ACQUISITIONS FINANCIAL POTENTIAL IN THE RESTRUCTURING PROCESS OF CORPORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alekseienko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic conceptual foundations of financial potential mergers and acquisitions, as factors of corporations external growth are investigated, existing approaches to the concept of restructuring are generalized, necessary components of the absorption capacity of the corporation are defined.

  5. Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative nat...

  6. Phosphorus Recovery from a Water Reservoir–Potential of Nanofiltration Coupled to Electrodialytic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, N.; Guedes, P.; Mateus, E. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide waste streams can represent an environmental problem if they are considered “deleterious material”. These streams may also be a source of secondary resources when enclosing compounds with potential to be recovered. Phosphorus (P) is one of those, with an increasing interest, as it is es...

  7. Implicit Phonological and Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednorog, K.; Marchewka, A.; Tacikowski, P.; Grabowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls.…

  8. IMMUNOTOXICOGENOMICS: THE POTENTIAL OF GENOMICS TECHNOLOGY IN THE IMMUNOTOXICITY RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of xenobiotic-induced changes in gene expression as a method to identify and classify potential toxicants is being pursued by industry and regulatory agencies worldwide. A workshop was held at the Research Triangle Park campus of the Environmental Protection Agency to...

  9. Evaluating the potential for scoping in the Ontario environmental assessment process. Manuscript report No. MR23-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattrysse, L F

    1990-01-01

    Boundary setting and focusing were identified as problems encountered in the Halton Region environmental assessment (EA) study and in other experiences with the Ontario process. This study was conducted to examine the nature of the problems encountered in the Ontario EA process using the Halton Region EA example; evaluate the potential for utilizing the Everitt and Colnett (1987) scoping method with the Ontario EA process according to the set of normative principles adapted from Ross et al. (1986); and establish some fundamental problems and prerequisites for operationalizing scoping mechanisms.

  10. Determination of fluorine by proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) spectrometry in igneous and metamorphic charnockitic rocks from Rogaland (S.W. Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J.M.; Duchesne, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    More than 200 specimens from different occurrences of the Rogaland igneous complex and surrounding granulite facies metamorphic rocks (S.W. Norway) have been analysed by a direct non-destructive proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) technique. The fluorine contents vary from < 25 ppm to 3500 ppm. There is a good correlation between the concentration of fluorine and that of phosphorus for igneous rocks, suggesting a control of apatite on the F content. In metamorphic rocks, amphibole and biotite besides apatite are the principal concentrations of fluorine indicating that fluorine in the system is controlled by granulite facies metamorphism conditions. (author)

  11. Grains of Nonferrous and Noble Metals in Iron-Manganese Formations and Igneous Rocks of Submarine Elevations of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, O. N.; Astakhova, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    Iron-manganese formations and igneous rocks of submarine elevations in the Sea of Japan contain overlapping mineral phases (grains) with quite identical morphology, localization, and chemical composition. Most of the grains conform to oxides, intermetallic compounds, native elements, sulfides, and sulfates in terms of the set of nonferrous, noble, and certain other metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb, Ni, Mo, Ag, Pd, and Pt). The main conclusion that postvolcanic hydrothermal fluids are the key sources of metals is based upon a comparison of the data of electron microprobe analysis of iron-manganese formations and igneous rocks dredged at the same submarine elevations in the Sea of Japan.

  12. The Role of Character in the Hiring Process: A Pilot Study Survey of College Seniors' Potential Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Proemmel, Elizabeth; McDivitt, Sarah; Evens, Jennifer; Gibbs, Lew

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 31 prospective employers (65% response rate) regarding their views on character as part of the employment selection process. The results showed character qualities superordinate, relative to skills that prospective employees bring to potential jobs. We discuss survey results in light of business educators' responsibility for helping…

  13. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Hein T.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mars, Rogier B.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  14. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  15. On the potential and economic feasibility of solar industrial process-heat applications in selected Turkish industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdogan, S.; Arikol, M.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the potential and economic feasibility of solar, industrial process-heat applications in the Turkish food, textile and chemical industries. The study covers 18 sites and end-use temperatures up to 120 and 150 o C. A solar system composed of parabolic troughs without thermal storage is chosen. The system size investigated is 500 to 20,000m 2 . (author)

  16. Adolescent transformations of behavioral and neural processes as potential targets for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldreth, Dana; Hardin, Michael G; Pavletic, Nevia; Ernst, Monique

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period in development that is marked by a distinct, typical behavioral profile of high rates of exploration, novelty-seeking, and emotional lability. While these behaviors generally assist the adolescent transition to independence, they can also confer vulnerability for excessive risk-taking and psychopathology, particularly in the context of specific environmental or genetic influences. As prevention research depends on the identification of targets of vulnerability, the following review will discuss the interplay among motivational systems including reward-related, avoidance-related, and regulatory processes in typical and atypical adolescent development. Each set of processes will be discussed in relation to their underlying neural correlates and distinct developmental trajectories. Evidence suggests that typical adolescent behavior and the risk for atypical development are mediated by heightened adolescent responsiveness of reward-related and avoidance-related systems under specific conditions, concurrent with poor modulation by immature regulatory processes. Finally, we will propose strategies to exploit heightened reward processing to reinforce inhibitory control, which is an essential component of regulatory processes in prevention interventions.

  17. Modern-Day Demographic Processes in Central Europe and Their Potential Interactions with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bański, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of contemporary transformations in the population of Central European countries on climate change, in addition to singling out the primary points of interaction between demographic processes and the climate. In analyzing the interactions between climate and demographics, we can formulate three basic hypotheses regarding the region in question: 1) as a result of current demographic trends in Central Europe, the influence of the region on its climate will probably diminish, 2) the importance of the "climatically displaced" in global migratory movements will increase, and some of those concerned will move to Central Europe, 3) the contribution of the region to global food security will increase. In the last decade most of what comprises the region of Central Europe has reported a decline in population growth and a negative migration balance. As a process, this loss of population may have a positive effect on the environment and the climate. We can expect ongoing climate change to intensify migration processes, particularly from countries outside Europe. Interactions between climate and demographic processes can also be viewed in the context of food security. The global warming most sources foresee for the coming decades is the process most likely to result in spatial polarization of food production in agriculture. Central Europe will then face the challenge of assuring and improving food security, albeit this time on a global scale.

  18. The effects of supervised learning on event-related potential correlates of music-syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuang; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-11-11

    Humans process music even without conscious effort according to implicit knowledge about syntactic regularities. Whether such automatic and implicit processing is modulated by veridical knowledge has remained unknown in previous neurophysiological studies. This study investigates this issue by testing whether the acquisition of veridical knowledge of a music-syntactic irregularity (acquired through supervised learning) modulates early, partly automatic, music-syntactic processes (as reflected in the early right anterior negativity, ERAN), and/or late controlled processes (as reflected in the late positive component, LPC). Excerpts of piano sonatas with syntactically regular and less regular chords were presented repeatedly (10 times) to non-musicians and amateur musicians. Participants were informed by a cue as to whether the following excerpt contained a regular or less regular chord. Results showed that the repeated exposure to several presentations of regular and less regular excerpts did not influence the ERAN elicited by less regular chords. By contrast, amplitudes of the LPC (as well as of the P3a evoked by less regular chords) decreased systematically across learning trials. These results reveal that late controlled, but not early (partly automatic), neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing are modulated by repeated exposure to a musical piece. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F

    2014-01-01

    and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via...... the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter...

  20. Hydrothermal alteration in the Matok Igneous Complex, Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, T.; Van Reenen, D.D.; Barton, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ductile shear zones associated with the 2700 to 2650 Ma Limpopo Orogeny locally contained gold mineralization. Some of these shear zones were reactivated under brittle conditions and contain zones of hydrothermal alteration that are of potential economic significance. Within the approximately 2670 Ma Matok Complex, two examples of this shear zone controlled alteration are exposed, the Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones. The granitic rocks of this Complex experienced early selective sericitization of plagioclase and the subsequent development of perthitic porphyroblasts. This early regional alteration was overprinted along brittle shear zones by pervasive propylitization and vein controlled quartz-albite alteration. The setting, composition, and the age of the Matok Complex make it a possible source for Archaean gold mineralization. The Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones are characterized by the absence of significant gold mineralization. The pattern of wall-rock alteration indicates that the hydrothermal processes were different from typical Archaean lode gold deposits. P-T conditions during the shear-zone controlled alteration were less than 400 degrees C and 1,9 - 2,8 kb. The shear zone hosted alteration could have taken place anytime between emplacement of the Matok Complex and about 1315 Ma ago. 35 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Study of the potential use of carburized niobium in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carburized refractory metals, especially tantalum, have been shown to possess properties useful for application as hardware in the plutonium-processing environment. These applications are driven in part by a desire to minimize the production of radioactively contaminated waste. The current use of ceramics as containment materials for Pu processing are not ideal due to the short service life of the hardware, placing an additional burden on the contaminated waste stream. Carburized niobium has been examined for use as an improved hardware material. The Nb-C system is analogous to the previously studied Ta-C system. The low density of niobium relative to tantalum will improve the ergonomics of the glovebox environment. The choice of the Nb-C system will be supported by a thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. Preliminary results of the processing investigation also will be presented

  2. An exploratory study on the potential value add of social networking to the Entrepreneurial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonites

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely established in scientific literature that entrepreneurship directly contributes to both employment generation and economic growth. Entrepreneurship is said to be subject to a very specific process which includes opportunity recognition, resource allocation, innovation and networking. Networking specifically, is an essential part of the entrepreneurial process as it is employed to assist entrepreneurs to capitalise on opportunities, allocate resources, find ways to innovate and contest ambiguity. With the advent of Web 2.0 and online social networking platforms the way in which people exchange information and network has changed significantly and has spawned a new social culture on a global level. The purpose of this study is to examine the value that online social networking adds to the entrepreneurial process, specifically focussing on the South African landscape. Keywords and phrases: Entrepreneurship; Networking; Social capital; Social networking; Social media

  3. The potential of artificial aging for modelling of natural aging processes of ballpoint ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyermann, Céline; Spengler, Bernhard

    2008-08-25

    Artificial aging has been used to reproduce natural aging processes in an accelerated pace. Questioned documents were exposed to light or high temperature in a well-defined manner in order to simulate an increased age. This may be used to study the aging processes or to date documents by reproducing their aging curve. Ink was studied especially because it is deposited on the paper when a document, such as a contract, is produced. Once on the paper, aging processes start through degradation of dyes, solvents drying and resins polymerisation. Modelling of dye's and solvent's aging was attempted. These processes, however, follow complex pathways, influenced by many factors which can be classified as three major groups: ink composition, paper type and storage conditions. The influence of these factors is such that different aging states can be obtained for an identical point in time. Storage conditions in particular are difficult to simulate, as they are dependent on environmental conditions (e.g. intensity and dose of light, temperature, air flow, humidity) and cannot be controlled in the natural aging of questioned documents. The problem therefore lies more in the variety of different conditions a questioned document might be exposed to during its natural aging, rather than in the simulation of such conditions in the laboratory. Nevertheless, a precise modelling of natural aging curves based on artificial aging curves is obtained when performed on the same paper and ink. A standard model for aging processes of ink on paper is therefore presented that is based on a fit of aging curves to a power law of solvent concentrations as a function of time. A mathematical transformation of artificial aging curves into modelled natural aging curves results in excellent overlap with data from real natural aging processes.

  4. Potential for radiation processing as a technique for the conservation of the environment in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbedemah, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental pollution in developing countries such as Ghana transcend many fields of human activity. Rivers that serve urban communities as sources of potable water encounter challenges of pollution as a result of agricultural, industrial and domestic activity. The wood processing industry leaves in its trail huge amounts of sawdust. Urban sewage also creates environmental problems if not managed adequately. Contaminated imported foods become sources for the introduction of new microflora into developing countries. Such new microflora can result in health problems in such societies. This paper discusses the enormity of these problems in Ghana with a proposal for minimising them by the application of radiation processing technology

  5. Microbial processes in North Atlantic pelagic sediments, and potential risks of deep-sea waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolliger, R.; Hanselmann, K.W.; Bachofen, R.

    1989-01-01

    From the results for waste disposal on deep sea sediments, it was concluded: As waste canisters are buried in the sediment to a depth of 15 to 20 cm, they are in contact with the zone that contains the highest potential bacterial activity through a relatively large surface. An input of oxidizable organic matter to the sediment surface zone will stimulate microbial activity and therefore increase the risk for solubilization and redistribution of elements in the ocean water. Waste canisters lying on the sediment surface cut off the oxygen supply from the ocean water and ease the shift to anaerobiosis. This initiates microbial activities through which metals are changed into their mobile species as a consequence of the altered environmental redox potential. The risk for steel corrosion by hydrogen sulfide, which could be produced by sulfate reducing bacteria, is minimal since this physiological group is not active in the North Atlantic sediments examined

  6. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Potential: Simulation of Lab and Industrial-Scale Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan Hamawand; Craig Baillie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simulation was carried out using BioWin 3.1 to test the capability of the software to predict the biogas potential for two different anaerobic systems. The two scenarios included: (1) a laboratory-scale batch reactor; and (2) an industrial-scale anaerobic continuous lagoon digester. The measured data related to the operating conditions, the reactor design parameters and the chemical properties of influent wastewater were entered into BioWin. A sensitivity analysis was carried...

  7. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Massé, Daniel I.; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of ana...

  8. Hydrogen Isotopes in Amino Acids and Soils Offer New Potential to Study Complex Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.; Williams, E. K.; Bradley, C. J.; Griffin, P.; Nakamoto, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopes have been analyzed extensively in the earth and biogeosciences to trace water through various environmental systems. The majority of the measurements have been made on water in rocks and minerals (inorganic) or non-exchangeable H in lipids (organic), important biomarkers that represent a small fraction of the organic molecules synthesized by living organisms. Our lab has been investigating hydrogen isotopes in amino acids and complex soil organic matter, which have traditionally been thought to be too complex to interpret owing to complications from potentially exchangeable hydrogen. For the amino acids, we show how hydrogen in amino acids originates from two sources, food and water, and demonstrate that hydrogen isotopes can be routed directly between organisms. Amino acid hydrogen isotopes may unravel cycling in extremophiles in order to discover novel biochemical pathways central to the organism. For soil organic matter, recent approaches to understanding the origin of soil organic matter are pointing towards root exudates along with microbial biomass as the source, rather than aboveground leaf litter. Having an isotope tracer in very complex, potentially exchangeable organic matter can be handled with careful experimentation. Although no new instrumentation is being used per se, extension of classes of organic matter to isotope measurements has potential to open up new doors for understanding organic matter cycling on earth and in planetary materials.

  9. Armillaria species: Primary drivers of forest ecosystem processes and potential impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Sara M. Ashiglar; Geral I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Species of the fungal genus Armillaria are pervasive in forest soils and are associated with widely ranging tree species of diverse forests worldwide (Baumgartner et al., 2011). As primary decay drivers of ecosystem processes, Armillaria species exhibit diverse ecological behaviors, ranging from virulent root and/or butt pathogens of diverse woody hosts, such as timber...

  10. The Effect of Industrial Food Processing on Potentially Health-beneficial Tomato Antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing desires from both consumers and producers to understand better which nutritive components are present in our food and how these are influenced by industrial processing strategies is resulting in extra research involving the use of state-of-the-art technologies to generate novel

  11. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    general disturbance‐induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well‐defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta‐analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through...

  12. Processing black mulberry into jam: Effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and

  13. Potential aflatoxin and ochratoxin a production by Aspergillus species in poultry feed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, M E; Curvello, F; Gatti, M J; Cavaglieri, L R; Dalcero, A M; da Rocha Rosa, C A

    2007-04-01

    Poultry feeds are prone to fungal growth and mycotoxin production during processing. The identification of biota with the ability to produce mycotoxins is essential. The aims of this study were (1) to monitor the mycobiota counts at different stages of poultry feed processing; (2) to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus species; (3) to evaluate the natural incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The ability of Aspergillus spp. and its teleomorphs isolated here to produce these toxins was also investigated. Samples (144) were collected at random from a factory in Brazil. The occurrence of Aspergillus and Eurotium species was demonstrated on DRBC and DG18 media and the production of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their natural incidence were determined by TLC and HPLC methods. A. flavus and E. chevalieri were the most prevalent species isolated. Fungal contamination was not found after the pelleting process, though Aspergillus and Eurotium species were recovered from trough samples. High levels of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A producers were found at all stages of poultry feed processing. Also, high natural contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was found in the samples. Contact of feed with remainder poultry feed could lead to fungal contamination, so the risk of aflatoxin and/or ochratoxin A contamination of feed must be taken into account.

  14. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A T W M; van Lier, J B; de Kreuk, M K

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES POTENTIALLY STREAMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Halutin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models in the electrical parameters of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries are developed. The developed model parameters (discharge mode are identified out of family of discharging curve. By using of the parameters of this model we get the numerically model of lithium-ion battery.

  16. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study on hydrotreatment of ligno-cellulosic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) bio-crude to achieve a bio-feed compatible for co-processing at a refinery was made to investigate the effect of operating temperature, pressure and hydrogen to oil ratio. Using a conventional NiMo/Al2O3 h...

  17. Endeavor research into evolving paradigms around ophiolites: the case of the oceanic igneous complexes of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Denyer, Perci; Gazel, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the radiolarite igneous (ophiolitic) complexes were done for more than one century in Costa Rica that range from Jurassic to Eocene. These studies can be grouped in four stages of knowledge: 1) from 1904 to 1957 were recognized the cherts, and the mafic and ultramafic igneous complexes, the first regional maps were done, and the first time were recognized ellipsoidal basalts, now widely known as pillow lavas. 2) From 1958 to 1978 the complexes were seen under the concept of the association of ophiolites (serpentine, gabbro, diabase, basalts, and related rocks) and interpreted the radiolarites as deep-sea sediments. The stage is characterized by the seminal work of Gabriel Dengo and by the first geochemical analyses in the framework of the plate tectonics. 3) A huge amount of geochemical data, paleontological and K/Ar ages were published from 1979 to 1994 and it was the stage of more controversial papers, their interpretation varied for the same locality (i.e. (Nicoya Peninsula) from relative simple stratigraphic model to a very complex nappe slices, and from a simple tectonic evolution (in situ and formed by a mid oceanic ridge volcanism) to a multistage evolution (terrains, and mid oceanic ridge, aseismic ridge, intraplate and island arc volcanism). The situation was similar in the other Costa Rican oceanic complexes. 4) The outlook for 1995 to the present it has been clarified and mutual agreement between the different groups. The stage is characterized by joint collaboration, the use of modern laboratory techniques as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes, major, trace and complete rare earth elements. 40A r/ 39 Ar dating, and volcanological criteria, together with detailed field mapping. The main new result of these studies was that the radiolarites (164-84 Ma) in the Nicoya Peninsula were significatively older than the basic igneous rocks (140-84 Ma), indicating a complex magmatic event intruding and erupting into the thick sedimentary sequence. For other areas

  18. Image processing of airborne geophysical data: a potential exploration tool for atomic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanti Kumar, C.; Bhairam, C.L.; Kak, S.N.; Achar, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    Data sets obtained from airborne gamma-ray spectrometric (AGRS) and aeromagnetic (AM) surveys, after necessary correction, are usually presented as profiles or as contour maps for interpretation in mineral exploration and geological analysis. Currently, imaging of the geophysical data sets have been extensively used as they have many advantages in their usage compared to conventional techniques. For the application of image processing techniques to the AGRS and AM data, software programs were customized for converting the digital data compatible to the satellite image processing system (SIPS). The geophysical data has been imaged and rectified to a poly conic projection, using cubic convolution resampling technique. While imaging, the radioelemental concentration values are rescaled to 256 grey levels. Software for the statistical information of radioelements and printing of coloured paper image have also been developed. Some of the image processing techniques used include, generation of colour composite images for preparing radioelemental (eU,eTh, and K) images and radioelemental colour composite images (K,eTh, eU) enabling display of a combined radioelemental distribution. Aeromagnetic data on the other hand are displayed in grey tone, pseudo-colours, and shaded relief images. Many other image enhancement techniques used for improving the display for further interpretation comprise, band ratioing, band combinations, filtering, look up table manipulation, and other similar functions. Advanced image processing techniques such as the principal component analysis (PCA) for understanding the geochemical and geological phenomena and the hue saturation and intensity (HSI) transformation for integration of radioelemental data with its corresponding satellite images facilitated display of radioelemental images draped over the satellite image. Statistics of radioelement and inter-elemental relationship has been obtained. The paper deals with the methodology adopted in the

  19. Early Cretaceous high-Ti and low-Ti mafic magmatism in Southeastern Tibet: Insights into magmatic evolution of the Comei Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaying; Zeng, Lingsen; Asimow, Paul D.; Gao, Li-E.; Ma, Chi; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Guo, Chunli; Hou, Kejun; Tang, Suohan

    2018-01-01

    The Dala diabase intrusion, at the southeastern margin of the Yardoi gneiss dome, is located within the outcrop area of the 132 Ma Comei Large Igneous Province (LIP), the result of initial activity of the Kerguelen plume. We present new zircon U-Pb geochronology results to show that the Dala diabase was emplaced at 132 Ma and geochemical data (whole-rock element and Sr-Nd isotope ratios, zircon Hf isotopes and Fe-Ti oxide mineral chemistry) to confirm that the Dala diabase intrusion is part of the Comei LIP. The Dala diabase can be divided into a high-Mg/low-Ti series and a low-Mg/high-Ti series. The high-Mg/low-Ti series represents more primitive mafic magma compositions that we demonstrate are parental to the low-Mg/high-Ti series. Fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene, followed by plagioclase within the low-Mg series, lead to systematic changes in concentrations of mantle compatible elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and V), REEs, HFSEs, and major elements such as Ti and P. Some Dala samples from the low-Mg/high-Ti series contain large ilmenite clusters and show extreme enrichment of Ti with elevated Ti/Y ratios, likely due to settling and accumulation of ilmenite during the magma chamber evolution. However, most samples from throughout the Comei LIP follow the Ti-evolution trend of the typical liquid line of descent (LLD) of primary OIB compositions, showing strong evidence of control of Ti contents by differentiation processes. In many other localities, however, primitive magmas are absent and observed Ti contents of evolved magmas cannot be quantitatively related to source processes. Careful examination of the petrogenetic relationship between co-existing low-Ti and high-Ti mafic rocks is essential to using observed rock chemistry to infer source composition, location, and degree of melting.

  20. Image processing by computer analysis--potential use and application in civil and criminal litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T W

    1990-01-01

    The image processing by computer analysis has established a data base for applications in the industrial world. Testing has proved that the same system can provide documentation and evidence in all facets of modern day life. The medicolegal aspects in civil and criminal litigation are no exception. The primary function of the image processing system is to derive all of the information available from the image being processed. The process will extract this information in an unbiased manner, based solely on the physics of reflected light energy. The computer will analyze this information and present it in pictorial form, with mathematical data to support the form presented. This information can be presented in the courtroom with full credibility as an unbiased, reliable witness. New scientific techniques shown in the courtroom are subject to their validity being proven. Past imaging techniques shown in the courtroom have made the conventional rules of evidence more difficult because of the different informational content and format required for presentation of these data. I believe the manner in which the evidence can now be presented in pictorial form will simplify the acceptance. Everyone, including the layman, the judge, and the jury, will be able to identify and understand the implications of the before and after changes to the image being presented. In this article, I have mentioned just some of the ways in which image processing by computer analysis can be useful in civil and criminal litigation areas: existing photographic evidence; forensic reconstruction; correlation of effect evidence with cause of evidence; medical records as legal protection; providing evidence of circumstance of death; child abuse, with tracking over time to prevent death; investigation of operating room associated deaths; detection of blood at the scene of the crime and on suspected objects; use of scales at the scene of the crime; providing medicolegal evidence beyond today

  1. Manifestation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model on Fire Potential Zonation Mapping in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar Chhetri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning.

  2. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  3. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Heuristic and analytic processes in reasoning: an event-related potential study of belief bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Adrian P; Hope, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Human reasoning involves both heuristic and analytic processes. This study of belief bias in relational reasoning investigated whether the two processes occur serially or in parallel. Participants evaluated the validity of problems in which the conclusions were either logically valid or invalid and either believable or unbelievable. Problems in which the conclusions presented a conflict between the logically valid response and the believable response elicited a more positive P3 than problems in which there was no conflict. This shows that P3 is influenced by the interaction of belief and logic rather than either of these factors on its own. These findings indicate that belief and logic influence reasoning at the same time, supporting models in which belief-based and logical evaluations occur in parallel but not theories in which belief-based heuristic evaluations precede logical analysis.

  5. Ultrasonic velocity measurements- a potential sensor for intelligent processing of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkadesan, S.; Palanichamy, P.; Vasudevan, M.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Development of sensors based on Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques for on-line sensing of microstructure and properties requires a thorough knowledge on the relation between the sensing mechanism/measurement of an NDE technique and the microstructure. As a first step towards developing an on-line sensor for studying the dynamic microstructural changes during processing of austenitic stainless steels, ultrasonic velocity measurements have been carried out to study the microstructural changes after processing. Velocity measurements could follow the progress of annealing starting from recovery, onset and completion of recrystallization, sense the differences in the microstructure obtained after hot deformation and estimate the grain size. This paper brings out the relation between the sensing method based on ultrasonic velocity measurements and the microstructure in austenitic stainless steel. (author)

  6. Cognitive processes facilitated by contextual cueing: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schankin, Andrea; Schubö, Anna

    2009-05-01

    Finding a target in repeated search displays is faster than finding the same target in novel ones (contextual cueing). It is assumed that the visual context (the arrangement of the distracting objects) is used to guide attention efficiently to the target location. Alternatively, other factors, e.g., facilitation in early visual processing or in response selection, may play a role as well. In a contextual cueing experiment, participant's electrophysiological brain activity was recorded. Participants identified the target faster and more accurately in repeatedly presented displays. In this condition, the N2pc, a component reflecting the allocation of visual-spatial attention, was enhanced, indicating that attention was allocated more efficiently to those targets. However, also response-related processes, reflected by the LRP, were facilitated, indicating that guidance of attention cannot account for the entire contextual cueing benefit.

  7. The Potential of Self-reflection in the Learning Process of Collaborative negotiation Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal, Margarita

    In her doctoral thesis, Margarita Canal explores the value of self-reflection to facilitate the learning process of collaborative negotiation skills as well as how self-reflection as a mental capacity functions. She draws on theories of self-reflection from the higher and management education...... that reflection makes learning evident to both teachers and students. Moreover, the research sheds light on the understanding of reflection as a mental capacity, based on the conceptualization of the six psychic characteristics connected to it, namely: 1) making contact with oneself, 2) connecting to others, 3......) reality perspective, 4) understanding and expressing emotions, 5) balanced narcissism, and 6) change process. This knowledge constitutes a contribution that allows management teachers who use journaling, self-reflection, or learning portfolios to take into account students’ psychic characteristics...

  8. Organization of school work in focus: the limits of antidemocratic inheritance and potential of participatory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vieira Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically, democratic and participatory processes in the Brazilian society, and specifically in school, have been permeated by intermittences, weaknesses and resistances caused by multiple determinations. The text focuses on aspects concerningthe organization of education work through two lines of analysis: the first angle refers to the social constructs of structural and organic nature linked to relations of power andanti-democratic practices of the society in general. The second angle reference to a kindof ethnographic research, conducted within a public school in the Minas Gerais state. We seek to grasp the challenges on building practices and strategies in support of the participatory processes of the school community in the pedagogic project design and in the operation of the school board. We propose, with these analyses, to contribute withreflections on the status of teachers, as a subject, in the school organization throughconnections with work activities related to their everyday practice.

  9. Processing of biological waste. Ecological efficiency and potential; Behandlung von Bioabfaellen. Oekoeffizienz und Potenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitschke, Thorsten; Peche, Rene; Tronecker, Dieter; Kreibe, Siegfried [bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The sustainable usage of biological wastes has to be focused on the targets protection of resources and minimization of environmental impact. The only focus on the energy inventory is not sufficient. The following recommendations are summarized: separated bio-waste collection is usually more eco-efficient; the optimized bio-waste processing should be available according to the biodegradability; anaerobic degradation for biogas production and subsequent aerobic degradation of the fermentation product for compost can be combined; low-emission operational standards should be mandatory, innovation and investment should be promoted b reliable boundary conditions; ecological aspects should be equivalent to low-cost considerations; regulatory measures should be implemented for separated bio-waste collection and processing.

  10. Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marisa A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Steele-King, Clare G; Simister, Rachael; Bernardinelli, Oigres D; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Rezende, Camila A; Labate, Carlos A; Deazevedo, Eduardo R; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-18

    The search for promising and renewable sources of carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and other biorenewables has been stimulated by an increase in global energy demand in the face of growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security. In particular, interest has focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of abundant and sustainable feedstock for biorefineries. Here we investigate the potential of three Brazilian grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria brizantha), as well as bark residues from the harvesting of two commercial Eucalyptus clones (E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla) for biofuel production, and compare these to sugarcane bagasse. The effects of hot water, acid, alkaline and sulfite pretreatments (at increasing temperatures) on the chemical composition, morphology and saccharification yields of these different biomass types were evaluated. The average yield (per hectare), availability and general composition of all five biomasses were compared. Compositional analyses indicate a high level of hemicellulose and lignin removal in all grass varieties (including sugarcane bagasse) after acid and alkaline pretreatment with increasing temperatures, whilst the biomasses pretreated with hot water or sulfite showed little variation from the control. For all biomasses, higher cellulose enrichment resulted from treatment with sodium hydroxide at 130°C. At 180°C, a decrease in cellulose content was observed, which is associated with high amorphous cellulose removal and 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde production. Morphological analysis showed the effects of different pretreatments on the biomass surface, revealing a high production of microfibrillated cellulose on grass surfaces, after treatment with 1% sodium hydroxide at 130°C for 30 minutes. This may explain the higher hydrolysis yields resulting from these pretreatments, since these cellulosic nanoparticles can be easily accessed and cleaved by

  11. Exact Time-Dependent Exchange-Correlation Potential in Electron Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Lacombe, Lionel; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Maitra, Neepa T.

    2017-12-01

    We identify peak and valley structures in the exact exchange-correlation potential of time-dependent density functional theory that are crucial for time-resolved electron scattering in a model one-dimensional system. These structures are completely missed by adiabatic approximations that, consequently, significantly underestimate the scattering probability. A recently proposed nonadiabatic approximation is shown to correctly capture the approach of the electron to the target when the initial Kohn-Sham state is chosen judiciously, and it is more accurate than standard adiabatic functionals but ultimately fails to accurately capture reflection. These results may explain the underestimation of scattering probabilities in some recent studies on molecules and surfaces.

  12. Diabatic potential-optimized discrete variable representation: application to photodissociation process of the CO molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, Ana Carla P; Prudente, Frederico V; Vianna, Jose David M

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new numerically optimized discrete variable representation using eigenstates of diabatic Hamiltonians. This procedure provides an efficient method to solve non-adiabatic coupling problems since the generated basis sets take into account information on the diabatic potentials. The method is applied to the B 1 Σ + - D' 1 Σ + Rydberg-valence predissociation interaction in the CO molecule. Here we give an account of the discrete variable representation and present the procedure for the calculation of its optimized version, which we apply to obtain the total photodissociation cross sections of the CO molecule

  13. On the Performance Potential of Connection Fault-Tolerant Commit Processing in Mobile Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tome Dimovski; Pece Mitrevski

    2012-01-01

    Mobile inventory, mobile commerce, banking and/or commercial applications are some distinctive examples that increasingly use distributed transactions. It is inevitably harder to design efficient commit protocols, due to some intrinsic mobile environment limitations. A handful of protocols for transaction processing have been offered, but the majority considers only a limited number of communication models. We introduce an improved Connection Fault-Tolerant model and evaluate its performance ...

  14. Potential for improved extraction of tellurium as a byproduct of current copper mining processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S. M.; Spaleta, K. J.; Skidmore, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tellurium (Te) is classified as a critical element due to its increasing use in high technology applications, low average crustal abundance (3 μg kg-1), and primary source as a byproduct of copper extraction. Although Te can be readily recovered from copper processing, previous studies have estimated a 4 percent extraction efficiency, and few studies have addressed Te behavior during the entire copper extraction process. The goals of the present study are to perform a mass balance examining Te behavior during copper extraction and to connect these observations with mineralogy of Te-bearing phases which are essential first steps in devising ways to optimize Te recovery. Our preliminary mass balance results indicate that less than 3 percent of Te present in copper ore is recovered, with particularly high losses during initial concentration of copper ore minerals by flotation. Tellurium is present in the ore in telluride minerals (e.g., Bi-Te-S phases, altaite, and Ag-S-Se-Te phases identified using electron microprobe) with limited substitution into sulfide minerals (possibly 10 mg kg-1 Te in bulk pyrite and chalcopyrite). This work has also identified Te accumulation in solid-phase intermediate extraction products that could be further processed to recover Te, including smelter dusts (158 mg kg-1) and pressed anode slimes (2.7 percent by mass). In both the smelter dusts and anode slimes, X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that about two thirds of the Te is present as reduced tellurides. In anode slimes, electron microscopy shows that the remaining Te is present in an oxidized form in a complex Te-bearing oxidate phase also containing Pb, Cu, Ag, As, Sb, and S. These results clearly indicate that more efficient, increased recovery of Te may be possible, likely at minimal expense from operating copper processing operations, thereby providing more Te for manufacturing of products such as inexpensive high-efficiency solar panels.

  15. Boron isotopes at the catchment scale, a new potential tool to infer critical zone processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardet, J.; Noireaux, J.; Braun, J. J.; Riotte, J.; Louvat, P.; Bouchez, J.; Lemarchand, D.; Muddu, S.; Mohan Kumar, M.; Candaudap, F.

    2017-12-01

    Boron is a mid-mass element that has two isotopes, 10B and 11B. These isotopes are largely fractioned by a number of chemical, biological and physical processes. Boron as a great affinity for clays and is useful for life, making it a double tracer of critical zone processes. This study focuses on the Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory in South India. This is part of the French Research Infrastructure OZCAR and has benefited from the fruitful Indo-French collaboration (Indo-French Cell for Water Sciences) for more that 15 years. Boron and its isotopes were measured in the different compartment of the CZ in Mule Hole, vegetation, atmosphere, throughfall, soil, soil water, river water and compared to the behavior of other elements. The well constrained hydrology in Mule Hole allowed us to calculate the main fluxes affecting boron in the Critical Zone and came to the first order conclusion that the recycling of boron by vegetation is by far the most important flux within the system, reaching 15-20 times the catchment outlet flux. From an isotopic point of view, the total range of variation is measured between -3 ‰ and 77‰, with a bedrock value at 10‰ in classical delta unit, making boron a well suited tracer for constraining CZ processes. The flux of boron most enriched in heavy boron is the throughfall, showing the importance of biological processes in controlling the boron isotopic composition of the stream. Boron in soils in depleted in the heavy isotope but is enriched in boron compared to the bedrock, a surprising situation that we interpret as the legacy of a previous stage of transient weathering. These results indicate a strong decoupling between the behaviors of boron at the surface of the CZ and at depth.

  16. Event-related potential N270 as an index of social information conflict in explicit processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tan, Chen-Hao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yi-Bo; Luo, Jun-Long

    2018-01-01

    As N270 has been widely shown to be sensitive to nonsocial information conflict, the present study investigated whether social information conflict can elicit increased N270 in either explicit or implicit processing conditions. Gender stereotype-related picture-word pairs and picture-word pairs in specific colors were used as social and nonsocial information, respectively. Participants performed an explicit task based on the S1-S2 paradigm in Study 1, and both social and nonsocial information conditions elicited larger N270 than the no-conflict condition. In Study 2, participants performed a word judgment task that was modified from the S1-S2 paradigm of Study 1. However, neither social information nor nonsocial information elicited larger N270 within the conflict condition. Social trials generally elicited a more negative ERP waveform than nonsocial trials overall. These findings suggest that N270 may reflect the processing of social information conflict only in explicit conditions and also that the cognitive basis of N270 is thus a general but explicit processing of working memory representation conflict. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Test of a potential link between analytic and nonanalytic category learning and automatic, effortful processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, J I; Pinsk, M; Helverson, J; Urban, G; Dietz, T; Smith, D J

    2001-08-01

    The link between automatic and effortful processing and nonanalytic and analytic category learning was evaluated in a sample of 29 college undergraduates using declarative memory, semantic category search, and pseudoword categorization tasks. Automatic and effortful processing measures were hypothesized to be associated with nonanalytic and analytic categorization, respectively. Results suggested that contrary to prediction strong criterion-attribute (analytic) responding on the pseudoword categorization task was associated with strong automatic, implicit memory encoding of frequency-of-occurrence information. Data are discussed in terms of the possibility that criterion-attribute category knowledge, once established, may be expressed with few attentional resources. The data indicate that attention resource requirements, even for the same stimuli and task, vary depending on the category rule system utilized. Also, the automaticity emerging from familiarity with analytic category exemplars is very different from the automaticity arising from extensive practice on a semantic category search task. The data do not support any simple mapping of analytic and nonanalytic forms of category learning onto the automatic and effortful processing dichotomy and challenge simple models of brain asymmetries for such procedures. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Evaluation of trace organic contaminants in ultra-pure water production processes by measuring total organic halogen formation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Kohei; Iwase, Yoko

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the determination of organic substances in water with high accuracy and high sensitivity was proposed, in which a hypochlorite is added to water, and the resultant total amount of organic halogen compounds (TOX formation potential) was measured, and it was applied to the evaluation of trace organic contaminants in ultra-pure water production process. In this investigation, the TOX formation potential of the raw water which was to be used for the ultra-pure water production process, intermediately treated water and ultra-pure water was measured to clarify the behavior of organic substances in the ultra-pure water production process and to demonstrate the usefulness of this procedure to evaluate trace organic contaminants in water. The measurement of TOX formation potential requires no specific technical skill, and only a short time, and gives accurate results, therefore, it is expected that the water quality control in the ultra-pure water production process can be performed more exactly by applying this procedure. (Yoshitake, I.)

  19. Potential of plant polyphenols to combat oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Ringseis, R; Eder, K

    2017-08-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which have been shown to exert antioxidative and antiinflamma tory effects in cell culture, rodent and human studies. Based on the fact that conditions of oxidative stress and inflammation are highly relevant in farm animals, polyphenols are considered as promising feed additives in the nutrition of farm animals. However, in contrast to many studies existing with model animals and humans, potential antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects of polyphenols have been less investigated in farm animals so far. This review aims to give an overview about potential antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects in farm animals. The first part of the review highlights the occurrence and the consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation on animal health and performance. The second part of the review deals with bioavailability and metabolism of polyphenols in farm animals. The third and main part of the review presents an overview of the findings from studies which investigated the effects of polyphenols of various plant sources in pigs, poultry and cattle, with particular consideration of effects on the antioxidant system and inflammation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Aesthetic appreciation of poetry correlates with ease of processing in event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A; Jessen, Sarah; Raettig, Tim; von Koppenfels, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-04-01

    Rhetorical theory suggests that rhythmic and metrical features of language substantially contribute to persuading, moving, and pleasing an audience. A potential explanation of these effects is offered by "cognitive fluency theory," which stipulates that recurring patterns (e.g., meter) enhance perceptual fluency and can lead to greater aesthetic appreciation. In this article, we explore these two assertions by investigating the effects of meter and rhyme in the reception of poetry by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants listened to four versions of lyrical stanzas that varied in terms of meter and rhyme, and rated the stanzas for rhythmicity and aesthetic liking. The behavioral and ERP results were in accord with enhanced liking and rhythmicity ratings for metered and rhyming stanzas. The metered and rhyming stanzas elicited smaller N400/P600 ERP responses than their nonmetered, nonrhyming, or nonmetered and nonrhyming counterparts. In addition, the N400 and P600 effects for the lyrical stanzas correlated with aesthetic liking effects (metered-nonmetered), implying that modulation of the N400 and P600 has a direct bearing on the aesthetic appreciation of lyrical stanzas. We suggest that these effects are indicative of perceptual-fluency-enhanced aesthetic liking, as postulated by cognitive fluency theory.

  1. Dissociating the Influence of Affective Word Content and Cognitive Processing Demands on the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowparast Rostami, Hadiseh; Ouyang, Guang; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin; Zhou, Changsong; Sommer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective stimuli in the event-related brain potential (ERP) is often assumed to be a member of the P3 family. The present study addresses the relationship of the LPP to the classic P3b in a published data set, using a non-parametric permutation test for topographical comparisons, and residue iteration decomposition to assess the temporal features of the LPP and the P3b by decomposing the ERP into several component clusters according to their latency variability. The experiment orthogonally manipulated arousal and valence of words, which were either read or judged for lexicality. High-arousing and positive valenced words induced a larger LPP than low-arousing and negative valenced words, respectively, and the LDT elicited a larger P3b than reading. The experimental manipulation of arousal, valence, and task yielded main effects without any interactions on ERP amplitude in the LPP/P3b time range. The arousal and valence effects partially differed from the task effect in scalp topography; in addition, whereas the late positive component elicited by affective stimuli, defined as LPP, was stimulus-locked, the late positive component elicited by task demand, defined as P3b, was mainly latency-variable. Therefore LPP and P3b manifest different subcomponents.

  2. Potential of Laboratory Execution Systems (LESs) to Simplify the Application of Business Process Management Systems (BPMSs) in Laboratory Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Sebastian; Göde, Bernd; Gu, Xiangyu; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    Modern business process management (BPM) is increasingly interesting for laboratory automation. End-to-end workflow automation and improved top-level systems integration for information technology (IT) and automation systems are especially prominent objectives. With the ISO Standard Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) 2.X, a system-independent and interdisciplinary accepted graphical process control notation is provided, allowing process analysis, while also being executable. The transfer of BPM solutions to structured laboratory automation places novel demands, for example, concerning the real-time-critical process and systems integration. The article discusses the potential of laboratory execution systems (LESs) for an easier implementation of the business process management system (BPMS) in hierarchical laboratory automation. In particular, complex application scenarios, including long process chains based on, for example, several distributed automation islands and mobile laboratory robots for a material transport, are difficult to handle in BPMSs. The presented approach deals with the displacement of workflow control tasks into life science specialized LESs, the reduction of numerous different interfaces between BPMSs and subsystems, and the simplification of complex process modelings. Thus, the integration effort for complex laboratory workflows can be significantly reduced for strictly structured automation solutions. An example application, consisting of a mixture of manual and automated subprocesses, is demonstrated by the presented BPMS-LES approach.

  3. Ages, geochemistry and tectonic implications of the Cambrian igneous rocks in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Yanrong; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Liu, Binqiang; Zhou, Jianping; Zhao, Yingli

    2017-08-01

    The Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone, located in the Great Xing'an Range, NE China, in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), represents the boundary between the Erguna and Xing'an micro-continental blocks. The exact location of the Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone has been debated, especially, the location of the northern extension of the suture zone. In this study, based on a detailed field, geochemical, geochronological and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope study, we focus our work on the Cambrian igneous rocks in the Erguna-Xing'an block. The Xinglong granitoids, mainly include ∼520 Ma diorite, ∼470 Ma monzogranite and ∼480 Ma pyroxene diorite. The granitoids show medium to high-K calc-alkaline series characteristics with post-collision granite affinity. The circa 500 Ma granitoids have low εHf (t) values (-16.6 to +2.2) and ancient two-stage model (TDM2) ages between 1317 Ma and 2528 Ma. These results indicate the primary magmas of the Xinglong granitoids were probably derived from the partial melting of a dominantly Paleo-Mesoproterozoic ;old; crustal source with possible different degrees of addition of juvenile materials, and formed in a post-collision tectonic setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an blocks. Compared with the Xinglong granitoids, the Duobaoshan igneous rocks are consisted of the approximately coeval rhyolitic tuffs (491 ± 5 Ma) and ultramafic intrusions (497 ± 5 Ma) within the Duobaoshan Formation. They are generally enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), consistent with the geochemistry of igneous rocks from island arcs or active continental margins. The ultramafic rocks have high positive εHf (t) values (+1.3 to +15) and εNd (t) (+1.86 to +2.28), and relatively young two-stage model (TDM2) ages and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70628-0.70853), indicating the partial melting of a depleted mantle source from a subducted slab in

  4. Timing and Duration of Volcanism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: Implications for Geodynamics and Links to the Iceland Hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, M.; Duncan, R. A.; Tegner, Christian

    2007-01-01

    estimates of erupted magmas and their cumulates to calculate melt production rates for the early Tertiary flood basalts of East Greenland and the Faeroes Islands. The lavas lie at opposite ends of the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroes Ridge, the postulated Iceland hotspot track, and record volcanic activity leading...... of plate separation. The upper part of this crust comprises seismically imaged, seaward-dipping, subaerially erupted lavas. By  50 Ma, eruption rates had diminished drastically and volcanic activity had narrowed to a much restricted portion of the East Greenland margin, at the western end of the Greenland......We combine new and published 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from incremental heating experiments on whole rocks and mineral separates to assess the timing, duration and distribution of volcanic activity during construction of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. We use these ages together with volume...

  5. Review of and contribution to the Stratigraphy of the Cenozoic Igneous Rocks in the Republic of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nakhal, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Yemen the Cenozoic igneous rocks consists of intrusive and extrusive rocks with interlayered sediments, all of which are included within the Manakha Group (latest Cretaceous-Holocene). This group is subdivided into the Haraz Formation which includes the latest Cretaceous-Tertiary volcanics and the interlayered sediments, the Aden Formation which includes the Late Tertiary-Holocene volcanics, and the Bura Formations are introduced here as new units. The Haraz Formation replaces the informal names: Trap Series, Yemen Volcanics and Aden Trap Series, Yemen Volcanics and Adan Trap Series.The Adan Formation are a readaptation of the term Aden Vocanic Series. A startotype for the Aden Formation is designated in the Shuqra-Ahwar area. (author)

  6. Regression-Correlation of Petrophysical Inter-Parameter of Igneous Rocks and Limestone from Kulonprogo Mountain Region, Yogyakarta Special Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Maryanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.127Laboratory test of complete petrophysic parameters encompasing water absorption, compressive strength, Los Angeles abrasive strength, Rudellof abrasive strength, and wear resistance with Na2SO4 has been carried out for igneous and carbonate rocks taken from Kulonprogo Mountains region. Statistical verification of the data exhibits variation of correlation coefficients among parameters ranging from medium to very high value. The values of petrophysic test results are determined by the rock types. The result of this study is useful to estimate the accuracy of values of each parameter test result in Geological Survey Institute Laboratory using regression formula representing each relationship.

  7. Critical steps in learning from incidents: using learning potential in the process from reporting an incident to accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drupsteen, Linda; Groeneweg, Jop; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M

    2013-01-01

    Many incidents have occurred because organisations have failed to learn from lessons of the past. This means that there is room for improvement in the way organisations analyse incidents, generate measures to remedy identified weaknesses and prevent reoccurrence: the learning from incidents process. To improve that process, it is necessary to gain insight into the steps of this process and to identify factors that hinder learning (bottlenecks). This paper presents a model that enables organisations to analyse the steps in a learning from incidents process and to identify the bottlenecks. The study describes how this model is used in a survey and in 3 exploratory case studies in The Netherlands. The results show that there is limited use of learning potential, especially in the evaluation stage. To improve learning, an approach that considers all steps is necessary.

  8. Potential applications of fusion neutral beam facilities for advanced material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Surface processing techniques involving high energy ion implantation have achieved commercial success for semiconductors and biomaterials. However, wider use has been limited in good part by economic factors, some of which are related to the line-of-sight nature of the beam implantation process. Plasma source ion implantation is intended to remove some of the limitations imposed by directionality of beam systems and also to help provide economies of scale. The present paper will outline relevant technologies and areas of expertise that exist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in relation to possible future needs in materials processing. Experience in generation of plasmas, control of ionization states, pulsed extraction, and sheath physics exists. Contributions to future technology can be made either for the immersion mode or for the extracted beam mode. Existing facilities include the High Power Test Facility, which could conservatively operate at 1 A of continuous current at 100 kV delivered to areas of about 1 m 2 . Higher instantaneous voltages and currents are available with a reduced duty cycle. Another facility, the High Heat Flux Facility can supply a maximum of 60 kV and currents of up to 60 A for 2 s on a 10% duty cycle. Plasmas may be generated by use of microwaves, radio-frequency induction or other methods and plasma properties may be tailored to suit specific needs. In addition to ion implantation of large steel components, foreseeable applications include ion implantation of polymers, ion implantation of Ti alloys, Al alloys, or other reactive surfaces

  9. The gynecologic oncology fellowship interview process: Challenges and potential areas for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Gressel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The application and interview process for gynecologic oncology fellowship is highly competitive, time-consuming and expensive for applicants. We conducted a survey of successfully matched gynecologic oncology fellowship applicants to assess problems associated with the interview process and identify areas for improvement. All Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO list-serve members who have participated in the match program for gynecologic oncology fellowship were asked to complete an online survey regarding the interview process. Linear regression modeling was used to examine association between year of match, number of programs applied to, cost incurred, and overall satisfaction. Two hundred and sixty-nine eligible participants reported applying to a mean of 20 programs [range 1–45] and were offered a mean of 14 interviews [range 1–43]. They spent an average of $6000 [$0–25,000], using personal savings (54%, credit cards (50%, family support (12% or personal loans (3%. Seventy percent of respondents identified the match as fair, and 93% were satisfied. Interviewees spent a mean of 15 [0–45] days away from work and 37% reported difficulty arranging coverage. Linear regression showed an increase in number of programs applied to and cost per applicant over time (p < 0.001 between 1993 and 2016. Applicants who applied to all available programs spent more (p < 0.001 than those who applied to programs based on their location or quality. The current fellowship match was identified as fair and satisfying by most respondents despite being time consuming and expensive. Suggested alternative options included clustering interviews geographically or conducting preliminary interviews at the SGO Annual Meeting.

  10. Photodegradation processes in arid ecosystems: controlling factors and potential application in land restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Luna-Ramos, Lourdes; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Sole Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Water availability plays a fundamental part in controlling biotic processes in arid ecosystems. However, recent evidence suggests that other decisive drivers take part in these processes. Despite low annual rainfall and microbial activity, unexplained high rates of litter decomposition, net nitrogen mineralization, soil enzymatic activity and carbon turnover have been observed in arid ecosystems. These observations have been partly explained by photodegradation, a process that consists of the breakdown of organic matter via solar radiation (UV) and that can increase decomposition rates and lead to changes in the balance of carbon and nutrients between plants, soil and atmosphere. A complete understanding of these mechanisms and its drivers in arid ecosystems remains a critical challenge for the scientific community at the global level. In this research, we conducted a multi-site field experiment to test the effects of photodegradation on decomposition of organic amendments used in ecosystem restoration. The study was carried out during 12 months in two study areas: the Pilbara region in Western Australia (Southern Hemisphere) and the Cabo de Gata Nijar Natural Park, South Spain (Northern Hemisphere). In both sites, four treatments were applied in replicated plots (1x1 m, n=4) that included a control (C) with no soil amendment; organic amendment covering the soil surface (AS); organic amendment incorporated into the soil (AI); and a combination of both techniques, both covering the surface and incorporated into the soil (AS-AI). Different organic amendments (native mulch versus compost) and soil substrates were used at each site according to local practices, but in both sites these were applied to increase soil organic matter up to 2%. At the two locations, a radiometer and a logger with a soil temperature and soil moisture probe were installed to monitor UV radiation and soil conditions for the duration of the trial. Soil microbial activity, soil CO2 efflux, and

  11. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...... and observations it is shown that participants' senses do not change except from a few aspects. The participants at the meeting thus seem stuck in their positions without interest in being open for other interpretations or arguments. The investigation leads to considerations about the benefit and role...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....

  12. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tailoring of motional states in double-well potentials by time-dependent processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerkoenen, Kari; Kaerki, Ollijuhani; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2006-01-01

    We show that the vibrational state tailoring method developed for molecular systems can be applied for cold atoms in optical lattices. The original method is based on a three-level model interacting with two strong laser pulses in a counterintuitive sequence [M. Rodriguez et al., Phys. Rev. A 62, 053413 (2000)]. Here we outline the conditions for achieving similar dynamics with single time-dependent potential surfaces. It is shown that guided switching between diabatic and adiabatic evolution has an essential role in this system. We also show that efficient and precise tailoring of motional states in optical lattices can be achieved, for instance, simply by superimposing two lattices and moving them with respect to each other

  14. Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured.

  15. Bio-mineralization and potential biogeochemical processes in bauxite deposits: genetic and ore quality significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskou, Magdalini; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The Parnassos-Ghiona bauxite deposit in Greece of karst type is the 11th largest bauxite producer in the world. The mineralogical, major and trace-element contents and δ18O, δ12C, δ34S isotopic compositions of bauxite ores from this deposit and associated limestone provide valuable evidence for their origin and biogeochemical processes resulting in the beneficiation of low grade bauxite ores. The organic matter as thin coal layers, overlying the bauxite deposits, within limestone itself (negative δ12C isotopic values) and the negative δ34S values in sulfides within bauxite ores point to the existence of the appropriate circumstances for Fe bio-leaching and bio-mineralization. Furthermore, a consortium of microorganisms of varying morphological forms (filament-like and spherical to lenticular at an average size of 2 μm), either as fossils or presently living and producing enzymes, is a powerful factor to catalyze the redox reactions, expedite the rates of metal extraction and provide alternative pathways for metal leaching processes resulting in the beneficiation of bauxite ore.

  16. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-08-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  17. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.a [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, Johannes [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schittl, Heike [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gerschpacher, Marion [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, Ruth Maria [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light ({lambda}=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  18. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  19. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco N; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; García-García, Pedro; Querol, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth, and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favorable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non-assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes), a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2, and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Kluyveromyces lactis, among others), have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  20. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco N.; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; García-García, Pedro; Querol, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth, and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favorable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non-assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes), a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2, and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Kluyveromyces lactis, among others), have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  1. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Noé eArroyo López

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favourable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes, a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2 and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, Kluyveromyces lactis, among others, have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  2. Effects of the potential lithium-mimetic, ebselen, on impulsivity and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Charles; Sharpley, Ann L; Cooper, Charlotte M; Godlewska, Beata R; Singh, Nisha; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Harmer, Catherine J; Churchill, Grant C; Sharp, Trevor; Rogers, Robert D; Cowen, Philip J

    2016-07-01

    Lithium remains the most effective treatment for bipolar disorder and also has important effects to lower suicidal behaviour, a property that may be linked to its ability to diminish impulsive, aggressive behaviour. The antioxidant drug, ebselen, has been proposed as a possible lithium-mimetic based on its ability in animals to inhibit inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an action which it shares with lithium. The aim of the study was to determine whether treatment with ebselen altered emotional processing and diminished measures of risk-taking behaviour. We studied 20 healthy participants who were tested on two occasions receiving either ebselen (3600 mg over 24 h) or identical placebo in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Three hours after the final dose of ebselen/placebo, participants completed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) and a task that required the detection of emotional facial expressions (facial emotion recognition task (FERT)). On the CGT, relative to placebo, ebselen reduced delay aversion while on the FERT, it increased the recognition of positive vs negative facial expressions. The study suggests that at the dosage used, ebselen can decrease impulsivity and produce a positive bias in emotional processing. These findings have implications for the possible use of ebselen in the disorders characterized by impulsive behaviour and dysphoric mood.

  3. Cortical reactions to verbal abuse: event-related brain potentials reflecting the processing of socially threatening words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, Pascal; Martens, Ulla; Neuner, Frank

    2012-09-12

    Human information processing is sensitive to aversive stimuli, in particular to negative cues that indicate a threat to physical integrity. We investigated the extent to which these findings can be transferred to stimuli that are associated with a social rather than a physical threat. Event-related potentials were recorded during silent reading of neutral, positive, physically threatening, and socially threatening words, whereby socially threatening words were represented by swear words. We found facilitated processing of positive and physically threatening words in contrast to both neutral and socially threatening words at a first potential that emerged at about 120 ms after stimulus onset. At a semantic processing stage reflected by the N400, processing of all classes of affective words, including socially threatening words, differed from neutral words. We conclude that socially threatening words as well as neutral words capture more attentional resources than positive and physically threatening words at early stages. However, social threatening words are processed in a manner similar to other emotional words and different from neutral words at higher levels.

  4. Neoproterozoic igneous complex emplaced along major tectonic boundary in the Kaoko Belt (NW Namibia): ion probe and LA-ICP-MS dating of magmatic and metamorphic zircons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Košler, J.; Tajčmanová, L.; Ulrich, Stanislav; Kitt, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 1 (2008), s. 153-166 ISSN 0016-7649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : boundary igneous complex * Kaoko Belt * zircon Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2008

  5. Ferroan Dolomitization by Seawater Interaction with Mafic Igneous Dikes and Carbonate Host Rock at the Latemar Platform, Dolomites, Italy: Numerical Modeling of Spatial, Temporal, and Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blomme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous publications address the petrogenesis of the partially dolomitized Latemar carbonate platform, Italy. A common factor is interpretation of geochemical data in terms of heating via regional igneous activity that provided kinetically favorable conditions for replacement dolomitization. New field, petrographic, XRD, and geochemical data demonstrate a spatial, temporal, and geochemical link between replacement dolomite and local mafic igneous dikes that pervasively intrude the platform. Dikes are dominated by strongly altered plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Significantly, where ferroan dolomite is present, it borders dikes. We hypothesize that seawater interacted with mafic minerals, causing Fe enrichment in the fluid that subsequently participated in dolomitization. This hypothesis was tested numerically through thermodynamic (MELTS, Arxim-GEM and reactive flow (Arxim-LMA simulations. Results confirm that seawater becomes Fe-enriched during interaction with clinopyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite and plagioclase (anorthite-albite-orthoclase solid solutions. Reaction of modified seawater with limestone causes ferroan and nonferroan replacement dolomitization. Dolomite quantities are strongly influenced by temperature. At 40 to 80°C, ferroan dolomite proportions decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that Latemar dolomitization likely occurred at lower temperatures. This relationship between igneous dikes and dolomitization may have general significance due to the widespread association of carbonates with rifting-related igneous environments.

  6. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic igneous intrusions and related sediment-dominated hydrothermal activities in the South Yellow Sea Basin, the Western Pacific continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumao, Pang; Xunhua, Zhang; Guolin, Xiao; Luning, Shang; Xingwei, Guo; Zhenhe, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Various igneous complexes were identified in multi-channel seismic reflection profiles from the South Yellow Sea Basin. It is not rare that magmatic intrusions in sedimentary basins cause strong thermal perturbations and hydrothermal activities. Some intrusion-related hydrothermal vent complexes have been identified and they are considered to originate from the deep sedimentary contact aureole around igneous intrusions and terminate in upper vents structures, and are linked by a vertical conduit system. The upper vent complexes are usually eye-shaped, dome-shaped, fault-related, crater-shaped or pock-shaped in seismic profiles. A schematic model was proposed to illustrate the structures of different types of hydrothermal vent complexes. A conceptual conduit model composed of an upper pipe-like part and a lower branching part was also derived. Hydrothermal vent complexes mainly developed during the Middle-Late Cretaceous, which is coeval with, or shortly after the intrusion. The back-arc basin evolution of the area which is related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic may be the principal factor for voluminous igneous complexes and vent complexes in this area. It is significant to study the characteristics of igneous complexes and related hydrothermal vent complexes, which will have implications for the future study of this area.

  7. Surface interactions between nanoscale iron and organic material: Potential uses in water treatment process units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Max

    Membrane systems are among the primary emergent technologies in water treatment process units due to their ease of use, small physical footprint, and high physical rejection. Membrane fouling, the phenomena by which membranes become clogged or generally soiled, is an inhibitor to optimal efficiency in membrane systems. Novel, composite, and modified surface materials must be investigated to determine their efficacy in improving fouling behavior. Ceramic membranes derived from iron oxide nanoparticles called ferroxanes were coated with a superhydrophillic, zwitterionic polymer called poly (sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) to form a composite ceramic-polymeric membrane. Membrane samples with and without polySBMA coating were subjected to fouling with a bovine serum albumin solution and fouling was observed by measuring permeate flux at 10 mL intervals. Loss of polySBMA was measured using total organic carbon analysis, and membrane samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical profilometry. The coated membrane samples decreased initial fouling rate by 27% and secondary fouling rate by 24%. Similarly, they displayed a 30% decrease in irreversible fouling during the initial fouling stage, and a 27% decrease in irreversible fouling in the secondary fouling stage; however, retention of polySBMA sufficient for improved performance was not conclusive. The addition of chemical disinfectants into drinking water treatment processes results in the formation of compounds called disinfection by-products (DBPs). The formation of DBPs occurs when common chemical disinfectants (i.e. chlorine) react with organic material. The harmful effects of DBP exposure require that they be monitored and controlled for public safety. This work investigated the ability of nanostructured hematite derived from ferroxane nanoparticles to remove organic precursors to DBPs in the form of humic acid via adsorption processes. The results show that p

  8. Oxidative mobilization of cerium and uranium and enhanced release of "immobile" high field strength elements from igneous rocks in the presence of the biogenic siderophore desferrioxamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Dennis; Kopf, Sebastian; Bau, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Polyvalent trace elements such as the high field strength elements (HFSE) are commonly considered rather immobile during low-temperature water-rock interaction. Hence, they have become diagnostic tools that are widely applied in geochemical studies. We present results of batch leaching experiments focused on the mobilization of certain HFSE (Y, Zr, Hf, Th, U and rare earth elements) from mafic, intermediate and felsic igneous rocks in the presence and absence, respectively, of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB). Our data show that DFOB strongly enhances the mobility of these trace elements during low-temperature water-rock interaction. The presence of DFOB produces two distinct features in the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) patterns of leaching solutions, regardless of the mineralogical and chemical composition or the texture of the rock type studied. Bulk rock-normalized REY patterns of leaching solutions with DFOB show (i) a very distinct positive Ce anomaly and (ii) depletion of La and other light REY relative to the middle REY, with a concave downward pattern between La and Sm. These features are not observed in experiments with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid or deionized water. In DFOB-bearing leaching solutions Ce and U are decoupled from and selectively enriched relative to light REY and Th, respectively, due to oxidation to Ce(IV) and U(VI). Oxidation of Ce3+ and U4+ is promoted by the significantly higher stability of the Ce(IV) and U(VI) DFOB complexes as compared to the Ce(III) and U(IV) DFOB complexes. This is similar to the relationship between the Ce(IV)- and Ce(III)-pentacarbonate complexes that cause positive Ce anomalies in alkaline lakes. However, while formation of Ce(IV) carbonate complexes is confined to alkaline environments, Ce(IV) DFOB complexes may produce positive Ce anomalies even in mildly acidic and near-neutral natural waters. Siderophore-promoted dissolution processes also significantly enhance mobility of other 'immobile' HFSE

  9. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution

  10. Volatile N-nitrosamines in meat products: Potential precursors, influence of processing, and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Eveline; De Maere, Hannelore; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-02

    Meat products can be contaminated with carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, which is ascribed to the reaction between a nitrosating agent, originating from nitrite or smoke, and a secondary amine, derived from protein and lipid degradation. Although in model systems it is demonstrated that many amine containing compounds can be converted to N-nitrosamines, the yield is dependent of reaction conditions (e.g., low pH and high temperature). In this article, the influence of the composition of the meat products (e.g., pH, a w , spices) and processing (e.g., ageing, ripening, fermentation, smoking, heat treatment and storage) on the presence and availability of the amine precursors and the N-nitrosamine formation mechanism is discussed. In addition, this article explores the current N-nitrosamine mitigation strategies in order to obtain healthier and more natural meat products.

  11. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups....... Results show a highly promising bio-crude quality, with a higher heating value of 40.4 MJ/kg, elemental oxygen content of 5.3 wt.%, a specific gravity of 0.97 and a distillation recovery of ∼53.4 wt.% at an atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) of 375 °C, . Results show that only minor upgrading......This study presents detailed chemical and thermophysical analysis of bio-crude from a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction research plant. Current research on bio-crude focuses mainly on specific biomass feedstocks and conversion process conditions and resulting yields rather than on bio-crude...

  12. Characterization of the silicon/hydrofluoric acid interface: electrochemical processes under weak potential disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagna, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Within the frame of the increase of the density of integrated circuits, of simplification of cleaning processes and of improvement of control of surface reactions (for a better control of the elimination of defects and contamination risks), this research thesis first gives a large overview of previous works in the fields of silicon electrochemistry in hydrofluoric environment, of silicon chemical condition after treatment by a diluted hydrofluoric acid, of metallic contamination of silicon during cleaning with a diluted hydrofluoric acid, and of theoretical models of interpretation. Then, the author reports the development of a new electrochemical cell, and the detailed study of mono-crystalline silicon in a diluted hydrofluoric environment (electrochemical investigation, modelling of charge transfer at the interface, studies by atomic force microscopy, contamination of silicon by copper)

  13. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  14. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-10-06

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution.

  15. Elucidating potential utilization of Portuguese common bean varieties in rice based processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbas, Bruna; Pathania, Shivani; Castanho, Ana; Lourenço, Diana; Veiga, Isabel Mota; Patto, Maria Carlota Vaz; Brites, Carla

    2018-03-01

    The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based processed foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95.90-149.30%), unhydrated seeds (4.00-40.00%), γ tocopherol (3.20-98.05 mg/100 g fat), δ tocopherol (0.06-4.72 mg/100 g fat) and pasting behavior. Amylose content of WBF (11.4-20.2%) was significantly lower than rice flour (23.51%) whereas SI of beans (40.00-47.26%) had significantly higher amylose content than SI of rice (28.13%). DSC results showed that WBF (11.4-20.2 °C) had significantly broader and lower gelatinization temperature range (∆Tr) than corresponding SI (20.9-23.1 °C). WBF had significantly lower pasting viscosity due to low starch content and compositional matrix effect as compared to SI. Setback viscosities of WBF and rice: bean blends was lower than rice flour. Low setback viscosities of rice:bean blends may be used to prevent syneresis and stabilizing the quality of frozen foods in rice based processed foods.

  16. Callousness and affective face processing in adults: Behavioral and brain-potential indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J; Yancey, James R; Perkins, Emily R; Palumbo, Isabella M; Drislane, Laura E; Salekin, Randall T; Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Blair, R James R; Patrick, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The investigation of callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been central to contemporary research on child behavior problems, and served as the impetus for inclusion of a specifier for conduct disorder in the latest edition of the official psychiatric diagnostic system. Here, we report results from 2 studies that evaluated the construct validity of callousness as assessed in adults, by testing for affiliated deficits in behavioral and neural processing of fearful faces, as have been shown in youthful samples. We hypothesized that scores on an established measure of callousness would predict reduced recognition accuracy and diminished electocortical reactivity for fearful faces in adult participants. In Study 1, 66 undergraduate participants performed an emotion recognition task in which they viewed affective faces of different types and indicated the emotion expressed by each. In Study 2, electrocortical data were collected from 254 adult twins during viewing of fearful and neutral face stimuli, and scored for event-related response components. Analyses of Study 1 data revealed that higher callousness was associated with decreased recognition accuracy for fearful faces specifically. In Study 2, callousness was associated with reduced amplitude of both N170 and P200 responses to fearful faces. Current findings demonstrate for the first time that callousness in adults is associated with both behavioral and physiological deficits in the processing of fearful faces. These findings support the validity of the CU construct with adults and highlight the possibility of a multidomain measurement framework for continued study of this important clinical construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. In Vitro Characterization of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fruit Processing By-Products as Potential Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-08-23

    Nine wild Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum 53, Lactobacillus fermentum 56, L. fermentum 60, Lactobacillus paracasei 106, L. fermentum 250, L. fermentum 263, L. fermentum 139, L. fermentum 141, and L. fermentum 296, isolated from fruit processing by-products were evaluated in vitro for a series of safety, physiological functionality, and technological properties that could enable their use as probiotics. Considering the safety aspects, the resistance to antibiotics varied among the examined strains, and none of the strains presented hemolytic and mucinolytic activity. Regarding the physiological functionality properties, none of the strains were able to deconjugate bile salts; all of them presented low to moderate cell hydrophobicity and were able to autoaggregate, coaggregate with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and antagonize pathogenic bacteria. Exposure to pH 2 sharply decreased the survival of the examined strains after 1- or 2-h exposure; variable decreases were noted after 3-h exposure to pH 3. Overall, exposure to pH 5 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.3, and 1%) did not decrease the strains' survival. Examined strains presented better ability to survive from the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions in laboratorial media and milk than in grape juice. Considering the technological properties, all the strains were positive for proteolytic activity and EPS and diacetyl production, and most of them had good tolerance to 1-4% NaCl. These results indicate that wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from fruit processing by-products could present performance compatible with probiotic properties and technological features that enable the development of probiotic foods with distinct characteristics.

  18. Event-related potential evidence for separable automatic and controlled retrieval processes in proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Zara M; O'Connor, Richard J; Li, Martin K-H; Simons, Jon S

    2012-05-21

    Interference between competing memories is a major source of retrieval failure, yet, surprisingly little is known about how competitive memory activation arises in the brain. One possibility is that interference during episodic retrieval might be produced by relatively automatic conceptual priming mechanisms that are independent of strategic retrieval processes. Such priming-driven interference might occur when the competing memories have strong pre-existing associations to the retrieval cue. We used ERPs to measure the neural dynamics of retrieval competition, and investigated whether the ERP correlates of interference were affected by varying task demands for selective retrieval. Participants encoded cue words that were presented either two or four times, paired either with the same or different strongly associated words across repetitions. In a subsequent test, participants either selectively recalled each cue's most recent associate, or simply judged how many times a cue had been presented, without requiring selective recall. Interference effects on test performance were only seen in the recall task. In contrast, ERPs during test revealed an early posterior positivity for high interference items that was present in both retrieval tasks. This early ERP effect likely reflects a conceptual priming-related N400 reduction when many associations to a cue were pre-activated. A later parietal positivity resembling the ERP correlate of conscious recollection was found only in the recall task. The results suggest that early effects of proactive interference are relatively automatic and independent of intentional retrieval processes, consistent with suggestions that interference can arise through conceptual priming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Function and repair of dental enamel - Potential role of epithelial transport processes of ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gábor; Kerémi, Beáta; Bori, Erzsébet; Földes, Anna

    2015-07-01

    The hardest mammalian tissue, dental enamel is produced by ameloblasts, which are electrolyte-transporting epithelial cells. Although the end product is very different, they show many similarities to transporting epithelia of the pancreas, salivary glands and kidney. Enamel is produced in a multi-step epithelial secretory process that features biomineralization which is an interplay of secreted ameloblast specific proteins and the time-specific transport of minerals, protons and bicarbonate. First, "secretory" ameloblasts form the entire thickness of the enamel layer, but with low mineral content. Then they differentiate into "maturation" ameloblasts, which remove organic matrix from the enamel and in turn further build up hydroxyapatite crystals. The protons generated by hydroxyapatite formation need to be buffered, otherwise enamel will not attain full mineralization. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. The whole process has been the focus of many immunohistochemical and gene knock-out studies, but, perhaps surprisingly, no functional data existed for mineral ion transport by ameloblasts. However, recent studies including ours provided a better insight for molecular mechanism of mineral formation. The secretory regulation is not completely known as yet, but its significance is crucial. Impairing regulation retards or prevents completion of enamel mineralization and results in the development of hypomineralized enamel that easily erodes after dental eruption. Factors that impair this function are fluoride and disruption of pH regulators. Revealing these factors may eventually lead to the treatment of enamel hypomineralization related to genetic or environmentally induced malformation. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of inhibitory tagging (IT) on emotional and cognitive conflict processing: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Li, Xiujun; Shi, Wendian

    2017-09-14

    Inhibitory tagging (IT), a flexible central control mechanism based on the current task goals, reduces the cognitive conflict effect at the cued location by blocking the incompatible stimulus-response (S-R) code. However, it is unknown whether IT has a similar effect on emotional conflict. Thus, we combined the face-word Stroop task with the manipulation of inhibition of return (IOR) and used event-related potential (ERP) technology to simultaneously examine the modulation effect of IT on emotional and cognitive conflict processing. At the cued location, we found that the two types of conflict effect were significantly reduced and that the conflict processing-related N450 effect was absent. Our data further revealed that IT had similar effects on emotional and cognitive conflict processing. Although a negative difference wave (Nd) was found in the time window of 160 and 220ms, which may reflect the impaired early perceptual processing of the target at the cued location, the effect of Nd was not affected by stimulus congruency. These results illustrate that the cueing effect of conflict processing does not arise from the early stage of perceptual processing, but rather results from the blocked S-R code of the distractors due to IT functioning during the later stage of processing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo eCanal; Paolo eCanal; Alan eGarnham; Jane eOakhill

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P60...

  2. INTERNATIONALIZATION AND CLUSTER POTENTIALS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON WOOD-PROCESSING SECTOR IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

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    Mirha Bico-Car

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs in all national economies are generators of growth and development. This statement is confirmed by the fact that SMEs in the European Union (EU account for 90% of the total number of companies, and that more than 23 million of these companies employ over 67% of the workforce in the private sector. European law on small and medium enterprises creates favorable regulatory conditions for their further growth. However, adequate attention has not yet been paid to this sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. Economic growth in pre-war Yugoslavia was based on a system of large company networks from complementary industries which were deliberately designed. War and disintegration of Yugoslavia have disrupted this concept and sparked a series of dilemmas in terms of re-directing and developing the national economy. Many economists have advocated for the restoration of pre-war business giants. Nevertheless, war, institutional destruction and loss of educated and skilled labor, as well as technological obsolescence, loss of previous markets and industries created the opinion that SMEs should first be developed and then connected through networking and clustering. This would eventually lead to the creation of large and powerful production systems. This paper examines how far BiH has progressed in this regard and how consistent is its economic policy. Moreover, this work provides a review of business practices and the potential of clustering, and finally business internationalization of SMEs.

  3. Morphological analysis of three wound-cleaning processes on potentially contamined wounds in rats

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    d'Acampora Armando José

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the inflammatory response of potentially infected wounds treated with isotonic saline solution, chlorhexidine and PVP-I, seven days after surgery. METHODS: Thirty-two male rats were used, divided into 4 groups. All animals had their surgical wounds infected with a standard bacterial inoculum. Control group (A: animals had their surgical wounds s